Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2876

Search results for: features reduction.

2876 Relevant LMA Features for Human Motion Recognition

Authors: Insaf Ajili, Malik Mallem, Jean-Yves Didier

Abstract:

Motion recognition from videos is actually a very complex task due to the high variability of motions. This paper describes the challenges of human motion recognition, especially motion representation step with relevant features. Our descriptor vector is inspired from Laban Movement Analysis method. We propose discriminative features using the Random Forest algorithm in order to remove redundant features and make learning algorithms operate faster and more effectively. We validate our method on MSRC-12 and UTKinect datasets.

Keywords: Human motion recognition, Discriminative LMA features, random forest, features reduction.

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2875 Using PFA in Feature Analysis and Selection for H.264 Adaptation

Authors: Nora A. Naguib, Ahmed E. Hussein, Hesham A. Keshk, Mohamed I. El-Adawy

Abstract:

Classification of video sequences based on their contents is a vital process for adaptation techniques. It helps decide which adaptation technique best fits the resource reduction requested by the client. In this paper we used the principal feature analysis algorithm to select a reduced subset of video features. The main idea is to select only one feature from each class based on the similarities between the features within that class. Our results showed that using this feature reduction technique the source video features can be completely omitted from future classification of video sequences.

Keywords: Adaptation, feature selection, H.264, Principal Feature Analysis (PFA)

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2874 Feature Reduction of Nearest Neighbor Classifiers using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: M. Analoui, M. Fadavi Amiri

Abstract:

The design of a pattern classifier includes an attempt to select, among a set of possible features, a minimum subset of weakly correlated features that better discriminate the pattern classes. This is usually a difficult task in practice, normally requiring the application of heuristic knowledge about the specific problem domain. The selection and quality of the features representing each pattern have a considerable bearing on the success of subsequent pattern classification. Feature extraction is the process of deriving new features from the original features in order to reduce the cost of feature measurement, increase classifier efficiency, and allow higher classification accuracy. Many current feature extraction techniques involve linear transformations of the original pattern vectors to new vectors of lower dimensionality. While this is useful for data visualization and increasing classification efficiency, it does not necessarily reduce the number of features that must be measured since each new feature may be a linear combination of all of the features in the original pattern vector. In this paper a new approach is presented to feature extraction in which feature selection, feature extraction, and classifier training are performed simultaneously using a genetic algorithm. In this approach each feature value is first normalized by a linear equation, then scaled by the associated weight prior to training, testing, and classification. A knn classifier is used to evaluate each set of feature weights. The genetic algorithm optimizes a vector of feature weights, which are used to scale the individual features in the original pattern vectors in either a linear or a nonlinear fashion. By this approach, the number of features used in classifying can be finely reduced.

Keywords: Feature reduction, genetic algorithm, pattern classification, nearest neighbor rule classifiers (k-NNR).

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2873 Exploiting Global Self Similarity for Head-Shoulder Detection

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park, Jung-Ho Moon

Abstract:

People detection from images has a variety of applications such as video surveillance and driver assistance system, but is still a challenging task and more difficult in crowded environments such as shopping malls in which occlusion of lower parts of human body often occurs. Lack of the full-body information requires more effective features than common features such as HOG. In this paper, new features are introduced that exploits global self-symmetry (GSS) characteristic in head-shoulder patterns. The features encode the similarity or difference of color histograms and oriented gradient histograms between two vertically symmetric blocks. The domain-specific features are rapid to compute from the integral images in Viola-Jones cascade-of-rejecters framework. The proposed features are evaluated with our own head-shoulder dataset that, in part, consists of a well-known INRIA pedestrian dataset. Experimental results show that the GSS features are effective in reduction of false alarmsmarginally and the gradient GSS features are preferred more often than the color GSS ones in the feature selection.

Keywords: Pedestrian detection, cascade of rejecters, feature extraction, self-symmetry, HOG.

