Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1147

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Mathematical and Computational Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1147 Application of Logistics Regression Model to Ascertain the Determinants of Food Security among Households in Maiduguri, Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Yahaya Musa, Harun Rann Bakari


The study examined the determinants of food security among households in Maiduguri, Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to: examine the determinants of food security among households; identify the coping strategies employed by food-insecure households in Maiduguri, Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. The population of the study is 843,964 respondents out of which 400 respondents were sampled. The study used a self-developed questionnaire to collect data from four hundred (400) respondents. Four hundred (400) copies of questionnaires were administered and all were retrieved, making 100% return rate. The study employed descriptive and inferential statistics for data analysis. Descriptive statistics (frequency counts and percentages) was used to analyze the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and objective four, while inferential statistics (logit regression analysis) was used to analyze one. Four hundred (400) copies of questionnaires were administered and all the four hundred (400) were retrieved, making a 100% return rate. The results were presented in tables and discussed according to the research objectives. The study revealed that HHA, HHE, HHSZ, HHSX, HHAS, HHI, HHFS, HHFE, HHAC and HHCDR were the determinants of food security in Maiduguri Metropolis. Relying on less preferred foods, purchasing food on credit, limiting food intake to ensure children get enough, borrowing money to buy foodstuffs, relying on help from relatives or friends outside the household, adult family members skipping or reducing a meal because of insufficient finances and ration money to household members to buy street food were the coping strategies employed by food-insecure households in Maiduguri metropolis. The study recommended that Nigeria Government should intensify the fight against the Boko haram insurgency. This will put an end to Boko Haram Insurgency and enable farmers to return to farming in Borno state.

Keywords: internally displaced persons, food security, coping strategies, descriptive statistics, logistics regression model, odd ratio

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1146 Category-Base Theory of the Optimum Signal Approximation Clarifying the Importance of Parallel Worlds in the Recognition of Human and Application to Secure Signal Communication with Feedback

Authors: Takuro Kida, Yuichi Kida


We show a base of the new trend of algorithm mathematically that treats a historical reason of continuous discrimination in the world as well as its solution by introducing new concepts of parallel world that includes an invisible set of errors as its companion. With respect to a matrix operator-filter bank that the matrix operator-analysis-filter bank H and the matrix operator-sampling-filter bank S are given, firstly, we introduce the detailed algorithm to derive the optimum matrix operator-synthesis-filter bank Z that minimizes all the worst-case measures of the matrix operator-error-signals E(ω) = F(ω) − Y(ω) between the matrix operator-input-signals F(ω) and the matrix operator-output signals Y(ω) of the matrix operator-filter bank at the same time. Further, feedback is introduced to the above approximation theory and it is indicated that introducing conversations with feedback does not superior automatically to the accumulation of existing knowledge of signal prediction. Secondly, the concept of category in the field of mathematics is applied to the above optimum signal approximation and is indicated that the category-based approximation theory is applied to the set-theoretic consideration of the recognition of humans. Based on this discussion, it is shown naturally why the narrow perception that tends to create isolation shows an apparent advantage in the short term and, often, why such narrow thinking becomes intimate with discriminatory action in a human group. Throughout these considerations, it is presented that, in order to abolish easy and intimate discriminatory behavior, it is important to create a parallel world of conception where we share the set of invisible error signals, including the words and the consciousness of both worlds.

Keywords: signal prediction, pseudo inverse matrix, artificial intelligence, conditional optimization

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1145 Stability of Solutions of Semidiscrete Stochastic Systems

Authors: Ramazan Kadiev, Arkadi Ponossov


Semidiscrete systems contain both continuous and discrete components. This means that the dynamics is mostly continuous, but at certain instants, it is exposed to abrupt influences. Such systems naturally appear in applications, for example, in biological and ecological models as well as in the control theory. Therefore, the study of semidiscrete systems has recently attracted the attention of many specialists. Stochastic effects are an important part of any realistic approach to modeling. For example, stochasticity arises in the population dynamics, demographic and ecological due to a change in time of factors external to the system affecting the survival of the population. In control theory, random coefficients can simulate inaccuracies in measurements. It will be shown in the presentation how to incorporate such effects into semidiscrete systems. Stability analysis is an essential part of modeling real-world problems. In the presentation, it will be explained how sufficient conditions for the moment stability of solutions in terms of the coefficients for linear semidiscrete stochastic equations can be derived using non-Lyapunov technique.

