Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 148

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Industrial Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

148 Evaluation of the Matching Optimization of Human-Machine Interface Matching in the Cab

Authors: Yanhua Ma, Lu Zhai, Xinchen Wang, Hongyu Liang

Abstract:

In this paper, by understanding the development status of the human-machine interface in today's automobile cab, a subjective and objective evaluation system for evaluating the optimization of human-machine interface matching in automobile cab was established. The man-machine interface of the car cab was divided into a software interface and a hard interface. Objective evaluation method of software human factor analysis is used to evaluate the hard interface matching; The analytic hierarchy process is used to establish the evaluation index system for the software interface matching optimization, and the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to evaluate hard interface machine. This article takes Dongfeng Sokon (DFSK) C37 model automobile as an example. The evaluation method given in the paper is used to carry out relevant analysis and evaluation, and corresponding optimization suggestions are given, which have certain reference value for designers.

Keywords: Human-Machine Interface, analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy comprehension evaluation method, matching optimization, software human factor analysis

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147 Financial Technology: The Key to Achieving Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries Post COVID-19: An East African Perspective

Authors: Klaus Schmidt, Yosia Mulumba

Abstract:

Financial Inclusion is considered a key pillar for development in most countries around the world. Access to affordable financial services in a country’s economy can be a driver to overcome poverty and reduce income inequalities, and thus increase economic growth. Nevertheless, the number of financially excluded populations in developing countries continues to be very high. This paper explores the role of Financial Technology (Fintech) as a key driver for achieving financial inclusion in developing countries post the COVID19 pandemic with an emphasis on four East African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda. The research paper is inspired by the positive disruption caused by the pandemic, which has compelled societies in East Africa to adapt and embrace the use of financial technology innovations, specifically Mobile Money Services (MMS), to access financial services. MMS has been further migrated and integrated with other financial technology innovations such as Mobile Banking, Micro Savings, and Loans, and Insurance, to mention but a few. These innovations have been adopted across key sectors such as commerce, health care, or agriculture. The research paper will highlight the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) that are behind MMS, along with numerous innovative products and services being offered to the customers. It will also highlight the regulatory framework under which these innovations are being governed to ensure the safety of the customers' funds.

Keywords: Regulatory Framework, Financial Technology, financial inclusion, mobile money services

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146 Portfolio Management for Construction Company during Covid-19 Using AHP Technique

Authors: Sareh Rajabi, Salwa Bheiry

Abstract:

In general, Covid-19 created many financial and non-financial damages to the economy and community. Level and severity of covid-19 as pandemic case varies over the region and due to different types of the projects. Covid-19 virus emerged as one of the most imperative risk management factors word-wide recently. Therefore, as part of portfolio management assessment, it is essential to evaluate severity of such risk on the project and program in portfolio management level to avoid any risky portfolio. Covid-19 appeared very effectively in South America, part of Europe and Middle East. Such pandemic infection affected the whole universe, due to lock down, interruption in supply chain management, health and safety requirements, transportations and commercial impacts. Therefore, this research proposes Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze and assess such pandemic case like Covid-19 and its impacts on the construction projects. The AHP technique uses four sub-criteria: Health and safety, commercial risk, completion risk and contractual risk to evaluate the project and program. The result will provide the decision makers with information which project has higher or lower risk in case of Covid-19 and pandemic scenario. Therefore, the decision makers can have most feasible solution based on effective weighted criteria for project selection within their portfolio to match with the organization’s strategies.

Keywords: Risk management, Portfolio Management, COVID-19, analytical hierarchy process technique

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145 An Effective Driver Intention and Trajectory Prediction for Autonomous Vehicle Based on Long Short Term Memory

Authors: Fatimetou El Jili

Abstract:

In order to make the navigation system of autonomous vehicles more robust and safe in urban environment, we propose in this paper a model for driver intention prediction and trajectory prediction. The proposed model is based on LSTM (long short term memory). The model was trained on database of features collected from the driving simulator CARLA. This paper treats four type of intentions, turn left, turn right, go straight, and stopping intention. Two cases were treated; the first case is to predict intention before it occurs; the second case corresponds to intention recognition, where the driver already starts maneuvering the intention. Both cases are treated by the same model. The model shows better performances for the second case than the first case with small differences. The main strength of our model is that it gives good performances with a small set of features. The accuracy of the model is 96% for intention prediction and 97% for the intention recognition. The proposed method for trajectory prediction reaches an accuracy of 99.9%. Those accuracies are higher than what we found in state of art.

