Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1575

Search results for: Treatment outcome.

1575 Marital Interactions in Predicting Treatment Outcome in Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

Authors: Ghassan El-Baalbaki, Claude Bélanger, Michel Perreault, Steffany J. Fredman, Donald H. Baucom

Abstract:

This study had two goals. First, it investigated marital interaction variables as predictors of treatment outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) in sixty-five couples with one spouse suffering from PDA. Second, it analyzed the impact of PDA improvement, following therapy, on marital interaction patterns of both spouses. The partners were observed during a problem-solving task, before and after treatment. Negative behaviors at the outset of therapy, both in the PDA and the NPDA partners, predicted less improvement at post-test. It also appears that improvement in some PDA symptoms following therapy is linked to increase in the dominant behavior of the NPDA spouse and to an improvement in terms of his intrusiveness.

Keywords: Communication and problem-solving skills, Emotional overinvolvement, Marital relationship, Panic disorder withagoraphobia, Treatment outcome.

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1574 Pre-Malignant Breast Lesions, Methods of Treatment and Outcome

Authors: Ahmed Mostafa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Nesreen H. Hafez, Mohamed Fahim

Abstract:

This retrospective study includes 60 patients with pre-invasive breast cancer. Aim of the study: Evaluation of premalignant lesions of the breast (DCIS), different treatment methods and outcome. Patients and methods: 60 patients with DCIS were studied from the period between 2005 to 2012, for 38 patients the primary surgical method was wide local resection (WLE) (63.3%) and the other cases (22 patients, 36.7%) had mastectomy, fourteen cases from those who underwent local excision received radiotherapy, while no adjuvant radiotherapy was given for those who underwent mastectomy. In case of hormonal receptor positive DCIS lesions hormonal treatment (Tamoxifen) was given after local control. Results: No difference in overall survival between mastectomy & breast conserving therapy (wide local excision and adjuvant radiotherapy), however local recurrence rate is higher in case of breast conserving therapy, also no role of Axillary evacuation in case of DCIS. The use of hormonal therapy decreases the incidence of local recurrence by about 98%. Conclusion: The main management of DCIS is local treatment (wide local excision and radiotherapy) with hormonal treatment in case of hormone receptor positive lesions.

Keywords: Ductal carcinoma in situ, surgical treatment, radiotherapy, breast conserving therapy, hormonal treatment.

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1573 Application of EEG Wavelet Power to Prediction of Antidepressant Treatment Response

Authors: Dorota Witkowska, Paweł Gosek, Lukasz Swiecicki, Wojciech Jernajczyk, Bruce J. West, Miroslaw Latka

Abstract:

In clinical practice, the selection of an antidepressant often degrades to lengthy trial-and-error. In this work we employ a normalized wavelet power of alpha waves as a biomarker of antidepressant treatment response. This novel EEG metric takes into account both non-stationarity and intersubject variability of alpha waves. We recorded resting, 19-channel EEG (closed eyes) in 22 inpatients suffering from unipolar (UD, n=10) or bipolar (BD, n=12) depression. The EEG measurement was done at the end of the short washout period which followed previously unsuccessful pharmacotherapy. The normalized alpha wavelet power of 11 responders was markedly different than that of 11 nonresponders at several, mostly temporoparietal sites. Using the prediction of treatment response based on the normalized alpha wavelet power, we achieved 81.8% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity for channel T4.

Keywords: Alpha waves, antidepressant, treatment outcome, wavelet.

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1572 Perinatal Outcome in Cases with Bleeding during First and Early Second Trimester

Authors: S. Chhabra, C. Tickoo, P. Kalra

Abstract:

