Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 307

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mechanical and Industrial Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

307 Online Signals in Corporate Reputation Management: A Framing Theoretical Perspective

Authors: Lindie Grebe


Stakeholders have the power to hold organisations accountable for their actions through individual and collective corporate reputations. This stems from organisations’ needs for social acceptance; to achieve legitimacy from stakeholders. A good corporate reputation increases the likelihood that stakeholders will enter a contract with a given organisation. Not being reputable as seen by stakeholders can in turn have immediate and long-lasting consequences, as a weak corporate reputation may affect the future actions of stakeholders towards an organisation. It is regarded that organisations have a degree of control over their corporate reputation and can use methods and techniques to manage stakeholder relationships to achieve legitimacy. As such, organisations need to manage their reputations in ways that can attract the support required from their stakeholders. This paper recognises stakeholders as at the centre of corporate reputation. It locates corporate reputation within the relationship between stakeholders and organisations and highlights shared interactions between them. Such a view relates to the information signals sent between organisations and their material stakeholders. Signalling theory enables scholars to describe the behaviour when two parties, for example organisations and stakeholders, have access to information signals. Typically, one party is the sender of information and must decide whether and how to signal the information. The other party is the receiver of information and must decide how to interpret the signal. From these signals, stakeholders form opinions and perceptions about the corporate reputation of organisations. Moreover, organisations have reputations for specific characteristics with different stakeholder groups based on their past actions measured against societal standards and norms. Stakeholders can incorrectly interpret the information signals from organisations. Quality-based information asymmetry involves the signaller in the communication system not being aware of the receiver’s characteristics and not accurately framing their signals to stakeholders. This is especially true in the digital age of artificial intelligence. For example, many scholars emphasise the double-edged nature of the internet with its widespread availability of information that is not necessarily aimed at a specific stakeholder group. Such information could be negatively perceived by certain stakeholder groups, to the detriment of the reputations of these organisations. One message does not fit all. This paper applies the principles of framing theory to present propositions and implications for organisations to manage their corporate reputation signals in such a way that the correct information reaches the intended stakeholder group. These suggestions could aid practitioners and researchers to improve their corporate reputations in a digital world with a diverse use of technology such as artificial intelligence.

Keywords: corporate reputation, framing theory, stakeholders, information signals, reputation management, legitimacy

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306 The Preparation and Training of Expert Studio Reviewers

Authors: Diane M. Bender


In design education, professional education is delivered in a studio, where students learn and understand their discipline. This learning methodology culminates in a final review, where students present their work before instructors and invited reviewers, known as jurors. These jurors are recognized experts who add a wide diversity of opinions in their feedback to students. This feedback can be provided in multiple formats, mainly a verbal critique of the work. To better understand how these expert reviewers prepare for a studio review, a survey was distributed to reviewers at a multi-disciplinary design school within the United States. Five design disciplines are involved in this case study: architecture, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, and landscape architecture. Respondents (n=122) provided information about if and how they received training on how to critique and participate in a final review. Common forms of training included mentorship, modeled behavior from other designers/past professors, workshops on critique from the instructing faculty prior to the crit session, and by being a practicing design professional. Respondents also gave feedback about how much the instructor provided course materials prior to the review in order to better prepare for student interaction. Finally, respondents indicated if they had interaction, and in what format, with students prior to the final review. Typical responses included participation in studio desk crits, a midterm jury member, meetings with students, and email or social media correspondence. While the focus of this study is the studio review, the findings are equally applicable to other disciplines. Suggestions will be provided on how to improve the preparation of guests in the learning process and how their interaction can positively influence student engagement.

Keywords: critique, design, education, evaluation, juror

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305 Essay on Theoretical Modeling of the Wealth Effect of Sukuk

Authors: Jamel Boukhatem, Mouldi Djelassi


Contrary to the existing literature generally focusing on the role played by Sukuk in enhancing investors' and shareholders' wealth, this paper sheds some light on the Sukuk wealth effect across all economic agents: households, government, and investors by implementing a two-period life-cycle model with overlapping generations to show whether Sukuk is net wealth. The main findings are threefold: i) the effect of a change in Sukuk issuances on the consumers’ utility level will be different from one generation to another, ii) an increase in taxes due to the increase in Sukuk and rents is covered by transfers made by the members of generation 1 in the form of inheritance, and iii) the existence of a positive relationship between the asset prices representative of Sukuk and the real activity.

Keywords: Sukuk, households, investors, overlapping generations model, wealth, modeling

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304 Increasing the Dialogue in Workplaces Enhances the Age-Friendly Organisational Culture and Helps Employees Face Work-Related Dilemmas