Keywords: Autonomous Driving, long short term memory, intention prediction, trajectory prediction, CARLA simulator

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144 Digitalization of Functional Safety - Increasing Productivity while Reducing Risks

Authors: Michael Scott, Phil Jarrell

Abstract:

Digitalization seems to be everywhere these days. So if one was to digitalize Functional Safety, what would that require: • Ability to directly use data from intelligent P&IDs / process design in a PHA / LOPA • Ability to directly use data from intelligent P&IDs in the SIS Design to support SIL Verification Calculations, SRS, C&Es, Functional Test Plans • Ability to create Unit Operation / SIF Libraries to radically reduce engineering manhours while ensuring consistency and improving quality of SIS designs • Ability to link data directly from a PHA / LOPA to SIS Designs • Ability to leverage reliability models and SRS details from SIS Designs to automatically program the Safety PLC • Ability to leverage SIS Test Plans to automatically create Safety PLC application logic Test Plans for a virtual FAT • Ability to tie real-time data from Process Historians / CMMS to assumptions in the PHA / LOPA and SIS Designs to generate leading indicators on protection layer health • Ability to flag SIS bad actors for proactive corrective actions prior to a near miss or loss of containment event What if I told you all of this was available today? This paper will highlight how the digital revolution has revolutionized the way Safety Instrumented Systems are designed, configured, operated and maintained.

Keywords: Digitalization, functional safety, IEC 61511, safety instrumented systems, IIoT

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143 Failure Analysis: Solid Rocket Motor Type “Candy” - Explosion in a Static Test

Authors: Diego Romero, Fabio Rojas, J. Alejandro Urrego

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The sounding rockets are aerospace vehicles that were developed in the mid-20th century, and Colombia has been involved in research that was carried out with the aim of innovating with this technology. The rockets are university research programs with the collaboration of the local government, with a simple strategy, develop and reduce the greatest costs associated with the production of a kind type of technology. In this way, in this document presents the failure analysis of a solid rocket motor, with the real compatibly to reach the thermosphere with a low-cost fuel. This solid rocket motor is the latest development of the Uniandes Aerospace Project (PUA for its Spanish acronym), an undergraduate and postgraduate research group at Universidad de los Andes (Bogotá, Colombia), dedicated to incurring in this type of technology. This motor has been carried out on Candy-type solid fuel, which is a compound of potassium nitrate and sorbitol, and the investigation has allowed the production of solid motors powerful enough to reach space, and which represents a unique technological advance in Latin America and an important development in experimental rocketry.To outline the main points the explosion in a static test is an important to explore and demonstrate the ways to develop technology, methodologies, production and manufacturing, being a solid rocket motor with 30 kN of thrust. In conclusion, this analysis explores different fields such as: design, manufacture, materials, production, first fire and more, with different engineering tools with principal objective find root failure. Following the engineering analysis methodology, was possible to design a new version of motor, with learned lessons new manufacturing specification, therefore, when publishing this project, it is intended to be a reference for future research in this field and benefit the industry.

Keywords: Failure analysis, explosion, static test, candy propellant, candy rockets, solid rocket motor

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142 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt

Abstract:

Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure calibration, pressure metrology, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

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141 A 'Systematic Literature Review' of Specific Types of Inventory Faced by the Management of Firms

Authors: Rui Brito

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This contribution regards a literature review of inventory management that is a relevant topic for the firms, due to its important use of capital with implications in firm’s profitability within the complexity of a more competitive and globalized world. Firms look for small inventories in order to reduce holding costs, namely opportunity cost, warehousing and handling costs, deterioration and being out of style, but larger inventories are required by some reasons, such as customer service, ordering cost, transportation cost, supplier’s payment to reduce unit costs or to take advantage of price increase in the near future, and equipment setup cost. Thus, management shall address a trade-off between small inventories and larger inventories. This literature review concerns three types of inventory (spare parts, safety stock, and vendor) whose management usually is beyond the scope of logistics. The applied methodology consisted of an online search of databases regarding scientific documents in English, namely Elsevier, Springer, Emerald, Wiley, and Taylor & Francis, but excluding books except if edited, using search engines, such as Google Scholar and B-on. The search was based on three keywords/strings (themes) which had to be included just as in the article title, suggesting themes were very relevant to the researchers. The whole search period was between 2009 and 2018 with the aim of collecting between twenty and forty studies considered relevant within each of the key words/strings specified. Documents were sorted by relevance and to prevent the exclusion of the more recent articles, based on lower quantity of citations partially due to less time to be cited in new research articles, the search period was divided into two sub-periods (2009-2015 and 2016-2018). The number of surveyed articles by theme showed a variation from 40 to 200 and the number of citations of those articles showed a wider variation from 3 to 216. Selected articles from the three themes were analyzed and the first seven of the first sub-period and the first three of the second sub-period with more citations were read in full to make a synopsis of each article. Overall, the findings show that the majority of article types were models, namely mathematical, although with different sub-types for each theme. Almost all articles suggest further studies, with some mentioning it for their own author(s), which widen the diversity of the previous research. Identified research gaps concern the use of surveys to know which are the models more used by firms, the reasons for not using the models with more performance and accuracy, and which are the satisfaction levels with the outcomes of the inventories management and its effect on the improvement of the firm’s overall performance. The review ends with the limitations and contributions of the study.