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2872 Dimension Reduction of Microarray Data Based on Local Principal Component

Authors: Ali Anaissi, Paul J. Kennedy, Madhu Goyal

Abstract:

Analysis and visualization of microarraydata is veryassistantfor biologists and clinicians in the field of diagnosis and treatment of patients. It allows Clinicians to better understand the structure of microarray and facilitates understanding gene expression in cells. However, microarray dataset is a complex data set and has thousands of features and a very small number of observations. This very high dimensional data set often contains some noise, non-useful information and a small number of relevant features for disease or genotype. This paper proposes a non-linear dimensionality reduction algorithm Local Principal Component (LPC) which aims to maps high dimensional data to a lower dimensional space. The reduced data represents the most important variables underlying the original data. Experimental results and comparisons are presented to show the quality of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, experiments also show how this algorithm reduces high dimensional data whilst preserving the neighbourhoods of the points in the low dimensional space as in the high dimensional space.

Keywords: Linear Dimension Reduction, Non-Linear Dimension Reduction, Principal Component Analysis, Biologists.

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2871 Mining Image Features in an Automatic Two-Dimensional Shape Recognition System

Authors: R. A. Salam, M.A. Rodrigues

Abstract:

The number of features required to represent an image can be very huge. Using all available features to recognize objects can suffer from curse dimensionality. Feature selection and extraction is the pre-processing step of image mining. Main issues in analyzing images is the effective identification of features and another one is extracting them. The mining problem that has been focused is the grouping of features for different shapes. Experiments have been conducted by using shape outline as the features. Shape outline readings are put through normalization and dimensionality reduction process using an eigenvector based method to produce a new set of readings. After this pre-processing step data will be grouped through their shapes. Through statistical analysis, these readings together with peak measures a robust classification and recognition process is achieved. Tests showed that the suggested methods are able to automatically recognize objects through their shapes. Finally, experiments also demonstrate the system invariance to rotation, translation, scale, reflection and to a small degree of distortion.

Keywords: Image mining, feature selection, shape recognition, peak measures.

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2870 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: Microkinetic modelling, NOx, Pt on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction.

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2869 Unsupervised Feature Selection Using Feature Density Functions

Authors: Mina Alibeigi, Sattar Hashemi, Ali Hamzeh

Abstract:

Since dealing with high dimensional data is computationally complex and sometimes even intractable, recently several feature reductions methods have been developed to reduce the dimensionality of the data in order to simplify the calculation analysis in various applications such as text categorization, signal processing, image retrieval, gene expressions and etc. Among feature reduction techniques, feature selection is one the most popular methods due to the preservation of the original features. In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised feature selection method which will remove redundant features from the original feature space by the use of probability density functions of various features. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, popular feature selection methods have been implemented and compared. Experimental results on the several datasets derived from UCI repository database, illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods in comparison with the other compared methods in terms of both classification accuracy and the number of selected features.

Keywords: Feature, Feature Selection, Filter, Probability Density Function

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2868 A Robust Controller for Output Variance Reduction and Minimum Variance with Application on a Permanent Field DC-Motor

Authors: Mahmood M. Al-Imam, M. Mustafa

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an experimental testing for a new algorithm that determines an optimal controller-s coefficients for output variance reduction related to Linear Time Invariant (LTI) Systems. The algorithm features simplicity in calculation, generalization to minimal and non-minimal phase systems, and could be configured to achieve reference tracking as well as variance reduction after compromising with the output variance. An experiment of DCmotor velocity control demonstrates the application of this new algorithm in designing the controller. The results show that the controller achieves minimum variance and reference tracking for a preset velocity reference relying on an identified model of the motor.

Keywords: Output variance, minimum variance, overparameterization, DC-Motor.

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2867 Reducing the False Rejection Rate of Iris Recognition Using Textural and Topological Features

Authors: M. Vatsa, R. Singh, A. Noore

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel iris recognition system using 1D log polar Gabor wavelet and Euler numbers. 1D log polar Gabor wavelet is used to extract the textural features, and Euler numbers are used to extract topological features of the iris. The proposed decision strategy uses these features to authenticate an individual-s identity while maintaining a low false rejection rate. The algorithm was tested on CASIA iris image database and found to perform better than existing approaches with an overall accuracy of 99.93%.

Keywords: Iris recognition, textural features, topological features.