Authors: Heli Makkonen, Eini Hyppönen


The ageing of employees, the availability of workforce, and employees’ engagement in work are today’s challenges in the field of health care and social services, and particularly in the care of older people. Therefore, it is important to enhance both the attractiveness of the work in the field of older people’s care and the retention of employees in the field, and also to pay attention to the length of careers. The length of careers can be affected, for example, by developing an age-friendly organisational culture. Changing the organisational culture in a workplace is, however, a slow process which requires engagement from employees and enhanced dialogue between employees. This article presents an example of age-friendly organisational culture in an older people’s care unit and presents the results of the development of this organisational culture to meet the identified development challenges. In this research-based development process, cycles used in action research were applied. Three workshops were arranged for employees in a service home for older people. The workshops worked as interventions, and the employees and their manager were given several consecutive assignments to be completed between them. In addition to workshops, the employees benchmarked two other service homes. In the workshops, data was collected by observing and documenting the conversations. After that, thematic analysis was used to identify the factors connected to an age-friendly organisational culture. By analysing the data and comparing it to previous studies, some dilemmas we recognised that were hindering or enhancing the attractiveness of work and the retention of employees in this nursing home. After each intervention, the process was reflected and evaluated, and the next steps were planned. The areas of development identified in the study were related to, for example, the flexibility of work, holistic ergonomics, the physical environment at the workplace, and the workplace culture. Some of the areas of development were taken over by the work community and carried out in cooperation with e.g. occupational health care. We encouraged the work community, and the employees provided us with information about their progress. In this research project, the focus was on the development of the workplace culture and, in particular, on the development of the culture of interaction. The workshops showed employees’ attitudes and strong opinions, which can be a challenge from the point of view of the attractiveness of work and the retention of employees in the field. On the other hand, the data revealed that the work community has an interest in developing the dialogue in the work community. Enhancing the dialogue gave the employees the opportunity and resources to face even challenging dilemmas related to the attractiveness of work and the retention of employees in the field. The psychological safety was also enhanced at the same time. The results of this study are part of a broader study that aims at building a model for extending older employees’ careers.

Keywords: age-friendliness, attractiveness of work, dialogue, older people, organisational culture, workplace culture

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303 Unveiling the Black Swan of the Inflation-Adjusted Real Excess Returns-Risk Nexus: Evidence From Pakistan Stock Exchange

Authors: Mohammad Azam


The purpose of this study is to investigate risk and real excess portfolio returns using inflation adjusted risk-free rates, a measuring technique that focuses on the momentum augmented Fama-French six-factor model and use monthly data from 1994 to 2022. With the exception of profitability, the data show that market, size, value, momentum, and investment factors are all strongly associated to excess portfolio stock returns using ordinary lease square regression technique. According to the Gibbons, Ross, and Shanken test, the momentum augmented Fama-French six-factor model outperforms the market. This technique discovery may be utilised by academics and professionals to acquire an in-depth knowledge of the Pakistan Stock Exchange across a broad stock pattern for investing decisions and portfolio construction.

Keywords: real excess portfolio returns, momentum augmented fama & french five-factor model, GRS-test, pakistan stock exchange

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302 The Development of a Digitally Connected Factory Architecture to Enable Product Lifecycle Management for the Assembly of Aerostructures

Authors: Nicky Wilson, Graeme Ralph


Legacy aerostructure assembly is defined by large components, low build rates, and manual assembly methods. With an increasing demand for commercial aircraft and emerging markets such as the eVTOL (electric vertical take-off and landing) market, current methods of manufacturing are not capable of efficiently hitting these higher-rate demands. This project will look at how legacy manufacturing processes can be rate enabled by taking a holistic view of data usage, focusing on how data can be collected to enable fully integrated digital factories and supply chains. The study will focus on how data is flowed both up and down the supply chain to create a digital thread specific to each part and assembly while enabling machine learning through real-time, closed-loop feedback systems. The study will also develop a bespoke architecture to enable connectivity both within the factory and the wider PLM (product lifecycle management) system, moving away from traditional point-to-point systems used to connect IO devices to a hub and spoke architecture that will exploit report-by-exception principles. This paper outlines the key issues facing legacy aircraft manufacturers, focusing on what future manufacturing will look like from adopting Industry 4 principles. The research also defines the data architecture of a PLM system to enable the transfer and control of a digital thread within the supply chain and proposes a standardised communications protocol to enable a scalable solution to connect IO devices within a production environment. This research comes at a critical time for aerospace manufacturers, who are seeing a shift towards the integration of digital technologies within legacy production environments, while also seeing build rates continue to grow. It is vital that manufacturing processes become more efficient in order to meet these demands while also securing future work for many manufacturers.

Keywords: Industry 4, digital transformation, IoT, PLM, automated assembly, connected factories

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301 Analyzing Brand Related Information Disclosure and Brand Value: Further Empirical Evidence

Authors: Yves Alain Ach, Sandra Rmadi Said


An extensive review of literature in relation to brands has shown that little research has focused on the nature and determinants of the information disclosed by companies with respect to the brands they own and use. The objective of this paper is to address this issue. More specifically, the aim is to characterize the nature of the information disclosed by companies in terms of estimating the value of brands and to identify the determinants of that information according to the company’s characteristics most frequently tested by previous studies on the disclosure of information on intangible capital, by studying the practices of a sample of 37 French companies. Our findings suggest that companies prefer to communicate accounting, economic and strategic information in relation to their brands instead of providing financial information. The analysis of the determinants of the information disclosed on brands leads to the conclusion that the groups which operate internationally and have chosen a category 1 auditing firm to communicate more information to investors in their annual report. Our study points out that the sector is not an explanatory variable for voluntary brand disclosure, unlike previous studies on intangible capital. Our study is distinguished by the study of an element that has been little studied in the financial literature, namely the determinants of brand-related information. With regard to the effect of size on brand-related information disclosure, our research does not confirm this link. Many authors point out that large companies tend to publish more voluntary information in order to respond to stakeholder pressure. Our study also establishes that the relationship between brand information supply and performance is insignificant. This relationship is already controversial by previous research, and it shows that higher profitability motivates managers to provide more information, as this strengthens investor confidence and may increase managers' compensation. Our main contribution focuses on the nature of the inherent characteristics of the companies that disclose the most information about brands. Our results show the absence of a link between size and industry on the one hand and the supply of brand information on the other, contrary to previous research. Our analysis highlights three types of information disclosed about brands: accounting, economics and strategy. We, therefore, question the reasons that may lead companies to voluntarily communicate mainly accounting, economic and strategic information in relation to our study from one year to the next and not to communicate detailed information that would allow them to reconstitute the financial value of their brands. Our results can be useful for companies and investors. Our results highlight, to our surprise, the lack of financial information that would allow investors to understand a better valuation of brands. We believe that additional information is needed to improve the quality of accounting and financial information related to brands. The additional information provided in the special report that we recommend could be called a "report on intangible assets”.

