Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 214

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Industrial Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

214 Using Equipment Telemetry Data for Condition-Based maintenance decisions

Authors: John Q. Todd

Abstract:

Given that modern equipment can provide comprehensive health, status, and error condition data via built-in sensors, maintenance organizations have a new and valuable source of insight to take advantage of. This presentation will expose what these data payloads might look like and how they can be filtered, visualized, calculated into metrics, used for machine learning, and generate alerts for further action.

Keywords: condition based maintenance, equipment data, metrics, alerts

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213 A Neural Network Approach for an Automatic Detection and Localization of an Open Phase Circuit of a Five-Phase Induction Machine Used in a Drivetrain of an Electric Vehicle

Authors: Saad Chahba, Rabia Sehab, Ahmad Akrad, Cristina Morel

Abstract:

Nowadays, the electric machines used in urban electric vehicles are, in most cases, three-phase electric machines with or without a magnet in the rotor. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) and Induction Machine (IM) are the main components of drive trains of electric and hybrid vehicles. These machines have very good performance in healthy operation mode, but they are not redundant to ensure safety in faulty operation mode. Faced with the continued growth in the demand for electric vehicles in the automotive market, improving the reliability of electric vehicles is necessary over the lifecycle of the electric vehicle. Multiphase electric machines respond well to this constraint because, on the one hand, they have better robustness in the event of a breakdown (opening of a phase, opening of an arm of the power stage, intern-turn short circuit) and, on the other hand, better power density. In this work, a diagnosis approach using a neural network for an open circuit fault or more of a five-phase induction machine is developed. Validation on the simulator of the vehicle drivetrain, at reduced power, is carried out, creating one and more open circuit stator phases showing the efficiency and the reliability of the new approach to detect and to locate on-line one or more open phases of a five-induction machine.

Keywords: electric vehicle drivetrain, multiphase drives, induction machine, control, open circuit (OC) fault diagnosis, artificial neural network

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212 Comparative Study and Parallel Implementation of Stochastic Models for Pricing of European Options Portfolios using Monte Carlo Methods

Authors: Vinayak Bassi, Rajpreet Singh

Abstract:

Over the years, with the emergence of sophisticated computers and algorithms, finance has been quantified using computational prowess. Asset valuation has been one of the key components of quantitative finance. In fact, it has become one of the embryonic steps in determining risk related to a portfolio, the main goal of quantitative finance. This study comprises a drawing comparison between valuation output generated by two stochastic dynamic models, namely Black-Scholes and Dupire’s bi-dimensionality model. Both of these models are formulated for computing the valuation function for a portfolio of European options using Monte Carlo simulation methods. Although Monte Carlo algorithms have a slower convergence rate than calculus-based simulation techniques (like FDM), they work quite effectively over high-dimensional dynamic models. A fidelity gap is analyzed between the static (historical) and stochastic inputs for a sample portfolio of underlying assets. In order to enhance the performance efficiency of the model, the study emphasized the use of variable reduction methods and customizing random number generators to implement parallelization. An attempt has been made to further implement the Dupire’s model on a GPU to achieve higher computational performance. Furthermore, ideas have been discussed around the performance enhancement and bottleneck identification related to the implementation of options-pricing models on GPUs.

Keywords: monte carlo, stochastic models, computational finance, parallel programming, scientific computing

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211 Two Major Methods to Control Thermal Resistance of Focus Ring for Process Uniformity Enhance

Authors: Jin-Uk Park

Abstract:

Recently, the semiconductor industry is rapidly demanding complicated structures and mass production. From the point of view of mass production, the ETCH industry is concentrating on maintaining the ER (Etch rate) of the wafer edge constant regardless of changes over time. In this study, two major thermal factors affecting process were identified and controlled. First, the filler of the thermal pad was studied. Second, the significant difference of handling the thermal pad during PM was studied.

Keywords: etcher, thermal pad, wet cleaning, thermal conductivity

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210 Behavioral Finance in Hundred Keywords

Authors: Ramon Hernán, Maria Teresa Corzo

Abstract:

This study examines the impact and contribution of the main journals in the discipline of behavioral finance to determine the state of the art of the discipline and the growth lines and concepts studied to date. This is a unique and novel study given that a review of the discipline has not been carried out through the keywords of the articles that allows visualizing through this component of the research, which are the main topics of discussion and the relationships that arise between the concepts discussed. To carry out this study, 3,876 articles have been taken as a reference, which includes 15,859 keywords from the main journals responsible for the growth of the discipline.; Journal of Behavioral Finance, Review of Behavioral Finance, Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics and Review of Behavioral Finance. The results indicate which are the topics most covered in the discipline throughout the period from 2000 to 2020, how these concepts have been dealt with on a recurring basis along with others throughout the aforementioned period and how the different concepts have been grouped based on the keywords established by the authors for the classification of their articles with a network diagram to complete the analysis.

