Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1347

Search results for: Brijesh Kumar Yadav

1347 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, Adsorption, granular activated carbon, phenol

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1346 Multi-Criteria Optimal Management Strategy for in-situ Bioremediation of LNAPL Contaminated Aquifer Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Jahangeer, Brijesh Kumar Yadav, Shashi Mathur


In-situ remediation is a technique which can remediate either surface or groundwater at the site of contamination. In the present study, simulation optimization approach has been used to develop management strategy for remediating LNAPL (Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid) contaminated aquifers. Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene are the main component of LNAPL contaminant. Collectively, these contaminants are known as BTEX. In in-situ bioremediation process, a set of injection and extraction wells are installed. Injection wells supply oxygen and other nutrient which convert BTEX into carbon dioxide and water with the help of indigenous soil bacteria. On the other hand, extraction wells check the movement of plume along downstream. In this study, optimal design of the system has been done using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm. A comprehensive management strategy for pumping of injection and extraction wells has been done to attain a maximum allowable concentration of 5 ppm and 4.5 ppm. The management strategy comprises determination of pumping rates, the total pumping volume and the total running cost incurred for each potential injection and extraction well. The results indicate a high pumping rate for injection wells during the initial management period since it facilitates the availability of oxygen and other nutrients necessary for biodegradation, however it is low during the third year on account of sufficient oxygen availability. This is because the contaminant is assumed to have biodegraded by the end of the third year when the concentration drops to a permissible level.

Keywords: Groundwater, Particle Swarm Optimization, BTEX, in-situ bioremediation, light non-aqueous phase liquid

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1345 Burden of Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease in India: A Regional Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar Yadav, Priyanka Yadav, F. Ram


In present study is an effort to analyse the burden of diseases in the state. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is estimated non-communicable diseases. Multi-rounds (52nd, 60th and 71st round) of the National Sample Surveys (NSSO), conducted in 1995-96, 2004 and 2014 respectively, and Million Deaths Study (MDS) of 2001-03, 2006 and 2013-14 datasets are used. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are carried out to identify the determinants of different types of self-reported morbidity and DALY. The prevalence was higher for population aged 60 and above, among females, illiterates, and rich across the time period and for all the selected morbidities. The results were found to be significant at P<0.001. The estimation of DALY revealed that, the burden of communicable diseases was higher during infancy, noticeably among males than females in 2002. However, females aged 1-5 years were more vulnerable to report communicable diseases than the corresponding males. The age distribution of DALY indicates that individuals aged below 5 years and above 60 year were more susceptible to ill health. The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases especially among the older generations put additional burden on the health system in the state. The state has to grapple with the unsettled preventable infectious diseases in one hand and growing non-communicable in other hand.

Keywords: disease burden, non-communicable, communicable, India and region

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1344 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra


Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: spectral indices, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, aromatic fractions

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1343 Highly Sensitive and Selective H2 Gas Sensor Based on Pd-Pt Decorated Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Extreme Environment Application

Authors: Brijesh Kumar, Ramesh Chandra, Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik


Present work describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of the Pd-Pt decorated nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi sensing electrode towards H2 gas under low (10–400 ppm) detection limit and high operating temperature regime (25–600 °C) were studied in detail. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H2 at high temperature. The selectivity measurement of the sensing electrode was done towards different oxidizing and reducing gases and proposed sensing mechanism discussed in detail. Therefore, the investigated Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi structure may be a highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensing electrode for deployment in extreme environment applications.

Keywords: Silicon Carbide, porous silicon, RF sputtering, hydrogen gas sensor

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1342 Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Yield Improved with Irrigation Scheduling under Salinity