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2866 Dimensionality Reduction in Modal Analysis for Structural Health Monitoring

Authors: Elia Favarelli, Enrico Testi, Andrea Giorgetti

Abstract:

Autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) of many structures and bridges became a topic of paramount importance for maintenance purposes and safety reasons. This paper proposes a set of machine learning (ML) tools to perform automatic feature selection and detection of anomalies in a bridge from vibrational data and compare different feature extraction schemes to increase the accuracy and reduce the amount of data collected. As a case study, the Z-24 bridge is considered because of the extensive database of accelerometric data in both standard and damaged conditions. The proposed framework starts from the first four fundamental frequencies extracted through operational modal analysis (OMA) and clustering, followed by time-domain filtering (tracking). The fundamental frequencies extracted are then fed to a dimensionality reduction block implemented through two different approaches: feature selection (intelligent multiplexer) that tries to estimate the most reliable frequencies based on the evaluation of some statistical features (i.e., entropy, variance, kurtosis), and feature extraction (auto-associative neural network (ANN)) that combine the fundamental frequencies to extract new damage sensitive features in a low dimensional feature space. Finally, one-class classification (OCC) algorithms perform anomaly detection, trained with standard condition points, and tested with normal and anomaly ones. In particular, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and autoassociative neural network (ANN) are presented and their performance are compared. It is also shown that, by evaluating the correct features, the anomaly can be detected with accuracy and an F1 score greater than 95%.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, dimensionality reduction, frequencies selection, modal analysis, neural network, structural health monitoring, vibration measurement.

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2865 Remaining Useful Life Estimation of Bearings Based on Nonlinear Dimensional Reduction Combined with Timing Signals

Authors: Zhongmin Wang, Wudong Fan, Hengshan Zhang, Yimin Zhou

Abstract:

In data-driven prognostic methods, the prediction accuracy of the estimation for remaining useful life of bearings mainly depends on the performance of health indicators, which are usually fused some statistical features extracted from vibrating signals. However, the existing health indicators have the following two drawbacks: (1) The differnet ranges of the statistical features have the different contributions to construct the health indicators, the expert knowledge is required to extract the features. (2) When convolutional neural networks are utilized to tackle time-frequency features of signals, the time-series of signals are not considered. To overcome these drawbacks, in this study, the method combining convolutional neural network with gated recurrent unit is proposed to extract the time-frequency image features. The extracted features are utilized to construct health indicator and predict remaining useful life of bearings. First, original signals are converted into time-frequency images by using continuous wavelet transform so as to form the original feature sets. Second, with convolutional and pooling layers of convolutional neural networks, the most sensitive features of time-frequency images are selected from the original feature sets. Finally, these selected features are fed into the gated recurrent unit to construct the health indicator. The results state that the proposed method shows the enhance performance than the related studies which have used the same bearing dataset provided by PRONOSTIA.

Keywords: Continuous wavelet transform, convolution neural network, gated recurrent unit, health indicators, remaining useful life.

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2864 One Dimensional Object Segmentation and Statistical Features of an Image for Texture Image Recognition System

Authors: Nang Thwe Thwe Oo

Abstract:

Traditional object segmentation methods are time consuming and computationally difficult. In this paper, onedimensional object detection along the secant lines is applied. Statistical features of texture images are computed for the recognition process. Example matrices of these features and formulae for calculation of similarities between two feature patterns are expressed. And experiments are also carried out using these features.

Keywords: 1-D object segmentation, secant lines, objectoccurrence(frequency) matrix, contiguity matrix, statistical features.

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2863 Optimizing Feature Selection for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Characters

Authors: Mohammed Z. Khedher, Gheith A. Abandah, Ahmed M. Al-Khawaldeh

Abstract:

Recognition of characters greatly depends upon the features used. Several features of the handwritten Arabic characters are selected and discussed. An off-line recognition system based on the selected features was built. The system was trained and tested with realistic samples of handwritten Arabic characters. Evaluation of the importance and accuracy of the selected features is made. The recognition based on the selected features give average accuracies of 88% and 70% for the numbers and letters, respectively. Further improvements are achieved by using feature weights based on insights gained from the accuracies of individual features.

Keywords: Arabic handwritten characters, Feature extraction, Off-line recognition, Optical character recognition.