Keywords: brand related information, brand value, information disclosure, determinants

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300 Modelling High-Frequency Crude Oil Dynamics Using Affine and Non-Affine Jump-Diffusion Models

Authors: Katja Ignatieva, Patrick Wong


We investigated the dynamics of high frequency energy prices, including crude oil and electricity prices. The returns of underlying quantities are modelled using various parametric models such as stochastic framework with jumps and stochastic volatility (SVCJ) as well as non-parametric alternatives, which are purely data driven and do not require specification of the drift or the diffusion coefficient function. Using different statistical criteria, we investigate the performance of considered parametric and nonparametric models in their ability to forecast price series and volatilities. Our models incorporate possible seasonalities in the underlying dynamics and utilise advanced estimation techniques for the dynamics of energy prices.

Keywords: stochastic volatility, affine jump-diffusion models, high frequency data, model specification, markov chain monte carlo

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299 Stochastic Pi Calculus in Financial Markets: An Alternate Approach to High Frequency Trading

Authors: Jerome Joshi


The paper presents the modelling of financial markets using the Stochastic Pi Calculus model. The Stochastic Pi Calculus model is mainly used for biological applications; however, the feature of this model promotes its use in financial markets, more prominently in high frequency trading. The trading system can be broadly classified into exchange, market makers or intermediary traders and fundamental traders. The exchange is where the action of the trade is executed, and the two types of traders act as market participants in the exchange. High frequency trading, with its complex networks and numerous market participants (intermediary and fundamental traders) poses a difficulty while modelling. It involves the participants to seek the advantage of complex trading algorithms and high execution speeds to carry out large volumes of trades. To earn profits from each trade, the trader must be at the top of the order book quite frequently by executing or processing multiple trades simultaneously. This would require highly automated systems as well as the right sentiment to outperform other traders. However, always being at the top of the book is also not best for the trader, since it was the reason for the outbreak of the ‘Hot – Potato Effect,’ which in turn demands for a better and more efficient model. The characteristics of the model should be such that it should be flexible and have diverse applications. Therefore, a model which has its application in a similar field characterized by such difficulty should be chosen. It should also be flexible in its simulation so that it can be further extended and adapted for future research as well as be equipped with certain tools so that it can be perfectly used in the field of finance. In this case, the Stochastic Pi Calculus model seems to be an ideal fit for financial applications, owing to its expertise in the field of biology. It is an extension of the original Pi Calculus model and acts as a solution and an alternative to the previously flawed algorithm, provided the application of this model is further extended. This model would focus on solving the problem which led to the ‘Flash Crash’ which is the ‘Hot –Potato Effect.’ The model consists of small sub-systems, which can be integrated to form a large system. It is designed in way such that the behavior of ‘noise traders’ is considered as a random process or noise in the system. While modelling, to get a better understanding of the problem, a broader picture is taken into consideration with the trader, the system, and the market participants. The paper goes on to explain trading in exchanges, types of traders, high frequency trading, ‘Flash Crash,’ ‘Hot-Potato Effect,’ evaluation of orders and time delay in further detail. For the future, there is a need to focus on the calibration of the module so that they would interact perfectly with other modules. This model, with its application extended, would provide a basis for researchers for further research in the field of finance and computing.

Keywords: concurrent computing, high frequency trading, financial markets, stochastic pi calculus

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298 Investigating the Relationship Between the Auditor’s Personality Type and the Quality of Financial Reporting in Companies Listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Seyedmohsen Mortazavi


The purpose of this research is to investigate the personality types of internal auditors on the quality of financial reporting in companies admitted to the Tehran Stock Exchange. Personality type is one of the issues that emphasizes the field of auditors' behavior, and this field has attracted the attention of shareholders and stock companies today, because the auditors' personality can affect the type of financial reporting and its quality. The research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive and correlational in terms of method, and a researcher-made questionnaire was used to check the research hypotheses. The statistical population of the research is all the auditors, accountants and financial managers of the companies admitted to the Tehran Stock Exchange, and due to their large number and the uncertainty of their exact number, 384 people have been considered as a statistical sample using Morgan's table. The researcher-made questionnaire was approved by experts in the field, and then its validity and reliability were obtained using software. For the validity of the questionnaire, confirmatory factor analysis was first examined, and then using divergent and convergent validity; Fornell-Larker and cross-sectional load test of the validity of the questionnaire were confirmed; Then, the reliability of the questionnaire was examined using Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability, and the results of these two tests showed the appropriate reliability of the questionnaire. After checking the validity and reliability of the research hypotheses, PLS software was used to check the hypotheses. The results of the research showed that the personalities of internal auditors can affect the quality of financial reporting; The personalities investigated in this research include neuroticism, extroversion, flexibility, agreeableness and conscientiousness, all of these personality types can affect the quality of financial reporting.