Authors: Taramani Yadav, Gajender Kumar, R.K. Yadav, H.S. Jat


Soil Salinity and irrigation water salinity is critical threat to enhance agricultural food production to full fill the demand of billion plus people worldwide. Salt affected soils covers 6.73 Mha in India and ~1000 Mha area around the world. Irrigation scheduling of saline water is the way to ensure food security in salt affected areas. Research experiment was conducted at ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Experimental Farm, Nain, Haryana, India with 36 treatment combinations in double split plot design. Three sets of treatments consisted of (i) three regimes of irrigation viz., 60, 80 and 100% (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) of crop ETc (crop evapotranspiration at identified respective stages) in main plot; (ii) four levels of irrigation water salinity (sub plot treatments) viz., 2, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 (iii) applications of two PBRs along with control (without PBRs) i.e. salicylic acid (G1; 1 mM) and thiourea (G2; 500 ppm) as sub-sub plot treatments. Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was increased with less amount of high salt loaded irrigation water at the same level of salinity (2 dS m-1), the trend was I3>I2>I1 at 2 dS m-1 with 8.10 and 17.07% increase at 80 and 100% ETc, respectively compared to 60% ETc. But contrary results were obtained by increasing amount of irrigation water at same level of highest salinity (12 dS m-1) showing following trend; I1>I2>I3 at 12 dS m-1 with 9.35 and 12.26% increase at 80 and 60% ETc compared to 100% ETc. Enhancement in grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is not need to increase amount of irrigation water under saline condition, with salty irrigation water less amount of irrigation water gave the maximum wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield.

Keywords: irrigation, Wheat, Yield, Salinity

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1341 Triticum Aestivum Yield Enhanced with Irrigation Scheduling Strategy under Salinity

Authors: Taramani Yadav, Gajender Kumar, R. K. Yadav, H. S. Jat


Soil Salinity and irrigation water salinity is critical threat to enhance agricultural food production to full fill the demand of billion plus people worldwide. Salt affected soils covers 6.73 Mha in India and ~1000 Mha area around the world. Irrigation scheduling of saline water is the way to ensure food security in salt affected areas. Research experiment was conducted at ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Experimental Farm, Nain, Haryana, India with 36 treatment combinations in double split plot design. Three sets of treatments consisted of (i) three regimes of irrigation viz., 60, 80 and 100% (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) of crop ETc (crop evapotranspiration at identified respective stages) in main plot; (ii) four levels of irrigation water salinity (sub plot treatments) viz., 2, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 (iii) applications of two PBRs along with control (without PBRs) i.e. salicylic acid (G1; 1 mM) and thiourea (G2; 500 ppm) as sub-sub plot treatments. Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was increased with less amount of high salt loaded irrigation water at the same level of salinity (2 dS m-1), the trend was I3>I2>I1 at 2 dS m-1 with 8.10 and 17.07% increase at 80 and 100% ETc, respectively compared to 60% ETc. But contrary results were obtained by increasing amount of irrigation water at same level of highest salinity (12 dS m-1) showing following trend; I1>I2>I3 at 12 dS m-1 with 9.35 and 12.26% increase at 80 and 60% ETc compared to 100% ETc. Enhancement in grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is not need to increase amount of irrigation water under saline condition, with salty irrigation water less amount of irrigation water gave the maximum wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield.

Keywords: Yield, Irrigation Scheduling, Triticum aestivum, saline environment

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1340 Study of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys on Normal Friction Stir Welding and Underwater Friction Stir Welding for Structural Applications

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Laxmi Mohan Kumar Chintada, Devadas Deepu, Pravin Kumar Yadav


Friction stir welding is the new-fangled and cutting-edge technique in welding applications; it is widely used in the fields of transportation, aerospace, defense, etc. For thriving significant welding joints and properties of friction stir welded components, it is essential to carry out this advanced process in a prescribed systematic procedure. At this moment, Underwater Friction Stir Welding (UFSW) Process is the field of interest to do research work. In the continuous assessment, the study of UFSW process is to comprehend problems occurred in the past and the structure through which the mechanical properties of the welded joints can be value-added and contributes to conclude results an acceptable and resourceful joint. A meticulous criticism is given on how to modify the experimental setup from NFSW to UFSW. It can discern the influence of tool materials, feeds, spindle angle, load, rotational speeds and mechanical properties. By expending the DEFORM-3D simulation software, the achieved outcomes are validated.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, al alloys, Underwater Friction Stir Welding(UFSW), Normal Friction Stir Welding(NFSW)

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1339 Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitude and Health Services Utilization among Adolescents in Kaski District of Nepal

