Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 423

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Industrial Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

423 A Simple Model for Solar Panel Efficiency

Authors: Stefano M. Spagocci


The efficiency of photovoltaic panels can be calculated with such software packages as RETScreen that allow design engineers to take financial as well as technical considerations into account. RETScreen is interfaced with meteorological databases, so that efficiency calculations can be realistically carried out. The author has recently contributed to the development of solar modules with accumulation capability and an embedded water purifier, aimed at off-grid users such as users in developing countries. The software packages examined do not allow to take ancillary equipment into account, hence the decision to implement a technical and financial model of the system. The author realized that, rather than re-implementing the quite sophisticated model of RETScreen - a mathematical description of which is anyway not publicly available - it was possible to drastically simplify it, including the meteorological factors which, in RETScreen, are presented in a numerical form. The day-by-day efficiency of a photovoltaic solar panel was parametrized by the product of factors expressing, respectively, daytime duration, solar right ascension motion, solar declination motion, cloudiness, temperature. For the sun-motion-dependent factors, positional astronomy formulae, simplified by the author, were employed. Meteorology-dependent factors were fitted by simple trigonometric functions, employing numerical data supplied by RETScreen. The accuracy of our model was tested by comparing it to the predictions of RETScreen; the accuracy obtained was 11%. In conclusion, our study resulted in a model that can be easily implemented in a spreadsheet - thus being easily manageable by non-specialist personnel - or in more sophisticated software packages. The model was used in a number of design exercises, concerning photovoltaic solar panels and ancillary equipment like the above-mentioned water purifier.

Keywords: clean energy, energy engineering, mathematical modelling, photovoltaic panels, solar energy

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422 Elucidating Microstructural Evolution Mechanisms in Tungsten via Layerwise Rolling in Additive Manufacturing: An Integrated Simulation and Experimental Approach

Authors: Sadman Durlov, Aditya Ganesh-Ram, Hamidreza Hekmatjou, Md Najmus Salehin, Nora Shayesteh Ameri


In the field of additive manufacturing, tungsten stands out for its exceptional resistance to high temperatures, making it an ideal candidate for use in extreme conditions. However, its inherent brittleness and vulnerability to thermal cracking pose significant challenges to its manufacturability. This study explores the microstructural evolution of tungsten processed through layer-wise rolling in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing, utilizing a comprehensive approach that combines advanced simulation techniques with empirical research. We aim to uncover the complex processes of plastic deformation and microstructural transformations, with a particular focus on the dynamics of grain size, boundary evolution, and phase distribution. Our methodology employs a combination of simulation and experimental data, allowing for a detailed comparison that elucidates the key mechanisms influencing microstructural alterations during the rolling process. This approach facilitates a deeper understanding of the material's behavior under additive manufacturing conditions, specifically in terms of deformation and recrystallization. The insights derived from this research not only deepen our theoretical knowledge but also provide actionable strategies for refining manufacturing parameters to improve the tungsten components' mechanical properties and functional performance. By integrating simulation with practical experimentation, this study significantly enhances the field of materials science, offering a robust framework for the development of durable materials suited for challenging operational environments. Our findings pave the way for optimizing additive manufacturing techniques and expanding the use of tungsten across various demanding sectors.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, layer wise rolling, refractory materials, in-situ microstructure modifications

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421 Software User Experience Enhancement through Collaborative Design

Authors: Shan Wang, Fahad Alhathal, Daniel Hobson


User-centered design skills play an important role in crafting a positive and intuitive user experience for software applications. Embracing a user-centric design approach involves understanding the needs, preferences, and behaviors of the end-users throughout the design process. This mindset not only enhances the usability of the software but also fosters a deeper connection between the digital product and its users. This paper encompasses a 6-month knowledge exchange collaboration project between an academic institution and an external industry in 2023, aims to improve the user experience of a digital platform utilized for a knowledge management tool, to understand users' preferences for features, identify sources of frustration, and pinpoint areas for enhancement. This research conducted one of the most effective methods to implement user-centered design through co-design workshops for testing user onboarding experiences that involve the active participation of users in the design process. More specifically, in January 2023, we organized eight workshops with a diverse group of 11 individuals. Throughout these sessions, we accumulated a total of 11 hours of qualitative data in both video and audio formats. Subsequently, we conducted an analysis of user journeys, identifying common issues and potential areas for improvement. This analysis was pivotal in guiding the knowledge management software in prioritizing feature enhancements and design improvements. Employing a user-centered design thinking process, we developed a series of graphic design solutions in collaboration with the software management tool company. These solutions were targeted at refining onboarding user experiences, workplace interfaces, and interactive design. Some of these design solutions were translated into tangible interfaces for the knowledge management tool. By actively involving users in the design process and valuing their input, developers can create products that are not only functional but also resonate with the end-users, ultimately leading to greater success in the competitive software landscape. In conclusion, this paper not only contributes insights into designing onboarding user experiences for software within a co-design approach but also presents key theories on leveraging the user-centered design process in software design to enhance overall user experiences.