Keywords: Inventory Management, safety stock, spare parts inventory, vendor managed inventory

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140 Requirements for a Shared Management of State-Owned Building in the Archaeological Park of Pompeii

Authors: Maria Giovanna Pacifico

Abstract:

Maintenance, in Italy, is not yet a consolidated practice despite the benefits that could come from. Among the main reasons, there are the lack of financial resources and personnel in the public administration and a general lack of knowledge about how to activate and to manage a prevented and programmed maintenance. The experimentation suggests that users and tourists could be involved in the maintenance process from the knowledge phase to the monitoring ones by using mobile devices. The goal is to increase the quality of Facility Management for cultural heritage, prioritizing usage needs, and limiting interference between the key stakeholders. The method simplifies the consolidated procedures for the Information Systems, avoiding a loss in terms of quality and amount of information by focusing on the users' requirements: management economy, user safety, accessibility, and by receiving feedback information to define a framework that will lead to predictive maintenance. This proposal was designed to be tested in the Archaeological Park of Pompeii on the state property asset.

Keywords: Asset Maintenance, user requirement, key stakeholders, Pompeii

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139 The Job of Rhetoric in Public Relations Practice

Authors: Talal Alqahtani

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For all institutions, either public or private, communication is important now more than ever. This is because the importance of communication has grown over the years, and it has the ability to either break or make an organization. With globalization, the changing technology, and other emergent issues that affect organizations, the communication given out has had to be better, sharper, and both proactive and reactive. This is the reason why the importance of public relations has been on the increase. Institutions realize the importance of having a good image and having public relations experts who can effectively manage communication in an institution easily in times of crisis. Public relations itself is not, however, effective, and this has led to the adoption of rhetoric in communication. Rhetoric use has had a long transformation because, in the past, it was only used in politics. Rhetoric in communication has come to be appreciated and adopted by many diverse fields and sectors. This study looks at the job of rhetoric in public relations practice and how it can identify with the administration of an institution's notoriety.

Keywords: Communication, Rhetoric, public relation, notoriety

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138 Digital Transformation of Payment Systems Using Field Service Management

Authors: Hamze Torabian, Mohammad Mehrabioun Mohammadi

Abstract:

Like many other industries, the payment industry has affected by digital transformation. The importance of digital transformation in the payment industry is very crucial. Because the payment industry considered as a leading industry in the field of digital and emerging technologies, and the digitalization of other industries such as retail, health, and telecommunication, also depends on the growth rate of digitalized payment systems. One of the technological innovations in service management is Field Service Management (FSM). Despite the widespread use of FSM in various industries such as petrochemical, health, maintenance, etc., this technology can also be recruited in the payment industry, transforming the payment industry into a more agile and efficient one. Accordingly, the present study pays close attention to the application of FSM in the payment industry. Given the importance of merchants' bargaining power in the payment industry, this study aims to use FSM in the digital transformation initiative with a targeted focus on providing real-time services to merchants. The research method consists of three parts. Firstly, conducting the review of past research, applications of FSM in the payment industry are considered. In the next step, Merchant's benefits such as emotional, functional, economic, and social benefits in using FSM, are identified using in-depth interviews and content analysis methods. In the following step, the related business model in helping the payment industry to transform into a more agile and efficient industry are considered. The results revealed the ten main pillars are required to realize the digital transformation of payment systems using FSM.

Keywords: Field Service Management, Digital transformation, merchant support systems, payment industry

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137 Framework for Developing Change Team to Maximize Change Initiative Success

Authors: Lisa Brodie, Marilyn Goh, Mohammad Z. Ansari

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Change facilitators are individuals who utilize change philosophy to make a positive change to organizations. The application of change facilitators can be seen in various change models; Lewin, Lippitt, etc. The facilitators within numerous change models are considered as internal/external consultants. Whilst most of the scholarly paper considers change facilitation as a consensus attempt to improve organization, there is a lack of a framework that develops both the organization and the change facilitator creating a self-sustaining change environment. This research paper introduces the development of the framework for change Leaders, Planners, and Executers (LPE), aiming at various organizational levels (Process, Departmental, and Organisational). The LPE framework is derived by exploring interrelated characteristics between facilitator(s) and the organization through qualitative research for understanding change management techniques and facilitator(s) behavioral aspect from existing Change Management models and Organisation behavior works of literature. The introduced framework assists in highlighting and identify the most appropriate change team to successfully deliver the change initiative within any organization (s).