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2862 Dimensionality Reduction of PSSM Matrix and its Influence on Secondary Structure and Relative Solvent Accessibility Predictions

Authors: Rafał Adamczak

Abstract:

State-of-the-art methods for secondary structure (Porter, Psi-PRED, SAM-T99sec, Sable) and solvent accessibility (Sable, ACCpro) predictions use evolutionary profiles represented by the position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). It has been demonstrated that evolutionary profiles are the most important features in the feature space for these predictions. Unfortunately applying PSSM matrix leads to high dimensional feature spaces that may create problems with parameter optimization and generalization. Several recently published suggested that applying feature extraction for the PSSM matrix may result in improvements in secondary structure predictions. However, none of the top performing methods considered here utilizes dimensionality reduction to improve generalization. In the present study, we used simple and fast methods for features selection (t-statistics, information gain) that allow us to decrease the dimensionality of PSSM matrix by 75% and improve generalization in the case of secondary structure prediction compared to the Sable server.

Keywords: Secondary structure prediction, feature selection, position specific scoring matrix.

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2861 Epileptic Seizure Prediction by Exploiting Signal Transitions Phenomena

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

A seizure prediction method is proposed by extracting global features using phase correlation between adjacent epochs for detecting relative changes and local features using fluctuation/ deviation within an epoch for determining fine changes of different EEG signals. A classifier and a regularization technique are applied for the reduction of false alarms and improvement of the overall prediction accuracy. The experiments show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and provides high prediction accuracy (i.e., 97.70%) with low false alarm using EEG signals in different brain locations from a benchmark data set.

Keywords: Epilepsy, Seizure, Phase Correlation, Fluctuation, Deviation.

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2860 Detecting HCC Tumor in Three Phasic CT Liver Images with Optimization of Neural Network

Authors: Mahdieh Khalilinezhad, Silvana Dellepiane, Gianni Vernazza

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to build a model based on tissue characterization that is able to discriminate pathological and non-pathological regions from three-phasic CT images. With our research and based on a feature selection in different phases, we are trying to design a neural network system with an optimal neuron number in a hidden layer. Our approach consists of three steps: feature selection, feature reduction, and classification. For each region of interest (ROI), 6 distinct sets of texture features are extracted such as: first order histogram parameters, absolute gradient, run-length matrix, co-occurrence matrix, autoregressive model, and wavelet, for a total of 270 texture features. When analyzing more phases, we show that the injection of liquid cause changes to the high relevant features in each region. Our results demonstrate that for detecting HCC tumor phase 3 is the best one in most of the features that we apply to the classification algorithm. The percentage of detection between pathology and healthy classes, according to our method, relates to first order histogram parameters with accuracy of 85% in phase 1, 95% in phase 2, and 95% in phase 3.

Keywords: Feature selection, Multi-phasic liver images, Neural network, Texture analysis.

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2859 Improving Worm Detection with Artificial Neural Networks through Feature Selection and Temporal Analysis Techniques

Authors: Dima Stopel, Zvi Boger, Robert Moskovitch, Yuval Shahar, Yuval Elovici

Abstract:

Computer worm detection is commonly performed by antivirus software tools that rely on prior explicit knowledge of the worm-s code (detection based on code signatures). We present an approach for detection of the presence of computer worms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) using the computer's behavioral measures. Identification of significant features, which describe the activity of a worm within a host, is commonly acquired from security experts. We suggest acquiring these features by applying feature selection methods. We compare three different feature selection techniques for the dimensionality reduction and identification of the most prominent features to capture efficiently the computer behavior in the context of worm activity. Additionally, we explore three different temporal representation techniques for the most prominent features. In order to evaluate the different techniques, several computers were infected with five different worms and 323 different features of the infected computers were measured. We evaluated each technique by preprocessing the dataset according to each one and training the ANN model with the preprocessed data. We then evaluated the ability of the model to detect the presence of a new computer worm, in particular, during heavy user activity on the infected computers.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Feature Selection, Temporal Analysis, Worm Detection.

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2858 Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming

Authors: Michael Todinov, Eberechi Weli

Abstract:

The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expressed as integer number), the worst-case running time of the proposed algorithm is O (n x (B+1)), which makes the proposed method a very efficient tool for solving the optimal risk reduction problem in the railway industry. 

Keywords: Optimisation, railway risk reduction, budget constraints, dynamic programming.

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2857 Finding Sparse Features in Face Detection Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: H. Sagha, S. Kasaei, E. Enayati, M. Dehghani

Abstract:

Although Face detection is not a recent activity in the field of image processing, it is still an open area for research. The greatest step in this field is the work reported by Viola and its recent analogous is Huang et al. Both of them use similar features and also similar training process. The former is just for detecting upright faces, but the latter can detect multi-view faces in still grayscale images using new features called 'sparse feature'. Finding these features is very time consuming and inefficient by proposed methods. Here, we propose a new approach for finding sparse features using a genetic algorithm system. This method requires less computational cost and gets more effective features in learning process for face detection that causes more accuracy.

