Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 622

Search results for: strategic goals

622 Application of the Balanced Scorecard into the Formulation of the Firm Strategy

Authors: Lucie Valečková

Abstract:

In contemporary global and dynamically developing environment there is a need of the strategic planning fundamental. It is complicated, but at the same time important process from the point of view of continual keeping of competitive advantage. The aim of the paper is formulation of strategic goals for the needs of the small enterprises. There will be used Balanced Scorecard as a balanced system of the indicators for the clearing and transferring vision into particular goals. In particular perspectives the theme will be focused on strategic goals. Consequently will be mention the concept of the competitiveness IDINMOSU. This connect to Balanced Scorecard.

Keywords: Corporate strategic management, strategic goals, Balanced Scorecard, strategic operations

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621 Using Model to Plan of Strategic Objectives

Authors: Terezie Bartusková, Jitka Baňařová, Zuzana Kusněřová

Abstract:

Importance of strategic planning is unquestionable. However, the practical implementation of a strategic plan faces too many obstacles. The aim of the article is explained the importance of strategic planning and to find how companies in Moravian-Silesian Region deal with strategic planning, and to introduce the model, which helps to set strategic goals in financial indicators area. This model should be part of the whole process of strategic planning and can be use to predict the future values of financial indicators of the company with regard to the factor, which influence these indicators.

Keywords: Planning of Potentials, Planning of Strategic Objectives, Portfolio Planning, Significant Factors, Strategic Planning.

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620 Strategic Maintenance Management of Built Facilities in an Organisation

Authors: Anita D. Adamu, Winston M. W. Shakantu

Abstract:

Maintenance management is no longer a stand-alone activity. It has now assumed a strategic position in many organisations that have recognised its importance in achieving primary goals and a key aspect of effective management of facilities. This paper aims at providing an understanding of the role and function of strategic management in creating and sustaining an effective maintenance management system in an organisation. The background provides an articulated concept and principles of strategic management. The theoretical concepts paved way for a conceptual framework for which strategic management can be integrated into the maintenance management system of an organisation to improve effectiveness in the maintenance of facilities.

Keywords: Facilities, maintenance management, organisations, strategic management.

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619 Identifying and Prioritizing Goals of Joint Venture between Manufacturing Cooperative Firms, using TOPSIS

Authors: H. Zare Amadabadi, S. Soltani Gerdefaramarzi

Abstract:

In recent years, strategic alliances have taken increasing importance as a means to control competitive forces and to enter into new markets. Joint ventures are one of the most frequently used contractual forms in strategic alliances. There are various motivations for cooperation between two or more firms e.g., accessing to technical know-how, accessing to financial resources and managing risks. The firms must know about these motivations to encourage for establishing joint venture. So, it is important for managers to understand about these motives. On the other hand, the cooperation section is one of the most effective parts in each country. In this way, our study identifies goals of joint venture between cooperative manufacturing firms, and prioritizes those using TOPSIS1. The results show that the most important of joint venture goals are: accessing to managerial know-how, sharing total capital investment.

Keywords: Cooperative, Joint Venture, TOPSIS

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618 Strategic Human Resources Management practice, “Are We There yet“? The Incorporation of a Human Resources Strategy within a University's Strategic Plan

Authors: Eileen M. J. Knight

Abstract:

This study examines the structural and systematic processes of the Human Resources Division at The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago for evidence of incorporation of the University's 2012- 2017 Strategic Plan. In conducting the study the structure of the Human Resources Management Division and its functions were carefully reviewed and measured against the strategic direction of the organisation. Findings indicate disconnect between these areas as there is apparent failure of the Human Resources Division to totally align its mandate with that of the organisation-s strategic direction. This action serves to threaten the viability of the organisation and its efficiency and effectiveness as an institution. The recommendations being put forward are for the realignment of the Human Resources Management Division and for its focus to mirror that of the organisation and the organisation-s goals and objectives. This may entail a restructuring of the Division.

Keywords: Commonwealth Caribbean, Realignment, Region, Strategic Plan.