Keywords: behavioral finance, keywords, co-words, top journals, data visualization

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209 How Pandemic Changed the Protective Aids for People in Day to Day Life

Authors: jinali chaklasiya

Abstract:

The importance of face masks, gloves, sanitizer, face shield Were only Applied for Doctor Amenities, and because of the outbreak of coronavirus, everybody has to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for health measures. . The main focus of this research paper is in the area of how doctor amenities changed the importance of gloves, face masks, sanitizer, face shield in day to day life of people. For this research, we have collected data from a quantitative survey. A questionnaire survey was conducted to note down the user point of view in doctor amenities and why is it important. The result of the questionnaire survey has helped to design parameters which were used to ideate new protective products. Thus, it is concluded to keep in mind that these protective devices can be used in day-to-day life by people across the globe. In the coming future, the protective device can make a difference and protect us from other common viruses.

Keywords: equpiment, coronavirus, products, protective, environment

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208 The AI Application and Talent Demand of Taiwan High-Tech Manufacturing Industry

Authors: Shi-Yu Lu, Li-Ping Chen, Chung-Han Yeh, Yu-Cheng Chang

Abstract:

This paper uses both quantitative and qualitative approaches to survey the current status of AI-related applications in Taiwan's high-tech manufacturing industry as well as the demand for professional AI talents and skills. The result shows that AI applications and talent demand vary from different industries in many aspects, including technologies used, talent structure, and training methods. This paper serves as a reference for the government to establish appropriate talent training programs, and to reduce the demand gap for professional AI talents in Taiwan manufacturers.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, manufacturing, talent, training

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207 Numerical Study of a 6080HP Open Drip Proof (ODP) Motor

Authors: Feng-Hisang Lai

Abstract:

CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) is conducted to numerically study the flow and heat transfer features of a two-pole, 6,080HP, 60Hz, 3,150V open drip-proof (ODP) motor. The stator and rotor cores in this high voltage induction motor are segmented with the use of spacers for cooling purposes, which leads to difficulties in meshing when the entire system is to be simulated. The system is divided into 4 parts, meshed separately and then combined using interfaces. The deviation between the CFD and experimental results in temperature and flow rate is less than 10%. The internal flow is further examined and a final design is proposed to reduce the winding temperature by 10 degrees.

Keywords: CFD, open drip proof, induction motor, cooling

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206 Stock Market Integration of Emerging Markets around the Global Financial Crisis: Trends and Explanatory Factors

Authors: Najlae Bendou, Jean-Jacques Lilti, Khalid Elbadraoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we examine stock market integration of emerging markets around the global financial turmoil of 2007-2008. Following Pukthuanthong and Roll (2009), we measure the integration of 46 emerging countries using the adjusted R-square from the regression of each country's daily index returns on global factors extracted from the covariance matrix computed using dollar-denominated daily index returns of 17 developed countries. Our sample surrounds the global financial crisis and ranges between 2000 and 2018. We analyze results using four cohorts of emerging countries: East Asia & Pacific and South Asia, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & Africa. We find that the level of integration of emerging countries increases at the commencement of the crisis and during the booming phase of the business cycles. It reaches a maximum point in the middle of the crisis and then tends to revert to its pre-crisis level. This pattern tends to be common among the four geographic zones investigated in this study. Finally, we investigate the determinants of stock market integration of emerging countries in our sample using panel regressions. Our results suggest that the degree of stock market integration of these countries should be put into perspective by some macro-economic factors, such as the size of the equity market, school enrollment rate, international liquidity level, stocks traded volume, tax revenue level, imports and exports volumes.

Keywords: correlations, determinants of integration, diversification, emerging markets, financial crisis, integration, markets co-movement, panel regressions, r-square, stock markets

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205 Estimating the Government Consumption and Investment Multipliers Using Local Projection Method on the US Data from 1966 to 2020

Authors: Mustofa Mahmud Al Mamun

Abstract:

Government spending, one of the major components of gross domestic product (GDP), is composed of government consumption, investment, and transfer payments. A change in government spending during recessionary periods can generate an increase in GDP greater than the increase in spending. This is called the "multiplier effect". Accurate estimation of government spending multiplier is important because fiscal policy has been used to stimulate a flagging economy. Many recent studies have focused on identifying parts of the economy that responds more to a stimulus under a variety of circumstances. This paper used the US dataset from 1966 to 2020 and local projection method assuming standard identification strategy to estimate the multipliers. The model includes important macroaggregates and controls for forecasted government spending, interest rate, consumer price index (CPI), export, import, and level of public debt. Investment multipliers are found to be positive and larger than the consumption multipliers. Consumption multipliers are either negative or not significantly different than zero. Results do not vary across the business cycle. However, the consumption multiplier estimated from pre-1980 data is positive.

Keywords: business cycle, consumption multipliers, forecasted government spending, investment multipliers, local projection method, zero lower bound

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204 A Theoretical Framework for Conceptualizing Integration of Environmental Sustainability into Supplier Selection

Authors: Tonny Ograh, Joshua Ayarkwa, Dickson Osei-Asibey, Alex Acheampong, Peter Amoah

Abstract:

Theories are used to improve the conceptualization of research ideas. These theories enhance valuable elucidations that help us to grasp the meaning of research findings. Nevertheless, the use of theories to promote studies in green supplier selection in procurement decisions has attracted little attention. With the emergence of sustainable procurement, public procurement practitioners in Ghana are yet to achieve relevant knowledge on green supplier selections due to insufficient knowledge and inadequate appropriate frameworks. The flagrancy of the consequences of public procurers’ failure to integrate environmental considerations into supplier selection explains the adoption of a multi-theory approach for comprehension of the dynamics of green integration into supplier selection. In this paper, the practicality of three theories for improving the understanding of the influential factors enhancing the integration of environmental sustainability into supplier selection was reviewed. The three theories are Resource-Based Theory, Human Capital Theory and Absorptive Capacity Theory. This review uncovered knowledge management, top management commitment, and environmental management capabilities as important elements needed for the integration of environmental sustainability into supplier selection in public procurement. The theoretical review yielded a framework that conceptualizes knowledge and capabilities of practitioners relevant to the incorporation of environmental sustainability into supplier selection in public procurement.