Keywords: user experiences, co-design, design process, knowledge management tool, user-centered design

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420 Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery at Different Packing Angles Under Impact Loading

Authors: Wei Zhao, Yuxuan Yao, Hao Chen


In order to find out the mechanical properties and failure behavior of lithium-ion batteries, drop hammer impact experiments and finite element simulations are carried out on batteries with different packed angles. Firstly, a drop hammer impact experiment system, which is based on the DHR-1808 drop hammer and oscilloscope, is established, and then a drop test of individual batteries and packed angles of 180 ° and 120 ° are carried out. The image of battery deformation, force-time curve and voltage-time curve are recorded. Secondly, finite element models of individual batteries and two packed angles are established, and the results of the test and simulation are compared. Finally, the mechanical characteristics and failure behavior of lithium-ion battery modules with the packed arrangement of 6 * 6 and packing angles of 180 °, 120 °, 90 ° and 60 ° are analyzed under the same velocity with different battery packing angles, and the same impact energy with different impact velocity and different packing angles. The result shows that the individual battery is destroyed completely in the drop hammer impact test with an initial impact velocity of 3m/s and drop height of 459mm, and the voltage drops to close to 0V when the test ends. The voltage drops to 12V when packed angle of 180°, and 3.6V when packed angle of 120°. It is found that the trend of the force-time curve between simulation and experiment is generally consistent. The difference in maximum peak value is 3.9kN for a packing angle of 180° and 1.3kN for a packing angle of 120°. Under the same impact velocity and impact energy, the strain rate of the battery module with a packing angle of 180° is the lowest, and the maximum stress can reach 26.7MPa with no battery short-circuited. The research under our experiment and simulation shows that the lithium-ion battery module with a packing angle of 180 ° is the least likely to be damaged, which can sustain the maximum stress under the same impact load.

Keywords: battery module, finite element simulation, power battery, packing angle

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419 Reduction Biofilm Formation Using TiO₂ Coating Inwater Cooling Towers

Authors: Turky M. Aldossary, F. R. Almushref


As a component of their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system, cooling towers are used in almost all buildings. The process of transferring heat in an HVAC system involves water. To avoid pneumatic illnesses, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has recommended that HVAC systems must be cleaned twice a year. To address the strict environmental requirements at the microscale, a photocatalytic coating, which is hydrophobic and antibacterial, is used. The effectiveness of water-cooling tower coating systems was examined in this study. The samples were made of stainless steel. In this system, the samples are coated with two different coatings, one with titanium dioxide (TiO₂) only and the second one with the addition of copper. The samples were placed in a water splash zone to ensure that there was enough water surrounding them and that there was adequate airflow to prevent them from being constantly immersed. The samples were not tampered with for six months. In conclusion, the addition of copper rendered a better result as the low concentration of other elements, such as slates, was observed.

Keywords: biofilm, coating, cooling tower, HVAC

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418 Design of Cartesian Robot for Electric Vehicle Wireless Charging Systems

Authors: Kaan Karaoglu, Raif Bayir


In this study, a cartesian robot is developed to improve the performance and efficiency of wireless charging of electric vehicles. The cartesian robot has three axes, each of which moves linearly. Magnetic positioning is used to align the cartesian robot transmitter charging pad. There are two different wireless charging methods, static and dynamic, for charging electric vehicles. The current state of charge information (SOC State of Charge) and location information are received wirelessly from the electric vehicle. Based on this information, the power to be transmitted is determined, and the transmitter and receiver charging pads are aligned for maximum efficiency. With this study, a fully automated cartesian robot structure will be used to charge electric vehicles with the highest possible efficiency. With the wireless communication established between the electric vehicle and the charging station, the charging status will be monitored in real-time. The cartesian robot developed in this study is a fully automatic system that can be easily used in static wireless charging systems with vehicle-machine communication.

Keywords: electric vehicle, wireless charging systems, energy efficiency, cartesian robot, location detection, trajectory planning

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417 An Eulerian-PFEM Model for Transient Capillary Forces of a Moving Contact Line

Authors: Elaf N. Mahrous, Fares R. Al Mushref, Turkey Al Dossary


An embedded particle finite element model has been developed to simulate the transient capillary forces acting on a moving contact line of spreading liquid drop on a smooth solid surface. Three common dissipative force models were tested numerically to account for the capillary effect at the solid-liquid interface. Among those models, Jiang’s model was found to be the most stable one. Our proposed numerical model was validated experimentally for a wide variety of surface wettability. A dimensionless relationship between the spreading rate and time was established, and the results showed good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: droplet dynamics, CFD, transient modeling, capillary forces

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416 Design, Optimize the Damping System for Optical Scanning Equipment

Authors: Duy Nhat Tran, Van Tien Pham, Quang Trung Trinh, Tien Hai Tran, Van Cong Bui


In recent years, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things have experienced significant advancements. Collecting image data and real-time analysis and processing of tasks have become increasingly popular in various aspects of life. Optical scanning devices are widely used to observe and analyze different environments, whether fixed outdoors, mounted on mobile devices, or used in unmanned aerial vehicles. As a result, the interaction between the physical environment and these devices has become more critical in terms of safety. Two commonly used methods for addressing these challenges are active and passive approaches. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, but combining both methods can lead to higher efficiency. One solution is to utilize direct-drive motors for position control and real-time feedback within the operational range to determine appropriate control parameters with high precision. If the maximum motor torque is smaller than the inertial torque and the rotor reaches the operational limit, the spring system absorbs the impact force. Numerous experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of device protection during operation.