Keywords: change initiative, sustainable change, LPE framework, change facilitator(s)

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136 The Role of Trust in Intention to Use Prescribed and Non-prescribed Connected Devices

Authors: Jean-Michel SAHUT, Wissal Ben Arfi, Lubica Hikkerova

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The Internet of Things (IoT) emerged over the last few decades in many fields. Healthcare can significantly benefit from IoT. This study aims to examine factors influencing the adoption of IoT in eHealth. To do so, an innovative framework has been developed which applies both the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model and builds on them by analyzing trust and perceived-risk dimensions to predict intention to use IoT in eHealth. In terms of methodology, a Partial Least Approach Structural Equation Modelling was carried out on a sample of 267 French users. The findings of this research support the significant positive effect of constructs set out in the TAM (perceived ease of use) on predicting behavioral intention by adding the effects identified for UTAUT variables. This research also demonstrates how perceived risk and trust are significant factors for models examining behavioral intentions to use IoT. Perceived risk enhanced by the trust has a significant effect on patients’ behavioral intentions. Moreover, the results highlight the key role of prescription as a moderator of IoT adoption in eHealth. Depending on whether an individual has a prescription to use connected devices or not, ease of use has a stronger impact on adoption, while trust has a negative impact on adoption for users without a prescription. In accordance with the empirical results, several practical implications can be proposed. All connected devices applied in a medical context should be divided into groups according to their functionality: whether they are essential for the patient’s health and whether they require a prescription or not. Devices used with a prescription are easily accepted because the intention to use them is moderated by the medical trust (discussed above). For users without a prescription, ease of use is a more significant factor than for users who have a prescription. This suggests that currently, connected e-Health devices and online healthcare systems have to take this factor into account to better meet the needs and expectations of end-users.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Healthcare, Trust, Consumer Acceptance

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135 A Regional Analysis on Co-movement of Sovereign Credit Risk and Interbank Risks

Authors: Mehdi Janbaz

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The global financial crisis and the credit crunch that followed magnified the importance of credit risk management and its crucial role in the stability of all financial sectors and the whole of the system. Many believe that risks faced by the sovereign sector are highly interconnected with banking risks and most likely to trigger and reinforce each other. This study aims to examine (1) the impact of banking and interbank risk factors on the sovereign credit risk of Eurozone, and (2) how the EU Credit Default Swaps spreads dynamics are affected by the Crude Oil price fluctuations. The hypothesizes are tested by employing fitting risk measures and through a four-staged linear modeling approach. The sovereign senior 5-year Credit Default Swap spreads are used as a core measure of the credit risk. The monthly time-series data of the variables used in the study are gathered from the DataStream database for a period of 2008-2019. First, a linear model test the impact of regional macroeconomic and market-based factors (STOXX, VSTOXX, Oil, Sovereign Debt, and Slope) on the CDS spreads dynamics. Second, the bank-specific factors, including LIBOR-OIS spread (the difference between the Euro 3-month LIBOR rate and Euro 3-month overnight index swap rates) and Euribor, are added to the most significant factors of the previous model. Third, the global financial factors including EURO to USD Foreign Exchange Volatility, TED spread (the difference between 3-month T-bill and the 3-month LIBOR rate based in US dollars), and Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Crude Oil Volatility Index are added to the major significant factors of the first two models. Finally, a model is generated by a combination of the major factor of each variable set in addition to the crisis dummy. The findings show that (1) the explanatory power of LIBOR-OIS on the sovereign CDS spread of Eurozone is very significant, and (2) there is a meaningful adverse co-movement between the Crude Oil price and CDS price of Eurozone. Surprisingly, adding TED spread (the difference between the three-month Treasury bill and the three-month LIBOR based in US dollars.) to the analysis and beside the LIBOR-OIS spread (the difference between the Euro 3M LIBOR and Euro 3M OIS) in third and fourth models has been increased the predicting power of LIBOR-OIS. Based on the results, LIBOR-OIS, Stoxx, TED spread, Slope, Oil price, OVX, FX volatility, and Euribor are the determinants of CDS spreads dynamics in Eurozone. Moreover, the positive impact of the crisis period on the creditworthiness of the Eurozone is meaningful.