Keywords: environmental, sustainability, supplier selection, environmental procurement, sustainable procurement

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203 The Level of Adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Developing Countries: Case Study Uganda

Authors: Ssempijja Mark

Abstract:

The adoption of the use of IFRSis very paramount in quality financial reporting for SMEs, both internationally and locally. The adoption of IFRS helps to guide SMEs in better treatment of transactions which in the long run improves the financial performance of an entity. Despite the presence of professional training and regulatory bodies such as ICPAU that prescribe and regulate accounting and financial reporting practices in relation to IFRS in the country, key information regarding the level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda has inadequately been available. This formed the main purpose of the study in order to bridge the information gap. This study assessed the extent of adoption of IFRS by SMEs, the influencers for the adoption level, both impeders, and enablers. The study employed a documentary research model. The collected data was from different sources such as; related research studies, journals, and related articles. The written studies greatly revealed that there was a low level of adoption of IFRS by SMEs in Uganda. It was also revealed that full adoption of IFRS was greatly hampered by hindrances such as; quality of Accountants, low level of knowledge by the individuals in accounting positions for SMEs.Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between adoption and impedersof IFRS for SMEson the adoption level. It was also found that there was a correlation effect between adoption hindrances and the level of adoption. It should be noted and several efforts should be made in the different capacities of the major players so as to curb the impeders affecting the level of adoption of IFRS’s in SMEs. This can include recruitment of professional Accountants, Continuous Professional Trainings to the Accountants, and putting up stringent measures by the policy makers so as to ensure SMEs adhere to reporting in reference to IFRS. The adoption of IFRS by SMEs will help to improve on better accounting purposes which will attract more investors, accessing credit facilities from financial institutions, improved tax planning, and profitability maximization of SME businesses.

Keywords: adoption, IFRS, Influencers, SMEs

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202 Being Funny is a Serious Business for Feminine Brands

Authors: Mohammed Murtuza Soofi

Abstract:

Purpose: Marketers and Researchers alike have simultaneously, yet in mutually exclusive instances, promote the use of humour by brands in their communication and gendering of brands, as both enhance brand equity and can generate positive attitudinal responses from customers. However, the gendering of brands comes with associated gendered stereotypical expectations. The current paper consolidates the long standing literature on gender role/stereotype theory and brand gender theories establishing a theoretical framework for understanding how gender-based stereotypes about humour can influence consumers’ attitudinal responses towards brands. Design/methodology/approach: Using parallel constrain satisfaction theory as domain theory to explain the highhandedness of stereotypes and gender stereotype theories (particularly around feminine use of humour), we explain why gender based stereotypes could constrain brand behaviors, and in turn, feminine brands get penalised for using witty, aggressive and self-enhancing humor. Findings: Extension of gender stereotypes to anthropomorphised brands will lead consumers to judge the use of negative humour by a feminine brand as less appropriate, which will trigger the causal chain of reduced sense of communal appropriateness and brand warmth which will result in a negative attitude towards the brand. Originality/value: Brand gendering being susceptible to gender based stereotypes, has very little attention in the literature and hence use of negative humour (stereotypical male behaviour), has never been studied in the context of gendered brands. It also helps understand to what extent stereotypes will impact attitudinal responses to the brand. Our work can help understand when heavily gendered brands can optimise the use of humour and when they can avoid it.

Keywords: brand femininity, brand gender, gender stereotypes, humour

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201 For Single to Multilayer Polyvinylidene Fluoride Based Polymer for Electro-Caloric Cooling

Authors: Nouh Zeggai, Lucas Debrux, Fabien Parrain, Brahim Dkhil, Martino Lobue, Morgan Almanza

Abstract:

Refrigeration and air conditioning are some of the most used energies in our daily life, especially vapor compression refrigeration. Electrocaloric material might appears as an alternative towards solid-state cooling. polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based polymer has shown promising adiabatic temperature change (∆T) and entropy change (∆S). There is practically no limit to the electric field that can be applied, except the one that the material can withstand. However, when working with a large surface as required in a device, the chance to have a defect is larger and can drastically reduce the voltage breakdown, thus reducing the electrocaloric properties. In this work, we propose to study how the characteristic of a single film are transposed when going to multilayer. The laminator and the hot press appear as two interesting processes that have been investigating to achieve a multilayer film. The study is mainly focused on the breakdown field and the adiabatic temperature change, but the phase and crystallinity have also been measured. We process one layer-based PVDF and assemble them to obtain a multilayer. Pressing at hot temperature method and lamination were used for the production of the thin films. The multilayer film shows higher breakdown strength, temperature change, and crystallinity (beta phases) using the hot press technique.