Keywords: Face Detection, Genetic Algorithms, Sparse Feature.

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2856 Scatterer Density in Edge and Coherence Enhancing Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion for Medical Ultrasound Speckle Reduction

Authors: Ahmed Badawi, J. Michael Johnson, Mohamed Mahfouz

Abstract:

This paper proposes new enhancement models to the methods of nonlinear anisotropic diffusion to greatly reduce speckle and preserve image features in medical ultrasound images. By incorporating local physical characteristics of the image, in this case scatterer density, in addition to the gradient, into existing tensorbased image diffusion methods, we were able to greatly improve the performance of the existing filtering methods, namely edge enhancing (EE) and coherence enhancing (CE) diffusion. The new enhancement methods were tested using various ultrasound images, including phantom and some clinical images, to determine the amount of speckle reduction, edge, and coherence enhancements. Scatterer density weighted nonlinear anisotropic diffusion (SDWNAD) for ultrasound images consistently outperformed its traditional tensor-based counterparts that use gradient only to weight the diffusivity function. SDWNAD is shown to greatly reduce speckle noise while preserving image features as edges, orientation coherence, and scatterer density. SDWNAD superior performances over nonlinear coherent diffusion (NCD), speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), adaptive weighted median filter (AWMF), wavelet shrinkage (WS), and wavelet shrinkage with contrast enhancement (WSCE), make these methods ideal preprocessing steps for automatic segmentation in ultrasound imaging.

Keywords: Nonlinear anisotropic diffusion, ultrasound imaging, speckle reduction, scatterer density estimation, edge based enhancement, coherence enhancement.

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2855 Face Recognition using Features Combination and a New Non-linear Kernel

Authors: Essam Al Daoud

Abstract:

To improve the classification rate of the face recognition, features combination and a novel non-linear kernel are proposed. The feature vector concatenates three different radius of local binary patterns and Gabor wavelet features. Gabor features are the mean, standard deviation and the skew of each scaling and orientation parameter. The aim of the new kernel is to incorporate the power of the kernel methods with the optimal balance between the features. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerous methods are tested by using four datasets, which are consisting of various emotions, orientations, configuration, expressions and lighting conditions. Empirical results show the superiority of the proposed technique when compared to other methods.

Keywords: Face recognition, Gabor wavelet, LBP, Non-linearkerner

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2854 Simulations of Laminar Liquid Flows through Superhydrophobic Micro-Pipes

Authors: Mohamed E. Eleshaky

Abstract:

This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of laminar water flows inside superhydrophobic micro-pipes patterned with square micro-posts features under different operating conditions. It also investigates the effects of air fraction and Reynolds number on the frictional performance of these pipes. Rather than modeling the air-water interfaces of superhydrophobic as a flat inflexible surface, a transient, incompressible, three-dimensional, volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology has been employed to continuously track the air–water interface shape inside micro-pipes. Also, the entrance effects on the flow field have been taken into consideration. The results revealed the strong dependency of the frictional performance on the air fractions and Reynolds number. The frictional resistance reduction becomes increasingly more significant at large air fractions and low Reynolds numbers. Increasing Reynolds number has an adverse effect on the frictional resistance reduction.

Keywords: Drag reduction, laminar flow in micropipes, numerical simulation, superhyrophobic surfaces, microposts.

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2853 Video Data Mining based on Information Fusion for Tamper Detection

Authors: Girija Chetty, Renuka Biswas

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose novel algorithmic models based on information fusion and feature transformation in crossmodal subspace for different types of residue features extracted from several intra-frame and inter-frame pixel sub-blocks in video sequences for detecting digital video tampering or forgery. An evaluation of proposed residue features – the noise residue features and the quantization features, their transformation in cross-modal subspace, and their multimodal fusion, for emulated copy-move tamper scenario shows a significant improvement in tamper detection accuracy as compared to single mode features without transformation in cross-modal subspace.