Keywords: crude oil, CDS, TED, interbank risk, LIBOR-OIS, OVX, sovereign credit risk

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134 From Makers to Maker Communities: A Survey on Turkish Makerspaces

Authors: Dogan Can Hatunoglu, Cengiz Hakan Gurkanlı, Hatice Merve Demirci

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Today, the maker movement is regarded as a socio-cultural movement that represents designing and building objects for innovations. In these creativity-based activities of the movement, individuals from different backgrounds such as; inventors, programmers, craftspeople, DIY’ers, tinkerers, engineers, designers, and hackers, form a community and work collaboratively for mutual, open-source innovations. Today, with the accessibility of recently emerged technologies and digital fabrication tools, the Maker Movement is continuously expanding its scope and has evolved into a new experience, and for many, it is now considered as new kind of industrial revolution. In this new experience, makers create new things within their community by using new digital tools and technologies in spots called makerspaces. In these makerspaces, activities of learning, experience sharing, and mentoring are evolved into maker events. Makers who share common interests in making benefit from makerspaces as meeting and working spots. In literature, there are many sources on Maker Movement, maker communities, and their activities, especially in the field of business administration. However, there is a gap in the literature about the maker communities in Turkey. This research aims to be an information source on the dynamics and process design of “making” activities in Turkish maker communities and also aims to provide insights to sustain and enhance local maker communities in the future. Within this aim, semi-structured interviews were conducted with founders and facilitators from selected Turkish maker communities. (1) The perception towards Maker Movement, makers, activity of making, and current situation of maker communities, (2) motivations of individuals who participate the maker communities, and (3) key drivers (collaboration and decision-making in design processes) of maker activities from the perspectives of main actors (founders, facilitators) are all examined deeply with question on personal experiences and perspectives. After a qualitative approached data analysis concerning the maker communities in Turkey, this research reveals that there are two main conclusions regarding (1) the foundation of the Turkish maker mindset and (2) emergence of self-sustaining communities.

Keywords: Sustainability, maker movement, makerspaces, maker community, open-source design

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133 Forecasting Stock Indexes Using Bayesian Additive Regression Tree

Authors: Darren Zou

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Forecasting the stock market is a very challenging task. Various economic indicators such as GDP, exchange rates, interest rates, and unemployment have a substantial impact on the stock market. Time series models are the traditional methods used to predict stock market changes. In this paper, a machine learning method, Bayesian Additive Regression Tree (BART) is used in predicting stock market indexes based on multiple economic indicators. BART can be used to model heterogeneous treatment effects, and thereby works well when models are misspecified. It also has the capability to handle non-linear main effects and multi-way interactions without much input from financial analysts. In this research, BART is proposed to provide a reliable prediction on day-to-day stock market activities. By comparing the analysis results from BART and with time series method, BART can perform well and has better prediction capability than the traditional methods.

Keywords: Bayesian, predict, stock, BART

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132 A Novel Multi-Attribute Green Decision Making Model for Environmental Supply Chain Sustainability

Authors: Amirhossein Mahlouji

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In current business market, the concept of integrating environmental sustainability into long-term as well as routine operations is becoming a prevailing trend. Therefore, several stimuli are helping organization to move toward environmental sustainability. The concept of green supply chain management can help provide a strategic framework to develop a customized sustainability roadmap for each organization. In this regard, this paper is mainly focused on presenting a strategic decision making framework that will assist top level decision-making issues. This decision-making tool is based on literature and practice in the area of environmentally conscious business practices. The goal of this paper will be on the components and parameters of green supply chain management and how they serve as a baseline for the decision framework. Later, the applicability of a multi-input multi-output decision model (MIMO), will be analyzed as the analytical network process, within the green supply chain.

Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental, Green supply chain, Multi-attribute

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131 Innovative Small and Medium Sized Firms: Intangible Investment and Financial Constraints - a Literature Review.

Authors: Eliane Abdo

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Small and medium sized firms “SMEs” play essential role in the countries’ economic development mainly in terms of production, employment and equitable distribution of income. For innovative SMEs, the investment in the human capital and in research and development are crucial to survive in a competitive environment. In this paper we perform a literature review to underline the financing difficulties and constraints which innovative SMEs face while investing in intangible assets: not only when defining amount of the investments but also while choosing its financing methods. Literature review revealed that in order to finance their intangible assets, SMEs rely in first on their internal financing: the availability of internal cash flows can then determine their investment’s decision. Moreover SMEs face difficulties to finance their intangibles by financial debts due to the uncertainty of future cash flow and the absence of physical guarantees; they will therefore go for the issuance of new shares as a second choice, since innovative companies have high opportunity of growth that attract new shareholders.