Keywords: PVDF-TrFE-CFE, multilayer, electrocaloric effect, hot press, cooling device

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200 Islamic Equity Markets Response to Volatility of Bitcoin

Authors: Zakaria S. G. Hegazy, Walid M. A. Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper examines the dependence structure of Islamic stock markets on Bitcoin’s realized volatility components in bear, normal, and bull market periods. A quantile regression approach is employed, after adjusting raw returns with respect to a broad set of relevant global factors and accounting for structural breaks in the data. The results reveal that upside volatility tends to exert negative influences on Islamic developed-market returns more in bear than in bull market conditions, while downside volatility positively affects returns during bear and bull conditions. For emerging markets, we find that the upside (downside) component exerts lagged negative (positive) effects on returns in bear (all) market regimes. By and large, the dependence structures turn out to be asymmetric. Our evidence provides essential implications for investors.

Keywords: cryptocurrency markets, bitcoin, realized volatility measures, asymmetry, quantile regression

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199 Subsidiary Entrepreneurial Orientation, Trust in Headquarters and Performance: The Mediating Role of Autonomy

Authors: Zhang Qingzhong

Abstract:

Though there exists an increasing number of research studies on the headquarters-subsidiary relationship, and within this context, there is a focus on subsidiaries' contributory role to multinational corporations (MNC), subsidiary autonomy, and the conditions under which autonomy exerts an effect on subsidiary performance still constitute a subject of debate in the literature. The objective of this research is to study the MNC subsidiary autonomy and performance relationship and the effect of subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation and trust on subsidiary autonomy in the China environment, a phenomenon that has not yet been studied. The research addresses the following three questions: (i) Is subsidiary autonomy associated with MNC subsidiary performance in the China environment? (ii) How do subsidiary entrepreneurship and its trust in headquarters affect the level of subsidiary autonomy and its relationship with subsidiary performance? (iii) Does subsidiary autonomy have a mediating effect on subsidiary performance with subsidiary’s entrepreneurship and trust in headquarters? In the present study, we have reviewed literature and conducted semi-structured interviews with multinational corporation (MNC) subsidiary senior executives in China. Building on our insights from the interviews and taking perspectives from four theories, namely the resource-based view (RBV), resource dependency theory, integration-responsiveness framework, and social exchange theory, as well as the extant articles on subsidiary autonomy, entrepreneurial orientation, trust, and subsidiary performance, we have developed a model and have explored the direct and mediating effects of subsidiary autonomy on subsidiary performance within the framework of the MNC. To test the model, we collected and analyzed data based on cross-industry two waves of an online survey from 102 subsidiaries of MNCs in China. We used structural equation modeling to test measurement, direct effect model, and conceptual framework with hypotheses. Our findings confirm that (a) subsidiary autonomy is positively related to subsidiary performance; (b) subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to subsidiary autonomy; (c) subsidiary’s trust in headquarters has a positive effect on subsidiary autonomy; (d) subsidiary autonomy mediates the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and subsidiary performance; (e) subsidiary autonomy mediates the relationship between trust and subsidiary performance. Our study highlights the important role of subsidiary autonomy in leveraging the resource of subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation and its trust relationship with headquarters to achieve high performance. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings and propose directions for future research.

Keywords: subsidiary entrepreneurial orientation, trust, subsidiary autonomy, subsidiary performance

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198 Risk Management Practices In The Construction Industry In Malawi

Authors: Taonga Temwani Chibaka

Abstract:

This qualitative research study was conducted to identify the common risk factors that affect the construction industry in Malawi in the building and infrastructure (civil works) projects. The study then evaluates the possible risk responses that are done to mitigate the various risk factors that were identified. I addition the research also established the barriers to risk management implementation with lastly mapping out as where the identified risk factors fall on which stage of the project and then also map out the knowledge areas that need to be worked on the cases on Malawian construction industry in order to mitigate most of the identified risk factors. The study involved the interviewing the professionals from the construction industry in Malawi where insights and ideas were collected, analysed and interpreted. The key study findings show that risks related to clients group are perceived as most critical followed by the contractor related, consultant related and then external group related factors respectively where preventive measures are the most applied risk response technique where the aim to avoid most of the risk factors from happening. Most of the risk factors identified were internal risks and in managerial category which suggested that risk planning was to be emphasized at pre-contract stage to minimize these risks since a bigger percentage of the risk factors were mapped out at implementation stage. Furthermore, barriers to risk management were identified and the key barriers were lack of awareness; lack of knowledge; lack of formal policies in place; regarded as costly and limited time which resulted in proposing that regulating authorities to purposefully introduce intense training on risk management to make known of this new knowledge area. The study then recommends that organisation should formally implement risk management where policies should be introduced to enforce all parties to undertake this. Risk planning was regarded as paramount and this to be done from pre-contract phase so as to mitigate 80% of the risk factors. Finally, training should be done on all project management knowledge areas.