Keywords: image tamper detection, digital forensics, correlation features image fusion

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2852 Improving Classification Accuracy with Discretization on Datasets Including Continuous Valued Features

Authors: Mehmet Hacibeyoglu, Ahmet Arslan, Sirzat Kahramanli

Abstract:

This study analyzes the effect of discretization on classification of datasets including continuous valued features. Six datasets from UCI which containing continuous valued features are discretized with entropy-based discretization method. The performance improvement between the dataset with original features and the dataset with discretized features is compared with k-nearest neighbors, Naive Bayes, C4.5 and CN2 data mining classification algorithms. As the result the classification accuracies of the six datasets are improved averagely by 1.71% to 12.31%.

Keywords: Data mining classification algorithms, entropy-baseddiscretization method

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2851 Fast Wavelet Image Denoising Based on Local Variance and Edge Analysis

Authors: Gaoyong Luo

Abstract:

The approach based on the wavelet transform has been widely used for image denoising due to its multi-resolution nature, its ability to produce high levels of noise reduction and the low level of distortion introduced. However, by removing noise, high frequency components belonging to edges are also removed, which leads to blurring the signal features. This paper proposes a new method of image noise reduction based on local variance and edge analysis. The analysis is performed by dividing an image into 32 x 32 pixel blocks, and transforming the data into wavelet domain. Fast lifting wavelet spatial-frequency decomposition and reconstruction is developed with the advantages of being computationally efficient and boundary effects minimized. The adaptive thresholding by local variance estimation and edge strength measurement can effectively reduce image noise while preserve the features of the original image corresponding to the boundaries of the objects. Experimental results demonstrate that the method performs well for images contaminated by natural and artificial noise, and is suitable to be adapted for different class of images and type of noises. The proposed algorithm provides a potential solution with parallel computation for real time or embedded system application.

Keywords: Edge strength, Fast lifting wavelet, Image denoising, Local variance.

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2850 Using Reservoir Models for Monitoring Geothermal Surface Features

Authors: John P. O’Sullivan, Thomas M. P. Ratouis, Michael J. O’Sullivan

Abstract:

As the use of geothermal energy grows internationally more effort is required to monitor and protect areas with rare and important geothermal surface features. A number of approaches are presented for developing and calibrating numerical geothermal reservoir models that are capable of accurately representing geothermal surface features. The approaches are discussed in the context of cases studies of the Rotorua geothermal system and the Orakei-korako geothermal system, both of which contain important surface features. The results show that models are able to match the available field data accurately and hence can be used as valuable tools for predicting the future response of the systems to changes in use.

Keywords: Geothermal reservoir models, surface features, monitoring, TOUGH2.

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2849 Investigating Relationship between Product Features and Supply Chain Integration

Authors: Saied Rasul Hosseini Baharanchi

Abstract:

This paper addresses integration issues in supply chain, and tries to investigate how different aspects of integration are linked with some product features. Integration in this study is interpreted as "internal", "upstream" (supply), and "downstream" (demand). Two features of product innovative and quality are considered. To examine the relationships between supply chain integrations – as mentioned above, and product features, this research follows the survey method in automotive industry.The results imply that supply chain upstream integration has a higher impact on product quality, comparing to internal and supply chain downstream integrations. It is also found that the influence of supply chain downstream integration on product innovation is greater than other variables. In brief, this study mainly tackles the importance of specific level of supply chain integrations and its effects on two product features.

Keywords: Supply chain upstream integration, supply chaindownstream integration, internal integration, product features

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2848 Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features

Authors: Kyi Pyar Zaw, Zin Mar Kyu

Abstract:

Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.

Keywords: Chain code frequency, character recognition, feature extraction, features matching, segmentation.

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2847 Image Search by Features of Sorted Gray level Histogram Polynomial Curve

Authors: Awais Adnan, Muhammad Ali, Amir Hanif Dar

Abstract:

Image Searching was always a problem specially when these images are not properly managed or these are distributed over different locations. Currently different techniques are used for image search. On one end, more features of the image are captured and stored to get better results. Storing and management of such features is itself a time consuming job. While on the other extreme if fewer features are stored the accuracy rate is not satisfactory. Same image stored with different visual properties can further reduce the rate of accuracy. In this paper we present a new concept of using polynomials of sorted histogram of the image. This approach need less overhead and can cope with the difference in visual features of image.

Keywords: Sorted Histogram, Polynomial Curves, feature pointsof images, Grayscale, visual properties of image.

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