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617 Universities Strategic Evaluation Using Balanced Scorecard

Authors: M. D. Nayeri, M. M. Mashhadi, K. Mohajeri

Abstract:

Defining strategic position of the organizations within the industry environment is one of the basic and most important phases of strategic planning to which extent that one of the fundamental schools of strategic planning is the strategic positioning school. In today-s knowledge-based economy and dynamic environment, it is essential for universities as the centers of education, knowledge creation and knowledge worker evolvement. Till now, variant models with different approaches to strategic positioning are deployed in defining the strategic position within the various industries. Balanced Scorecard as one of the powerful models for strategic positioning, analyzes all aspects of the organization evenly. In this paper with the consideration of BSC strength in strategic evaluation, it is used for analyzing the environmental position of the best-s Iranian Business Schools. The results could be used in developing strategic plans for these schools as well as other Iranian Management and Business Schools.

Keywords: Strategic planning, Strategic position, Balancedscorecard, Higher education institutions.

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616 A Quantitative Approach to Strategic Design of Component-Based Business Process Models

Authors: Eakong Atiptamvaree, Twittie Senivongse

Abstract:

A new paradigm for software design and development models software by its business process, translates the model into a process execution language, and has it run by a supporting execution engine. This process-oriented paradigm promotes modeling of software by less technical users or business analysts as well as rapid development. Since business process models may be shared by different organizations and sometimes even by different business domains, it is interesting to apply a technique used in traditional software component technology to design reusable business processes. This paper discusses an approach to apply a technique for software component fabrication to the design of process-oriented software units, called process components. These process components result from decomposing a business process of a particular application domain into subprocesses with an aim that the process components can be reusable in different process-based software models. The approach is quantitative because the quality of process component design is measured from technical features of the process components. The approach is also strategic because the measured quality is determined against business-oriented component management goals. A software tool has been developed to measure how good a process component design is, according to the required managerial goals and comparing to other designs. We also discuss how we benefit from reusable process components.

Keywords: Business process model, process component, component management goals, measurement

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615 A Quality-Oriented Approach toward Strategic Positioning in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: M. M. Mashhadi, K. Mohajeri, M. D. Nayeri

Abstract:

Positioning the organization in the strategic environment of its industry is one of the first and most important phases of the organizational strategic planning and in today knowledge-based economy has its importance been duplicated for higher education institutes as the centers of education, knowledge creation and knowledge worker training. Up to now, various models with diverse approaches have been applied to investigate organizations- strategic position in different industries. Regarding the essential importance and strategic role of quality in higher education institutes, in this study, a quality-oriented approach has been suggested to positioning them in their strategic environment. Then the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM) model has been adopted to position the top Iranian business schools in their strategic environment. The result of this study can be used in strategic planning of these institutes as well as the other Iranian business schools.

Keywords: Strategic planning, Strategic positioning, Quality, EFQM model, Higher education institutions.

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614 The Role of Strategic Flexibility for Achieving Sustainable Competition Advantage and Its Effect on Business Performance

Authors: K. Eryesil, O. Esmen, A. Beduk

Abstract:

In this study, it has been studied to determine the relationship between business performance and strategic flexibility, which is defined to be the strategic choice that provides the ability of rapidly responding the changes of the dynamic environment of the companies, for having competitive advantages. In this context a field study has been conducted over 56 companies, which are active in informatics and electronics sectors in TEKNOKENT. As a result of the study it has been determined that; strategic flexibility has an effect on business performance and there is a positive and statistically significant relationship between strategic flexibility and business performance.

Keywords: Sustainable Competition Advantage, Strategic Flexibility, Firm Performance, TEKNOKENT.

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613 Measuring Strategic Management Maturity: An Empirical Study in Turkish Public and Private Sector Organizations

Authors: F. Demir

Abstract:

Strategic Management is highly critical for all types of organizations. This paper examines maturity level of strategic management practices of public and private sector organizations in Turkey, and presents a conceptual model for assessing the maturity of strategic management in any organization. This research focuses on R&D intensive organizations (RDO) because it is claimed that such organizations are more innovative and innovation is a critical part of the model. The Strategic management maturity model (S-3M) is basically composed of six maturity levels with five different dimensions. Based on 63 organizations, the findings reveal that the average maturity of all organizations in the sample group is three out of five. It corresponds to the stage of ‘performed’. Results simply show that the majority of organizations from various industries and sectors implement strategic management activities; however, they experience multiple challenges to optimize strategic management processes and integrate organizational components with business strategies. Briefly, they struggle to become an innovative organization.