Keywords: flexibility, quality of financial reporting, agreeableness, conscientiousness

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297 Investigating the Impact of Enterprise Resource Planning System and Supply Chain Operations on Competitive Advantage and Corporate Performance (Case Study: Mamot Company)

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mozaffari, Mehdi Ajalli, Delaram Jafargholi


The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the system of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) and SCM (Supply Chain Management) on the competitive advantage and performance of Mamot Company. The methods for collecting information in this study are library studies and field research. A questionnaire was used to collect the data needed to determine the relationship between the variables of the research. This questionnaire contains 38 questions. The direction of the current research is applied. The statistical population of this study consists of managers and experts who are familiar with the SCM system and ERP. Number of statistical society is 210. The sampling method is simple in this research. The sample size is 136 people. Also, among the distributed questionnaires, Reliability of the Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Questionnaire is evaluated and its value is more than 70%. Therefore, it confirms reliability. And formal validity has been used to determine the validity of the questionnaire, and the validity of the questionnaire is confirmed by the fact that the score of the impact is greater than 1.5. In the present study, one variable analysis was used for central indicators, dispersion and deviation from symmetry, and a general picture of the society was obtained. Also, two variables were analyzed to test the hypotheses; measure the correlation coefficient between variables using structural equations, SPSS software was used. Finally, multivariate analysis was used with statistical techniques related to the SPLS structural equations to determine the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables of the research to determine the structural relationships between the variables. The results of the test of research hypotheses indicate that: 1. Supply chain management practices have a positive impact on the competitive advantage of the Mammoth industrial complex. 2. Supply chain management practices have a positive impact on the performance of the Mammoth industrial complex. 3. Planning system Organizational resources have a positive impact on the performance of the Mammoth industrial complex. 4. The system of enterprise resource planning has a positive impact on Mamot's competitive advantage. 5.The competitive advantage has a positive impact on the performance of the Mammoth industrial complex 6.The system of enterprise resource planning Mamot Industrial Complex Supply Chain Management has a positive impact. The above results indicate that the system of enterprise resource planning and supply chain management has an impact on the competitive advantage and corporate performance of Mamot Company.

Keywords: enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, competitive advantage, Mamot company performance

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296 Human Resource Management Functions; Employee Performance; Professional Health Workers In Public District Hospitals

Authors: Benjamin Mugisha Bugingo


Healthcare staffhas been considered as asignificant pillar to the health care system. However, the contest of human resources for health in terms of the turnover of health workers in Uganda has been more distinct in the latest years. The objective of the paper, therefore, were to investigate the influence Role Human resource management functions in on employeeperformance of professional health workers in public district hospitals in Kampala. The study objectives were: to establish the effect of performance management function, financialincentives, non-financial incentives, participation, and involvement in the decision-making on the employee performance of professional health workers in public district hospitals in Kampala. The study was devised in the social exchange theory and the equity theory. This study adopted a descriptive research design using quantitative approaches. The study used a cross-sectional research design with a mixed-methods approach. With a population of 402 individuals, the study considered a sample of 252 respondents, including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and dentists from 3 district hospitals. The study instruments entailed a questionnaire as a quantitative data collection tool and interviews and focus group discussions as qualitative data gathering tools. To analyze quantitative data, descriptive statistics were used to assess the perceived status of Human resource management functions and the magnitude of intentions to stay, and inferential statistics were used to show the effect of predictors on the outcome variable by plotting a multiple linear regression. Qualitative data were analyzed in themes and reported in narrative and verbatim quotes and were used to complement descriptive findings for a better understanding of the magnitude of the study variables. The findings of this study showed a significant and positive effect of performance management function, financialincentives, non-financial incentives, and participation and involvement in decision-making on employee performance of professional health workers in public district hospitals in Kampala. This study is expected to be a major contributor for the improvement of the health system in the country and other similar settings as it has provided the insights for strategic orientation in the area of human resources for health, especially for enhanced employee performance in relation with the integrated human resource management approach

Keywords: human resource functions, employee performance, employee wellness, profecial workers

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295 Additive Manufacturing’s Impact on Product Design and Development: An Industrial Case Study

Authors: Ahmed Abdelsalam, Daniel Roozbahani, Marjan Alizadeh, Heikki Handroos


The aim of this study was to redesign a pressing air nozzle with lower weight and improved efficiency utilizing Selective Laser Melting (SLM) technology based on Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) methods. The original pressing air nozzle was modified in SolidWorks 3D CAD, and two design concepts were introduced considering the DfAM approach. In the proposed designs, the air channels were amended. 3D models for the original pressing air nozzle and introduced designs were created to obtain the flow characteristic data using Ansys software. Results of CFD modeling for the original and two proposed designs were extracted, compared, and analyzed to demonstrate the impact of design on the development of a more efficient pressing air nozzle by AM process. Improved airflow was achieved by optimizing the pressing air nozzle's internal channel for both design concepts by providing 30% and 50.6% fewer pressure drops than the original design. Moreover, utilizing the presented designs, a significant reduction in product weight was attained. In addition, by applying the proposed designs, 48.3% and 70.3% reduction in product weight was attained compared to the original design. Therefore, pressing air nozzle with enhanced productivity and lowered weight was generated utilizing the DfAM-driven designs developed in this study. The main contribution of this study is to investigate the additional possibilities that can be achieved in designing modern parts using the advantage of SLM technology in producing that part. The approach presented in this study can be applied to almost any similar industrial application.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, design for additive manufacturing, design methods, product design, pressing air nozzle

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294 Protocol for Consumer Research in Academia for Community Marketing Campaigns

Authors: Agnes J. Otjen, Sarah Keller


A Montana university has used applied consumer research in experiential learning with non-profit clients for over a decade. Through trial and error, a successful protocol has been established from problem statement through formative research to integrated marketing campaign execution. In this paper, we describe the protocol and its applications. Analysis was completed to determine the effectiveness of the campaigns and the results of how pre- and post-consumer research mark societal change because of media.

