Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: marital violence.

73 Dyadic Adjustment as a Mediator of the Relationship between Attachment, Attributional Style, and Violence in Male Batterers

Authors: Hélène Brisebois, Claude Bélanger, Marie-Pier Léger-Bélanger, Valérie Lamontagne

Abstract:

This study examines the mediating effects of male dyadic adjustment on the relationships between attachment and attributional styles, and both psychological and physical husband violence. Based on data from 68 married violent men recruited through community organizations that work with violent men, regression analyses showed that husbands- dyadic adjustment mediates the associations between avoidant attachment and attributional style, and psychological aggression, but not physical violence. Scientific and clinical implications are discussed

Keywords: Attachment, attributions, dyadic adjustment, marital violence.

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72 Degree and the Effect of Order in the Family on Violence against Women (VAW)

Authors: Javadi Alimohammad, Javadi Maryam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study attempts to emphasize the factors relating to intra-family relationships (order point of view) on violence against the women, For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 100 women of married of city of Ilam in country of Iran were considered. For measurement of violence against the women , the CTS scaled has been used .violence against the women be measured in four dimension ( emotional violence, psycho violence, physical violence, neglect violence). highest violence was related to emotional violence and after are as follow respectively : physical violence and neglect violence. The results showed that women have experienced the violence more than once during the last year, degree of order in family is high. Explanation result indicated that the order variables in family including collective thinking, empathy and communal co-circumstance have significant effects on violence against the women. Via multiple regression analysis variables of empathy, religious tenet and education of husband had significant effect on violence against women. In other words relationships among family effect on violence in family.

Keywords: violence, domestic violence, violence against women, family.

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71 Marital Duration and Sexual Frequency among the Muslim and Santal Couples in Rural Bangladesh: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Authors: Md. Emaj Uddin

Abstract:

Age and sex are biological terms that are socioculturally constructed for marriage and marital sexual behavior in every society. Marriage is a universal norm that makes legitimate sexual behavior between a man and a woman in marital life cycle to gain bio-social purposes. Cross-cultural studies reveal that marital sexual frequency as a part of marital sexual behavior not only varies within the couple-s life cycle, but also varies between and among couples in diverse cultures. The purpose of the study was to compare marital sexual frequency in association with age status and length of marital relationship between Muslim and Santal couples in rural Bangladesh. For this we assumed that (1) Santal culture compared to Muslim culture preferred earlier age at marriage for meeting marital sexual purposes in rural Bangladesh; (2) Marital duration among the Muslim couples was higher than that among the Santal couples; (3) Sexual frequency among the younger couples in both the ethnic communities was higher than the older couples; (4) Sexual frequency across the Muslim couples- marital life cycle was higher than that the Santal couples- marital life cycle. In so doing, 288 active couples (145 for Muslim and 143 for Santal) selected by cluster random sampling were interviewed with questionnaire method. The findings of Independent Samples T Test on age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency independently reveal that there were significant differences in sexual frequency not only across the couples- life cycle but also vary between the Muslim and Santal couples in relation to marital duration. The results of Pearson-s Inter- Correlation Coefficients reveal that although age at marriage, current age and marital duration for husband and wife were significantly positive correlated with each other between the communities, there were significantly negative correlation between the age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency among the selected couples between the communities.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Cross-Cultural Perspective, MaritalDuration, Muslim, Santal, Marital Sexual Frequency.

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70 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards?

Authors: Khadija Ali

Abstract:

Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay – has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: Conflict, Gender, International Criminal Law Sexual Violence.