Authors: Dipendra Kumar Yadav, Rajani Ghimire, Saroj Yadav


Background: The concern about adolescent on reproductive health has grown due to unprecedented increasing rates of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted Infections and they do not have adequate awareness and knowledge about it. Access to these services as well as information about them is, therefore, crucial for adolescents to utilize and benefit from sexual and reproductive health services. The objective of the study was to assess the reproductive health knowledge, attitude and health services utilization among adolescents in rural and urban areas of Kaski district. Materials and Methods: A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents (10-19 years of age) in rural and urban areas of Kaski district, Nepal. The period of data collection was October to November, 2014. Altogether 419 participants were taken for the study. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 15.86 and standard deviation was ±2.305. More than half (58.7 %) of the respondents were females and 41.3 % were males. Out of 419, majority (78.8%) of the respondents were known about family planning, among them only 70 % of respondents were aware about family planning methods. Fifty-one percentages of the respondents were aware about the sexually transmitted diseases. Before giving a birth there is need to consult with partner with this fact 68.7 % of the respondents were agree, 23.6 % of them were neutral and very few (7.6%) of them were disagree. Nearly twenty six percentage of the respondents were faced the reproductive health problems within one month. Out of 107 respondents, 57.9 % did not utilize reproductive health services because of different reasons. Conclusions: The overall level of knowledge towards reproductive health among adolescents was found low. However, levels of attitude towards different reproductive health components were found favorable. Only 42.1% of the respondents were utilized reproductive health services among those who was faced the reproductive health problems within one month which was low coverage of reproductive health services utilization.

Keywords: Adolescent, reproductive health knowledge, reproductive health attitudes, service utilization

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1338 Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash Including Methanolic Extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliqua

Authors: Reenu Yadav, S. K. Yadav


Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal diseases. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. In the present study, leaves and seeds of Cordia obliqua and barks and twigs of Beautea monosperma, which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited stronger activities against the commonly encountered oral bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mouthwash formulation prepared and it is compared with marketed formulation HiOra. The results indicated that the herbal mouthwash could inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and may prevent plaque and other periodontal diseases caused by dental pathogens.

Keywords: Life Sciences, herbal extracts, herbal mouthwash, bio medicine

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1337 Experimental Study and Analysis of Parabolic Trough Collector with Various Reflectors

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Balram Manoj Kumar


A solar powered air heating system using parabolic trough collector was experimentally investigated. In this experimental setup, the reflected solar radiations were focused on absorber tube which was placed at focal length of the parabolic trough. In this setup, air was used as working fluid which collects the heat from absorber tube. To enhance the performance of parabolic trough, collector with different type of reflectors were used. It was observed for aluminum sheet maximum temperature is 52.3ºC, which 24.22% more than steel sheet as reflector and 8.5% more than aluminum foil as reflector, also efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared to steel sheet as reflector is 61.18% more. Efficiency by using aluminum sheet as reflector compared to aluminum foil as reflector is 18.98% more.

Keywords: solar power, Reflectors, parabolic trough collector, air flow rates, aluminum sheet

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1336 A Fuzzy Programming Approach for Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Fractional Programming Problem

Authors: Shiv Prasad Yadav, Sujeet Kumar Singh


This paper develops an approach for solving intuitionistic fuzzy linear fractional programming (IFLFP) problem where the cost of the objective function, the resources, and the technological coefficients are triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the IFLFP problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach the transformed MOLFP problem is reduced into a single objective linear programming (LP) problem. The proposed procedure is illustrated through a numerical example.

Keywords: Fuzzy Mathematical Programming, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, linear programming problem, multi objective linear programming problem, membership function

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1335 Endeavor to Develop Immunological and Hematological Early Diagnostic Marker to Check the Conversion of Asymptomatic to Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Vidhya Nand Rabidas, Devendra Prasad Yadav


A diagnostic marker for asymptomatic subject becomes a crucial need for advocating early prophylactic majors to control protozoal infection. The main issue in epidemiological affected regions is the presence of an asymptomatic individual that might potentially convert to a symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological study has been conducted at highly VL endemic Moriyama village in Patna district, Bihar, India that covers total population of 1540 individuals. Here, 1104(74.02%) people had been randomly screened and only 46 (4.17%) asymptomatic individuals were found sero-positive by the rK39 test. After taking signed informed consent form, blood samples were collected from 46 asymptomatic subjects for further hematological and immunological tests. Total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (gm%), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet count and interleukin-10 (IL-10) had been included as diagnostic markers. Interestingly only 5 (10.86%) individuals showed their asymptomatic conversion into symptomatic VL patients during quarterly surveillance. In overall analysis only two markers are suggestive for disease conversion that is hemoglobin (gm%) and IL-10. In all the infected patients, both the mean decrease in hemoglobin and mean increase of IL-10 was 19.23% from its normal value. The results might suggest that hematological and immunological changes would become helpful for early diagnosis of asymptomatic to symptomatic VL conversion.