Keywords: optical device, collision safety, collision absorption, precise mechanics

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415 A Case Study on the Condition Monitoring of a Critical Machine in a Tyre Manufacturing Plant

Authors: Ramachandra C. G., Amarnath. M., Prashanth Pai M., Nagesh S. N.


The machine's performance level drops down over a period of time due to the wear and tear of its components. The early detection of an emergent fault becomes very vital in order to obtain uninterrupted production in a plant. Maintenance is an activity that helps to keep the machine's performance at an anticipated level, thereby ensuring the availability of the machine to perform its intended function. At present, a number of modern maintenance techniques are available, such as preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, condition-based maintenance, total productive maintenance, etc. Condition-based maintenance or condition monitoring is one such modern maintenance technique in which the machine's condition or health is checked by the measurement of certain parameters such as sound level, temperature, velocity, displacement, vibration, etc. It can recognize most of the factors restraining the usefulness and efficacy of the total manufacturing unit. This research work is conducted on a Batch Mill in a tire production unit located in the Southern Karnataka region. The health of the mill is assessed using amplitude of vibration as a parameter of measurement. Most commonly, the vibration level is assessed using various points on the machine bearing. The normal or standard level is fixed using reference materials such as manuals or catalogs supplied by the manufacturers and also by referring vibration standards. The Rio-Vibro meter is placed in different locations on the batch-off mill to record the vibration data. The data collected are analyzed to identify the malfunctioning components in the batch off the mill, and corrective measures are suggested.

Keywords: availability, displacement, vibration, rio-vibro, condition monitoring

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414 Experimental Investigations to Measure Surface Fatigue Wear in Journal Bearing by Using Vibration Signal Analysis

Authors: Amarnath M., Ramachandra C. G., H. Chelladurai, P..Sateesh Kumar, K. Santhosh Kumar


Journal bearings are extensively used sliding contact machine elements to support radial/axial loaded rotors used in various applications viz. automobile crankshaft, turbine propeller shaft, rope conveyer, heavy duty electric motors. The primary reasons for the failures of these bearings include unstable lubricant film, oil degradation, misalignment, etc. This paper describes the results of experimental investigations carried out to detect surface fatigue wear developed on load bearing the contact surfaces of journal bearing. The test bearing was subjected to fatigue load cycles over a period of 600 hours. The vibration signals were acquired from the journal bearing at regular intervals of 100 hrs. These signals were post-processed by using the vibration analysis technique to obtain diagnostic information of wear propagated in the journal-bearing system.

Keywords: fatigue, journal bearing, sound signals, vibration signals, wear

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413 Investigating the Performance of Power Industry in a Developing Nation for Industrialization and Environmental Security

Authors: Abel Edeowede Abhulimen


Due to supply irregularity and frequent outages, the need for reliability in power supply has grown unsatisfactorily over time in developing nations, impeding industrialization and fueling insecurity. This article attempts to break down the Nigerian power issue into its numerous sub-sectors in order to pinpoint the industry's ailment and suggest a viable fix. Monthly average performance data were obtained for the various sub-sectors across the industry for eight consecutive quarters. Whereas the amount of energy generated was found to be insufficient to engender industrialization in a nation like Nigeria, the transmission infrastructure was inadequate for the amount of power needed to be wheeled. Additionally, the distribution sub-sector was plagued with problems such as revenue collection inefficiency, severe enough to impede the growth of the entire industry. The country's goal of attaining energy sufficiency and industrialization would significantly be closer to reality with a conscious effort to increase the base of power generation through aggressive investment in Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT), decentralization of the transmission infrastructure, and strict monitoring of the distribution sub-sector for improved accountability and system reliability.

Keywords: performance, power industry, industrialization, security, energy

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412 Optimizing Fire Tube Boiler Design for Efficient Saturated Steam Production: A Cost-Minimization Approach

Authors: Yoftahe Nigussie Worku


This report unveils a meticulous project focused on the design intricacies of a Fire Tube Boiler tailored for the efficient generation of saturated steam. The overarching objective is to produce 2000kg/h of saturated steam at 12-bar design pressure, achieved through the development of an advanced fire tube boiler. This design is meticulously crafted to harmonize cost-effectiveness and parameter refinement, with a keen emphasis on material selection for component parts, construction materials, and production methods throughout the analytical phases. The analytical process involves iterative calculations, utilizing pertinent formulas to optimize design parameters, including the selection of tube diameters and overall heat transfer coefficients. The boiler configuration incorporates two passes, a strategic choice influenced by tube and shell size considerations. The utilization of heavy oil fuel no. 6, with a higher heating value of 44000kJ/kg and a lower heating value of 41300kJ/kg, results in a fuel consumption of 140.37kg/hr. The boiler achieves an impressive heat output of 1610kW with an efficiency rating of 85.25%. The fluid flow pattern within the boiler adopts a cross-flow arrangement strategically chosen for inherent advantages. Internally, the welding of the tube sheet to the shell, secured by gaskets and welds, ensures structural integrity. The shell design adheres to European Standard code sections for pressure vessels, encompassing considerations for weight, supplementary accessories (lifting lugs, openings, ends, manhole), and detailed assembly drawings. This research represents a significant stride in optimizing fire tube boiler technology, balancing efficiency and safety considerations in the pursuit of enhanced saturated steam production.