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69 The Affect of Ethnic Minority People: A Prediction by Gender and Marital Status

Authors: A. K. M. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yusuf Mahmud, S. H. Mahmud

Abstract:

The study aimed to investigate whether the affect (experience of feeling or emotion) of ethnic minority people can be predicted by gender and marital status. Toward this end, positive affect and negative affect of 103 adult indigenous persons were measured. Analysis of data in multiple regressions demonstrated that both gender and marital status are significantly associated with positive affect (Gender: β=.318, p<.001; Marital status: β=.201, p<.05), but not with negative affect. Results indicated that the indigenous males have 0.32 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to the indigenous females and that married individuals have 0.20 standard deviations increased positive affect as compared to their unmarried counterparts. These findings advance our understanding that gender and marital status inequalities in the experience of emotion are not specific to the mainstream society; rather it is a generalized picture of all societies. In general, men possess more positive affect than females; married persons possess more positive affect than the unmarried persons.

Keywords: Positive Affect, Negative Affect, Ethnic Minority, Gender, Marital Status.

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68 Men’s Engagement in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programs

Authors: Zeynep Turhan

Abstract:

This review emphasizes the effectiveness of men’s participation in preventing domestic violence, and whether nonviolent (NV) boys’ and men’s perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention programs affect their involvement. The main goals of this assessment were to investigate (1) how NV men engaged in anti-violence prevention programs that empower women, (2) what were the possible perceptions of NV men involved in prevention programs (3) how to identify effective approaches and strategies that encouraged NV men to become involved in prevention programs. This critical review also included the overview of prevention programs such as: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Programs (MVP), The White Ribbon Campaign (WRC), and Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership through Alliances (DELTA). The review suggested that (1) the expanding prevention programs need to reach more macro settings such as work place, faith-based and other community based organizations, and (2) territory prevention programs should expand through addressing the long-term effects of violence.

Keywords: Engagement, intimate partner violence, non-violent men, prevention programs.

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67 Evaluation of Degree and the Effect of Order in the Family on Violence against Children A Survey among Guidance School Students in Gilanegharb City in Iran

Authors: Javadi Alimohammad, Javadi Maryam, Feizi Fereidoon

Abstract:

A review of the literature found that Domestic violence and child maltreatment co-occur in many families, the purpose of this study attempts to emphasize the factors relating to intra-family relationships (order point of view) on violence against the children, For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 200 students of governmental guidance schools of city of Gilanegharb in country of Iran were considered. For measurement of violence against the children (VAC) the CTS scaled has been used .The results showed that children have experienced the violence more than once during the last year. degree of order in family is high. Explanation result indicated that the order variables in family including collective thinking, empathy, communal co-circumstance have significant effects on VAC.

Keywords: Violence, domestic violence, violence against children, order, guidance school, family, children.

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66 The Need for a More Robust Legal Framework to Curb the Rise in Violence against Game Officials

Authors: A. Roomy

Abstract:

The dramatic rise in violence against game officials has affected all levels of sports including recreational, amateur, and professional sports. One way to combat this rise in violence is through the creation of laws specifically aimed at preventing and punishing this kind of violence. This paper will use related legal cases as a starting point to explore possible ways of better protecting the safety of game officials. It will do this by looking at relevant cases, related legal issues, and two specific ways of reducing violence against game officials. In closing, it will be argued that there needs to be a more robust legal approach with emphasis on criminal and civil penalties for assault and battery, and a more comprehensive social approach with emphasis on raising social awareness on the need to protect game officials from violence.

Keywords: Violence, game officials, legal issues, protection.

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65 Marital Interactions in Predicting Treatment Outcome in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

Authors: Ghassan El-Baalbaki, Claude Bélanger, Michel Perreault, Steffany J. Fredman, Donald H. Baucom

Abstract:

This study had two goals. First, it investigated marital interaction variables as predictors of treatment outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) in sixty-five couples with one spouse suffering from PDA. Second, it analyzed the impact of PDA improvement, following therapy, on marital interaction patterns of both spouses. The partners were observed during a problem-solving task, before and after treatment. Negative behaviors at the outset of therapy, both in the PDA and the NPDA partners, predicted less improvement at post-test. It also appears that improvement in some PDA symptoms following therapy is linked to increase in the dominant behavior of the NPDA spouse and to an improvement in terms of his intrusiveness.

Keywords: Communication and problem-solving skills, Emotional overinvolvement, Marital relationship, Panic disorder withagoraphobia, Treatment outcome.