Keywords: Diagnosis, epidemiological, asymptomatic, interleukin-10, symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, hemoglobin (gm%)

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1334 Compensation of Bulk Charge Carriers in Bismuth Based Topological Insulators via Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

Authors: Ankur Jain, Jyoti Yadav, Rini Singh, Anoop M.D, Nisha Yadav, N. Srinivasa Rao, Fouran Singh, Takayuki Ichikawa, Kamlendra Awasthi, Manoj Kumar


Nanocrystalline films exhibit defects and strain induced by its grain boundaries. Defects and strain affect the physical as well as topological insulating properties of the Bi2Te3 thin films by changing their electronic structure. In the present studies, the effect of Ni7+ ion irradiation on the physical and electrical properties of Bi2Te3 thin films was studied. The films were irradiated at five different fluences (5x1011, 1x1012, 3x1012, 5x1012, 1x1013 ions/cm2). Thin films synthesized using the e-beam technique possess a rhombohedral crystal structure with the R-3m space group. The average crystallite size, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak broadening, was found to be 18.5 ± 5 (nm). It was also observed that irradiation increases the induced strain. Raman Spectra of the films demonstrate the splitting of A_1u^1 modes originating from the vibrations along the c-axis. This is by the variation in the lattice parameter ‘c,’ as observed through XRD. The atomic force microscopy study indicates the decrease in surface roughness up to the fluence of 3x1012 ions/cm2 and further increasing the fluence increases the roughness. The decrease in roughness may be due to the growth of smaller nano-crystallites on the surface of thin films due to irradiation-induced annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal the composition to be in close agreement to the nominal values i.e. Bi2Te3. The resistivity v/s temperature measurements revealed an increase in resistivity up to the fluence 3x1012 ions/cm2 and a decrease on further increasing the fluence. The variation in electrical resistivity is corroborated with the change in the carrier concentration as studied through low-temperature Hall measurements. A crossover from the n-type to p-type carriers was achieved in the irradiated films. Interestingly, tuning of the Fermi level by compensating the bulk carriers using ion-irradiation could be achieved.

Keywords: Tuning, irradiation, annealing, Fermi level

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1333 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman


Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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1332 Investigation on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Candidate Genes and Their Association with Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

Authors: Satish Kumar, SUSHIL KUMAR, Ran Vir Singh, Anuj Chauhan, Subhodh Kumar, Rajesh Rathore, B Gopi, Tarun Kumar, Ramji Yadav, Donna Phangchopi, Shoor Vir Singh


Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants. It is responsible for significant economic losses in livestock industry worldwide. This organism is also of public health concern due to an unconfirmed link to Crohn’s disease. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis has been suggested to have genetic component with low to moderate heritability. Number of SNPs in various candidates genes have been observed to be affecting the susceptibility toward paratuberculosis. The objective of this study was to explore the association of various SNPs in the candidate genes and QTL region with MAP. A total of 117 SNPs from SLC11A1, IFNG, CARD15, TLR2, TLR4, CLEC7A, CD209, SP110, ANKARA2, PGLYRP1 and one QTL were selected for study. A total of 1222 cattle from various organized herds, gauhsalas and farmer herds were screened for MAP infection by Johnin intradermal skin test, AGID, serum ELISA, fecal microscopy, fecal culture and IS900 blood PCR. Based on the results of these tests, a case and control population of 200 and 183 respectively was established for study. A total of 117 SNPs from 10 candidate genes and one QTL were selected and validated/tested in our case and control population by PCR-RFLP technique. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.3 software. Statistical analysis revealed that, 107 out of 117 SNPs were not significantly associated with occurrence of MAP. Only SNP rs55617172 of TLR2, rs8193046 and rs8193060 of TLR4, rs110353594 and rs41654445 of CLEC7A, rs208814257of CD209, rs41933863 of ANKRA2, two loci {SLC11A1(53C/G)} and {IFNG (185 G/r) } and SNP rs41945014 in QTL region was significantly associated with MAP. Six SNP from 10 significant SNPs viz., rs110353594 and rs41654445 from CLEC7A, rs8193046 and rs8193060 from TLR4, rs109453173 from SLC11A1 rs208814257 from CD209 were validated in new case and control population. Out of these only one SNP rs8193046 of TLR4 gene was found significantly associated with occurrence of MAP in cattle. ODD ratio indicates that animals with AG genotype were more susceptible to MAP and this finding is in accordance with the earlier report. Hence it reaffirms that AG genotype can serve as a reliable genetic marker for indentifying more susceptible cattle in future selection against MAP infection in cattle.