Keywords: risk management, risk factors, risks, malawi

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197 Multi-objective Rationality Optimisation for Robotic-fabrication-oriented Free-form Timber Structure Morphology Design

Authors: Yiping Meng, Yiming Sun

Abstract:

The traditional construction industry is unable to meet the requirements for novel fabrication and construction. Automated construction and digital design have emerged as industry development trends that compensate for this shortcoming under the backdrop of Industrial Revolution 4.0. Benefitting from more flexible working space and more various end-effector tools compared to CNC methods, robot fabrication and construction techniques have been used in irregular architectural design. However, there is a lack of a systematic and comprehensive design and optimisation workflow considering geometric form, material, and fabrication methods. This paper aims to propose a design optimisation workflow for improving the rationality of a free-form timber structure fabricated by the robotic arm. Firstly, the free-form surface is described by NURBS, while its structure is calculated using the finite element analysis method. Then, by considering the characteristics and limiting factors of robotic timber fabrication, strain energy and robustness are set as optimisation objectives to optimise structural morphology by gradient descent method. As a result, an optimised structure with axial force as the main force and uniform stress distribution is generated after the structure morphology optimisation process. With the decreased strain energy and the improved robustness, the generated structure's bearing capacity and mechanical properties have been enhanced. The results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optimisation workflow for free-form timber structure morphology design.

Keywords: robotic fabrication, free-form timber structure, Multi-objective optimisation, Structural morphology, rational design

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196 Ergonomic Adaptations in Visually Impaired Workers - A Literature Review

Authors: Kamila Troper, Pedro Mestre, Maria Lurdes Menano, Joana Mendonça, Maria João Costa, Sandra Demel

Abstract:

Introduction: Visual impairment is a problem that has an influence on hundreds of thousands of people all over the world. Although it is possible for a Visually Impaired person to do most jobs, the right training, technological assistance, and emotional support are essential. Ergonomics be able to solve many of the problems/issues with the relative ease of positioning, lighting and design of the workplace. A little forethought can make a tremendous difference to the ease with which a person with an impairment function. Objectives: Review the main ergonomic adaptation measures reported in the literature in order to promote better working conditions and safety measures for the visually impaired. Methodology: This was an exploratory-descriptive, qualitative literature systematic review study. The main databases used were: PubMed, BIREME, LILACS, with articles and studies published between 2000 and 2021. Results: Based on the principles of the theoretical references of ergonomic analysis of work, the main restructuring of the physical space of the workstations were: Accessibility facilities and assistive technologies; A screen reader that captures information from a computer and sends it in real-time to a speech synthesizer or Braille terminal; Installations of software with voice recognition, Monitors with enlarged screens; Magnification software; Adequate lighting, magnifying lenses in addition to recommendations regarding signage and clearance of the places where the visually impaired pass through. Conclusions: Employability rates for people with visual impairments(both those who are blind and those who have low vision)are low and continue to be a concern to the world and for researchers as a topic of international interest. Although numerous authors have identified barriers to employment and proposed strategies to remediate or circumvent those barriers, people with visual impairments continue to experience high rates of unemployment.

Keywords: ergonomic adaptations, visual impairments, ergonomic analysis of work, systematic review

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195 Study of The Ballistic Impact at Low Speed on Angle-Ply Fibrous Structures

Authors: Daniel Barros, Carlos Mota, Raul Fangueiro, Pedro Rosa, Gonçalo Domingos, Alfredo Passanha, Norberto Almeida

Abstract:

The main aim of the work was to compare the ballistic performance of developed composites using different types of fiber woven fabrics [0,90] and different layers orientation (Angle-ply). The ballistic laminate composites were developed using E-glass, S-glass and aramid fabrics impregnated with thermosetting epoxy resin and using different layers orientation (0,0)º and (0,15)º. The idea of the study is to compare the ballistic performance of each laminate produced by studying the velocity loss of the fragment fired into the laminate surface. There are present some mechanical properties for laminates produced using the different types of fiber, where tensile, flexural and impact Charpy properties were studied. Overall, the angle-ply laminates produced using orientations of (0,15)º, despite the slight loss of mechanical properties compared to the (0,0)º orientation, presents better ballistic resistance and dissipation of energy, for lower ballistic impact velocities (under 290 m/s-1). After treatment of ballistic impact results, the S-Glass with (0,15)º laminate presents better ballistic perforce compared to the other combinations studied.

Keywords: ballistic impact, angle-ply, ballistic composite, s-glass fiber, aramid fiber, fabric fiber, energy dissipation, mechanical performance

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194 Agency Cost, Firm Performance, Corporate Governance: Evidence from Indonesia

Authors: Arnold Sanda Layuk

Abstract:

Fraud in the disclosure of financial statements by management shows that agency conflict is an important issue in the company. The conflict has consequences for the agency costs that must be borne and has an impact on the firm's performance. The effect of agency costs on firm performance is investigated in this study, as well as whether several variables such as corporate governance mechanisms can positively moderate the agency cost and firm performance relationship. The agency cost is measured by the asset utilization ratio and discretionary expenditure ratio. The firm's performance is represented by the return on equity. Data was collected from the manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2015 to 2019, then regressed on the panel data using the panel corrected standard error model (PCSE). According to the findings, agency costs are negatively related to firm performance, which supports previous empirical research findings. It also found that the agency cost and firm performance relationship is significantly moderated by board size and ownership concentration as the representatives of corporate governance mechanisms. It suggests that corporate governance can become tools to reduce agency costs and increase firm performance as well. The empirical evidence adds to previous research on agency conflict, particularly in emerging markets. These findings are expected to supplement previous research and provide additional information to shareholders in order to control opportunistic management decisions that affect their investments and discretionary operational expenses.