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64 Barriers to Marital Expectation among Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Oyo State

Authors: Adebomi M. Oyewumi, Sunday Amaize

Abstract:

The study was designed to examine the barriers to marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred participants made up forty-four (44) males and fifty-six (56) females, all with varying degrees of hearing impairment. Eight research questions were raised and answered. The instrument used was Marital Expectations Scale with reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tools of frequency count and simple percentage as well as inferential statistics tools of T-TEST and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship existing among the main identified barriers (environmental barrier, communication barrier, hearing loss, unemployment and poor sexuality education) to the marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment. The joint contribution of the independent variables (identified barriers) to the dependent variable (marital expectations) was significant, F = 5.842, P < 0.05, accounting for about 89% of the variance. The relative contribution of the identified barriers to marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment is as follows: environmental barrier (β = 0.808, t = 5.176, P < 0.05), communication barrier (β = 0.533, t = 3.305, P < 0.05), hearing loss (β = 0.550, t = 2.233, P < 0.05), unemployment (β = 0.431, t = 2.102, P < 0.05), poor sexuality education (β = 0.361, t = 1.985, P < 0.05). Environmental barrier proved to be the most potent contributor to the poor marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that society dismantles the nagging environmental barrier through positive identification with individuals suffering from hearing impairment. In this connection, members of society should change their negative attitudes and do away with all the wrong notions about the marital ability of individuals with hearing impairment.

Keywords: Hearing impairment, marriage, marital expectations, barrier.

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63 An Overview of the Risk for HIV/AIDS among Young Women in South Africa: Gender Based Violence

Authors: Shaneil Taylor

Abstract:

Gender-based violence is a reflection of the inequalities that are associated within a society between the men and women that affects the health, dignity, security and autonomy of its victims. There are various determinants that contribute to the health risk of young women who have experienced sexual violence, in countries that have a high prevalence rate for HIV. For instance, in South Africa, where the highest prevalence rate for HIV is among young women, their susceptibility to the virus has been increased by sexual violence and cultural inequalities. Therefore, this study is a review of literature that explores how gender-based violence increases the possibility for HIV/AIDS among young women in South Africa.

Keywords: Gender based violence, HIV/AIDS transmission, young women, Risky sexual behavior.

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62 Constructing an Attitude Scale: Attitudes toward Violence on Televisions

Authors: Göksu Gözen Citak

Abstract:

The process of constructing a scale measuring the attitudes of youth toward violence on televisions is reported. A 30-item draft attitude scale was applied to a working group of 232 students attending the Faculty of Educational Sciences at Ankara University between the years 2005-2006. To introduce the construct validity and dimensionality of the scale, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the data. Results of the exploratory factor analysis showed that the scale had three factors that accounted for 58,44% (22,46% for the first, 22,15% for the second and 13,83% for the third factor) of the common variance. It is determined that the first factor considered issues related individual effects of violence on televisions, the second factor concerned issues related social effects of violence on televisions and the third factor concerned issues related violence on television programs. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that all the items under each factor are fitting the concerning factors structure. An alpha reliability of 0,90 was estimated for the whole scale. It is concluded that the scale is valid and reliable.

Keywords: Attitudes toward violence, confirmatory factor analysis, constructing attitude scale, exploratory factor analysis, violence on televisions.

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61 An Interview and PhotoVoice Exploration of Sexual Education Provision to Women with Physical Disability and Potential Experiences of Violence

Authors: D. Beckwith

Abstract:

This research explored sexual identity for women with physical disability, both congenital and acquired. It also explored whether exposure to violence or negative risk-taking had played a role in their intimate relationships. This phenomenological research used semi-structured interviews and photo elicitation with the researcher’s insider knowledge adding experiential substance and understanding to the discussion. Findings confirm sexuality for women with physical disability is marginalised and de-gendered making it less of a priority for professionals and policy makers and emphasising the need to more effectively support women with disability in relation to their sexuality, sexual expression and violence.