Keywords: abrupt changes, exponential stability, regularization, stochastic noises

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1144 Experimental Evaluation of Succinct Ternary Tree

Authors: Dmitriy Kuptsov


Tree data structures, such as binary or in general k-ary trees, are essential in computer science. The applications of these data structures can range from data search and retrieval to sorting and ranking algorithms. Naive implementations of these data structures can consume prohibitively large volumes of random access memory limiting their applicability in certain solutions. Thus, in these cases, more advanced representation of these data structures is essential. In this paper we present the design of the compact version of ternary tree data structure and demonstrate the results for the experimental evaluation using static dictionary problem. We compare these results with the results for binary and regular ternary trees. The conducted evaluation study shows that our design, in the best case, consumes up to 12 times less memory (for the dictionary used in our experimental evaluation) than a regular ternary tree and in certain configuration shows performance comparable to regular ternary trees. We have evaluated the performance of the algorithms using both 32 and 64 bit operating systems.

Keywords: algorithms, data structures, succinct ternary tree, per- formance evaluation

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1143 A Comprehensive Procedure of Spatial Panel Modelling with R, A Study of Agricultural Productivity Growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities

Authors: Rahma Fitriani, Zerlita Fahdha Pusdiktasari, Herman Cahyo Diartho


Spatial panel model is commonly used to specify more complicated behavior of economic agent distributed in space at an individual-spatial unit level. There are several spatial panel models which can be adapted based on certain assumptions. A package called splm in R has several functions, ranging from the estimation procedure, specification tests, and model selection tests. In the absence of prior assumptions, a comprehensive procedure which utilizes the available functions in splm must be formed, which is the objective of this study. In this way, the best specification and model can be fitted based on data. The implementation of the procedure works well. It specifies SARAR-FE as the best model for agricultural productivity growth of the 38 East Java’s Regencies/Municipalities.

Keywords: spatial panel, specification, splm, agricultural productivity growth

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1142 A Quantum Leap: Developing Quantum Semi-Structured Complex Numbers to Solve the “Division by Zero” Problem

Authors: Peter Jean-Paul, Shanaz Wahid


The problem of division by zero can be stated as: “what is the value of 0 x 1/0?” This expression has been considered undefined by mathematicians because it can have two equally valid solutions either 0 or 1. Recently semi-structured complex number set was invented to solve “division by zero”. However, whilst the number set had some merits it was considered to have a poor theoretical foundation and did not provide a quality solution to “division by zero”. Moreover, the set lacked consistency in simple algebraic calculations producing contradictory results when dividing by zero. To overcome these issues this research starts by treating the expression " 0 x 1/0" as a quantum mechanical system that produces two tangled results 0 and 1. Dirac Notation (a tool from quantum mechanics) was then used to redefine the unstructured unit p in semi-structured complex numbers so that p represents the superposition of two results (0 and 1) and collapses into a single value when used in algebraic expressions. In the process, this paper describes a new number set called Quantum Semi-structured Complex Numbers that provides a valid solution to the problem of “division by zero”. This research shows that this new set (1) forms a “Field”, (2) can produce consistent results when solving division by zero problems, (3) can be used to accurately describe systems whose mathematical descriptions involve division by zero. This research served to provide a firm foundation for Quantum Semi-structured Complex Numbers and support their practical use.

Keywords: division by zero, semi-structured complex numbers, quantum mechanics, Hilbert space, Euclidean space

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1141 Sweepline Algorithm for Voronoi Diagram of Polygonal Sites

Authors: Dmitry A. Koptelov, Leonid M. Mestetskiy


Voronoi Diagram (VD) of finite set of disjoint simple polygons, called sites, is a partition of plane into loci (for each site at the locus) – regions, consisting of points that are closer to a given site than to all other. Set of polygons is a universal model for many applications in engineering, geoinformatics, design, computer vision, and graphics. VD of polygons construction usually done with a reduction to task of constructing VD of segments, for which there are effective O(n log n) algorithms for n segments. Preprocessing – constructing segments from polygons’ sides, and postprocessing – polygon’s loci construction by merging the loci of the sides of each polygon are also included in reduction. This approach doesn’t take into account two specific properties of the resulting segment sites. Firstly, all this segments are connected in pairs in the vertices of the polygons. Secondly, on the one side of each segment lies the interior of the polygon. The polygon is obviously included in its locus. Using this properties in the algorithm for VD construction is a resource to reduce computations. The article proposes an algorithm for the direct construction of VD of polygonal sites. Algorithm is based on sweepline paradigm, allowing to effectively take into account these properties. The solution is performed based on reduction. Preprocessing is the constructing of set of sites from vertices and edges of polygons. Each site has an orientation such that the interior of the polygon lies to the left of it. Proposed algorithm constructs VD for set of oriented sites with sweepline paradigm. Postprocessing is a selecting of edges of this VD formed by the centers of empty circles touching different polygons. Improving the efficiency of the proposed sweepline algorithm in comparison with the general Fortune algorithm is achieved due to the following fundamental solutions: 1. Algorithm constructs only such VD edges, which are on the outside of polygons. Concept of oriented sites allowed to avoid construction of VD edges located inside the polygons. 2. The list of events in sweepline algorithm has a special property: the majority of events are connected with “medium” polygon vertices, where one incident polygon side lies behind the sweepline and the other in front of it. The proposed algorithm processes such events in constant time and not in logarithmic time, as in the general Fortune algorithm. The proposed algorithm is fully implemented and tested on a large number of examples. The high reliability and efficiency of the algorithm is also confirmed by computational experiments with complex sets of several thousand polygons. It should be noted that, despite the considerable time that has passed since the publication of Fortune's algorithm in 1986, a full-scale implementation of this algorithm for an arbitrary set of segment sites has not been made. The proposed algorithm fills this gap for an important special case - a set of sites formed by polygons.