Keywords: Strategic management, innovation, developing countries, research and development.

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612 A Field Research for Investigating the Effect of Strategic Management on Institutionalization Levels of Enterprises

Authors: Kemalettin Eryeşil, Aykut Bedük, Mehtap Fındık

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of strategic management implementations on the institutionalization levels. In this regard a field study has been made over 31 stone quarry enterprises in cement producing sector in Konya by using survey method. In this study, institutionalization levels of the enterprises have been evaluated regarding three dimensions: professionalization, management approach, participation in decisions and delegation of authority. According to the results of the survey, there is a highly positive and statistically significant relationship between the strategic management implementations and institutionalization levels of the enterprises. Additionally,-considering the results of regression analysis made for establishing the relationship between strategic management and institutionalization levels- it has been determined that strategic management implementations of the enterprises can be used as a variable to explain the institutionalization levels of them, and also strategic management implementations of the enterprises increase the institutionalization levels of them.

Keywords: Institutionalization, Management, Strategic Management.

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611 Strategic Management Accounting: Implementation and Control

Authors: Alireza Azimi Sani

Abstract:

This paper discusses the design characteristics management accounting systems should have to be useful for strategic planning and control and provides brief introductions to strategic variance analysis, profit-linked performance measurement models and balanced scorecard. It shows two multi-period, multiproduct models are specified, can be related to Porter's strategy framework and cost and revenue drivers, and can be used to support strategic planning, control and cost management.

Keywords: Accounting, balanced scorecard, profit-linked, strategic management, variance analysis.

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610 Promoting a Strategic Plan in the University Environment

Authors: Frantisek Jezek, Jan Sedlacek

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the role strategic management plays in higher education and the methods it entails. Using the University of West Bohemia and the Czech Republic as examples, the paper describes the methods used in furthering strategic objectives within institutions and their different parts (faculties, institutes). The nature of the demands faced by the university dictates the need for a strategic framework which defines the basic objectives and parameters of tertiary education and research in a local, regional and national context. Sharing strategies with a wider range of actors (universities, cities, regions, the practical sphere) is key to laying the foundations for more efficient cooperation.

Keywords: Strategy, strategic plan, university, university environment.

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609 Strategic Decision Making Practice in Croatia – Which Decision Making Style is More Effective?

Authors: Ivana Bulog

Abstract:

Decision making is a vital part of the business world and any other field of human endeavor. Which way a business organization will take, and where that way will lead it, depends on broad range of decisions made by managers in the managerial structure. Strategic decisions are of the greatest importance for organizational success. Although much empirical research has been done trying to describe and explain its nature and effectiveness, knowledge about strategic decision making is still incomplete. This paper explores the nature of strategic decision making in particular setting - in Croatian companies. The main focus of this research is on the style that decision makers on strategic management level are following when making decisions of life importance for their companies. Two main decision making style that explain the way decision maker collects and processes available information and performs all the activities in strategic decision making process were empirical tested: rational and intuitive one. Besides analyzing their existence on strategic management level in Croatian companies, their effectiveness is analyzed as well. Results showed that decision makers at strategic management level are following both styles somewhat equally in order to function effectively, and that intuitive style is more effective when considering decisions outcomes.

Keywords: Decision making style, decision making effectiveness, strategic decisions.

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608 On the Differentiation of Strategic Spatial Planning Making Mechanisms in New Era: Between Melbourne and Tianjin

Authors: Z. Liu, K. Cao

Abstract:

Strategic spatial planning, which is taken as an effective and competitive way for the governors of the city to improve the development and management level of a city, has been blooming in recent years all over the world. In the context of globalization and informatization, strategic spatial planning must transfer its focus on three different levels: global, regional and urban. Internal and external changes in environmental conditions lead to new advances in strategic planning both theoretically and practically. However, such advances or changes respond differently to cities on account of different dynamic mechanisms. This article aims at two cities of Tianjin in China and Melbourne in Australia, through a comparative study on strategic planning, to explore the differentiation of mechanisms in urban planning making. By comparison and exploration, the purpose of this article is to exhibit two different planning worlds between western and Chinese in a new way nowadays.