Keywords: consumer, research, marketing, communications

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293 Investigation of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Parameters on Residual Stress of Heat Affected Zone in Inconel X750 Super Alloy Welding Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Kimia Khoshdel Vajari, Saber Saffar


Reducing the residual stresses caused by welding is desirable for the industry. The effect of welding sequence, as well as the effect of yield stress on the number of residual stresses generated in Inconel X750 superalloy sheets and beams, have been investigated. The finite element model used in this research is a three-dimensional thermal and mechanical model, and the type of analysis is indirect coupling. This analysis is done in two stages. First, thermal analysis is performed, and then the thermal changes of the first analysis are used as the applied load in the second analysis. ABAQUS has been used for modeling, and the Dflux subroutine has been used in the Fortran programming environment to move the arc and the molten pool. The results of this study show that the amount of tensile residual stress in symmetric, discontinuous, and symmetric-discontinuous welds is reduced to a maximum of 27%, 54%, and 37% compared to direct welding, respectively. The results also show that the amount of residual stresses created by welding increases linearly with increasing yield stress with a slope of 40%.

Keywords: residual stress, X750 superalloy, finite element, welding, thermal analysis

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292 Developing an Out-of-Distribution Generalization Model Selection Framework through Impurity and Randomness Measurements and a Bias Index

Authors: Todd Zhou, Mikhail Yurochkin


Out-of-distribution (OOD) detection is receiving increasing amounts of attention in the machine learning research community, boosted by recent technologies, such as autonomous driving and image processing. This newly-burgeoning field has called for the need for more effective and efficient methods for out-of-distribution generalization methods. Without accessing the label information, deploying machine learning models to out-of-distribution domains becomes extremely challenging since it is impossible to evaluate model performance on unseen domains. To tackle this out-of-distribution detection difficulty, we designed a model selection pipeline algorithm and developed a model selection framework with different impurity and randomness measurements to evaluate and choose the best-performing models for out-of-distribution data. By exploring different randomness scores based on predicted probabilities, we adopted the out-of-distribution entropy and developed a custom-designed score, ”CombinedScore,” as the evaluation criterion. This proposed score was created by adding labeled source information into the judging space of the uncertainty entropy score using harmonic mean. Furthermore, the prediction bias was explored through the equality of opportunity violation measurement. We also improved machine learning model performance through model calibration. The effectiveness of the framework with the proposed evaluation criteria was validated on the Folktables American Community Survey (ACS) datasets.

Keywords: model selection, domain generalization, model fairness, randomness measurements, bias index

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291 Overview of Development of a Digital Platform for Building Critical Infrastructure Protection Systems in Smart Industries

Authors: Bruno Vilić Belina, Ivan Župan


Smart industry concepts and digital transformation are very popular in many industries. They develop their own digital platforms, which have an important role in innovations and transactions. The main idea of smart industry digital platforms is central data collection, industrial data integration, and data usage for smart applications and services. This paper presents the development of a digital platform for building critical infrastructure protection systems in smart industries. Different service contraction modalities in service level agreements (SLAs), customer relationship management (CRM) relations, trends, and changes in business architectures (especially process business architecture) for the purpose of developing infrastructural production and distribution networks, information infrastructure meta-models and generic processes by critical infrastructure owner demanded by critical infrastructure law, satisfying cybersecurity requirements and taking into account hybrid threats are researched.

Keywords: cybersecurity, critical infrastructure, smart industries, digital platform

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290 An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Corporate Derivatives Use on the Underlying Stock Price Exposure: South African Evidence

Authors: Edson Vengesai


Derivative products have become essential instruments in portfolio diversification, price discovery, and, most importantly, risk hedging. Derivatives are complex instruments; their valuation, volatility implications, and real impact on the underlying assets' behaviour are not well understood. Little is documented empirically, with conflicting conclusions on how these instruments affect firm risk exposures. Given the growing interest in using derivatives in risk management and portfolio engineering, this study examines the practical impact of derivative usage on the underlying stock price exposure and systematic risk. The paper uses data from South African listed firms. The study employs GARCH models to understand the effect of derivative uses on conditional stock volatility. The GMM models are used to estimate the effect of derivatives use on stocks' systematic risk as measured by Beta and on the total risk of stocks as measured by the standard deviation of returns. The results provide evidence on whether derivatives use is instrumental in reducing stock returns' systematic and total risk. The results are subjected to numerous controls for robustness, including financial leverage, firm size, growth opportunities, and macroeconomic effects.

Keywords: derivatives use, hedging, volatility, stock price exposure

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289 The Study of Thai Millennial Attitude toward End-of-Life Planning, Opportunity of Service Design Development

Authors: Mawong R., Bussracumpakorn C.