Keywords: voronoi diagram, sweepline, polygon sites, fortunes' algorithm, segment sites

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1140 Non-Autonomous Seasonal Variation Model for Vector-Borne Disease Transferral in Kampala of Uganda

Authors: Benjamin Aina Peter, Amos Wale Ogunsola


In this paper, a mathematical model of malaria transmission was presented with the effect of seasonal shift, due to global fluctuation in temperature, on the increase of conveyor of the infectious disease, which probably alters the region transmission potential of malaria. A deterministic compartmental model was proposed and analyzed qualitatively. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches of the model were considered. The next-generation matrix is employed to determine the basic reproduction number of the model. Equilibrium points of the model were determined and analyzed. The numerical simulation is carried out using Excel Micro Software to validate and support the qualitative results. From the analysis of the result, the optimal temperature for the transmission of malaria is between and . The result also shows that an increase in temperature due to seasonal shift gives rise to the development of parasites which consequently leads to an increase in the widespread of malaria transmission in Kampala. It is also seen from the results that an increase in temperature leads to an increase in the number of infectious human hosts and mosquitoes.

Keywords: seasonal variation, indoor residual spray, efficacy of spray, temperature-dependent model

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1139 Modelling Structural Breaks in Stock Price Time Series Using Stochastic Differential Equations

Authors: Daniil Karzanov


This paper studies the effect of quarterly earnings reports on the stock price. The profitability of the stock is modeled by geometric Brownian diffusion and the Constant Elasticity of Variance model. We fit several variations of stochastic differential equations to the pre-and after-report period using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Grid Search of parameters method. By examining the change in the model parameters after reports’ publication, the study reveals that the reports have enough evidence to be a structural breakpoint, meaning that all the forecast models exploited are not applicable for forecasting and should be refitted shortly.

Keywords: stock market, earnings reports, financial time series, structural breaks, stochastic differential equations

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1138 Analysis and Prediction of COVID-19 by Using Recurrent LSTM Neural Network Model in Machine Learning

Authors: Grienggrai Rajchakit


As we all know that coronavirus is announced as a pandemic in the world by WHO. It is speeded all over the world with few days of time. To control this spreading, every citizen maintains social distance and self-preventive measures are the best strategies. As of now, many researchers and scientists are continuing their research in finding out the exact vaccine. The machine learning model finds that the coronavirus disease behaves in an exponential manner. To abolish the consequence of this pandemic, an efficient step should be taken to analyze this disease. In this paper, a recurrent neural network model is chosen to predict the number of active cases in a particular state. To make this prediction of active cases, we need a database. The database of COVID-19 is downloaded from the KAGGLE website and is analyzed by applying a recurrent LSTM neural network with univariant features to predict the number of active cases of patients suffering from the corona virus. The downloaded database is divided into training and testing the chosen neural network model. The model is trained with the training data set and tested with a testing dataset to predict the number of active cases in a particular state; here, we have concentrated on Andhra Pradesh state.

Keywords: COVID-19, coronavirus, KAGGLE, LSTM neural network, machine learning

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1137 Point Estimation for the Type II Generalized Logistic Distribution Based on Progressively Censored Data

Authors: Rana Rimawi, Ayman Baklizi


Skewed distributions are important models that are frequently used in applications. Generalized distributions form a class of skewed distributions and gain widespread use in applications because of their flexibility in data analysis. More specifically, the Generalized Logistic Distribution with its different types has received considerable attention recently. In this study, based on progressively type-II censored data, we will consider point estimation in type II Generalized Logistic Distribution (Type II GLD). We will develop several estimators for its unknown parameters, including maximum likelihood estimators (MLE), Bayes estimators and linear estimators (BLUE). The estimators will be compared using simulation based on the criteria of bias and Mean square error (MSE). An illustrative example of a real data set will be given.