Background: Bleeding during first half of pregnancy mostly originates from placenta, some abort, others are at risk of complications. Objective: Study was done to know perinatal outcome with bleeding up to 20 weeks in singleton pregnancy. Material Methods: Subjects were 1020, equal controls managed over 2 years, 435 had viable pregnancy at admission, 135 excluded, 300 followed for perinatal outcome, 99 (19.52% up to 10 weeks), 201 (39.18% of 11-20 weeks). Results: Hypertensive disorders occurred in 24% cases of bleeding within 10 weeks, 22% 11-20 weeks 14.79% controls, placenta previa 4% in 10 weeks, 0.9% 11-20 weeks, 0.97% controls, prelabor rupture of membranes in 16%, 7.45% controls. 20% up to 10 weeks, 35% 11-20 weeks, 18% controls had fetal growth restriction, 34.34% up to 10 weeks 30.35% of 11-20 weeks 17.17% controls had preterm births, perinatal mortality rate in study was 118.62, in controls 68.16 (Uneventful pregnancy in 13.52% study, 46.11% controls). Conclusion: Once bleeding occurs, one third continue pregnancy, maternal neonatal outcome gets affected with variations in cases of bleeding within first 10 weeks & 11-20 weeks.

Keywords: First, Second trimester, bleeding, Disorders, Perinatal Outcome.

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1571 Evaluating Health-Related Quality of Life of Lost to Follow-Up Tuberculosis Patients in Yemen

Authors: Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber, Amer Hayat Khan, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman

Abstract:

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as a major disease that affects daily activities and impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The impact of TB on HRQoL can affect treatment outcome and may lead to treatment defaulting. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the HRQoL of TB treatment lost to follow-up during and after treatment in Yemen. For this aim, this prospective study enrolled a total of 399 TB lost to follow-up patients between January 2011 and December 2015. By applying HRQoL criteria, only 136 fill the survey during treatment. Moreover, 96 were traced and fill out the HRQoL survey. All eight HRQol domains were categorized into the physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS), which were calculated using QM scoring software. Results show that all lost to follow-up TB patients reported a score less than 47 for all eight domains, except general health (67.3) during their treatment period. Low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 were reported for emotional role limitation (RE) and mental health (MH), respectively. Moreover, the mental component score (MCS) was found to be only 28.9. The trace lost follow-up shows a significant improvement in all eight domains and a mental component score of 43.1. The low scores of 27.9 and 29.8 for role emotion and mental health, respectively, in addition to the MCS score of 28.9, show that severe emotional condition and reflect the higher depression during treatment period that can result to lost to follow-up. The low MH, RE, and MCS can be used as a clue for predicting future TB treatment lost to follow-up.

Keywords: Yemen, tuberculosis, health-related quality of life, khat.

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1570 Visual and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Corneal Lacerations

Authors: Avantika Verma

Abstract:

In industrialized nations, corneal lacerations are one of the most common reason for hospitalization. This study was designed to study visual and clinical outcome in patients presenting with full thickness corneal lacerations in Indian population and to ascertain the impact of various preoperative and operative factors influencing prognosis after repair of corneal lacerations. Males in third decade with injuries at work with metallic objects were common. Lens damage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis were seen. All the patients underwent primary repair within first 24 hours of presentation. At 3 months, 74.3% had a good visual outcome. About 5.7% of patients had no perception of light.In conclusion, various demographic and preoperative factors like age, time of presentation, vision at presentation, length of corneal wound, involvement of visual axis, associated ocular features like hyphaema, lenticular changes, vitreous haemorrhage and retinal detachment are significant prognostic indicators for final visual outcome.

Keywords: Cornea, laceration, visual outcome, wound repair.

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1569 Regret, Choice, and Outcome

Authors: Olimpia Matarazzo, Lucia Abbamonte

Abstract:

In two studies we challenged the well consolidated position in regret literature according to which the necessary condition for the emergence of regret is a bad outcome ensuing from free decisions. Without free choice, and, consequently, personal responsibility, other emotions, such as disappointment, but not regret, are supposed to be elicited. In our opinion, a main source of regret is being obliged by circumstance out of our control to chose an undesired option. We tested the hypothesis that regret resulting from a forced choice is more intense than regret derived from a free choice and that the outcome affects the latter, not the former. Besides, we investigated whether two other variables – the perception of the level of freedom of the choice and the choice justifiability – mediated the relationships between choice and regret, as well as the other four emotions we examined: satisfaction, anger toward oneself, disappointment, anger towards circumstances. The two studies were based on the scenario methodology and implied a 2 x 2 (choice x outcome) between design. In the first study the foreseen short-term effects of the choice were assessed; in the second study the experienced long-term effects of the choice were assessed. In each study 160 students of the Second University of Naples participated. Results largely corroborated our hypotheses. They were discussed in the light of the main theories on regret and decision making.