Keywords: Capital Structure, financial constraints, small and medium sized firms, Intangible investment

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130 Optimisation of Metrological Inspection of a Developmental Aeroengine Disc

Authors: Suneel Kumar, Nanda Kumar J. Sreelal Sreedhar, Suchibrata Sen, V. Muralidharan

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Fan technology is very critical and crucial for any aero engine technology. The fan disc forms a critical part of the fan module. It is an airworthiness requirement to have a metrological qualified quality disc. The current study uses a tactile probing and scanning on an articulated measuring machine (AMM), a bridge type coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and Metrology software for intermediate and final dimensional and geometrical verification during the prototype development of the disc manufactured through forging and machining process. The circumferential dovetails manufactured through the milling process are evaluated based on the evaluated and analysed metrological process. To perform metrological optimization a change of philosophy is needed making quality measurements available as fast as possible to improve process knowledge and accelerate the process but with accuracy, precise and traceable measurements. The offline CMM programming for inspection and optimisation of the CMM inspection plan are crucial portions of the study and discussed. The dimensional measurement plan as per the ASME B 89.7.2 standard to reach an optimised CMM measurement plan and strategy are an important requirement. The probing strategy, stylus configuration, and approximation strategy effects on the measurements of circumferential dovetail measurements of the developmental prototype disc are discussed. The results were discussed in the form of enhancement of the R &R (repeatability and reproducibility) values with uncertainty levels within the desired limits. The findings from the measurement strategy adopted for disc dovetail evaluation and inspection time optimisation are discussed with the help of various analyses and graphical outputs obtained from the verification process.

Keywords: Aero Engine, CMM, coordinate measuring machine, articulated measuring machine, fan disc

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129 Workforce Optimization: Fear Workload Balance and Near-Optimal Task Execution Order

Authors: Alvaro Javier Ortega

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A large number of companies face the challenge of matching highly-skilled professionals to high-end positions by human resource deployment professionals. However, when the professional list and tasks to be matched are larger than a few dozens, this process result is far from optimal and takes a long time to be made. Therefore, an automated assignment algorithm for this workforce management problem is needed. The majority of companies are divided into several sectors or departments, where trained employees with different experience levels deal with a large number of tasks daily. Also, the execution order of all tasks is of mater consequence, due to some of these tasks just can be run it if the result of another task is provided. Thus, a wrong execution order leads to large waiting times between consecutive tasks. The desired goal is, therefore, creating accurate matches and a near-optimal execution order that maximizes the number of tasks performed and minimizes the idle time of the expensive skilled employees. The problem described before can be model as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) as it will be shown in detail through this paper. A large number of MINLP algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Here, genetic algorithm solutions are considered and a comparison between two different mutation approaches is presented. The simulated results considering different complexity levels of assignment decisions show the appropriateness of the proposed model.

Keywords: Workforce, Genetic Algorithm, employees, industry management

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128 Time Series Simulation by Conditional Generative Adversarial Net

Authors: Jie Chen, Rao Fu, Shutian Zeng, Yiping Zhuang, Agus Sudjianto

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Generative Adversarial Net (GAN) has proved to be a powerful machine learning tool in image data analysis and generation. In this paper, we propose to use Conditional Generative Adversarial Net (CGAN) to learn and simulate time series data. The conditions include both categorical and continuous variables with different auxiliary information. Our simulation studies show that CGAN has the capability to learn different types of normal and heavy-tailed distributions, as well as dependent structures of different time series. It also has the capability to generate conditional predictive distributions consistent with training data distributions. We also provide an in-depth discussion on the rationale behind GAN and the neural networks as hierarchical splines to establish a clear connection with existing statistical methods of distribution generation. In practice, CGAN has a wide range of applications in market risk and counterparty risk analysis: it can be applied to learn historical data and generate scenarios for the calculation of Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES), and it can also predict the movement of the market risk factors. We present a real data analysis including a backtesting to demonstrate that CGAN can outperform Historical Simulation (HS), a popular method in market risk analysis to calculate VaR. CGAN can also be applied in economic time series modeling and forecasting. In this regard, we have included an example of hypothetical shock analysis for economic models and the generation of potential CCAR scenarios by CGAN at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Neural Network, Time series, conditional generative adversarial net, market and credit risk management

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127 Earnings Management from Taiwan Gisa Firms

Authors: An-an Chiu, Shaio Yan Huang, Ling-Na Chen, Wei-Hua Lin

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Research has primarily focused on listed companies, less is done regarding small and medium-sized enterprises. Under the authorities' support, Taipei Exchange (TPEx) started Go Incubation Board for Startup and Acceleration Firms (GISA) in January 2014. This platform is designed to help small-sized innovative companies grow and to enter the capital market in the future. This research yield insight into earnings management activities around seasoned equity offerings (SEO) based on Taiwan’s GISA firms and the effectiveness of external corporate governance. Data for the study come from the GISA Market Observation Post System from January 2014 to December 2016. The result finds that GISA firms prone to upward accrual-based earnings management during SEO to avoid long-term negative consequences. Especially, firms with paid-in capital more than NT$ 30 million, higher fundraising amounts, or smaller-sized firms, tend to increase discretionary accruals. Finally, consistent with prior literature, CPA firms effectively serve as the role of external corporate governances on mitigating earnings management.