Keywords: Differentiation, Tianjin China, Melbourne Australia, strategic planning.

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607 A Balanced Scorecard for Identifying Factors of Strategic Fit of National R&D Program on the Creative Economy Policy

Authors: Jieun Kim, Haejin Cho, Yongtae Park, Yoonjo Kim, Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

As creative economy is important theme for national policy, many countries have been raising investments through national R&D programs. Since not all of programs are aligned with the ultimate vision and R&D investment is one of the most decisive elements, the strategic fit of national R&D programs should be evaluated for effective resource allocation. This study aims at identifying the factors of strategic fit of national R&D program on the creative economy policy. For this purpose, the balanced scorecard (BSC) model for R&D is utilized to translate national strategic objectives into a set of coherent performance factors.

Keywords: Balanced scorecard, Creative economy, National R&D program, Strategic fit.

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606 MABENA Strategic Management Model for Local Companies

Authors: Kaveh Mohammad Cyrus, Shadi Sanagoo

Abstract:

MABENA model is a complementary model in comparison with traditional models such as HCMS, CMS and etc. New factors, which have effects on preparation of strategic plans and their sequential order in MABENA model is the platform of presented road map in this paper.Study review shows, factors such as emerging new critical success factors for strategic planning, improvement of international strategic models, increasing the maturity of companies and emerging new needs leading to design a new model which can be responsible for new critical factors and solve the limitations of previous strategic management models. Preparation of strategic planning need more factors than introduced in traditional models. The needed factors includes determining future Critical Success Factors and competencies, defining key processes, determining the maturity of the processes, considering all aspects of the external environment etc. Description of aforementioned requirements, the outcomes and their order is developing and presenting the MABENA model-s road map in this paper. This study presents a road map for strategic planning of the Iranian organizations.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Process Maturity, StrategicPlanning, Strategic potential

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605 The Strategy of the Innovation Alliance in Higher Education

Authors: Juha Kettunen

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to visualize the strategic network of higher education institutions and its strategic directions. The strategy map of the balanced scorecard approach is developed to describe the strategic objectives and their causal relationships in higher education. The empirical part of the study presents the survey results of the desired strategic directions of the network obtained from the teachers and other staff of the member institutions. Research and development projects are the most important form of activity in the network, but education and many other forms also turn out to be important. The results of this study support the argument that a strategic innovation alliance is a suitable and useful way to promote collaboration among European higher education institutions. The results of the study can be used by those who wish to promote such international collaboration among higher education institutions.

Keywords: Balanced scorecard, higher education, social networking, strategic planning.

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604 Sustained Competitive Advantage: Strategic HRM Initiatives and Consequences in Indian Context

Authors: S. Velmurugan, K. B. Akhilesh

Abstract:

In the past few decades, researchers have witnessed a paradigm shift in Human Resource Management-from individual performance to organizational outcomes with the role of Human resource (HR) managers becoming increasingly significant to the organization. In such a context, it is important to examine HR practices from a strategic perspective on the sustained competitive advantage (SCA) of the organizations. The present study explores how Indian organisations look at their human resources strategically when faced with competitive environment. Also, it explores strategic initiatives being taken to manage human resources within the organisations and how these initiatives promote SCA in terms of enhancing the overall customer-centric delivery of goods and services.

Keywords: Strategic HRM, Strategic HRM Initiatives, Consequences, and Sustained Competitive Advantage.

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603 Analyzing the Effects of Resource Relatedness on Strategic Alliances Performance

Authors: G. Chung, B. Choi

Abstract:

Very few studies have examined performance implications of strategic alliance announcements in the information technologies industry from a resource-based view. Furthermore, none of these studies have investigated resource congruence and alliance motive as potential sources of abnormal firm performance. This paper extends upon current resource-based literature to discover and explore linkages between these concepts and the practical performance of strategic alliances. This study finds that strategic alliance announcements have provided overall abnormal positive returns, and that marketing alliances with marketing resource incongruence have also contributed to significant firm performance.

Keywords: Event study methodology, resource-based theory, resource relatedness, strategic alliance.