Keywords: fire tube, saturated steam, material selection, efficiency

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411 Enhancing Vehicle Efficiency Through Vapor Absorption Refrigeration Systems

Authors: Yoftahe Nigussie Worku


This paper explores the utilization of vapor absorption refrigeration systems (VARS) as an alternative to the conventional vapor compression refrigerant systems (VCRS) in vehicle air conditioning (AC) systems. Currently, most vehicles employ VCRS, which relies on engine power to drive the compressor, leading to additional fuel consumption. In contrast, VARS harnesses low-grade heat, specifically from the exhaust of high-power internal combustion engines, reducing the burden on the vehicle's engine. The historical development of vapor absorption technology is outlined, dating back to Michael Faraday's discovery in 1824 and the subsequent creation of the first vapor absorption refrigeration machine by Ferdinand Carre in 1860. The paper delves into the fundamental principles of VARS, emphasizing the replacement of mechanical processes with physicochemical interactions, utilizing heat rather than mechanical work. The study compares the basic concepts of the current vapor compression systems with the proposed vapor absorption systems, highlighting the efficiency gains achieved by eliminating the need for engine-driven compressors. The vapor absorption refrigeration cycle (VARC) is detailed, focusing on the generator's role in separating and vaporizing ammonia, chosen for its low-temperature evaporation characteristics. The project's statement underscores the need for increased efficiency in vehicle AC systems beyond the limitations of VCRS. By introducing VARS, driven by low-grade heat, the paper advocates for a reduction in engine power consumption and, consequently, a decrease in fuel usage. This research contributes to the ongoing efforts to enhance sustainability and efficiency in automotive climate control systems.

Keywords: VCRS, VARS, efficiency, sustainability

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410 Laminar Separation Bubble Prediction over an Airfoil Using Transition SST Turbulence Model on Moderate Reynolds Number

Authors: Younes El Khchine, Mohammed Sriti


A parametric study has been conducted to analyse the flow around S809 airfoil of a wind turbine in order to better understand the characteristics and effects of laminar separation bubble (LSB) on aerodynamic design for maximizing wind turbine efficiency. Numerical simulations were performed at low Reynolds numbers by solving the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations based on C-type structural mesh and using the γ-Reθt turbulence model. A two-dimensional study was conducted for the chord Reynolds number of 1×10⁵ and angles of attack (AoA) between 0 and 20.15 degrees. The simulation results obtained for the aerodynamic coefficients at various angles of attack (AoA) were compared with XFoil results. A sensitivity study was performed to examine the effects of Reynolds number and free-stream turbulence intensity on the location and length of the laminar separation bubble and the aerodynamic performances of wind turbines. The results show that increasing the Reynolds number leads to a delay in the laminar separation on the upper surface of the airfoil. The increase in Reynolds number leads to an accelerated transition process, and the turbulent reattachment point moves closer to the leading edge owing to an earlier reattachment of the turbulent shear layer. This leads to a considerable reduction in the length of the separation bubble as the Reynolds number is increased. The increase in the level of free-stream turbulence intensity leads to a decrease in separation bubble length and an increase in the lift coefficient while having negligible effects on the stall angle. When the AoA increased, the bubble on the suction airfoil surface was found to move upstream to the leading edge of the airfoil, that causes earlier laminar separation.

Keywords: laminar separation bubble, turbulence intensity, S809 airfoil, transition model, Reynolds number

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409 Failure Mechanisms in Zirconium Alloys during Wear and Corrosion

Authors: Bharat Kumar, Deepak Kumar, Vijay Chaudhry


Zirconium alloys are used as core components of nuclear reactors due to their high wear resistance, good corrosion properties, and good mechanical stability at high temperatures. Water flows inside the pressure tube through fuel claddings, which produces vibration of these core components and results in the wear of some components. Some components are subjected to the environment of coolant water containing LiOH which results in the corrosion of these components. The present work simulates some of these conditions to determine the failure mechanisms under these conditions and the effect of various parameters on them. Friction and wear experiments were performed varying the surrounding environment (room temperature, high temperature, and water submerged), duration, frequency, and displacement amplitude. Electrochemical corrosion experiments were performed by varying the concentration of LiOH in water. The worn and corroded surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze the wear and corrosion mechanism and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Raman spectroscopy to analyze the tribo-oxide layer formed during the wear and oxide layer formed during the corrosion. Wear increases with frequency and amplitude, and corrosion increases with LiOH concentration in water.