Keywords: Cattle, snp, Paratuberculosis, candidate genes

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1331 Status Check: Journey of India’s Energy Sustainability through Renewable Sources

Authors: Santosh Ghosh, Vinod Kumar Yadav, Vivekananda Mukherjee, Ishta Garg


India, akin to the rest of the world today, is grappling with balancing act between ever increasing demand for energy and alarmingly high level of green house gas emission, which is inevitable corollary of energy production in the conventional way. Researchers and energy policy makers around the world are now focusing on renewable energy (RE) technologies to find solution to this crisis. In India various agencies at both national and state level has been set up and bestowed with responsibility of development of renewable energy technologies, viz. Ministry of New Renewable Energy (MNRE), National Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd. (NVVNL), Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) and RE Development Agencies in respective states. In the present work, the preparedness of India in terms of forming institutional and policy frame work briefly discussed. Status of implementation of RE technologies state wise and of India as a whole, critically reviewed.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Energy policy, Energy Sustainability, IREDA

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1330 Stabilization of Displaced Periodic Orbit Using Feedback Linearization Control Scheme

Authors: Badam Singh Kushvah, Arun Kumar Yadav


In the present work, we investigated displaced periodic orbits in the linear order in the circular restricted three-body Sun-Jupiter system, where the third mass-less body utilizes solar electric sail. The electric solar sail is a new space propulsion concept which uses the solar wind momentum for producing thrust, and it is somewhat like to the more well-known solar radiation pressure sail which is often called simply the solar sail. Moreover, we implement the feedback linearization control scheme to perform the stabilization and trajectory tracking for the nonlinear system. Further, we derived periodic orbits analytically in linear order by introducing a first order approximation. These approximate analytic solutions are utilized in a numerical search to determine displaced periodic orbit in the full nonlinear model. We found the displaced periodic orbit for the defined non-linear model and stabilized the model.

Keywords: solar electric sail, circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP), displaced orbit, feedback linearization control

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1329 Conceptual Design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop for Indian TBM R&D Experiments

Authors: B. K. Yadav, A. Gandhi, A. K. Verma, T. S. Rao, A. Saraswat, E. R. Kumar, M. Sarkar, K. N. Vyas


This paper deals with the conceptual design of Experimental Helium Cooling Loop (EHCL) for Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) and its related thermal hydraulic experiments. Indian TBM team is developing Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (IN-LLCB) TBM to be tested in ITER. The TBM box structure is cooled by high pressure (8 MPa) and high temperature (300-500C) helium gas. The first wall of TBM made of complex channel geometry having several parallel channels carrying helium gas for efficient heat extraction. Several mock-ups of these channels need to be tested before finalizing the TBM first wall design and fabrication. Besides the individual testing of such mock-ups of breeding blanket, the testing of Pb-Li to helium heat exchanger, the operational experience of helium loop and understanding of the behaviour of high pressure and high temperature system components are very essential for final development of Helium Cooling System for LLCB TBM in ITER. The main requirements and characteristics of the EHCL and its conceptual design are presented in this paper.