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602 Developing of Intelligent Schools with a New Model of Strategic Management System

Authors: Ahmad Ghayoumi, Mehdi Ghayoumi

Abstract:

Intelligent schools are those which use IT devices and technologies as media software, hardware and networks to improve learning process. On the other hand Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firms in their external environments. Here, we present a model Strategic Management System that has been applied on some schools and have made strict improvement.

Keywords: Intelligent school, Strategic management system, Learning station, Teaching station

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601 Impact of Strategic Emotional Intelligence to Transformational Leadership of Managers: A Case Study

Authors: L. N. A. C. Jayawardena, Ales Gregar

Abstract:

Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been identified as an important factor for corporate success. However, there are few empirical findings on the impact of Strategic EI per se. The ooverall objective of the study was to empirically examine the relationship between the Strategic EI and Transformational Leadership style of managers. Sixty four managers were selected from the banking industry in Czech Republic. Genos EI Inventory, and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire – Form 5X-Short were employed as the major research instruments of the study. Descriptive and inferential analyses of survey data were conducted using SPSS software. Variations were observed among the components of Strategic EI between males, and females. Study concludes positive a relationship between Strategic EI of Czech managers and their transformational leadership style. Improving awareness and usage of EI, will contribute to facilitate career success through enhanced levels of transformational leadership of managers.

Keywords: Strategic Emotional Intelligence, Transformational leadership, Socio-demographic factors.

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600 Strategic Management Methods in Non-profit Making Organization

Authors: P. Řehoř, D. Holátová, V. Doležalová

Abstract:

Paper deals with analysis of strategic management methods in non-profit making organization in the Czech Republic. Strategic management represents an aggregate of methods and approaches that can be applied for managing organizations - in this article the organizations which associate owners and keepers of nonstate forest properties. Authors use these methods of strategic management: analysis of stakeholders, SWOT analysis and questionnaire inquiries. The questionnaire was distributed electronically via e-mail. In October 2013 we obtained data from a total of 84 questionnaires. Based on the results the authors recommend the using of confrontation strategy which improves the competitiveness of non-profit making organizations.

Keywords: Strategic management, non-profit making organization, strategy analysis, SWOT analysis, strategy, competitiveness.

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599 Native Framework of Economic Activities Development to Achieve The 1404 Iranian View Statement's Goals

Authors: H. Fallah, Z. Naddaf Baghdadabadi

Abstract:

Planning of economic activities development has various dimensions one of which determines adequate capacity of economic activities in provinces regarding the government-s goals. Paralleling planning goals of economic activities development including subjects being focused on the view statement is effective to better realize the statement's goals. Current paper presents a native framework for economic activities development in provincial level. Triple steps within the framework are concordant with the view statement-s goals achievement. At first step of the proposed framework, economic activities are being prioritized in terms of employment indices, and secondly economic activities regarding to the province's relative advantages are being recognized. In the third step, desirable capacity of economic activities is determined with regards to the government's goals and effective constraints in economic activities development. Development of economic activities related to the provinces- relative advantages, contributes on regional balance and on equal development of economic activities. Furthermore, results of the framework enable more confident investment, affect employment development and remove unemployment concern as the main goals of the view statement.

Keywords: Development, economic activity, regional planning, view statement.

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598 Towards a New Era of Sustainability in the Automotive Industry: Strategic Human Resource Management and Green Technology Innovation

Authors: Reihaneh Montazeri Shatouri, Rosmini Omar, Kunio Igusa

Abstract:

Although automotive industry has brought different beneficiaries to human life, it is being pointed out as one of the major cause of global air pollution which resulted in climate change, smog, green house gases (GHGs), and human diseases by many reasons. Since auto industry is one of the largest consumers of fossil fuels, the realization of green innovations is becoming a crucial choice to meet the challenges towards sustainable development. Recently, many auto manufacturers have embarked on green technology initiatives to gain a competitive advantage in the global market; however, innovative manufacturing systems and technologies can enhance operational performance only if the human resource management is in place to elicit the motivation of the employees and develop their organizational expertise. No organization can perform at peak levels unless each employee is committed to the company goals and works as an effective team member. Strategic human resource practices are the primary means by which firms can shape the skills, attitudes, and behavior of individuals to align with the business strategic objectives. This study investigates on the comprehensive approach of multiple advanced technology innovations and human resource management at Toyota Motor Corporation as the market leader of full hybrid technology in the automotive industry. Then, HRM framework of the company is described and three sets of human resource practices that support the innovation-oriented HR system, presented. Finally, a conceptual framework for innovativeness in green technology in automotive industry by applying a deliberate strategic HR management system and knowledge management with the intervening factors of organizational culture, knowledge application and knowledge sharing is proposed.