Keywords: zirconium alloys, wear, oxide layer, corrosion, EIS, linear polarization

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408 The Physics of Turbulence Generation in a Fluid: Numerical Investigation Using a 1D Damped-MNLS Equation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, R. Uma, R. P. Sharma


This study investigates the generation of turbulence in a deep-fluid environment using a damped 1D-modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation model. The well-known damped modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (d-MNLS) is solved using numerical methods. Artificial damping is added to the MNLS equation, and turbulence generation is investigated through a numerical simulation. The numerical simulation employs a finite difference method for temporal evolution and a pseudo-spectral approach to characterize spatial patterns. The results reveal a recurring periodic pattern in both space and time when the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is considered. Additionally, the study shows that the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation disrupts the localization of structure and the recurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) phenomenon. The energy spectrum exhibits a power-law behavior, closely following Kolmogorov's spectra steeper than k⁻⁵/³ in the inertial sub-range.

Keywords: water waves, modulation instability, hydrodynamics, nonlinear Schrödinger's equation

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407 A Calibration Method of Portable Coordinate Measuring Arm Using Bar Gauge with Cone Holes

Authors: Rim Chang Hyon, Song Hak Jin, Song Kwang Hyok, Jong Ki Hun


The calibration of the articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is key to improving calibration accuracy and saving calibration time. To reduce the time consumed for calibration, we should choose the proper calibration gauges and develop a reasonable calibration method. In addition, we should get the exact optimal solution by accurately removing the rough errors within the experimental data. In this paper, we present a calibration method of the portable coordinate measuring arm (PCMA) using the 1.2m long bar guage with cone-holes. First, we determine the locations of the bar gauge and establish an optimal objective function for identifying the structural parameter errors. Next, we make a mathematical model of the calibration algorithm and present a new mathematical method to remove the rough errors within calibration data. Finally, we find the optimal solution to identify the kinematic parameter errors by using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The experimental results show that our calibration method is very effective in saving the calibration time and improving the calibration accuracy.

Keywords: AACMM, kinematic model, parameter identify, measurement accuracy, calibration

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406 Implementation of a Preventive Maintenance Plan to Improve the Availability of the “DRUM” Line at SAMHA (Brandt) Setif, Algeria

Authors: Fahem Belkacemi, Lyes Ouali


Maintenance strategies and assessments continue to be a major concern for companies today. The socio-economic bets of their competitiveness are closely linked to the activities and quality of maintenance. This work deals with a study of a preventive maintenance plan to improve the availability of the production line within SAMSUNG HOME APPLIANCE “SAMHA”, Setif, Algeria. First, we applied the method of analysis of failure modes, their impact, and criticality to reduce downtime and identification of the most critical elements. Finally, to improve the availability of the production line, we carried out a study of the current preventive maintenance plan in the production line workshop at the company level and according to the history sheet of machine failures. We proposed a preventive maintenance plan to improve the availability of the production line.

Keywords: preventive maintenance, DRUM line, AMDEC, availability

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405 Development of Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System for Mini-Bus Car’s Air Conditioning: A Two-Fluid Model

Authors: Yoftahe Nigussie


This research explores the implementation of a vapor absorption refrigeration system (VARS) in mini-bus cars to enhance air conditioning efficiency. The conventional vapor compression refrigeration system (VCRS) in vehicles relies on mechanical work from the engine, leading to increased fuel consumption. The proposed VARS aims to utilize waste heat and exhaust gas from the internal combustion engine to cool the mini-bus cabin, thereby reducing fuel consumption and atmospheric pollution. The project involves two models: Model 1, a two-fluid vapor absorption system (VAS), and Model 2, a three-fluid VAS. Model 1 uses ammonia (NH₃) and water (H₂O) as refrigerants, where water absorbs ammonia rapidly, producing a cooling effect. The absorption cycle operates on the principle that absorbing ammonia in water decreases vapor pressure. The ammonia-water solution undergoes cycles of desorption, condensation, expansion, and absorption, facilitated by a generator, condenser, expansion valve, and absorber. The objectives of this research include reducing atmospheric pollution, minimizing air conditioning maintenance costs, lowering capital costs, enhancing fuel economy, and eliminating the need for a compressor. The comparison between vapor absorption and compression systems reveals advantages such as smoother operation, fewer moving parts, and the ability to work at lower evaporator pressures without affecting the Coefficient of Performance (COP). The proposed VARS demonstrates potential benefits for mini-bus air conditioning systems, providing a sustainable and energy-efficient alternative. By utilizing waste heat and exhaust gas, this system contributes to environmental preservation while addressing economic considerations for vehicle owners. Further research and development in this area could lead to the widespread adoption of vapor absorption technology in automotive air conditioning systems.