Keywords: Choice, outcome, regret.

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1568 Radiobiological Model in Radiotherapy Planning for Prostate Cancer Treatment

Authors: Pradip Deb

Abstract:

Quantitative radiobiological models can be used to assess the optimum clinical outcome from sophisticated therapeutic modalities by calculating tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). In this study two 3D-CRT and an IMRT treatment plans were developed with an initial prescription dose of 60 Gy in 2 Gy/fraction to prostate. Sensitivity of TCP and Complication free tumor control probability (P+) to the different values of α/β ratio was investigated for various prescription doses planned to be delivered in either a fixed number of fractions (I) or in a fixed dose per fraction (II) in each of the three different treatment plans. High dose/fraction and high α/β value result in comparatively smaller P+ and IMRT plans resulted in the highest P+, mainly due to the decrease in NTCP. If α/β is lower than expected, better tumor control can be achieved by increasing dose/fraction but decreasing the number of fractions.

Keywords: Linear Quadratic Model, TCP, NTCP, α/β ratio.

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1567 Breast Cancer Treatment Evaluation based on Mammographic and Echographic Distance Computing

Authors: M. Caramihai, Irina Severin, H. Balan, A. Blidaru, V. Balanica

Abstract:

Accurate assessment of the primary tumor response to treatment is important in the management of breast cancer. This paper introduces a new set of treatment evaluation indicators for breast cancer cases based on the computational process of three known metrics, the Euclidian, Hamming and Levenshtein distances. The distance principals are applied to pairs of mammograms and/or echograms, recorded before and after treatment, determining a reference point in judging the evolution amount of the studied carcinoma. The obtained numerical results are indeed very transparent and indicate not only the evolution or the involution of the tumor under treatment, but also a quantitative measurement of the benefit in using the selected method of treatment.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Distance metrics, Cancer treatment evaluation.

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1566 Contribution of On-Site and Off-Site Processes to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions by Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Laleh Yerushalmi, Fariborz Haghighat, Maziar Bani Shahabadi

Abstract:

The estimation of overall on-site and off-site greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by wastewater treatment plants revealed that in anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems greater emissions result from off-site processes compared to on-site processes. However, in aerobic treatment systems, onsite processes make a higher contribution to the overall GHG emissions. The total GHG emissions were estimated to be 1.6, 3.3 and 3.8 kg CO2-e/kg BOD in the aerobic, anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively. In the aerobic treatment system without the recovery and use of the generated biogas, the off-site GHG emissions were 0.65 kg CO2-e/kg BOD, accounting for 40.2% of the overall GHG emissions. This value changed to 2.3 and 2.6 kg CO2-e/kg BOD, and accounted for 69.9% and 68.1% of the overall GHG emissions in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively. The increased off-site GHG emissions in the anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems are mainly due to material usage and energy demand in these systems. The anaerobic digester can contribute up to 100%, 55% and 60% of the overall energy needs of plants in the aerobic, anaerobic and hybrid treatment systems, respectively.

Keywords: On-site and off-site greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions, wastewater treatment plants, biogas recovery

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1565 A Condition Rating System for Wastewater Treatment Plants Infrastructures

Authors: Altayeb Qasem, Tarek Zayed, Zhi Chen

Abstract:

Statistics Canada stated that the wastewater treatment facilities in most provinces are aging and passes 63% of their useful life in 2007 the highest ratio among public infrastructure assets. Currently, there is no standard condition rating system for wastewater treatment plants that give a specific rating index that describe the physical integrity of different infrastructure elements in the treatment plant and its environmental performance. The main objective of this study is to develop a condition-rating index for wastewater treatment plants mainly activated sludge systems. The proposed WWTP CRI, is based on dividing the treatment plant into its three treatment phases; primary phase, secondary phase and the tertiary phase. The condition-rating index will reflect the infrastructures state for each phase, mainly tanks, pipes, blowers and pumps.