Keywords: point estimation, type II generalized logistic distribution, progressive censoring, maximum likelihood estimation

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1136 On Boundary Values of Hardy Space Banach Space-Valued Functions

Authors: Irina Peterburgsky


Let T be a unit circumference of a complex plane, E be a Banach space, E* and E** be its conjugate and second conjugate, respectively. In general, a Hardy space Hp(E), p ≥1, where functions act from the open unit disk to E, could contain a function for which even weak nontangential (angular) boundary value in the space E** does not exist at any point of the unit circumference T (C. Grossetete.) The situation is "better" when certain restrictions to the Banach space of values are applied (more or less resembling a classical case of scalar-valued functions depending on constrains, as shown by R. Ryan.) This paper shows that, nevertheless, in the case of a Banach space of a general type, the following positive statement is true: Proposition. For any function f(z) from Hp(E), p ≥ 1, there exists a function F(eiθ) on the unit circumference T to E** whose Poisson (in the Pettis sense) is integral regains the function f(z) on the open unit disk. Some characteristics of the function F(eiθ) are demonstrated.

Keywords: hardy spaces, Banach space-valued function, boundary values, Pettis integral

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1135 Efficient Principal Components Estimation of Large Factor Models

Authors: Rachida Ouysse


This paper proposes a constrained principal components (CnPC) estimator for efficient estimation of large-dimensional factor models when errors are cross sectionally correlated and the number of cross-sections (N) may be larger than the number of observations (T). Although principal components (PC) method is consistent for any path of the panel dimensions, it is inefficient as the errors are treated to be homoskedastic and uncorrelated. The new CnPC exploits the assumption of bounded cross-sectional dependence, which defines Chamberlain and Rothschild’s (1983) approximate factor structure, as an explicit constraint and solves a constrained PC problem. The CnPC method is computationally equivalent to the PC method applied to a regularized form of the data covariance matrix. Unlike maximum likelihood type methods, the CnPC method does not require inverting a large covariance matrix and thus is valid for panels with N ≥ T. The paper derives a convergence rate and an asymptotic normality result for the CnPC estimators of the common factors. We provide feasible estimators and show in a simulation study that they are more accurate than the PC estimator, especially for panels with N larger than T, and the generalized PC type estimators, especially for panels with N almost as large as T.

Keywords: high dimensionality, unknown factors, principal components, cross-sectional correlation, shrinkage regression, regularization, pseudo-out-of-sample forecasting

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1134 Study of Wake Dynamics for a Rim-Driven Thruster Based on Numerical Method

Authors: Bao Liu, Maarten Vanierschot, Frank Buysschaert


The present work examines the wake dynamics of a rim-driven thruster (RDT) with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations were solved in the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent in combination with the SST k-ω turbulence model. The application of the moving reference frame (MRF) and sliding mesh (SM) approach to handling the rotational movement of the propeller were compared in the transient simulations. Validation and verification of the numerical model was performed to ensure numerical accuracy. Two representative scenarios were considered, i.e., the bollard condition (J=0) and a very light loading condition(J=0.7), respectively. From the results, it’s confirmed that compared to the SM method, the MRF method is not suitable for resolving the unsteady flow features as it only gives the general mean flow but smooths out lots of characteristic details in the flow field. By evaluating the simulation results with the SM technique, the instantaneous wake flow field under both conditions is presented and analyzed, most notably the helical vortex structure. It’s observed from the results that the tip vortices, blade shed vortices, and hub vortices are present in the wake flow field and convect downstream in a highly non-linear way. The shear layer vortices shedding from the duct displayed a strong interaction with the distorted tip vortices in an irregularmanner.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, rim-driven thruster, sliding mesh, wake dynamics

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1133 Non Commutative Lᵖ Spaces as Hilbert Modules

Authors: Salvatore Triolo


We discuss the possibility of extending the well-known Gelfand-Naimark-Segal representation to modules over a C*algebra. We focus our attention on the case of Hilbert modules. We consider, in particular, the problem of the existence of a faithful representation. Non-commutative Lᵖ-spaces are shown to constitute examples of a class of CQ*-algebras. Finally, we have shown that any semisimple proper CQ*-algebra (X, A#), with A# a W*-algebra can be represented as a CQ*-algebra of measurable operators in Segal’s sense.