Keywords: room, zone, space, thermal resistance

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404 Optimization of the Flexural Strength of Biocomposites Samples Reinforced with Resin for Engineering Applications

Authors: Stephen Akong Takim


This study focused on the optimization of the flexural strength of bio-composite samples of palm kernel, whelks, clams, periwinkles shells and bamboo fiber reinforced with resin for engineering applications. The aim of the study was to formulate different samples of bio-composite reinforced with resin for engineering applications and to evaluate the flexural strength of the fabricated composite. The hand lay-up technique was used for the composites produced by incorporating different percentage compositions of the shells/fiber (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) into varied proportions of epoxy resin and catalyst. The cured samples, after 24 hours, were subjected to tensile, impact, flexural and water absorption tests. The experiments were conducted using the Taguchi optimization method L25 (5x5) with five design parameters and five level combinations in Minitab 18 statistical software. The results showed that the average value of flexural was 114.87MPa when compared to the unreinforced 72.33MPa bio-composite. The study recommended that agricultural waste, like palm kernel shells, whelk shells, clams, periwinkle shells and bamboo fiber, should be converted into important engineering applications.

Keywords: bio-composite, resin, palm kernel shells, welk shells, periwinkle shells, bamboo fiber, Taguchi techniques and engineering application

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403 Over Cracking in Furnace and Corrective Action by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

Authors: Mokhtari Karchegani Amir, Maboudi Samad, Azadi Reza, Dastanian Raoof


Marun's petrochemical cracking furnaces have a very comprehensive operating control system for combustion and related equipment, utilizing advanced instrument circuits. However, after several years of operation, numerous problems arose in the pyrolysis furnaces. A team of experts conducted an audit, revealing that the furnaces were over-designed, leading to excessive consumption of air and fuel. This issue was related to the burners' shutter settings, which had not been configured properly. The operations department had responded by increasing the induced draft fan speed and forcing the instrument switches to counteract the wind effect in the combustion chamber. Using Fluent and Gambit software, the furnaces were analyzed. The findings indicated that this situation elevated the convection part's temperature, causing uneven heat distribution inside the furnace. Consequently, this led to overheating in the convection section and excessive cracking within the coils in the radiation section. The increased convection temperature damaged convection parts and resulted in equipment blockages downstream of the furnaces due to the production of more coke and tar in the process. To address these issues, corrective actions were implemented. The excess air for burners and combustion chambers was properly set, resulting in improved efficiency, reduced emissions of environmentally harmful gases, prevention of creep in coils, decreased fuel consumption, and lower maintenance costs.

Keywords: furnace, coke, CFD analysis, over cracking

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402 Simulation of Single-Track Laser Melting on IN718 using Material Point Method

Authors: S. Kadiyala, M. Berzins, D. Juba, W. Keyrouz


This paper describes the Material Point Method (MPM) for simulating a single-track laser melting process on an IN718 solid plate. MPM, known for simulating challenging multiphysics problems, is used to model the intricate thermal, mechanical, and fluid interactions during the laser sintering process. This study analyzes the formation of single tracks, exploring the impact of varying laser parameters such as speed, power, and spot diameter on the melt pool and track formation. The focus is on MPM’s ability to accurately simulate and capture the transient thermo-mechanical and phase change phenomena, which are critical in predicting the cooling rates before and after solidification of the laser track and the final melt pool geometry. The simulation results are rigorously compared with experimental data (AMB2022 benchmarks), demonstrating the effectiveness of MPM in replicating the physical processes in laser sintering. This research highlights the potential of MPM in advancing the understanding and simulation of melt pool physics in metal additive manufacturing, paving the way for optimized process parameters and improved material performance.

Keywords: dditive manufacturing simulation, material point method, phase change, melt pool physics

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401 Numerical Study of Laminar Separation Bubble Over an Airfoil Using γ-ReθT SST Turbulence Model on Moderate Reynolds Number

Authors: Younes El Khchine


A parametric study has been conducted to analyse the flow around S809 airfoil of a wind turbine in order to better understand the characteristics and effects of laminar separation bubble (LSB) on aerodynamic design for maximizing wind turbine efficiency. Numerical simulations were performed at low Reynolds numbers by solving the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations based on C-type structural mesh and using the γ-Reθt turbulence model. A two-dimensional study was conducted for the chord Reynolds number of 1×105 and angles of attack (AoA) between 0 and 20.15 degrees. The simulation results obtained for the aerodynamic coefficients at various angles of attack (AoA) were compared with XFoil results. A sensitivity study was performed to examine the effects of Reynolds number and free-stream turbulence intensity on the location and length of the laminar separation bubble and the aerodynamic performances of wind turbines. The results show that increasing the Reynolds number leads to a delay in the laminar separation on the upper surface of the airfoil. The increase in Reynolds number leads to an accelerated transition process, and the turbulent reattachment point moves closer to the leading edge owing to an earlier reattachment of the turbulent shear layer. This leads to a considerable reduction in the length of the separation bubble as the Reynolds number is increased. The increase in the level of free-stream turbulence intensity leads to a decrease in separation bubble length and an increase in the lift coefficient while having negligible effects on the stall angle. When the AoA increased, the bubble on the suction airfoil surface was found to move upstream to the leading edge of the airfoil, causing earlier laminar separation.