Keywords: Automotive Industry, Green Technology, Innovation, Strategic Human Resource Management

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597 Quality and Quantity in the Strategic Network of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Juha Kettunen

Abstract:

The study analyzes the quality and the size of the strategic network of higher education institutions and the concept of fitness for purpose in quality assurance. It also analyses the transaction costs of networking that have consequences on the number of members in the network. Empirical evidence is presented from the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional Education, which is a European strategic network of six higher education institutions. The results of the study support the argument that the number of members in the strategic network should be relatively small to provide high-quality results. The practical importance is that networking has been able to promote international research and development projects. The results of this study are important for those who want to design and improve international networks in higher education.

Keywords: Higher education, network, research and development, strategic management.

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596 Information Technology and Business Alignments among Different Divisions: A Comparative Analysis of Japan and South Korea

Authors: Michiko Miyamoto

Abstract:

This paper empirically investigates whether information technology (IT) strategies, business strategies, and divisions are aligned to meet overall business goals for Korean Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), based on structure based Strategic Alignment Model, and make comparison with those of Japanese SMEs. Using 2,869 valid responses of Korean Human Capital Corporate Panel survey, a result of this study suggests that Korean human resources (HR) departments have a major influence over IT strategy, which is the same as Japanese SMEs, even though their management styles are quite different. As for IT strategy, it is not related to other departments at all for Korean SMEs. The Korean management seems to possess a great power over each division, such as Sales/Service, Research and Development/Technical Experts, HR, and Production.

Keywords: IT-business alignment, structured based strategic alignment model, structural equation model, human resources department.

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595 Quality and Quantity in the Strategic Network of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Juha Kettunen

Abstract:

This study analyzes the quality and the size of the strategic network of higher education institutions. The study analyses the concept of fitness for purpose in quality assurance. It also analyses the transaction costs of networking that have consequences on the number of members in the network. Empirical evidence is presented of the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional Education, which is a European strategic network of six higher education institutions. The results of the study support the argument that the number of members in the strategic network should be relatively small to provide high quality results. The practical importance is that networking has been able to promote international research and development projects. The results of this study are important for those who want to design and improve international networks in higher education.

Keywords: Higher education, network, research and development, strategic management.

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594 An Approach for a Bidding Process Knowledge Capitalization

Authors: R. Chalal, A. R. Ghomari

Abstract:

Preparation and negotiation of innovative and future projects can be characterized as a strategic-type decision situation, involving many uncertainties and an unpredictable environment. We will focus in this paper on the bidding process. It includes cooperative and strategic decisions. Our approach for bidding process knowledge capitalization is aimed at information management in project-oriented organizations, based on the MUSIC (Management and Use of Co-operative Information Systems) model. We will show how to capitalize the company strategic knowledge and also how to organize the corporate memory. The result of the adopted approach is improvement of corporate memory quality.

Keywords: Bidding process, corporate memory, Knowledge capitalization, knowledge acquisition, strategic decisions.

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593 Strategic Management via System Dynamics Simulation Models

Authors: G. Papageorgiou, A. Hadjis

Abstract:

This paper examines the problem of strategic management in highly turbulent dynamic business environmental conditions. As shown the high complexity of the problem can be managed with the use of System Dynamics Models and Computer Simulation in obtaining insights, and thorough understanding of the interdependencies between the organizational structure and the business environmental elements, so that effective product –market strategies can be designed. Simulation reveals the underlying forces that hold together the structure of an organizational system in relation to its environment. Such knowledge will contribute to the avoidance of fundamental planning errors and enable appropriate proactive well focused action.

Keywords: Strategic Management, System Dynamics, Modelingand Simulation, Strategic Planning, Organizational Dynamics

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