Millions of young people around the world have been affected by COVID-19 to their psychological and social effects. Millennials’ stresses have been shaped by a few global issues, including climate change, political instability, and financial crisis. In particular, the spread of COVID-19 has become laying psychological and socioeconomic scars on them. When end-of-life planning turns into more widely discussed, the stigma and taboos around this issue are greatly lessened. End-of-life planning is defined as a future life plan, such as financial, legacy, funeral, and memorial planning. This plan would help millennials to discover the value and meaning of life. This study explores the attitudes of Thai Millennials toward end-of-life planning as a new normal awareness of life in order to initiate an innovative service concept to fit with their value and meaning. The study conducts an in-depth interview with 12 potential participants who have awareness or action on the plan. The framework of the customer journey map is used to analyze the responses to examine trigger points, barriers, beliefs, and expectations. The findings pointed to a service concept that is suggested for a new end-of-life planning service that is suited to Thai Millennials in 4 different groups, which are 1. Social -Conscious as a socially aware who to donate time and riches to make the world and society a better place, their end-of-life planning value is inspired by the social impact of giving something or some action that they will be able to do after life or during life which provides a variety of choice based on their preference to give to society, 2. Life Fulfillment who make a life goal for themselves and attempt to achieve it before the time comes to their value will be to inspire life value with a customized plan and provide guidance to suggest, 3. Prevention of the After-Death Effect who want to plan to avoid the effects of their death as patriarch, head of the family, and anchor of someone, so they want to have a plan that brings confidence and feel relief while they are still alive and they want to find some reliable service that they can leave the death will or asset, and 4. No Guilty Planning who plan for when they wish to be worry-free as a self-responsible they want to have the plan which is easy to understand and easy to access. The overall finding of the study is to understand the new service concept of end-of-life planning which to improve knowledge of significant life worth rather than death planning, encouraging people to reassess their lives in a positive way, leading to higher self-esteem and intrinsic motivation for this generation in this time of global crisis.

Keywords: design management, end-of-life planning, millennial generation, service design solution

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288 Examining Customer Acceptance of Chatbots in B2B Customer Service: A Factorial Survey

Authors: Kathrin Endres, Daniela Greven


Although chatbots are a widely known and established communication instrument in B2C customer services, B2B industries still hesitate to implement chatbots due to the incertitude of customer acceptance. While many studies examine the chatbot acceptance of B2C consumers, few studies are focusing on the B2B sector, where the customer is represented by a buying center consisting of several stakeholders. This study investigates the challenges of chatbot acceptance in B2B industries compared to challenges of chatbot acceptance from current B2C literature by interviewing experts from German chatbot vendors. The results show many similarities between the customer requirements of B2B customers and B2C consumers. Still, due to several stakeholders involved in the buying center, the features of the chatbot users are more diverse but obfuscated at the same time. Using a factorial survey, this study further examines the customer acceptance of varying situations of B2B chatbot designs based on the chatbot variables transparency, fault tolerance, complexity of products, value of products, as well as transfer to live chat service employees. The findings show that all variables influence the propensity to use the chatbot. The results contribute to a better understanding of how firms in B2B industries can design chatbots to advance their customer service and enhance customer satisfaction.

Keywords: chatbots, technology acceptance, B2B customer service, customer satisfaction

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287 Implementation-Specific Obstacles and Measures for Chatbots in B2B Business

Authors: Daniela Greven, Kathrin Endres, Shugana Sundralingam


The use of chatbots has hardly been established in B2B companies to date and involves various challenges. The goal of this paper is to identify the biggest obstacles to the successful implementation of chatbots in B2B companies and to develop measures to overcome them. The obstacles are identified by conducting expert interviews within the framework of Eisenhardt's case study research. These are examined through a socio-technical analysis focusing on people, technology, and organization. By means of systematic literature research and in-depth interviews with German chatbot providers and customers of chatbots, measures for overcoming the obstacles are identified. Using interviews with experts from German chatbot providers, the responsible stakeholders of each measure according to the RASCI Responsibility Matrix are identified. The study shows that there are major obstacles in all areas of a socio-technical system that can cause the implementation of a chatbot to fail. A total of 44 implementation obstacles and 58 measures to overcome these obstacles are identified. The study shows that there are major obstacles in the areas of people, technology, and organization of a socio-technical system that can cause the implementation of a chatbot to fail. A holistic view is therefore essential. The results provide firms with a guideline on how to overcome potential obstacles during chatbot implementation in B2B customer service.

Keywords: chatbots, socio-technical analysis, B2B customer service, implementation success factors

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286 Ratings of Women and Men in the Identical Repetitive Works Task with the Hand Activity Threshold Limit Value, HA TLV®

Authors: Gunilla Dahlgren, Lisbeth Slunga Järvholm, Per Liv, Mikael Forsman, Fredrik Öhberg, Börje Rehn


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders, MSDs, from the hand, wrist, and forearm, are common in the working population. Women report a higher prevalence of MSDs in these regions. Accuracy of risk assessment tools in hand repetitive work is important. This can support precision in the risk management process and for sustainable working life. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare if women and men who performed the identical hand intensive work task were rated equally using the Hand Activity Threshold Limit Value® when self-rated and observer-rated. Method: Fifty-six workers from eight companies participated with various intensities in hand repetitive work tasks. They formed 28 unique pairs of a woman and a man and performed in total 18 unique identical hand repetitive work tasks. Hand Activity Level and force was assessed with the HA TLV®. Each worker executed the work task for 15 minutes, which was video recorded. Data was collected on workers who self-rated directly after execution of the work task. Also, experienced observers performed ratings from videos of the same work tasks. For comparing means in the same work task between women and men, paired samples t-tests were used. Results: The main results showed that there was no difference in self-ratings of hand activity level and force by women and men who executed the same work task. Further, there was no difference between observer ratings of hand activity level. However, the observer force ratings of women and men differed significantly (p=0.01). Conclusion: HA TLV® can be used equally for women and men in the same work task when self-rated. However, it is an observandum that observer force ratings for men can be underestimated compared to women. This may affect the accuracy of observer-rated HA TLV®.