Keywords: Earnings Management, CPA, GISA, seasoned equity offerings

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126 The Truism of the True and Fair View of Auditor’s Report

Authors: Ofuan James Ilaboya, Okhae J. Ibhadode

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The objective of this paper is to theoretically examine the truism of the “true and fair view” in the context of financial reporting. The paper examines the concepts such as true, fair, true and fair view, problems of true and fair view, the origin/history of true and fair view, review of attributes and key issues relating to true and fair view. The methodological approach adopted in this paper is library-based research, focusing on the review of relevant and related extant literature. The findings based on the review of relevant and related literature is suggestive of the fact that the true and fair concept in financial reporting environment is contentious. The study concludes that given the circumstances as chronicled on this paper, it is evident that the truism of the true and fair view of the auditor’s opinion is under serious threat. The way forward may be for the auditor to certify the accuracy and the correctness of the financial statement. While this position being canvassed here may help to substantially bridge the age-long expectation gap, it may as well require an upward review of the current audit fee structure in order to be able to operationalize the onerous task of certifying the accuracy and correctness of the financial statement. This position is contentious and will require a robust consideration which is not within the purview of the present review.

Keywords: Financial Statement, fiduciary duty, true and correct, true and fair

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125 Design and Validation of Different Steering Geometries for an All-Terrain Vehicle

Authors: Prabhsharan Singh, Rahul Sindhu, Piyush Sikka

Abstract:

The steering system is an integral part and medium through which the driver communicates with the vehicle and terrain, hence the most suitable steering geometry as per requirements must be chosen. The function of the chosen steering geometry of an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) is to provide the desired understeer gradient, minimum tire slippage, expected weight transfer during turning as these are requirements for a good steering geometry of a BAJA ATV. This research paper focuses on choosing the best suitable steering geometry for BAJA ATV tracks by reasoning the working principle and using fundamental trigonometric functions for obtaining these geometries on the same vehicle itself, namely Ackermann, Anti- Ackermann, Parallel Ackermann. Full vehicle analysis was carried out on Adams Car Analysis software, and graphical results were obtained for various parameters. Steering geometries were achieved by using a single versatile knuckle for frontward and rearward tie-rod placement and were practically tested with the help of data acquisition systems set up on the ATV. Each was having certain characteristics, setup, and parameters were observed for the BAJA ATV, and correlations were created between analytical and practical values.

Keywords: All-Terrain Vehicle, traction, steering system, steering geometry, Ackermann, Adams car, Baja Sae, tire slip, understeer gradient

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124 Determination of Optimum Parameters for Thermal Stress Distribution in Composite Plate Containing a Triangular Cutout by Optimization Method

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Bayati Chaleshtari, Hadi Khoramishad

Abstract:

Minimizing the stress concentration around triangular cutout in infinite perforated plates subjected to a uniform heat flux induces thermal stresses is an important consideration in engineering design. Furthermore, understanding the effective parameters on stress concentration and proper selection of these parameters enables the designer to achieve a reliable design. In the analysis of thermal stress, the effective parameters on stress distribution around cutout include fiber angle, flux angle, bluntness and rotation angle of the cutout for orthotropic materials. This paper was tried to examine effect of these parameters on thermal stress analysis of infinite perforated plates with central triangular cutout. In order to achieve the least amount of thermal stress around a triangular cutout using a novel swarm intelligence optimization technique called dragonfly optimizer that inspired by the life method and hunting behavior of dragonfly in nature. In this study, using the two-dimensional thermoelastic theory and based on the Likhnitskiiʼ complex variable technique, the stress analysis of orthotropic infinite plate with a circular cutout under a uniform heat flux was developed to the plate containing a quasi-triangular cutout in thermal steady state condition. To achieve this goal, a conformal mapping function was used to map an infinite plate containing a quasi- triangular cutout into the outside of a unit circle. The plate is under uniform heat flux at infinity and Neumann boundary conditions and thermal-insulated condition at the edge of the cutout were considered.