Keywords: laminar separation bubble, turbulence intensity, s809 airfoil, transition model, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
400 Conceptual Solution and Thermal Analysis of the Final Cooling Process of Biscuits in One Confectionary Factory in Serbia

Authors: Duško Salemović, Aleksandar Dedić, Matilda Lazić, Dragan Halas


The paper presents the conceptual solution for the final cooling of the chocolate dressing of biscuits in one confectionary factory in Serbia. The proposed concept solution was derived from the desired technological process of final cooling of biscuits and the required process parameters that were to be achieved, and which were an integral part of the project task. The desired process parameters for achieving proper hardening and coating formation are the exchanged amount of heat in the time unit between the two media (air and chocolate dressing), the speed of air inside the tunnel cooler, and the surface of all biscuits in contact with the air. These parameters were calculated in the paper. The final cooling of chocolate dressing on biscuits could be optimized by changing process parameters and dimensions of the tunnel cooler and looking for the appropriate values for them. The accurate temperature predictions and fluid flow analysis could be conducted by using heat balance and flow balance equations, having in mind the theory of similarity. Furthermore, some parameters were adopted from previous technology processes, such as the inlet temperature of biscuits and input air temperature. A thermal calculation was carried out, and it was demonstrated that the percentage error between the contact surface of the air and the chocolate biscuit topping, which is obtained from the heat balance and geometrically through the proposed conceptual solution, does not exceed 0.67%, which is a very good agreement. This enabled the quality of the cooling process of chocolate dressing applied on the biscuit and the hardness of its coating.

Keywords: chocolate dressing, air, cooling, heat balance

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399 Study of Mechanical Behavior of Unidirectional Composite Laminates According

Authors: Deliou Adel, Saadalah Younes, Belkaid Khmissi, Dehbi Meriem


Composite materials, in the most common sense of the term, are a set of synthetic materials designed and used mainly for structural applications; the mechanical function is dominant. The mechanical behaviors of the composite, as well as the degradation mechanisms leading to its rupture, depend on the nature of the constituents and on the architecture of the fiber preform. The profile is required because it guides the engineer in designing structures with precise properties in relation to the needs. This work is about studying the mechanical behavior of unidirectional composite laminates according to different failure criteria. Varying strength parameter values make it possible to compare the ultimate mechanical characteristics obtained by the criteria of Tsai-Hill, Fisher and maximum stress. The laminate is subjected to uniaxial tensile membrane forces. Estimates of their ultimate strengths and the plotting of the failure envelope constitute the principal axis of this study. Using the theory of maximum stress, we can determine the various modes of damage of the composite. The different components of the deformation are presented for different orientations of fibers.

Keywords: unidirectional kevlar/epoxy composite, failure criterion, membrane stress, deformations, failure envelope

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398 Incentivize Contracting Partners of Public Projects

Authors: Sai On Cheung, Qiuwen Ma, Fong Chung Lee


Due to increased project complexity and technological advancement in the last decade, the designers and contractors are expected to put more efforts to achieve project goals. To render extra efforts from the agents, incentivization has become one of the primary strategies for the client. Despite increased academia interest in the design of incentive strategies, there is still a need for discussion about the underlying motivations and favourable conditions to make incentives effective. Therefore, this study focuses on the effects of motivations and favourable conditions for the use of incentives in public projects. Questionnaire survey is used as the data collection tool. The questionnaire survey was piloted through interviews with professionals from Hong Kong public sector. A total of 100 responses were collected for this survey. Accountability and organizational effectiveness were found to be the prime objectives of incentives installed by public clients. Furthermore, a list of favourable conditions for incentivization and its consequent effects on cost, schedule, risk and public opinions were identified. To conclude, this study analyses the means and ends of the use of incentives in public projects in Hong Kong.

Keywords: incentives, public accountability, project effectiveness, public opinions

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397 A Bibliometric Analysis of Trends in Change Management Sciences

Authors: Thomas Lauer


The paper aims to give an overview of change management research by using bibliometric methodology. Based on research papers of the last decade, which are listed on Research Gate, a multidimensional categorization is done. Considering categories like topic (e.g., success factors), industry, or research methodology, the development of the discipline is traced and, in a second step, confronted with external developments of the business environment, such as climate change, gen Z or COVID, to name a few. Based on these findings, a final evaluation concerning the thematical fit of previous research topics is also made, as well as a preview of likely future trends in change management sciences.

Keywords: change management, bibliometrics, scientific trends, research topics

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396 Asset Pricing Puzzle and GDP-Growth: Pre and Post Covid-19 Pandemic Effect on Pakistan Stock Exchange

Authors: Mohammad Azam


This work is an endeavor to empirically investigate the Gross Domestic Product-Growth as mediating variable between various factors and portfolio returns using a broad sample of 522 financial and non-financial firms enlisted on Pakistan Stock Exchange between January-1993 and June-2022. The study employs the Structural Equation modeling and Ordinary Least Square regression to determine the findings before and during the Covid-19 epidemiological situation, which has not received due attention by researchers. The analysis reveals that market and investment factors are redundant, whereas size and value show significant results, whereas Gross Domestic Product-Growth performs significant mediating impact for the whole time frame. Using before Covid-19 period, the results reveal that market, value, and investment are redundant, but size, profitability, and Gross Domestic Product-Growth are significant. During the Covid-19, the statistics indicate that market and investment are redundant, though size and Gross Domestic Product-Growth are highly significant, but value and profitability are moderately significant. The Ordinary Least Square regression shows that market and investment are statistically insignificant, whereas size is highly significant but value and profitability are marginally significant. Using the Gross Domestic Product-Growth augmented model, a slight growth in R-square is observed. The size, value and profitability factors are recommended to the investors for Pakistan Stock Exchange. Conclusively, in the Pakistani market, the Gross Domestic Product-Growth indicates a feeble moderating effect between risk-premia and portfolio returns.