Keywords: Lived-experience, PhotoVoice, sexuality, violence.

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60 Turkish Emerging Adults' Identity Statuses with Respect to Marital and Parental Statuses and SES

Authors: Sevgi Birsel Nemlioğlu, Hasan Atak

Abstract:

Emerging adulthood, between the ages of 18 and 25, as a new developmental stage extending from adolescence to young adulthood. According to Arnett [2004], there are experiments related to identity in three basic fields which are love, work and view of the world in emerging adulthood. When the literature related to identity is examined, it is seen that identity has been studied more with adolescent, and studies were concentrated on the relationship of identity with many demographic variables neglecting important variables such as marital status, parental status and SES. Thus, the main aim of this study is to determine whether identity statuses differenciate with marital status, parental status and SES. A total of 700 emerging adults participated in this study, and the mean age was 22,45 years [SD = 3.76]. The sample was made up of 347 female and 353 male. All participants in the study were students from colleges. Student responses to the Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status [EOM-EIS-2] used to classify students into one of the four identity statuses. SPSS 15.00 program wasa used to analyse data. Percentage, frequency and X2 analysis were used in the analysis of data. When the findings of the study is viewed as a whole, the most frequently observed identity status in the group is found to be moratorium. Also, identity statuses differenciate with marital status, parental status and SES. Findings were discussed in the context of emerging adulthood.

Keywords: Identity statuses, emerging adulthood, Turkey.

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59 The Role of Classroom Management Efficacy in Predicting Teacher Burnout

Authors: Yalçın Ozdemir

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to examine to what extend classroom management efficacy, marital status, gender, and teaching experience predict burnout among primary school teachers. Participants of this study were 523 (345 female, 178 male) teachers who completed inventories. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that three dimensions of teacher burnout (Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, Personal Accomplishment) were affected differently from four predictor variables. Findings indicated that for the emotional exhaustion, classroom management efficacy, marital status and teaching experience; for depersonalization dimension, classroom management efficacy and marital status and finally for the personal accomplishment dimension, classroom management efficacy, gender, and teaching experience were significant predictors.

Keywords: Classroom management efficacy, teacher burnout.

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58 Equality, Friendship, and Violence in Slash or Yaoi Fan Art

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

Slash or Yaoi fan art is the artwork that contains a homosexual relationship between fictional male characters, who were heterosexual in the original media. Previous belief about Slash or Yaoi fan art is that the fan fiction writers and the fan artists need to see the equality in romantic relationship. They do not prefer the pairing of man and woman, since both genders are not equal. The objectives of the current study are to confirm this belief, and to examine the relationship between equality found in Slash fan art, friendship in original media, and violence contained in fan art. Mean comparisons show that equality could be found in the pairing of hero and hero, but rarely found in the pairing of hero and villain. Regression analysis shows that the level of equality in fan art and friendship in original media are significant predictors of violence contained in fan art. Since villain-related pairings yield a high level of violence in fan art and a low level of equality, researchers of future studies should find the strategies to prevent fans to include villains in their Slash or Yaoi fan art.

Keywords: Equality, fan art, slash, violence, yaoi.

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57 Dynamics of Marital Status and Information Search through Consumer Generated Media: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Shivakumar Krishnamurti, Ruchi Agarwal

Abstract:

The study examines the influence of marital status on consumers of products and services using blogs as a source of information. A pre-designed questionnaire was used to collect the primary data from the respondents (experiences). Data were collected from one hundred and eighty seven respondents residing in and around the Emirates of Sharjah and Dubai of the United Arab Emirates. The collected data was analyzed with the help of statistical tools such as averages, percentages, factor analysis, Student’s t-test and Structural Equation Modelling Technique. Objectives of the study are to know the reasons how married and unmarried or single consumers of products and services are motivated to use blogs as a source of information, to know whether the consumers of products and services irrespective of their marital status share their views and experiences with other bloggers and to know the respondents’ future intentions towards blogging. The study revealed the following: Majority of the respondents have the motivation to blog because they are willing to receive comments on what they post about services, convenience of blogs to search for information about services and products, by blogging respondents share information on the symptoms of a disease/ disorder that may be experienced by someone, helps to share information about ready to cook mix products and are keen to spend more time blogging in the future.