Keywords: Thermal Stress, optimization method, infinite perforated plate, complex variable method

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123 The Role of Recruitment and Selection in Financial Performance of Enterprises in Kosovo

Authors: Arta Jashari, Enver Kutllovci

Abstract:

Abstract— The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of recruitment and selection practice and performance in medium service enterprises in Kosovo. A total of 110 managers from public and private sector was analyzed. Our empirical results show that enterprises in Kosovo use recruitment and selection practice and they know how important is to have the right people with skills and knowledge accordingly with the job requirements. The outcome of Pearson correlation analysis provides evidence that recruitment and selection practice, positively and significantly influence the financial performance. Also, our results show a significant relationship between the education of managers and the use of the recruitment and selection practice. From our results we can conclude and suggest that with a good recruiting and selection, the organization will fill with a group of potentially qualified candidates who will be able to fulfill the enterprises objective.

Keywords: Human Resource, Performance, Recruitment and selection, Kosovo

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122 Smart Product-Service System Innovation with User Experience: A Case Study of Chunmi

Authors: Ying Yu, Wen-Chi Kuo, Tung-Jung Sung

Abstract:

The Product-Service System (PSS) has received widespread attention due to the increasing global competition in manufacturing and service markets. Today’s smart products and services are driven by Internet of things (IoT) technologies which will promote the transformation from traditional PSS to smart PSS. Although the smart PSS has some of technological achievements in businesses, it often ignores the real demands of target users when using products and services. Therefore, designers should know and learn the User Experience (UX) of smart products, services and systems. However, both of academia and industry still lack relevant development experience of smart PSS since it is an emerging field. In doing so, this is a case study of Xiaomi’s Chunmi, the largest IoT platform in the world, and addresses the two major issues: (1) why Chunmi should develop smart PSS strategies with UX; and (2) how Chunmi could successfully implement the strategic objectives of smart PSS through the design. The case study results indicated that: (1) the smart PSS can distinguish competitors by their unique UX which is difficult to duplicate; (2) early user engagement is crucial for the success of smart PSS; and (3) interaction, expectation, and enjoyment can be treated as a three-dimensional evaluation of UX design for smart PSS innovation. In conclusion, the smart PSS can gain competitive advantages through good UX design in the market.

Keywords: Design, User Experience, user engagement, smart PSS

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121 Financial Literacy and Stock Market Participation: Does Gender Matter?

Authors: Irfan Ullah Munir, Shen Yue, Muhammad Shahzad Ijaz, Saad Hussain, Syeda Yumna Zaidi

Abstract:

Financial literacy is fundamental to every decision-making process and has received attention from researchers, regulatory bodies and policy makers in the recent past. This study is an attempt to evaluate financial literacy in an emerging economy, particularly Pakistan, and its influence on people's stock market participation. Data of this study was collected through a structured questionnaire from a sample of 300 respondents. EFA is used to check the convergent and discriminant validity. Data is analyzed using Hayes (2013) approach. A set of demographic control variables that have passed the mean difference test is used. We demonstrate that participants with financial literacy tend to invest more in the stock market. We also find that association among financial literacy and participation in stock market gets moderated by gender.

Keywords: Gender, Financial Literacy, Stock market participation, PSX

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120 Action Research into including Sustainability in [Lean] Product Development: Cases from the European Space Sector

Authors: Rob Dekkers, JoãO Paulo Estevam De Souza

Abstract:

Particularly for the space sector the inclusion of sustainability in product development poses considerable challenges for practitioners. Outcomes of action research at two companies in this sector demonstrate how this contemporary theme could be included in methods for product and process development; this was supported by wider focus groups involving more companies. The working together with practitioners brought to the fore that holistic product life-cycle thinking needs further development, especially when firms are suppliers to original equipment manufacturers. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the social aspect of the triple-bottom-line causes remains elusive for companies; to this purpose, some pathways based on the action research and focus groups are proposed.

Keywords: Aerospace, Product Development, Sustainability, Product Life-Cycle, action research, triple bottom-line

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119 Lean Product Development and Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Rob Dekkers, JoãO P. E. De Souza

Abstract:

Whereas lean product development aims at maximising customer value whilst optimising product and process design, the question arises whether this approach includes sustainability. A systematic literature review reveals that methods associated with this conceptualisation of product development are suitable for including sustainability, but that the criteria for the triple-bottom line need to be included when using these methods; this is particularly the case for social aspects. Thus, the main finding is that not new methods should be developed, but that existing methods should be more inclusive towards all aspects of sustainability and product life-cycle thinking.

Keywords: Sustainability, systematic literature review, Product Life-Cycle, lean product development, triple bottom-line

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