Keywords: Condition rating index, Wastewater treatment plants, AHP- MUAT.

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1564 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari

Abstract:

Heat treatable aluminum alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40-minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.

Keywords: 7055 Aluminum alloy, Mechanical properties, SCC resistance, Heat Treatment.

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1563 Estimation of Bio-Kinetic Coefficients for Treatment of Brewery Wastewater

Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

Anaerobic modeling is a useful tool to describe and simulate the condition and behaviour of anaerobic treatment units for better effluent quality and biogas generation. The present investigation deals with the anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with varying organic loads. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) of the influent and effluent of the bioreactor were determined at various retention times to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The bio-kinetic coefficients in the modified Stover–Kincannon kinetic and methane generation models were determined to study the performance of anaerobic digestion process. At steady-state, the determination of the kinetic coefficient (K), the endogenous decay coefficient (Kd), the maximum growth rate of microorganisms (μmax), the growth yield coefficient (Y), ultimate methane yield (Bo), maximum utilization rate constant Umax and the saturation constant (KB) in the model were calculated to be 0.046 g/g COD, 0.083 (d¯¹), 0.117 (d-¹), 0.357 g/g, 0.516 (L CH4/gCODadded), 18.51 (g/L/day) and 13.64 (g/L/day) respectively. The outcome of this study will help in simulation of anaerobic model to predict usable methane and good effluent quality during the treatment of industrial wastewater. Thus, this will protect the environment, conserve natural resources, saves time and reduce cost incur by the industries for the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater. It will also contribute to a sustainable long-term clean development mechanism for the optimization of the methane produced from anaerobic degradation of waste in a close system.

Keywords: Brewery wastewater, methane generation model, environment, anaerobic modeling.

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1562 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: E. Kouhgardi, S. Dashti, H. Fekrandish

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilaria corticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P<0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: Red alga, growth, biomass, culture, net, rope.

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1561 Maternal Health Outcome and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Dynamic Panel Analysis

Authors: Okwan Frank

Abstract:

Maternal health outcome is one of the major population development challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa. The region has the highest maternal mortality ratio, despite the progressive economic growth in the region during the global economic crisis. It has been hypothesized that increase in economic growth will reduce the level of maternal mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existence of the negative relationship between health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study used the Pooled Mean Group estimator of ARDL Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) and the Kao test for cointegration to examine the short-run and long-run relationship between maternal mortality and economic growth. The results of the cointegration test showed the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables considered for the study. The long-run result of the Pooled Mean group estimates confirmed the hypothesis of an inverse relationship between maternal health outcome proxy by maternal mortality ratio and economic growth proxy by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita. Thus increasing economic growth by investing in the health care systems to reduce pregnancy and childbirth complications will help reduce maternal mortality in the sub-region.

Keywords: Economic growth, maternal mortality, pool mean group, Sub-Saharan Africa.

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1560 The Effects of Mirror Therapy on Clinical Improvement in Hemiplegic Lower Extremity Rehabilitation in Subjects with Chronic Stroke

Authors: Hassan M. Abo Salem, Xiaolin Huang

Abstract:

Background: The effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) has been investigated in acute hemiplegia. The present study examines whether MT, given during chronic stroke, was more effective in promoting motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking speed than standard rehabilitation alone. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with chronic stroke. Fifteen patients each were assigned to the treatment group and the control group. All patients received a conventional rehabilitation program for a 4-week period. In addition to this rehabilitation program, patients in the treatment group received mirror therapy for 4 weeks, 5 days a week. Main measures: Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, gait speed, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, plantar flexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale. Results: No significant difference was found in the outcome measures among groups before treatment. When compared with standard rehabilitation, mirror therapy improved Ankle ROM, Brunnstrom stages and waking speed (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on MAS (P > 0.05).Conclusion: Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lowerextremity motor recovery and walking speed in chronic stroke patients.