Keywords: Gelfand-Naimark-Segal representation, CQ*-algebras, faithful representation, non-commutative Lᵖ-spaces, operator in Hilbert spaces

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1132 Stability Analysis of Endemic State of Modelling the Effect of Vaccination and Novel Quarantine-Adjusted Incidence on the Spread of Newcastle Disease Virus

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi, Abdulkareem Afolabi Ibrahim


Newcastle disease is an infection of domestic poultry and other bird species with virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In this paper, we study the dynamics of modeling the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) using a novel quarantine-adjusted incidence. We do a comparison of Vaccination, linear incident rate, and novel quarantine adjusted incident rate in the models. The dynamics of the models yield disease free and endemic equilibrium states. The effective reproduction numbers of the models are computed in order to measure the relative impact for the individual bird or combined intervention for effective disease control. We showed the local and global stability of endemic equilibrium states of the models, and we found that stability of endemic equilibrium states of models are globally asymptotically stable if the effective reproduction numbers of the models equations are greater than a unit.

Keywords: effective reproduction number, endemic state, mathematical model, Newcastle disease virus, novel quarantine-adjusted incidence, stability analysis

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1131 Self-Organizing Maps for Exploration of Partially Observed Data and Imputation of Missing Values in the Context of the Manufacture of Aircraft Engines

Authors: Sara Rejeb, Catherine Duveau, Tabea Rebafka


To monitor the production process of turbofan aircraft engines, multiple measurements of various geometrical parameters are systematically recorded on manufactured parts. Engine parts are subject to extremely high standards as they can impact the performance of the engine. Therefore, it is essential to analyze these databases to better understand the influence of the different parameters on the engine's performance. Self-organizing maps are unsupervised neural networks which achieve two tasks simultaneously: they visualize high-dimensional data by projection onto a 2-dimensional map and provide clustering of the data. This technique has become very popular for data exploration since it provides easily interpretable results and a meaningful global view of the data. As such, self-organizing maps are usually applied to aircraft engine condition monitoring. As databases in this field are huge and complex, they naturally contain multiple missing entries for various reasons. The classical Kohonen algorithm to compute self-organizing maps is conceived for complete data only. A naive approach to deal with partially observed data consists in deleting items or variables with missing entries. However, this requires a sufficient number of complete individuals to be fairly representative of the population; otherwise, deletion leads to a considerable loss of information. Moreover, deletion can also induce bias in the analysis results. Alternatively, one can first apply a common imputation method to create a complete dataset and then apply the Kohonen algorithm. However, the choice of the imputation method may have a strong impact on the resulting self-organizing map. Our approach is to address simultaneously the two problems of computing a self-organizing map and imputing missing values, as these tasks are not independent. In this work, we propose an extension of self-organizing maps for partially observed data, referred to as missSOM. First, we introduce a criterion to be optimized, that aims at defining simultaneously the best self-organizing map and the best imputations for the missing entries. As such, missSOM is also an imputation method for missing values. To minimize the criterion, we propose an iterative algorithm that alternates the learning of a self-organizing map and the imputation of missing values. Moreover, we develop an accelerated version of the algorithm by entwining the iterations of the Kohonen algorithm with the updates of the imputed values. This method is efficiently implemented in R and will soon be released on CRAN. Compared to the standard Kohonen algorithm, it does not come with any additional cost in terms of computing time. Numerical experiments illustrate that missSOM performs well in terms of both clustering and imputation compared to the state of the art. In particular, it turns out that missSOM is robust to the missingness mechanism, which is in contrast to many imputation methods that are appropriate for only a single mechanism. This is an important property of missSOM as, in practice, the missingness mechanism is often unknown. An application to measurements on one type of part is also provided and shows the practical interest of missSOM.

Keywords: imputation method of missing data, partially observed data, robustness to missingness mechanism, self-organizing maps

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1130 Implementation of Statistical Parameters to Form an Entropic Mathematical Models

Authors: Gurcharan Singh Buttar


It has been discovered that although these two areas, statistics, and information theory, are independent in their nature, they can be combined to create applications in multidisciplinary mathematics. This is due to the fact that where in the field of statistics, statistical parameters (measures) play an essential role in reference to the population (distribution) under investigation. Information measure is crucial in the study of ambiguity, assortment, and unpredictability present in an array of phenomena. The following communication is a link between the two, and it has been demonstrated that the well-known conventional statistical measures can be used as a measure of information.