Keywords: Blog, consumer, information, marital status.

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56 The Documentary Analysis of Meta-Analysis Research in Violence of Media

Authors: Proud Arunrangsiwed

Abstract:

The part of “future direction” in the findings of meta-analysis could provide the great direction to conduct the future studies. This study, “The Documentary Analysis of Meta-Analysis Research in Violence of Media” would conclude “future directions” out of 10 meta-analysis papers. The purposes of this research are to find an appropriate research design or an appropriate methodology for the future research related to the topic, “violence of media”. Further research needs to explore by longitudinal and experimental design, and also needs to have a careful consideration about age effects, time spent effects, enjoyment effects and ordinary lifestyle of each media consumer.

Keywords: Aggressive, future direction, meta-analysis, media, violence.

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55 Well-Being of Lagos Urban Mini-Bus Drivers: The Influence of Age and Marital Status

Authors: Bolajoko I. Malomo, Maryam O. Yusuf

Abstract:

Lagos urban mini bus drivers play a critical role in the transportation sector. The current major mode of transportation within Lagos metropolis remains road transportation and this confirms the relevance of urban mini-bus drivers in transporting the populace to their various destinations. Other modes of transportation such as the train and waterways are currently inadequate. Various threats to the well-being of urban bus drivers include congested traffic typical of modern day lifestyles, dwindling financial returns due to long hours in traffic, fewer hours of sleep, inadequate diet, time pressure, and assaults related to fare disputes. Several healthrelated problems have been documented to be associated with urban bus driving. For instance, greater rates of hypertension, obesity and cholesterol level have been reported. Research studies are yet to identify the influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers in Lagos metropolis. A study of this nature is necessary as it is culturally perceived in Nigeria that older and married people are especially influenced by family affiliation and would behave in ways that would project positive outcomes. The study sample consisted of 150 urban mini-bus drivers who were conveniently sampled from six (6) different terminuses where their journey begins and terminates. The well-being questionnaire was administered to participants. The criteria for inclusion in the study included the ability to read in English language and the confirmation that interested participants were on duty and suited to be driving mini-buses. Due to the nature of the job of bus driving, the researcher administered the questionnaires on participants who were free and willing to respond to the survey. All participants were males of various age groups and of different marital statuses. Results of analyses conducted revealed no significant influence of age and marital status on the well-being of urban mini-bus drivers. This indicates that the well-being of urban mini bus drivers is not influenced by age or marital status. The findings of this study have cultural implications. It negates the popularly held belief that older and married people care more about their well-being than younger and single people. It brings to fore the need to also identify and consider other factors when certifying people for the job of urban bus driving.

Keywords: Age, Lagos metropolis, marital status, well-being of urban mini bus drivers.

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54 Electoral Violence in Africa: Experience from Ethiopia

Authors: Wondwosen Teshome

Abstract:

It is impossible to think about democracy without elections. The litmus test of any electoral process in any country is the possibility of a one time minority to become a majority at another time and a peaceful transition of power. In many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa though the multi-party elections appeared to be competitive they failed the acid test of democracy: peaceful regime change in a free and fair election. Failure to solve electoral disputes might lead to bloody electoral conflicts as witnessed in many emerging democracies in Africa. The aim of this paper is to investigate electoral conflicts in Africa since the end of the Cold War by using the 2005 post-election violence in Ethiopia as a case study. In Ethiopia, the coming to power of the EPRDF in 1991 marked the fall of the Derg dictatorial military government and the beginning of a multi-party democracy. The country held multi-party parliamentary elections in 1995, 2000, and 2005 where the ruling EPRDF party “won" the elections through violence, involving intimidation, manipulation, detentions of political opponents, torture, and political assassinations. The 2005 electoral violence was the worst electoral violence in the country-s political history that led to the death of 193 protestors and the imprisonment of more than 40, 000 people. It is found out that the major causes of the 2005 Ethiopian election were the defeat of the ruling party in the election and its attempt to reverse the poll results by force; the Opposition-s lack of decisive leadership; the absence of independent courts and independent electoral management body; and the ruling party-s direct control over the army and police.