Keywords: agency cost, corporate governance, asset utilization ratio, firm performance

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193 The Positive Impact of COVID-19 on the Level of Investments of U.S. Retail Investors: Evidence from a Quantitative Online Survey and Ordered Probit Analysis

Authors: Corina E. Niculaescu, Ivan Sangiorgi, Adrian R. Bell

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic has been life-changing in many aspects of people’s daily and social lives, but has it also changed attitudes towards investments? This paper explores the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on retail investors’ levels of investments in the U.S. during the first COVID-19 wave in summer 2020. This is an unprecedented health crisis, which could lead to changes in investment behavior, including irrational behavior in retail investors. As such, this study aims to inform policymakers of what happened to investment decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic so that they can protect retail investors during extreme events like a global health crisis. The study aims to answer two research questions. First, was the level of investments affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and if so, why? Second, how were investments affected by retail investors’ personal experience with COVID-19? The research analysis is based on primary survey data collected on the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform from a representative sample of U.S. respondents. Responses were collected between the 15th of July and 28th of August 2020 from 1,148 U.S. retail investors who hold mutual fund investments and a savings account. The research explores whether being affected by COVID-19, change in the level of savings, and risk capacity can explain the change in the level of investments by using regression analysis. The dependent variable is changed in investments measured as decrease, no change, and increase. For this reason, the methodology used is ordered probit regression models. The results show that retail investors in the U.S. increased their investments during the first wave of COVID-19, which is unexpected as investors are usually more cautious in crisis times. Moreover, the study finds that those who were affected personally by COVID-19 (e.g., tested positive) were more likely to increase their investments, which is irrational behavior and contradicts expectations. An increase in the level of savings and risk capacity was also associated with increased investments. Overall, the findings show that having personal experience with a health crisis can have an impact on one’s investment decisions as well. Those findings are important for both retail investors and policymakers, especially now that online trading platforms have made trading easily accessible to everyone. There are risks and potential irrational behaviors associated with investment decisions during times of crisis, and it is important that retail investors are aware of them before making financial decisions.

Keywords: COVID-19, financial decision-making, health crisis retail investors, survey

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192 Zero-Leverage Phenomenon: A Global Appraisal

Authors: Niloofar Koochmeshki

Abstract:

The study is about the influence of national culture and firm-level variables on the likelihood of employing a zero-leverage phenomenon. This work aims to investigate the relationship among the cultural dimensions, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term orientation to the use of zero leverage policy in capital structure. Doing so, the study develops and tests a conceptual model of the likelihood of employing extreme debt conservatism behavior by integrating the firm- and country-level variables between developed and developing countries. The proposed model is tested by employing weighted logit regression with a sample size of 101,960 firm-year observations from fifty-eight countries over the period of 2012- 2019. We find strong evidence that there is a positive relationship between masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and the adoption of a zero leverage policy.

Keywords: zero-leverage, capital structure, national culture, debt financing

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191 The Impact of the Covid-19 Crisis on the Information Behavior in the B2B Buying Process

Authors: Stehr Melanie

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The availability of apposite information is essential for the decision-making process of organizational buyers. Due to the constraints of the Covid-19 crisis, information channels that emphasize face-to-face contact (e.g. sales visits, trade shows) have been unavailable, and usage of digitally-driven information channels (e.g. videoconferencing, platforms) has skyrocketed. This paper explores the question in which areas the pandemic induced shift in the use of information channels could be sustainable and in which areas it is a temporary phenomenon. While information and buying behavior in B2C purchases has been regularly studied in the last decade, the last fundamental model of organizational buying behavior in B2B was introduced by Johnston and Lewin (1996) in times before the advent of the internet. Subsequently, research efforts in B2B marketing shifted from organizational buyers and their decision and information behavior to the business relationships between sellers and buyers. This study builds on the extensive literature on situational factors influencing organizational buying and information behavior and uses the economics of information theory as a theoretical framework. The research focuses on the German woodworking industry, which before the Covid-19 crisis was characterized by a rather low level of digitization of information channels. By focusing on an industry with traditional communication structures, a shift in information behavior induced by an exogenous shock is considered a ripe research setting. The study is exploratory in nature. The primary data source is 40 in-depth interviews based on the repertory-grid method. Thus, 120 typical buying situations in the woodworking industry and the information and channels relevant to them are identified. The results are combined into clusters, each of which shows similar information behavior in the procurement process. In the next step, the clusters are analyzed in terms of the post and pre-Covid-19 crisis’ behavior identifying stable and dynamic information behavior aspects. Initial results show that, for example, clusters representing search goods with low risk and complexity suggest a sustainable rise in the use of digitally-driven information channels. However, in clusters containing trust goods with high significance and novelty, an increased return to face-to-face information channels can be expected after the Covid-19 crisis. The results are interesting from both a scientific and a practical point of view. This study is one of the first to apply the economics of information theory to organizational buyers and their decision and information behavior in the digital information age. Especially the focus on the dynamic aspects of information behavior after an exogenous shock might contribute new impulses to theoretical debates related to the economics of information theory. For practitioners - especially suppliers’ marketing managers and intermediaries such as publishers or trade show organizers from the woodworking industry - the study shows wide-ranging starting points for a future-oriented segmentation of their marketing program by highlighting the dynamic and stable preferences of elaborated clusters in the choice of their information channels.