Keywords: probability distribution, entropy, concavity, symmetry, variance, central tendency

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1129 Kýklos Dimensional Geometry: Entity Specific Core Measurement System

Authors: Steven D.P Moore


A novel method referred to asKýklos(Ky) dimensional geometry is proposed as an entity specific core geometric dimensional measurement system. Ky geometric measures can constructscaled multi-dimensionalmodels using regular and irregular sets in IRn. This entity specific-derived geometric measurement system shares similar fractal methods in which a ‘fractal transformation operator’ is applied to a set S to produce a union of N copies. The Kýklos’ inputs use 1D geometry as a core measure. One-dimensional inputs include the radius interval of a circle/sphere or the semiminor/semimajor axes intervals of an ellipse or spheroid. These geometric inputs have finite values that can be measured by SI distance units. The outputs for each interval are divided and subdivided 1D subcomponents with a union equal to the interval geometry/length. Setting a limit of subdivision iterations creates a finite value for each 1Dsubcomponent. The uniqueness of this method is captured by allowing the simplest 1D inputs to define entity specific subclass geometric core measurements that can also be used to derive length measures. Current methodologies for celestial based measurement of time, as defined within SI units, fits within this methodology, thus combining spatial and temporal features into geometric core measures. The novel Ky method discussed here offers geometric measures to construct scaled multi-dimensional structures, even models. Ky classes proposed for consideration include celestial even subatomic. The application of this offers incredible possibilities, for example, geometric architecture that can represent scaled celestial models that incorporates planets (spheroids) and celestial motion (elliptical orbits).

Keywords: Kyklos, geometry, measurement, celestial, dimension

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1128 Bayesian Analysis of Change Point Problems Using Conditionally Specified Priors

Authors: Golnaz Shahtahmassebi, Jose Maria Sarabia


In this talk, we introduce a new class of conjugate prior distributions obtained from conditional specification methodology. We illustrate the application of such distribution in Bayesian change point detection in Poisson processes. We obtain the posterior distribution of model parameters using a general bivariate distribution with gamma conditionals. Simulation from the posterior is readily implemented using a Gibbs sampling algorithm. The Gibbs sampling is implemented even when using conditional densities that are incompatible or only compatible with an improper joint density. The application of such methods will be demonstrated using examples of simulated and real data.

Keywords: change point, bayesian inference, Gibbs sampler, conditional specification, gamma conditional distributions

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1127 Protein Tertiary Structure Prediction by a Multiobjective Optimization and Neural Network Approach

Authors: Alexandre Barbosa de Almeida, Telma Woerle de Lima Soares


Protein structure prediction is a challenging task in the bioinformatics field. The biological function of all proteins majorly relies on the shape of their three-dimensional conformational structure, but less than 1% of all known proteins in the world have their structure solved. This work proposes a deep learning model to address this problem, attempting to predict some aspects of the protein conformations. Throughout a process of multiobjective dominance, a recurrent neural network was trained to abstract the particular bias of each individual multiobjective algorithm, generating a heuristic that could be useful to predict some of the relevant aspects of the three-dimensional conformation process formation, known as protein folding.

Keywords: Ab initio heuristic modeling, multiobjective optimization, protein structure prediction, recurrent neural network

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1126 An Analytical Approach to Assess and Compare the Vulnerability Risk of Operating Systems

Authors: Pubudu K. Hitigala Kaluarachchilage, Champike Attanayake, Sasith Rajasooriya, Chris P. Tsokos


Operating system (OS) security is a key component of computer security. Assessing and improving OSs strength to resist against vulnerabilities and attacks is a mandatory requirement given the rate of new vulnerabilities discovered and attacks occurring. Frequency and the number of different kinds of vulnerabilities found in an OS can be considered an index of its information security level. In the present study five mostly used OSs, Microsoft Windows (windows 7, windows 8 and windows 10), Apple’s Mac and Linux are assessed for their discovered vulnerabilities and the risk associated with each. Each discovered and reported vulnerability has an exploitability score assigned in CVSS score of the national vulnerability database. In this study the risk from vulnerabilities in each of the five Operating Systems is compared. Risk Indexes used are developed based on the Markov model to evaluate the risk of each vulnerability. Statistical methodology and underlying mathematical approach is described. Initially, parametric procedures are conducted and measured. There were, however, violations of some statistical assumptions observed. Therefore the need for non-parametric approaches was recognized. 6838 vulnerabilities recorded were considered in the analysis. According to the risk associated with all the vulnerabilities considered, it was found that there is a statistically significant difference among average risk levels for some operating systems, indicating that according to our method some operating systems have been more risk vulnerable than others given the assumptions and limitations. Relevant test results revealing a statistically significant difference in the Risk levels of different OSs are presented.