Keywords: Africa, Ethiopia, Election, Electoral violence, NEBE.

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53 Saving Lives: Alternative Approaches to Reducing Gun Violence

Authors: Angie M. Wolf, Angie Del Prado Lippman, DeVone Boggan, Caroline Glesmann, Estivaliz Castro

Abstract:

This paper highlights an innovative and nontraditional violence prevention program that is making a noticeable impact in what was once one of the country’s most violent communities. With unique and tailored strategies, the Operation Peacemaker Fellowship, established in Richmond, California, combines components of evidence-based practices with a community-oriented focus on relationships and mentoring to fill a gap in services and increase community safety. In an effort to highlight these unique strategies and provide a blueprint for other communities with violent crime problems, the authors of this paper hope to clearly delineate how one community is moving forward with vanguard approaches to invest in the lives of young men who once were labeled their community’s most violent, even most deadly, youth. The impact of this program is evidenced through the fellows’ own voices as they illuminate the experience of being in the Fellowship. In interviews, fellows describe how participating in this program has transformed their lives and the lives of those they love. The authors of this article spent more than two years researching this Fellowship program in order to conduct an evaluation of it and, ultimately, to demonstrate how this program is a testament to the power of relationships and love combined with evidence-based practices, consequently enriching the lives of youth and the community that embraces them.

Keywords: Community violence, firearm violence, interventions for violent crime, violence prevention.

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52 Teacher Professionalisation and Career Commitment

Authors: Fauziah Noordin, Rahmah Mohd Rashid, Rohani Ghani, Rasimah Aripin, , Zabani Darus

Abstract:

Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that teachers have low to moderate levels of professionalisation, high level of career identity and moderate levels of career resilience, and career planning. From the T-tests and F-tests conducted, it was found that gender has a significant impact on career identity whereas age and marital status have significant impact on career planning and also on career identity. The results indicate that there is a higher possibility of male teachers to leave the teaching profession than the female teachers. The result of the T-test on career identity in relation to gender supports this deduction in which female teachers have significantly higher career identity than their male counterparts. Marital status was also found to have a significant impact on career identity.

Keywords: Professionalisation, career identity, career resilience, career planning

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51 Linguistic Devices Reflecting Violence in Border–Provinces of Southern Thailand on the Front Page of Local and National Newspapers

Authors: Chanokporn Angsuviriya

Abstract:

The objective of the study is to analyze linguistic devices reflecting the violence in the south border provinces; namely Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and Songkla on 1,344 front pages of three local newspapers; namely ChaoTai, Focus PhakTai and Samila Time and of two national newspapers, including ThaiRath and Matichon, between 2004 and 2005, and 2011 and 2012. The study shows that there are two important linguistic devices: 1) lexical choices consisting of the use of verbs describing violence, the use of quantitative words and the use of words naming someone who committed violent acts, and 2) metaphors consisting of “A VIOLENT PROBLEM IS HEAT”, “A VICTIM IS A LEAF”, and “A TERRORIST IS A DOG”. Comparing linguistic devices between two types of newspapers, national newspapers choose to use words more violently than local newspapers do. Moreover, they create more negative images of the south of Thailand by using stative verbs. In addition, in term of metaphors “A TERRORIST IS A FOX.” is only found in national newspapers. As regards naming terrorists “southern insurgents”, this noun phrase which is collectively called by national newspapers has strongly negative meaning. Moreover, “southern insurgents” have been perceived by the Thais in the whole country while “insurgents” that are not modified have been only used by local newspapers.

Keywords: Linguistic Devices, Local Newspapers, National Newspapers, Violence.