Keywords: B2B buying process, crisis, economics of information theory, information channel

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190 The Impact of Information and Communication Technology on the Re-Engineering Process of Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Hiba Mezaache

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The current study aimed to know the impact of using information and communication technology on the process of re-engineering small and medium enterprises, as the world witnessed the speed development of the latter in its field of work and the diversity of its objectives and programs, that also made its process important for the growth and development of the institution and also gaining the flexibility to face the changes that may occur in the environment of work, so in order to know the impact of information and communication technology on the success of this process, we prepared an electronic questionnaire that included (70) items, and we also used the SPSS statistical calendar to analyze the data obtained. In the end of our study, our conclusion was that there was a positive correlation between the four dimensions of information and communication technology, i.e., hardware and equipment, software, communication networks, databases, and the re-engineering process, in addition to the fact that the studied institutions attach great importance to formal communication, for its positive advantages that it achieves in reducing time and effort and costs in performing the business. We could also say that communication technology contributes to the process of formulating objectives related to the re-engineering strategy. Finally, we recommend the necessity of empowering workers to use information technology and communication more in enterprises, and to integrate them more into the activity of the enterprise by involving them in the decision-making process, and also to keep pace with the development in the field of software, hardware, and technological equipment.

Keywords: information and communication technology, re-engineering, small and medium enterprises, the impact

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189 Implementation of Algorithm K-Means for Grouping District/City in Central Java Based on Macro Economic Indicators

Authors: Nur Aziza Luxfiati

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Clustering is partitioning data sets into sub-sets or groups in such a way that elements certain properties have shared property settings with a high level of similarity within one group and a low level of similarity between groups. . The K-Means algorithm is one of thealgorithmsclustering as a grouping tool that is most widely used in scientific and industrial applications because the basic idea of the kalgorithm is-means very simple. In this research, applying the technique of clustering using the k-means algorithm as a method of solving the problem of national development imbalances between regions in Central Java Province based on macroeconomic indicators. The data sample used is secondary data obtained from the Central Java Provincial Statistics Agency regarding macroeconomic indicator data which is part of the publication of the 2019 National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) data. score and determine the number of clusters (k) using the elbow method. After the clustering process is carried out, the validation is tested using themethodsBetween-Class Variation (BCV) and Within-Class Variation (WCV). The results showed that detection outlier using z-score normalization showed no outliers. In addition, the results of the clustering test obtained a ratio value that was not high, namely 0.011%. There are two district/city clusters in Central Java Province which have economic similarities based on the variables used, namely the first cluster with a high economic level consisting of 13 districts/cities and theclustersecondwith a low economic level consisting of 22 districts/cities. And in the cluster second, namely, between low economies, the authors grouped districts/cities based on similarities to macroeconomic indicators such as 20 districts of Gross Regional Domestic Product, with a Poverty Depth Index of 19 districts, with 5 districts in Human Development, and as many as Open Unemployment Rate. 10 districts.

Keywords: clustering, K-Means algorithm, macroeconomic indicators, inequality, national development

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188 The Impact of Public Finance Management on Economic Growth and Development in South Africa

Authors: Zintle Sikhunyana

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Management of public finance in many countries such as South Africa is affected by political decisions and by policies around fiscal decentralization amongst the government spheres. Economic success is said to be determined by efficient management of public finance and by the policies or strategies that are implemented to support efficient public finance management. Policymakers focus on pay attention to how economic policies have been implemented and how they are directed into ensuring stable development. This will allow policymakers to address economic challenges through the usage of fiscal policy parameters that are linked to the achieved rate of economic growth and development. Efficient public finance management reduces the likelihood of corruption and corruption is said to have negative effects on economic growth and development. Corruption in public finance refers to an act of using funds for personal benefits. To achieve macroeconomic objectives, governments make use of government expenditure and government expenditure is financed through tax revenue. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the potential impact of public finance management on economic growth and development in South Africa. The secondary data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB) and World Bank for 1980- 2020 has been utilized to achieve the research objectives. To test the impact of public finance management on economic growth and development, the study will use Seeming Unrelated Regression Equation (SURE) Modelling that allows researchers to model multiple equations with interdependent variables. The advantages of using SUR are that it efficiently allows estimation of relationships between variables by combining information on different equations and SUR test restrictions that involve parameters in different equations. The findings have shown that there is a positive relationship between efficient public finance management and economic growth/development. The findings also show that efficient public finance management has an indirect positive impact on economic growth and development. Corruption has a negative impact on economic growth and development. It results in an efficient allocation of government resources and thereby improves economic growth and development. The study recommends that governments who aim to stimulate economic growth and development should target and strengthen public finance management policies or strategies.