Keywords: gender, equity, sex differences, repetitive strain injury, cumulative trauma disorders, upper extremity, exposure assessment, workload, health risk assessment, observation, psychophysics

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285 Innovation and Performance of Very Small Agri-Food Enterprises in Cameroon

Authors: Ahmed Moustapha Mfokeu


Agri-food VSEs in Cameroon are facing a succession of crises, lack of security, particularly in the Far North, South West, and North West regions, the consequences of the Covid 19 crisis, and the war in Ukraine . These multiple crises have benefited the reception of the prices of the raw materials. Moreover, the exacerbation of competitive pressures is driven by the technological acceleration of productive systems in emerging countries which increase the demands imposed on the markets. The Cameroonian VSE must therefore be able to meet the new challenges of international competition, especially through innovation. The objective of this research is to contribute to the knowledge of the effects of innovation on the performance of very small agribusinesses in Cameroon. On the methodological level, the data were provided from a sample of 153 companies in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé. This research uses structural equation models with latent variables. The main results show that there is a positive and significant link between innovation and the performance of very small agri-food companies, so if it is important for entrepreneurs to encourage and practice innovation, it is also necessary to make them understand and make them like this aspect in their strategic function.

Keywords: innovation, performance, very small enterprise, agrifood

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284 An Effective Change in the Strategic Structure of Quality Management Systems: The Organization’s Needs Management

Authors: Joel Carlos Vieira Reinhardt, Mariana de Freitas Dewes, Odair Lelis Gonçalez


This paper proposes a method to implement a strategic framework for the quality management system that considers the analysis of prospective scenarios in the determination of policy, mission, vision, objectives, processes, monitoring, and goals. Semantic categorization of qualitative testimonial research on employee perception shows it was possible to implement an effective change in the organizations at the Department of Aerospace Science and Technology through the focus on the organization's needs management, producing a rupture with the historical managerial practice.

Keywords: management of company needs, mission, prospective scenarios, quality management, quality policy, vision

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283 Adaption of the Design Thinking Method for Production Planning in the Meat Industry Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Alica Höpken, Hergen Pargmann


The resource-efficient planning of the complex production planning processes in the meat industry and the reduction of food waste is a permanent challenge. The complexity of the production planning process occurs in every part of the supply chain, from agriculture to the end consumer. It arises from long and uncertain planning phases. Uncertainties such as stochastic yields, fluctuations in demand, and resource variability are part of this process. In the meat industry, waste mainly relates to incorrect storage, technical causes in production, or overproduction. The high amount of food waste along the complex supply chain in the meat industry could not be reduced by simple solutions until now. Therefore, resource-efficient production planning by conventional methods is currently only partially feasible. The realization of intelligent, automated production planning is basically possible through the application of machine learning algorithms, such as those of reinforcement learning. By applying the adapted design thinking method, machine learning methods (especially reinforcement learning algorithms) are used for the complex production planning process in the meat industry. This method represents a concretization to the application area. A resource-efficient production planning process is made available by adapting the design thinking method. In addition, the complex processes can be planned efficiently by using this method, since this standardized approach offers new possibilities in order to challenge the complexity and the high time consumption. It represents a tool to support the efficient production planning in the meat industry. This paper shows an elegant adaption of the design thinking method to apply the reinforcement learning method for a resource-efficient production planning process in the meat industry. Following, the steps that are necessary to introduce machine learning algorithms into the production planning of the food industry are determined. This is achieved based on a case study which is part of the research project ”REIF - Resource Efficient, Economic and Intelligent Food Chain” supported by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action of Germany and the German Aerospace Center. Through this structured approach, significantly better planning results are achieved, which would be too complex or very time consuming using conventional methods.

Keywords: change management, design thinking method, machine learning, meat industry, reinforcement learning, resource-efficient production planning

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282 Two Efficient Heuristic Algorithms for the Integrated Production Planning and Warehouse Layout Problem

Authors: Mohammad Pourmohammadi Fallah, Maziar Salahi


In the literature, a mixed-integer linear programming model for the integrated production planning and warehouse layout problem is proposed. To solve the model, the authors proposed a Lagrangian relax-and-fix heuristic that takes a significant amount of time to stop with gaps above 5$\%$ for large-scale instances. Here, we present two heuristic algorithms to solve the problem. In the first one, we use a greedy approach by allocating warehouse locations with less reservation costs and also less transportation costs from the production area to locations and from locations to the output point to items with higher demands. Then a smaller model is solved. In the second heuristic, first, we sort items in descending order according to the fraction of the sum of the demands for that item in the time horizon plus the maximum demand for that item in the time horizon and the sum of all its demands in the time horizon. Then we categorize the sorted items into groups of 3, 4, or 5 and solve a small-scale optimization problem for each group, hoping to improve the solution of the first heuristic. Our preliminary numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed heuristics.

Keywords: capacitated lot-sizing, warehouse layout, mixed-integer linear programming, heuristics algorithm

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281 Level of Application of Integrated Talent Management According To IBM Institute for Business Value Case Study Palestinian Governmental Agencies in Gaza Strip

Authors: Iyad A. A. Abusahloub


This research aimed to measure the level of perception and application of Integrated Talent Management according to IBM standards, by the upper and middle categories in Palestinian government institutions in Gaza, using a descriptive-analytical method. Using a questionnaire based on the standards of the IBM Institute for Business Value, the researcher added a second section to measure the perception of integrated talent management, the sample was 248 managers. The SPSS package was used for statistical analysis. The results showed that government institutions in Gaza apply Integrated Talent Management according to IBM standards at a medium degree did not exceed 59.8%, there is weakness in the perception of integrated talent management at the level of 53.6%, and there is a strong correlation between (Integrated Talent Management) and (the perception of the integrated talent management) amounted to 92.9%, and 88.9% of the change in the perception of the integrated talent management is by (motivate and develop, deploy and manage, connect and enable, and transform and sustain) talents, and 11.1% is by other factors. Conclusion: This study concluded that the integrated talent management model presented by IBM with its six dimensions is an effective model to reach your awareness and understanding of talent management, especially that it must rely on at least four basic dimensions out of the six dimensions: 1- Stimulating and developing talent. 2- Organizing and managing talent. 3- Connecting with talent and empowering it. 4- Succession and sustainability of talent. Therefore, this study recommends the adoption of the integrated talent management model provided by IBM to any organization across the world, regardless of its specialization or size, to reach talent sustainability.