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50 Factors Related to Being Good Membership Behavior in Organization of Personnel at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Patchalaphon Seeladlao, Anocha Kimkong

Abstract:

The aims of this study were to compare the differences of being good membership behavior among faculties and staffs of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University with different sex, age, income, education, marital status, and working period, and investigate the relationships between organizational commitment and being good membership behavior. The research methodology employed a questionnaire as a quantitative method. The respondents were 305 faculties and staffs of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. This research used Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, t-test, One-Way ANOVA Analysis of Variance, and Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient in data analysis. The results showed that organizational commitment among faculties and staffs of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University was at a high level. In addition, differences in sex, age, income, education, marital status, and working period revealed differences in being good membership behavior. The results also indicated that organizational commitment was significantly related to being good membership behavior.

Keywords: Being Good membership behavior, Organizational Commitment.

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49 The Escalation of Incivility in the Light of Social Constructions that Conceal Inequalities

Authors: J. M. B. Mendonça, M. V. S. Siqueira, A. Soares, M. A. F. Santos

Abstract:

The purpose of this article is to understand the dynamics of the increase in incivility through social relations (gender, race, class, sexual orientation, etc.), which hide inequalities in the form of treatment and opportunities within the organizational sphere. For this, we will examine works that address incivility at work, as well as studies that deviate from the mainstream, bringing more obscure organizational facets to light in connection with a critical approach to this issue. Next, some results of a bibliometric study shall be exposed, to analyze contributions connected to the theme and demonstrate gaps for future research. Then, models that facilitate reflection on the dynamics of violence shall be discussed. Finally, a broader concept of incivility in interpersonal relationships in the workplace shall be exposed considering the multiple approaches discussed.

Keywords: Incivility, inequalities, organization reflections, preventing violence.

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48 Legal Theories Underpinning Access to Justice for Victims of Sexual Violence in Refugee Camps in Africa

Authors: O. E. Eberechi, G. P. Stevens

Abstract:

Legal theory has been referred to as the explanation of why things do or do not happen. It also describes situations and why they ensue. It provides a normative framework by which things are regulated and a foundation for the establishment of legal mechanisms/institutions that can bring about a desired change in a society. Furthermore, it offers recommendations in resolving practical problems and describes what the law is, what the law ought to be and defines the legal landscape generally. Some legal theories provide a universal standard, e.g. human rights, while others are capable of organizing and streamlining the collective use, and, by extension, bring order to society. Legal theory is used to explain how the world works and how it does not work. This paper will argue for the application of the principles of legal theory in the achievement of access to justice for female victims of sexual violence in refugee camps in Africa through the analysis of legal theories underpinning the access to justice for these women. It is a known fact that female refugees in camps in Africa often experience some form of sexual violation. The perpetrators of these incidents may never be apprehended, prosecuted, convicted or sentenced. Where prosecution does occur, the perpetrators are either acquitted as a result of poor investigation, inept prosecution, a lack of evidence, or the case may be dismissed owing to tardiness on the part of the prosecutor, which accounts for the culture of impunity in refugee camps. In other words, victims do not have access to the justice that could ameliorate the plight of the victims. There is, thus, a need for a legal framework that will facilitate access to justice for these victims. This paper will start with an introduction, and be followed by the definition of legal theory, its functions and its application in law. Secondly, it will provide a brief explanation of the problems faced by female refugees who are victims of sexual violence in refugee camps in Africa. Thirdly, it will embark on an analysis of theories which will be a help to an understanding of the precarious situation of female refugees, why they are violated, the need for access to justice for these victims, and the principles of legal theory in its usefulness in resolving access to justice for these victims.

Keywords: Access to justice, underpinning legal theory, refugee, sexual violence.