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1328 The Overexpression of Horsegram MURLK Improves Regulation of Cell Death and Defense Responses to Microbial Pathogens

Authors: Shikha Masand, Sudesh Kumar Yadav


Certain protein kinases have been shown to be crucial for plant cell signaling pathways associated with plant immune responses. Here we identified a horsegram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] malectin-like leucine rich receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) gene MuRLK. The functional MuRLK protein preferentially binds to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. MuRLK exists in the cytoplasm and also localizes to the plasma membrane of plant cells via its N-terminus. Over-expression of MuRLK in Arabidopsis enhances the basal resistance to infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, Alternaria brassicicola and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, are associated with elevated ROS bursts, MAPK activation, thus ultimately leading to hypersensitive cell death. Moreover, salicylic acid-dependent and jasmonic acid-dependent defense responses are also enhanced in the MuRLK-overexpressed plants that lead to HR-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that MuRLK plays a key role in the regulation of plant cell death, early and late defense responses after the recognition of microbial pathogens.

Keywords: cell death, Plant Defense, horsegram, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, MuRLK, ROS burst

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1327 Strategies to Improve Heat Stress Tolerance in Chickpea and Dissecting the Cross Talk Mechanism

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar, Renu Yadav


In northern India, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) come across with terminal high-temperature stress during reproductive stage which leads to reduced yield. Hence, stable production of chickpea will depend on the development of new methods like ‘priming’ which allow improved adaptation to the drought and heat stress. In the present experiment, 11-day chickpea seedling was primed with mild drought stress and put on recovery stage by irrigating and finally 30-day seedlings were exposed to heat stress 38°C (4 hours), 35°C (8 hours) and 32°C (12 hours). To study the effect of combinatorial stress, heat and drought stress was applied simultaneously. Analyses of various physiological parameters like membrane damage assay, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative enzyme, total sugars were estimated at all stages. To study the effect of heat stress on the metabolites of the plants, GC-MS and HPLC were performed, while at transcriptional level Real-Time PCR of predicted heat stress-related genes was done. It was concluded that the heat stress significantly affected the chickpea plant at physiological and molecular level in all the five varieties. Results also show less damaging effect in primed plants by increasing the activity of antioxidative enzymes and increased expression of heat shock proteins and heat shock factors.

Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Heat Stress, Priming, chickpea, RT-PCR, combinatorial stress

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1326 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey


A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Signals, fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, S-G differentiator

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1325 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Ramesh Kumar, Kumar Manoj, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant


Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: manet, DSDV, AODV, DSR, ZRP

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1324 The Effect of Classroom Atmospherics on Second Language Learning

Authors: Sresha Yadav, Ishwar Kumar


Second language learning is an important area of research in the language and linguistic domains. Literature suggests that several factors impact second language learning, including age, motivation, objectives, teacher, instructional material, classroom interaction, intelligence and previous background, previous linguistic experience, other student characteristics. Previous researchers have also highlighted that classroom atmospherics has a significant impact on learning as well as on the performance of students. However, the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning is still not known in the existing literature. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to explore whether classroom atmospherics has an impact on second language learning or not? And if it does, it would be worthwhile to explore the nature of such relationship. The present study aims to explore the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by dwelling into the existing literature to explore factors which impact second language learning, classroom atmospherics which impact language learning and the metrics through which such learning impacts could be measured. Based on the findings of literature review, the researchers have adopted a clustering approach for categorization and positioning of various measures of second language learning. Based on the clustering approach, the researchers have approach for measuring the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by drawing a student sample consisting of 80 respondents. The results of the study uncover various basic premises of second language learning, especially with regard to classroom atmospherics. The present study is important not only from the point of view of language learning but implications could be drawn with regard to the design of classroom atmospherics, environmental psychology, anthropometrics, etc as well.