Keywords: HR, talent, talent management, IBM

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280 High Performance Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) Using ThermoCore

Authors: Venkat Kamavaram, Ravi Pare


Modern warfighters experience extreme environmental conditions in many of their operational and training activities. In temperatures exceeding 95°F, the body’s temperature regulation can no longer cool through convection and radiation. In this case, the only cooling mechanism is evaporation. However, evaporative cooling is often compromised by excessive humidity. Natural cooling mechanisms can be further compromised by clothing and protective gear, which trap hot air and moisture close to the body. Creating an efficient heat extraction apparel system that is also lightweight without hindering dexterity or mobility of personnel working in extreme temperatures is a difficult technical challenge and one that needs to be addressed to increase the probability for the future success of the US military. To address this challenge, Oceanit Laboratories, Inc. has developed and patented a Liquid Cooled Garment (LCG) more effective than any on the market today. Oceanit’s LCG is a form-fitting garment with a network of thermally conductive tubes that extracts body heat and can be worn under all authorized and chemical/biological protective clothing. Oceanit specifically designed and developed ThermoCore®, a thermally conductive polymer, for use in this apparel, optimizing the product for thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, manufacturability, and performance temperatures. Thermal Manikin tests were conducted in accordance with the ASTM test method, ASTM F2371, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Heat Removal Rate of Personal Cooling Systems Using a Sweating Heated Manikin, in an environmental chamber using a 20-zone sweating thermal manikin. Manikin test results have shown that Oceanit’s LCG provides significantly higher heat extraction under the same environmental conditions than the currently fielded Environmental Control Vest (ECV) while at the same time reducing the weight. Oceanit’s LCG vests performed nearly 30% better in extracting body heat while weighing 15% less than the ECV. There are NO cooling garments in the market that provide the same thermal extraction performance, form-factor, and reduced weight as Oceanit’s LCG. The two cooling garments that are commercially available and most commonly used are the Environmental Control Vest (ECV) and the Microclimate Cooling Garment (MCG).

Keywords: thermally conductive composite, tubing, garment design, form fitting vest, thermocore

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279 Digital Sustainable Human Resource Management Model Innovation Based on Dynamic Capabilities

Authors: Mohammad Kargar Shouraki, Naji Yazdi, Mohsen Emami


The environmental and social challenges have caused the organizations to put further attention and emphasis on sustainable growth and developing strategies for sustainability. Since human is both the target of development and the agent of development at the same time, one of the most important factors in the development of the sustainability strategy in organizations is the human factor. In addition, organizations have been facing the new challenge of digital transformation which impacts the human factor, meanwhile, undeniably, the human factor contributes to such transformation. Therefore, organizations are facing the challenge of digital human resource management (HRM). Thus, the present study aims to investigate how an HRM model should be so that it not only can help the consideration and of the business sustainability requirements but also can make the highest and the most appropriate positive, not destructive, utilization of the digital transformations. Furthermore, the success of the HRM regarding the two sustainability and digital transformation challenges requires dynamic human competencies, which are addressed as digital/sustainable human dynamic capabilities in this paper. The present study is conducted using a hybrid methodology consisting of the qualitative methods of meta-synthesis and content analysis and the quantitative method of interpretive-structural model (ISM). Finally, a rotatory model, including 3 approaches, 3 perspectives, and 9 dimensions, is presented.

Keywords: sustainable human resource management, digital human resource management, digital/sustainable human dynamic capabilities, talent management

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278 Future Sustainable Mobility for Colorado

Authors: Paolo Grazioli


In this paper, we present the main results achieved during an eight-week international design project on Colorado Future Sustainable Mobilitycarried out at Metropolitan State University of Denver. The project was born with the intention to seize the opportunity created by the Colorado government’s plan to promote e-bikes mobility by creating a large network of dedicated tracks. The project was supported by local entrepreneurs who offered financial and professional support. The main goal of the project was to engage design students with the skills to design a user-centered, original vehicle that would satisfy the unarticulated practical and emotional needs of “Gen Z” users by creating a fun, useful, and reliablelife companion that would helps users carry out their everyday tasks in a practical and enjoyable way. The project was carried out with the intention of proving the importance of the combination of creative methods with practical design methodologies towards the creation of an innovative yet immediately manufacturable product for a more sustainable future. The final results demonstrate the students' capability to create innovative and yet manufacturable products and, especially, their ability to create a new design paradigm for future sustainable mobility products. The design solutions explored n the project include collaborative learning and human-interaction design for future mobility. The findings of the research led students to the fabrication of two working prototypes that will be tested in Colorado and developed for manufacturing in the year 2024. The project showed that collaborative design and project-based teaching improve the quality of the outcome and can lead to the creation of real life, innovative products directly from the classroom to the market.

Keywords: sustainable transportation design, interface design, collaborative design, user -centered design research, design prototyping

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