Keywords: corruption, economic growth, economic development, public finance management, fiscal decentralization

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187 A Risk-Based Approach to Construction Management

Authors: Chloe E. Edwards, Yasaman Shahtaheri

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Risk management plays a fundamental role in project planning and delivery. The purpose of incorporating risk management into project management practices is to identify and address uncertainties related to key project-related activities. The uncertainties, known as risk events, can relate to project deliverables that are quantifiable and are often measured by impact to project schedule, cost, or environmental impact. Risk management should be incorporated as an iterative practice throughout the planning, execution, and commissioning phases of a project. This paper specifically examines how risk management contributes to effective project planning and delivery through a case study of a transportation project. This case study focused solely on impacts to project schedule regarding three milestones: readiness for delivery, readiness for testing and commissioning, and completion of the facility. The case study followed the ISO 31000: Risk Management – Guidelines. The key factors that are outlined by these guidelines include understanding the scope and context of the project, conducting a risk assessment including identification, analysis, and evaluation, and lastly, risk treatment through mitigation measures. This process requires continuous consultation with subject matter experts and monitoring to iteratively update the risks accordingly. The risk identification process led to a total of fourteen risks related to design, permitting, construction, and commissioning. The analysis involved running 1,000 Monte Carlo simulations through @RISK 8.0 Industrial software to determine potential milestone completion dates based on the project baseline schedule. These dates include the best case, most likely case, and worst case to provide an estimated delay for each milestone. Evaluation of these results provided insight into which risks were the highest contributors to the projected milestone completion dates. Based on the analysis results, the risk management team was able to provide recommendations for mitigation measures to reduce the likelihood of risks occurring. The risk management team also provided recommendations for managing the identified risks and project activities moving forward to meet the most likely or best-case milestone completion dates.

Keywords: construction management, monte carlo simulation, project delivery, risk assessment, transportation engineering

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186 Leveraging Digital Transformation Initiatives and Artificial Intelligence to Optimize Readiness and Simulate Mission Performance across the Fleet

Authors: Justin Woulfe

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Siloed logistics and supply chain management systems throughout the Department of Defense (DOD) has led to disparate approaches to modeling and simulation (M&S), a lack of understanding of how one system impacts the whole, and issues with “optimal” solutions that are good for one organization but have dramatic negative impacts on another. Many different systems have evolved to try to understand and account for uncertainty and try to reduce the consequences of the unknown. As the DoD undertakes expansive digital transformation initiatives, there is an opportunity to fuse and leverage traditionally disparate data into a centrally hosted source of truth. With a streamlined process incorporating machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI), advanced M&S will enable informed decisions guiding program success via optimized operational readiness and improved mission success. One of the current challenges is to leverage the terabytes of data generated by monitored systems to provide actionable information for all levels of users. The implementation of a cloud-based application analyzing data transactions, learning and predicting future states from current and past states in real-time, and communicating those anticipated states is an appropriate solution for the purposes of reduced latency and improved confidence in decisions. Decisions made from an ML and AI application combined with advanced optimization algorithms will improve the mission success and performance of systems, which will improve the overall cost and effectiveness of any program. The Systecon team constructs and employs model-based simulations, cutting across traditional silos of data, aggregating maintenance, and supply data, incorporating sensor information, and applying optimization and simulation methods to an as-maintained digital twin with the ability to aggregate results across a system’s lifecycle and across logical and operational groupings of systems. This coupling of data throughout the enterprise enables tactical, operational, and strategic decision support, detachable and deployable logistics services, and configuration-based automated distribution of digital technical and product data to enhance supply and logistics operations. As a complete solution, this approach significantly reduces program risk by allowing flexible configuration of data, data relationships, business process workflows, and early test and evaluation, especially budget trade-off analyses. A true capability to tie resources (dollars) to weapon system readiness in alignment with the real-world scenarios a warfighter may experience has been an objective yet to be realized to date. By developing and solidifying an organic capability to directly relate dollars to readiness and to inform the digital twin, the decision-maker is now empowered through valuable insight and traceability. This type of educated decision-making provides an advantage over the adversaries who struggle with maintaining system readiness at an affordable cost. The M&S capability developed allows program managers to independently evaluate system design and support decisions by quantifying their impact on operational availability and operations and support cost resulting in the ability to simultaneously optimize readiness and cost. This will allow the stakeholders to make data-driven decisions when trading cost and readiness throughout the life of the program. Finally, sponsors are available to validate product deliverables with efficiency and much higher accuracy than in previous years.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, digital transformation, machine learning, predictive analytics

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185 Anomaly Detection in a Data Center with a Reconstruction Method Using a Multi-Autoencoders Model

Authors: Victor Breux, Jérôme Boutet, Alain Goret, Viviane Cattin

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Early detection of anomalies in data centers is important to reduce downtimes and the costs of periodic maintenance. However, there is little research on this topic and even fewer on the fusion of sensor data for the detection of abnormal events. The goal of this paper is to propose a method for anomaly detection in data centers by combining sensor data (temperature, humidity, power) and deep learning models. The model described in the paper uses one autoencoder per sensor to reconstruct the inputs. The auto-encoders contain Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) layers and are trained using the normal samples of the relevant sensors selected by correlation analysis. The difference signal between the input and its reconstruction is then used to classify the samples using feature extraction and a random forest classifier. The data measured by the sensors of a data center between January 2019 and May 2020 are used to train the model, while the data between June 2020 and May 2021 are used to assess it. Performances of the model are assessed a posteriori through F1-score by comparing detected anomalies with the data center’s history. The proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art reconstruction method, which uses only one autoencoder taking multivariate sequences and detects an anomaly with a threshold on the reconstruction error, with an F1-score of 83.60% compared to 24.16%.

Keywords: anomaly detection, autoencoder, data centers, deep learning

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