Keywords: Linguistics, Second Language Learning, Cluster Analysis, classroom atmospherics

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1323 Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Neonates in Pokhara, Nepal: A Hospital Based Case Control Study

Authors: Dipendra Kumar Yadav, Nabaraj Paudel, Anjana Yadav


Background: Low Birth weight (LBW) is defined as the weight at birth less than 2500 grams, irrespective of the period of their gestation. LBW is an important indicator of general health status of population and is considered as the single most important predictors of infant mortality especially of deaths within the first month of life that is birth weight determines the chances of newborn survival. Objective of this study was to identify the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight neonates. Materials and Methods: A hospital based case-control study was conducted in maternity ward of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from 23 September 2014 to 12 November 2014. During study period 59 cases were obtained and twice number of control group were selected with frequency matching of the mother`s age with ± 3 years and total controls were 118. Interview schedule was used for data collection along with record review. Data were entered in Epi-data program and analysis was done with help of SPSS software program. Results: From bivariate logistic regression analysis, eighteen variables were found significantly associated with LBW and these were place of residence, family monthly income, education, previous still birth, previous LBW, history of STD, history of vaginal bleeding, anemia, ANC visits, less than four ANC visits, de-worming status, counseling during pregnancy, CVD, physical workload, stress, extra meal during pregnancy, smoking and alcohol consumption status. However after adjusting confounding variables, only six variables were found significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who had family monthly income up to ten thousand rupees were 4.83 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.5-40.645) and p value 0.014 compared to mothers whose family income NRs.20,001-60,000. Mothers who had previous still birth were 2.01 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (0.69-5.87) and p value 0.02 compared to mothers who did not has previous still birth. Mothers who had previous LBW were 5.472 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.2-24.93) and p value 0.028 compared to mothers who did not has previous LBW. Mothers who had anemia during pregnancy were 3.36 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (0.77-14.57) and p value 0.014 compared to mothers who did not has anemia. Mothers who delivered female newborn were 2.96 times more likely to have LBW with 95% CI (1.27-7.28) and p value 0.01 compared to mothers who deliver male newborn. Mothers who did not get extra meal during pregnancy were 6.04 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.11-32.7) and p value 0.037 compared to mothers who getting the extra meal during pregnancy. Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy were 4.83 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.57-14.83) and p value 0.006 compared to mothers who did not consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Conclusions: To reduce low birth weight baby through economic empowerment of family and individual women. Prevention and control of anemia during pregnancy is one of the another strategy to control the LBW baby and mothers should take full dose of iron supplements with screening of haemoglobin level. Extra nutritional food should be provided to women during pregnancy. Health promotion program will be focused on avoidance of alcohol and strengthen of health services that leads increasing use of maternity services.

Keywords: Risk Factors, low birth weight, case-control, hospital based study

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1322 Oxyhydrogen Gas (HHO) as Replacement to Gasoline Fuel

Authors: Rishabh Pandey, Umang Kumar Yadav


In today’s era of technological advancement, we come across incalculable innovations, almost every day. No doubt that the society has developed a lot in learning and technology, but we should also take into account the problems and inflictions that are occurring. Focusing on the petroleum sector a trending global concern is toward lowering fuel consumption and emissions. It is well known that gasoline is non-renewable source of energy and its burning produces harmful emissions which are adversely affecting the environment, such issues are motivating us to seek alternative solutions that would not require much modification in engine design and help us come out with an outcome. Keeping in mind the importance of environment and human race, we present a factious idea of use of oxyhydrogen gas or HHO gas in place of gasoline in the vehicles and petroleum industry. This technology is prospering, highly efficient, could be used economically and safe, and it will be responsible for changing the future of oil and gas sector in accordance with protection to the environment. In the coming future, we will check the compatibility of HHO generator with fuel engine for production of oxyhydrogen gas with use of water and effect of introducing HHO gas to the combustion on both thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. We will also work on the comparison of HHO gas and commercially available gasoline fuel in support of their chemical structures; ignition rate; octane rating; knocking properties; storage; transportation and cost effectiveness and it is trusted that use of HHO gas will be ecofriendly as no harmful emissions are produced, rather the only emission is water. Additionally, this paper will include the use of HHO cell in fuel engines and challenges faced in installing it in the current period and provide effective solutions for the same.