Keywords: Mirror therapy, stroke, MAS, walking speed.

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1559 The Application of Bayesian Heuristic for Scheduling in Real-Time Private Clouds

Authors: Sahar Sohrabi

Abstract:

The emergence of Cloud data centers has revolutionized the IT industry. Private Clouds in specific provide Cloud services for certain group of customers/businesses. In a real-time private Cloud each task that is given to the system has a deadline that desirably should not be violated. Scheduling tasks in a real-time private CLoud determine the way available resources in the system are shared among incoming tasks. The aim of the scheduling policy is to optimize the system outcome which for a real-time private Cloud can include: energy consumption, deadline violation, execution time and the number of host switches. Different scheduling policies can be used for scheduling. Each lead to a sub-optimal outcome in a certain settings of the system. A Bayesian Scheduling strategy is proposed for scheduling to further improve the system outcome. The Bayesian strategy showed to outperform all selected policies. It also has the flexibility in dealing with complex pattern of incoming task and has the ability to adapt.

Keywords: Bayesian, cloud computing, real-time private cloud, scheduling.

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1558 A Study of Performance of Wastewater Treatment Systems for Small Sites

Authors: Fu E. Tang, Vun J. Ngu

Abstract:

The pollutant removal efficiency of the Intermittently Decanted Extended Aeration (IDEA) wastewater treatment system at Curtin University Sarawak Campus, and conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment system at a local resort, Resort A, is monitored. The influent and effluent characteristics are tested during wet and dry weather conditions, and peak and off peak periods. For the wastewater treatment systems at Curtin Sarawak and Resort A, during dry weather and peak season, it was found that the BOD5 concentration in the influent is 121.7mg/L and 80.0mg/L respectively, and in the effluent, 18.7mg/L and and 18.0mg/L respectively. Analysis of the performance of the IDEA treatment system showed that the operational costs can be minimized by 3%, by decreasing the number of operating cycles. As for the treatment system in Resort A, by utilizing a smaller capacity air blower, a saving of 12% could be made in the operational costs.

Keywords: Conventional Activated Sludge, IDEA, Performance Monitoring, Wastewater Treatment

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1557 Nuclear Medical Image Treatment System Based On FPGA in Real Time

Authors: B. Mahmoud, M.H. Bedoui, R. Raychev, H. Essabbah

Abstract:

We present in this paper an acquisition and treatment system designed for semi-analog Gamma-camera. It consists of a nuclear medical Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display chain(IATD) ensuring the acquisition, the treatment of the signals(resulting from the Gamma-camera detection head) and the scintigraphic image construction in real time. This chain is composed by an analog treatment board and a digital treatment board. We describe the designed systems and the digital treatment algorithms in which we have improved the performance and the flexibility. The digital treatment algorithms are implemented in a specific reprogrammable circuit FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).interface for semi-analog cameras of Sopha Medical Vision(SMVi) by taking as example SOPHY DS7. The developed system consists of an Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display (IATD) ensuring the acquisition and the treatment of the signals resulting from the DH. The developed chain is formed by a treatment analog board and a digital treatment board designed around a DSP [2]. In this paper we have presented the architecture of a new version of our chain IATD in which the integration of the treatment algorithms is executed on an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)

Keywords: Nuclear medical image, scintigraphic image, digitaltreatment, linearity, spectrometry, FPGA.

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1556 Contaminated Soil Remediation with Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation

Authors: A. Goi, M. Trapido, N. Kulik

Abstract:

The hydrogen peroxide treatment was able to remediate chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel and transformer oil contaminated soil. Chemical treatment of contaminants adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants- removal and required higher addition of chemicals than the treatment of contaminants in sand. The hydrogen peroxide treatment was found to be feasible for soil remediation at natural soil pH. Contaminants in soil could degrade with the addition of hydrogen peroxide only indicating the ability of transition metals ions and minerals of these metals presented in soil to catalyse the reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition.

Keywords: Hydrogen peroxide, oxidation, soil treatment, decontamination.