Keywords: cybersecurity, Markov chain, non-parametric analysis, vulnerability, operating system

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1125 Vine Copula Structure among Yield, Price and Weather Variables for Rating Crop Insurance Premium

Authors: Jiemiao Chen, Shuoxun Xu


The main goal of our research is to apply the Vine copula measuring dependency between price, temperature, and precipitation indices to calculate a fair crop insurance premium. This research is focused on Worth, Iowa, United States, over the period from 2000 to 2020, where the farmers are dependent on precipitation and average temperature during the growth period of corn. Our proposed insurance considers both the natural risk and the price risk in agricultural production. We first estimate the distributions of crops using parametric methods based on Goodness of Fit tests, and then Vine Copula is applied to model dependence between yield price, crop yield, and weather indices. Once the vine structure and its parameters are determined based on AIC/BIC criteria and forecasting price and yield are obtained from the ARIMA model, we calculate this crop insurance premium using the simulation data generated from the vine copula by the Monte Carlo Simulation method. It is shown that, compared with traditional crop insurance, our proposed insurance is more fair and thus less costly for the farmers and government.

Keywords: vine copula, weather index, crop insurance premium, insurance risk management, Monte Carlo simulation

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1124 Marginalized Two-Part Joint Models for Generalized Gamma Family of Distributions

Authors: Mohadeseh Shojaei Shahrokhabadi, Ding-Geng (Din) Chen


Positive continuous outcomes with a substantial number of zero values and incomplete longitudinal follow-up are quite common in medical cost data. To jointly model semi-continuous longitudinal cost data and survival data and to provide marginalized covariate effect estimates, a marginalized two-part joint model (MTJM) has been developed for outcome variables with lognormal distributions. In this paper, we propose MTJM models for outcome variables from a generalized gamma (GG) family of distributions. The GG distribution constitutes a general family that includes approximately all of the most frequently used distributions like the Gamma, Exponential, Weibull, and Log Normal. In the proposed MTJM-GG model, the conditional mean from a conventional two-part model with a three-parameter GG distribution is parameterized to provide the marginal interpretation for regression coefficients. In addition, MTJM-gamma and MTJM-Weibull are developed as special cases of MTJM-GG. To illustrate the applicability of the MTJM-GG, we applied the model to a set of real electronic health record data recently collected in Iran, and we provided SAS code for application. The simulation results showed that when the outcome distribution is unknown or misspecified, which is usually the case in real data sets, the MTJM-GG consistently outperforms other models. The GG family of distribution facilitates estimating a model with improved fit over the MTJM-gamma, standard Weibull, or Log-Normal distributions.

Keywords: marginalized two-part model, zero-inflated, right-skewed, semi-continuous, generalized gamma

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1123 A Note on Decidability Structure of Rational Numbers in Different Languages

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami


The purpose of this paper is to study the theories of rational numbers in different languages, and we will review the rational number and their properties. A theory T is decidable if there exists an effective procedure to determine whether T ⊢ ϕ where ϕ is any sentence of the language. Quantifier elimination is a very powerful property, as it helps in the proof of decidability. To prove the decidability of the theory of rational numbers in different languages, we will show that these theories supports quantifier elimination.

Keywords: decidability, model theory, quantifier elimination, rational number

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1122 The Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equation of the Second Kind

Authors: Melusi Khumalo, Anastacia Dlamini


In this paper, we consider a numerical solution for nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We work with uniform mesh and use the Lagrange polynomials together with the Galerkin finite element method, where the weight function is chosen in such a way that it takes the form of the approximate solution but with arbitrary coefficients. We implement the finite element method to the nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. We consider the error analysis of the method. Furthermore, we look at a specific example to illustrate the implementation of the finite element method.

Keywords: finite element method, Galerkin approach, Fredholm integral equations, nonlinear integral equations

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1121 Dynamic Updating of Principal Components of Model Reduction Error in Diffuse Optical Tomography

Authors: Peyman Beygi, Alireza Zirak


This paper addresses the problem of large dimensions in the inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). The dimension of the inverse problem in medical imaging, especially DOT, is a challenge that strongly affects the elapsed time and computational complexity. Principal component analysis is able to separate the high and low-resolution parts of the Jacobian matrix and marginalize the low-resolution part. In the literature, the Bayesian framework estimates the probability density of unknowns and modifies the likelihood model using prior density of unknown and this marginalized part as a random variable. But this procedure is done offline and only once. In some cases, this may cause problems. The current study investigates the use of principal components and extended marginalization error in a dynamic fashion to update the modeling error statistics sequentially. This updating scheme operates as an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate unknowns. The combination of EnKF and Bayesian inference make a powerful background to solve the inverse problem. The presented method is applied to a simulated test phantom to reconstruct the image in DOT to show its strength.