Keywords: Water, Gas, generator, Fuel

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1321 Binding Studies and Structure Determination of the Recombinantly Produced Type-II 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase from Acinetobacter Baumannii

Authors: Pradeep Sharma, Mukesh Kumar, T. P. Singh, Punit Kaur, Naseer Iqbal, Satya Prakash Yadav, Sujata Sharma


Dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, DHQD, EC is involved in shikimate pathway and catalyzes the conversion of dehydroquinate to dehydroshikimate. Shikimate pathway is important drug target as this pathway is absent in mammals. DHQD from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbDHQD) was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The binding studies showed that compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid bound to AbDHQD at micromolar concentrations. AbDHQD was crystallized using 30% PEG-3350, 50mM tris-HCl, and 1.0M MgSO4 at PH 8.0. Crystals of AbDHQD were stabilized by transferring them into reservoir solution to which 25% glycerol was added for data collection at 100K. The X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.0Å resolution. The crystals belong to monoclinic space group P21 with cell dimensions, a = 82.3, b = 95.3, c = 132.3Å and β = 95.7°. The structure was solved with molecular replacement method and refined to Rcryst/Rfree factors of 0.200/0.232. The structures of 12 crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetry unit were identical with r.m.s shifts for the C atoms ranging from 0.3 Å to 0.8 Å. They formed a dodecamer with four trimers arranged in a tetrahedral manner. The classical lid adopted an open conformation although a sulfate ion was observed in the substrate binding site. As a result of which, the compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid did not bind to AbDHQD.

Keywords: acinetobacter Bauman Nii, dehydroquinate dehydratase, dodecamer, open conformation

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1320 Effect of Incorporation of Seaweed Extract in Gelatin Based Film on Physic-Chemical and Bioactive Properties of Film

Authors: Shekhar U. Kadam, S. K. Pankaj, Brijesh K. Tiwari, P. J. Cullen, Colm P. O’Donnell


Brown seaweed L. hyperborea is a rich source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of incorporation of L. hyperborea extract to bovine gelatin film on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of film. Films with fraction of 25% by weight of bovine gelatin sample were cast with addition of glycerol as a plasticizer. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the films showed higher levels with addition of seaweed extract. Also film appearance properties such as film thickness, color and light transparency were evaluated. Film appearance was slightly modified whereas microstructure of films showed rough patches at 50% level of extract in the film. Hydrophilicity and glass transition temperature of the films also increased with increased level of seaweed extract. It was found that seaweed extract can be incorporated within gelatin and casein for development of biofunctional films.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Phenolic Compounds, antioxidant, Laminaria hyperborea, seaweed extract, bovine gelatin film

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1319 Copywriting and the Creative Edge

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Utpal Barua


This study address particular way that verbal information can affect the processing of positive and interesting qualities which help in making the brand attractive to the consumer. Also, it address the development of a communication strategy which is a very important part of the marketing plan we have to take into account many factors. Out of all the product strengths, the strategy has to outline one marked differential which will drive our brand. This is the fundamental base on which the entire creative strategy will be big idea-based.

Keywords: Marketing, branding, Advertisement, recall, copy writing

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1318 Role of Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Study from North India

Authors: Ashok kumar, Alka Yadav, Mayank Jain, Rajan Saxena, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani


Purpose: To study the mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and its clinicopathological correlation in colorectal cancer patients in North India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on histologically proven 52 (38 males and 14 females) patients with adenocarcinoma of colorectum. MMR protein loss was determined by using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. Results: 52 patients (38 males and 14 females) underwent resection for colorectal cancer with the median age of 52 years (16-81 years). 35% of the patients (n=18) were younger than 50 years of the age. 3 patients had associated history of malignancy in the family. 29 (56%) patients had right colon cancer, 9 (17%) left colon cancer and 14 (27%) rectal cancer. 2 patients each had synchronous and metachronous cancer. Histology revealed well-differentiated tumour in 16, moderately differentiated in 10 and poorly differentiated tumour in 26 patients. MMR protein loss was seen in 15 (29%) patients. Seven (46%) of these patients were less than 50 years of age. Combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was seen most commonly and it was found in 6 patients. 12 (80%) patients with MMR protein loss had tumour located proximal to the splenic flexure compared to 3 (20%) located distal to the splenic flexure. There was no difference in MMR protein loss based on patients' age, gender, degree of tumour differentiation, stage of the disease and tumour histological characteristics. Conclusions: This study revealed that there was less than 30% MMR protein loss in colorectal cancer patients. The loss was most commonly seen in right sided colon cancer than left. A larger study is further required to validate these findings.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, mismatch repair protein, immunohitochemistry, clinicopathological correlation

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