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1555 Treatment of Chrome Tannery Wastewater by Biological Process - A Mini Review

Authors: Supriyo Goswami, Debabrata Mazumder

Abstract:

Chrome tannery wastewater causes serious environmental hazard due to its high pollution potential. As a result, rigorous treatment is necessary for abatement of pollution from this type of wastewater. There are many research studies on chrome tannery wastewater treatment in the field of physical, chemical, and biological methods. In general, biological treatment process is found ineffective for direct application because of adverse effects by toxic chromium, sulphide, chloride etc. However, biological methods were employed mainly for a few sub processes generating significant amount of organic matter and without chromium, chlorides etc. In this context the present paper reviews the characteristics feature and pollution potential of wastewater generated from chrome tannery units and treatment of the same. The different biological processes used earlier and their chronological development for treatment of the chrome tannery wastewater are thoroughly reviewed in this paper. In this regard, the scope of hybrid bioreactor - an advanced technology option has also been explored, as this kind of treatment is well suited for the wastewater having inhibitory substances. 

Keywords: Composite tannery wastewater, biological treatment, Hybrid bioreactor, Organic removal

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1554 Rationality and Evidence of Pre-Prepared Treatment Plan in Oesophageal HDR Brachytherapy

Authors: Jim Meng, Mammo Yewondwossen

Abstract:

As a part of routine oesophageal HDR Brachytherapy procedure, treatment planning takes about 45 minutes while patients are under light sedation. Some patients may suffer gagging and/or spasms before the 90-minute brachytherapy procedure complete, and the treatment may need to be aborted. A pre-prepared plan generated before patient’s sedation may reduce the brachytherapy procedure time by 40 minutes. This paper reports rationality and evidence of pre-prepared treatment plans. A retrospective study of 28 patients confirms that pre-prepared plans would be acceptable for all reviewed patients. The rationality is further confirmed by a systemic study with a wide range of applicator curvature and treatment volume. Detailed comparison between CT based treatment plans and pre-prepared plans are discussed. The argument holds for endobronchial HDR brachytherapy too. With the above evidence, pre-prepared plans have been used for all oesophageal and endobronchial HDR brachytherapy cases in our clinic.

Keywords: HDR brachytherapy, treatment planning, oesophageal carcinoma.

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1553 Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Samuel Capintero, Ole H. Petersen

Abstract:

This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.

Keywords: Wastewater, treatment plants, PPP, construction.

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1552 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Byeong-Kyu Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati

Abstract:

This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: ABS, hydrophilic, heat treatment, froth flotation, contact angle.

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1551 Neutralization of Alkaline Waste-Waters using a Blend of Microorganisms

Authors: Rita Kumar, Alka Sharma, Purnima Dhall, Niha M. Kulshreshtha, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

The efficient operation of any biological treatment process requires pre-treatment of incompatible pollutants such as acids, bases, oil, toxic substances, etc. which hamper the treatment of other major components which are otherwise degradable. The pre-treatment of alkaline waste-waters, generated from various industries like textile, paper & pulp, potato-processing industries, etc., having a pH of 10 or higher, is essential. The pre-treatment, i.e., neutralization of such alkaline waste-waters can be achieved by chemical as well as biological means. However, the biological pretreatment offers better package over the chemical means by being safe and economical. The biological pre-treatment can be accomplished by using a blend of microorganisms able to withstand such harsh alkaline conditions. In the present study, for the proper pre-treatment of alkaline waste-waters, a package of alkalophilic bacteria is formulated to neutralise the alkaline pH of the industrial waste-waters. The developed microbial package is cost-effective as well as environmental friendly.

Keywords: alkaline, alkalophilic bacteria, biological, pollutants, textile.