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47 The Portrayal of Muslim Militants "Southern Bandits" in Thai Newspapers

Authors: Treepon Kirdnark

Abstract:

This paper examines the depiction of Muslim militants in Thai newspapers in 2004. Stuart Hall-s “representation" and “public idioms" are used as theoretical frameworks. Critical Discourse Analysis is employed as a methodology to examine 240 news articles from two leading Thai language newspapers. The results show that the militants are usually labeled as “southern bandits." This suggests that they are just a culprit of the violence in the deep south of Thailand. They are usually described as people who cause turbulence. Consequently, the military have to get rid of them. However, other aspects of the groups such as their political agenda or the failures of the Thai state in dealing with the Malay Muslims were not mention in the news stories. In the time of violence, the researcher argues that this kind of newspaper coverage may help perpetuate the discourse of Malay Muslim, instead of providing fuller picture of the ongoing conflicts.

Keywords: News Discourse, Newspapers, Thailand, Thai Muslims.

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46 Determinants of Aggression among Young Adolescents

Authors: Rita C. Ramos

Abstract:

Aggression is a multi- factorial concept and multilevel in nature. The Young Adolescent is being influenced by family, school and community. This paper is aimed to determine the following: aggression level among young adolescents, difference of level of aggression on school and year levels and to determine the correlates of aggression. There were 142 high school students from two different national highs schools (Region 3 and National Capital Region).Convenience sampling was use in this study. The following measures were used namely: Aggression Scale, Parental Support Fighting Scale, Positive Behavior Scale and Exposure to Violence and Trauma questionnaire. There was no significant difference in aggression level among different year level and schools. The findings of the study suggested that high level of community violence and having low parental support for non-aggressive behavior contribute to the prediction of aggression.

Keywords: Aggression, Determinants, Young Adolescents.

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45 Role of Direct and Secondary Traumatic Experience on Later Functioning

Authors: Pamela L. Knox, Linda R. Guthrie

Abstract:

Trauma in early life is widely regarded as a cause for adult mental health problems. This study explores the role of secondary trauma on later functioning in a sample of 359 university students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes in the United States. Participants were initially divided into four groups based on 1) having directly experienced trauma (assaultive violence), 2) having directly experienced trauma and secondary traumatization through the unanticipated death of a close friend or family member or witnessing of an injury or shocking even), 3) having no experience of direct trauma but having experienced indirect trauma (secondary trauma), or 4) reporting no exposure. Participants completed a battery of measures on concepts associated with psychological functioning which included measures of psychological well-being, problem solving, coping and resiliency. Findings discuss differences in psychological functioning and resilience based on participants who experienced secondary traumatization and assaultive violence versus secondary traumatization alone.

Keywords: Psychological Functioning, Resiliency, Trauma, Abuse

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44 Learners’ Violent Behaviour and Drug Abuse as Major Causes of Tobephobia in Schools

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

Many schools throughout the world are facing constant pressure to cope with the violence and drug abuse of learners who show little or no respect for acceptable and desirable social norms. These delinquent learners tend to harbour feelings of being beyond reproach because they strongly believe that it is well within their rights to engage in violent and destructive behaviour. Knives, guns, and other weapons appear to be more readily used by them on the school premises than before. It is known that learners smoke, drink alcohol, and use drugs during school hours, hence, their ability to concentrate, work, and learn, is affected. They become violent and display disruptive behaviour in their classrooms as well as on the school premises, and this atrocious behaviour makes it possible for drug dealers and gangsters to gain access onto the school premises. The primary purpose of this exploratory quantitative study was therefore to establish how tobephobia (TBP), caused by school violence and drug abuse, affects teaching and learning in schools. The findings of this study affirmed that poor discipline resulted in producing poor quality education. Most of the teachers in this study agreed that educating learners who consumed alcohol and other drugs on the school premises resulted in them suffering from TBP. These learners are frequently abusive and disrespectful, and resort to violence to seek attention. As a result, teachers feel extremely demotivated and suffer from high levels of anxiety and stress. The word TBP will surely be regarded as a blessing by many teachers throughout the world because finally, there is a word that will make people sit up and listen to their problems that cause real fear and anxiety in schools.

Keywords: Aims and objectives of quality education, Debilitating effects of tobephobia, Fear of failure associated with education, learners’ violent behaviour and drug abuse.

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