Keywords: inverse problem, marginalization error, principal component, ensemble Kalman filter

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1120 Sales-Based Dynamic Investment and Leverage Decisions: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Rihab Belguith, Fathi Abid


The paper develops a system-based approach to investigate the dynamic adjustment of debt structure and investment policies of the Dow-Jones index. This approach enables the assessment of relations among sales, debt, and investment opportunities by considering the simultaneous effect of the market environmental change and future growth opportunities. We integrate the firm-specific sales variance to capture the industries' conditions in the model. Empirical results were obtained through a panel data set of firms with different sectors. The analysis support that environmental change does not affect equally the different industry since operating leverage differs among industries and so the sensitivity to sales variance. Including adjusted-specific variance, we find that there is no monotonic relation between leverage, sales, and investment. The firm may choose a low debt level in response to high sales variance but high leverage to attenuate the negative relation between sales variance and the current level of investment. We further find that while the overall effect of debt maturity on leverage is unaffected by the level of growth opportunities, the shorter the maturity of debt is, the smaller the direct effect of sales variance on investment.

Keywords: dynamic panel, investment, leverage decision, sales uncertainty

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1119 Stem Covers of Leibniz n-Algebras

Authors: Natália Maria Rego


ALeibnizn-algebraGis aK-vector space endowed whit a n-linearbracket operation [-,…-] : GG … G→ Gsatisfying the fundamental identity, which can be expressed saying that the right multiplication map Ry2, …, ᵧₙ: Gn→ G, Rᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙn(ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ) = [[ˣ¹, …, ₓₙ], ᵧ₂, …, ᵧₙ], is a derivation. This structure, together with its skew-symmetric version, named as Lie n-algebra or Filippov algebra, arose in the setting of Nambumechanics, an n-ary generalization of the Hamiltonian mechanics. Thefirst goal of this work is to provide a characterization of various classes of central extensions of Leibniz n-algebras in terms of homological properties. Namely, Commutator extension, Quasi-commutator extension, Stem extension, and Stem cover. These kind of central extensions are characterized by means of the character of the map *(E): nHL1(G) → M provided by the five-term exact sequence in homology with trivial coefficients of Leibniz n-algebras associated to an extension E : 0 → M → K → G → 0. For a free presentation 0 →R→ F →G→ 0of a Leibniz n-algebra G,the term M(G) = (R[F,…n.., F])/[R, F,..n-1..,F] is called the Schur multiplier of G, which is a Baer invariant, i.e., it does not depend on the chosen free presentation, and it is isomorphic to the first Leibniz n-algebras homology with trivial coefficients of G. A central extension of Leibniz n-algebras is a short exact sequenceE : 0 →M→K→G→ 0such that [M, K,.. ⁿ⁻¹.., K]=0. It is said to be a stem extension if M⊆[G, .. n.., G]. Additionally, if the induced map M(K) → M(G) is the zero map, then the stem extension Eis said to be a stem cover. The second aim of this work is to analyze the interplay between stem covers of Leibniz n-algebras and the Schur multiplier. Concretely, in the case of finite-dimensional Leibniz n-algebras, we show the existence of coverings, and we prove that all stem covers with finite-dimensional Schur multiplier are isoclinic. Additionally, we characterize stem covers of perfect Leibniz n-algebras.

Keywords: leibniz n-algebras, central extensions, Schur multiplier, stem cover

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1118 A Comparative Analysis of Hyper-Parameters Using Neural Networks for E-Mail Spam Detection

Authors: Syed Mahbubuz Zaman, A. B. M. Abrar Haque, Mehedi Hassan Nayeem, Misbah Uddin Sagor


Everyday e-mails are being used by millions of people as an effective form of communication over the Internet. Although e-mails allow high-speed communication, there is a constant threat known as spam. Spam e-mail is often called junk e-mails which are unsolicited and sent in bulk. These unsolicited emails cause security concerns among internet users because they are being exposed to inappropriate content. There is no guaranteed way to stop spammers who use static filters as they are bypassed very easily. In this paper, a smart system is proposed that will be using neural networks to approach spam in a different way, and meanwhile, this will also detect the most relevant features that will help to design the spam filter. Also, a comparison of different parameters for different neural network models has been shown to determine which model works best within suitable parameters.

Keywords: long short-term memory, bidirectional long short-term memory, gated recurrent unit, natural language processing, natural language processing

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