Keywords: asset pricing puzzle, mediating role of GDP-growth, structural equation modeling, COVID-19 pandemic, Pakistan stock exchange

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395 Measuring the Extent of Equalization in Fiscal Transfers in India: An Index-Based Approach

Authors: Ragini Trehan, D.K. Srivastava


In the post-planning era, India’s fiscal transfers from the central to state governments are solely determined by the Finance Commissions (FCs). While in some of the well-established federations such as Australia, Canada, and Germany, equalization serves as the guiding principle of fiscal transfers and is constitutionally mandated, in India, it is not explicitly mandated, and FCs attempt to implement it indirectly by a combination of a formula-based share in the divisible pool of central taxes supplemented by a set of grants. In this context, it is important to measure the extent of equalization that is achieved through FC transfers with a view to improving the design of such transfers. This study uses an index-based methodology for measuring the degree of equalization achieved through FC-transfers covering the period from FC12 to the first year of FC15 spanning from 2005-06 to 2020-21. The ‘Index of Equalization’ shows that the extent of equalization has remained low in the range of 30% to 37% for the four Commission periods under review. The highest degree of equalization at 36.7% was witnessed in the FC12 period and the lowest equalization at 29.5% was achieved during the FC15(1) period. The equalizing efficiency of recommended transfers also shows a consistent fall from 11.4% in the FC12 period to 7.5% by the FC15 (1) period. Further, considering progressivity in fiscal transfers as a special case of equalizing transfers, this study shows that the scheme of per capita total transfers when determined using the equalization approach is more progressive and is characterized by minimal deviations as compared to the profile of transfers recommended by recent FCs.

Keywords: fiscal transfers, index of equalization, equalizing efficiency, fiscal capacity, expenditure needs, finance Commission, tax effort

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394 Computational Team Dynamics and Interaction Patterns in New Product Development Teams

Authors: Shankaran Sitarama


New Product Development (NPD) is invariably a team effort and involves effective teamwork. NPD team has members from different disciplines coming together and working through the different phases all the way from conceptual design phase till the production and product roll out. Creativity and Innovation are some of the key factors of successful NPD. Team members going through the different phases of NPD interact and work closely yet challenge each other during the design phases to brainstorm on ideas and later converge to work together. These two traits require the teams to have a divergent and a convergent thinking simultaneously. There needs to be a good balance. The team dynamics invariably result in conflicts among team members. While some amount of conflict (ideational conflict) is desirable in NPD teams to be creative as a group, relational conflicts (or discords among members) could be detrimental to teamwork. Team communication truly reflect these tensions and team dynamics. In this research, team communication (emails) between the members of the NPD teams is considered for analysis. The email communication is processed through a semantic analysis algorithm (LSA) to analyze the content of communication and a semantic similarity analysis to arrive at a social network graph that depicts the communication amongst team members based on the content of communication. The amount of communication (content and not frequency of communication) defines the interaction strength between the members. Social network adjacency matrix is thus obtained for the team. Standard social network analysis techniques based on the Adjacency Matrix (AM) and Dichotomized Adjacency Matrix (DAM) based on network density yield network graphs and network metrics like centrality. The social network graphs are then rendered for visual representation using a Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MMDS) algorithm for node placements and arcs connecting the nodes (representing team members) are drawn. The distance of the nodes in the placement represents the tie-strength between the members. Stronger tie-strengths render nodes closer. Overall visual representation of the social network graph provides a clear picture of the team’s interactions. This research reveals four distinct patterns of team interaction that are clearly identifiable in the visual representation of the social network graph and have a clearly defined computational scheme. The four computational patterns of team interaction defined are Central Member Pattern (CMP), Subgroup and Aloof member Pattern (SAP), Isolate Member Pattern (IMP), and Pendant Member Pattern (PMP). Each of these patterns has a team dynamics implication in terms of the conflict level in the team. For instance, Isolate member pattern, clearly points to a near break-down in communication with the member and hence a possible high conflict level, whereas the subgroup or aloof member pattern points to a non-uniform information flow in the team and some moderate level of conflict. These pattern classifications of teams are then compared and correlated to the real level of conflict in the teams as indicated by the team members through an elaborate self-evaluation, team reflection, feedback form and results show a good correlation.

Keywords: team dynamics, team communication, team interactions, social network analysis, sna, new product development, latent semantic analysis, LSA, NPD teams

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