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1550 Decision Trees for Predicting Risk of Mortality using Routinely Collected Data

Authors: Tessy Badriyah, Jim S. Briggs, Dave R. Prytherch

Abstract:

It is well known that Logistic Regression is the gold standard method for predicting clinical outcome, especially predicting risk of mortality. In this paper, the Decision Tree method has been proposed to solve specific problems that commonly use Logistic Regression as a solution. The Biochemistry and Haematology Outcome Model (BHOM) dataset obtained from Portsmouth NHS Hospital from 1 January to 31 December 2001 was divided into four subsets. One subset of training data was used to generate a model, and the model obtained was then applied to three testing datasets. The performance of each model from both methods was then compared using calibration (the χ2 test or chi-test) and discrimination (area under ROC curve or c-index). The experiment presented that both methods have reasonable results in the case of the c-index. However, in some cases the calibration value (χ2) obtained quite a high result. After conducting experiments and investigating the advantages and disadvantages of each method, we can conclude that Decision Trees can be seen as a worthy alternative to Logistic Regression in the area of Data Mining.

Keywords: Decision Trees, Logistic Regression, clinical outcome, risk of mortality.

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1549 Feasibility of Leukemia Cancer Treatment (K562) by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

Authors: Mashayekh Amir Shahriar, Akhlaghi Morteza, Rajaee Hajar, Khani Mohammad Reza, Shokri Babak

Abstract:

A new and novel approach in medicine is the use of cold plasma for various applications such as sterilization blood coagulation and cancer cell treatment. In this paper a pin-to-hole plasma jet suitable for biological applications is investigated and characterized and the possibility and feasibility of cancer cell treatment is evaluated. The characterization includes power consumption via Lissajous method, thermal behavior of plasma using Infra-red camera as a novel method, Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species that are generated. Treatment of leukemia cancer cells is also implemented and MTT assay is used to evaluate viability.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ), Plasma Medicine, Cancer cell treatment, leukemia.

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1548 Influence of Chemical Treatment on Elastic Properties of the Band Cotton Crepe 100%

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui, Madani Maalem

Abstract:

The manufacturing technology of band cotton is very delicate and depends to choice of certain parameters such as torsion of warp yarn. The fabric elasticity is achieved without the use of any elastic material, chemical expansion, artificial or synthetic and it’s capable of creating pressures useful for therapeutic treatments. Before use, the band is subjected to treatments of specific preparation for obtaining certain elasticity, however, during its treatment, there are some regression parameters. The dependence of manufacturing parameters on the quality of the chemical treatment was confirmed. The aim of this work is to improve the properties of the fabric through the development of manufacturing technology appropriately. Finally for the treatment of the strip pancake 100% cotton, a treatment method is recommended.

Keywords: Elastic, cotton, processing, torsion.

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1547 Impact Behavior of Cryogenically Treated En 52 and 21-4N Valve Steels

Authors: M. Arockia Jaswin, D. Mohan Lal

Abstract:

Cryogenic treatment is the process of cooling a material to extremely low temperatures to generate enhanced mechanical and physical properties. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of cryogenic treatment on the impact behavior of En 52 and 21-4N valve steels. The valve steels are subjected to shallow (193 K) and deep cryogenic treatment (85 K), and the impact behavior is compared with the valve steel materials subjected to conventional heat treatment. The impact test is carried out in accordance with the ASTM E 23-02a standard. The results show an improvement of 23 % in the impact energy for the En 52 deep cryo-treated samples when compared to that of the conventionally heat treated samples. It is revealed that during cryogenic treatment fine platelets of martensite are formed from the retained austenite, and these platelets promote the precipitation of fine carbides by a diffusion mechanism during tempering.

Keywords: Cryogenic treatment, valve steel, Fractograph, carbides, impact strength.

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1546 Study the Influence of Chemical Treatment on the Compositional Changes and Defect Structures of ZnS Thin Film

Authors: N. Dahbi, D-E. Arafah

Abstract:

The effect of chemical treatment in CdCl2 on the compositional changes and defect structures of potentially useful ZnS solar cell thin films prepared by vacuum deposition method was studied using the complementary Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and Thermoluminesence (TL) techniques. A series of electron and hole traps are found in the various as deposited samples studied. After treatment, perturbation on the intensity is noted; mobile defect states and charge conversion and/or transfer between defect states are found.

Keywords: chemical treatment, defect, glow curve, RBS, thinfilm, thermoluminescence, ZnS, vacuum deposition

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