Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2826

Search results for: evaluation measures

2826 Performance Analysis of MT Evaluation Measures and Test Suites

Authors: Yao Jian-Min, Lv Qiang, Zhang Jing

Abstract:

Many measures have been proposed for machine translation evaluation (MTE) while little research has been done on the performance of MTE methods. This paper is an effort for MTE performance analysis. A general frame is proposed for the description of the MTE measure and the test suite, including whether the automatic measure is consistent with human evaluation, whether different results from various measures or test suites are consistent, whether the content of the test suite is suitable for performance evaluation, the degree of difficulty of the test suite and its influence on the MTE, the relationship of MTE result significance and the size of the test suite, etc. For a better clarification of the frame, several experiment results are analyzed relating human evaluation, BLEU evaluation, and typological MTE. A visualization method is introduced for better presentation of the results. The study aims for aid in construction of test suite and method selection in MTE practice.

Keywords: Machine translation, natural language processing, visualization.

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2825 SimplexIS: Evaluating the Impact of e-Gov Simplification Measures in the Information System Architecure

Authors: Bruno Félix, André Vasconcelos, José Tribolet

Abstract:

Nowadays increasingly the population makes use of Information Technology (IT). As such, in recent year the Portuguese government increased its focus on using the IT for improving people-s life and began to develop a set of measures to enable the modernization of the Public Administration, and so reducing the gap between Public Administration and citizens.Thus the Portuguese Government launched the Simplex Program. However these SIMPLEX eGov measures, which have been implemented over the years, present a serious challenge: how to forecast its impact on existing Information Systems Architecture (ISA). Thus, this research is focus in addressing the problem of automating the evaluation of the actual impact of implementation an eGovSimplification and Modernization measures in the Information Systems Architecture. To realize the evaluation we proposes a Framework, which is supported by some key concepts as: Quality Factors, ISA modeling, Multicriteria Approach, Polarity Profile and Quality Metrics

Keywords: Information System Architecture, Evaluation, eGov Simplification measure, Multicriteria Evaluation

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2824 A Black-box Approach for Response Quality Evaluation of Conversational Agent Systems

Authors: Ong Sing Goh, C. Ardil, Wilson Wong, Chun Che Fung

Abstract:

The evaluation of conversational agents or chatterbots question answering systems is a major research area that needs much attention. Before the rise of domain-oriented conversational agents based on natural language understanding and reasoning, evaluation is never a problem as information retrieval-based metrics are readily available for use. However, when chatterbots began to become more domain specific, evaluation becomes a real issue. This is especially true when understanding and reasoning is required to cater for a wider variety of questions and at the same time to achieve high quality responses. This paper discusses the inappropriateness of the existing measures for response quality evaluation and the call for new standard measures and related considerations are brought forward. As a short-term solution for evaluating response quality of conversational agents, and to demonstrate the challenges in evaluating systems of different nature, this research proposes a blackbox approach using observation, classification scheme and a scoring mechanism to assess and rank three example systems, AnswerBus, START and AINI.

Keywords: Evaluation, conversational agents, Response Quality, chatterbots

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2823 Many-Sided Self Risk Analysis Model for Information Asset to Secure Stability of the Information and Communication Service

Authors: Jin-Tae Lee, Jung-Hoon Suh, Sang-Soo Jang, Jae-Il Lee

Abstract:

Information and communication service providers (ICSP) that are significant in size and provide Internet-based services take administrative, technical, and physical protection measures via the information security check service (ISCS). These protection measures are the minimum action necessary to secure the stability and continuity of the information and communication services (ICS) that they provide. Thus, information assets are essential to providing ICS, and deciding the relative importance of target assets for protection is a critical procedure. The risk analysis model designed to decide the relative importance of information assets, which is described in this study, evaluates information assets from many angles, in order to choose which ones should be given priority when it comes to protection. Many-sided risk analysis (MSRS) grades the importance of information assets, based on evaluation of major security check items, evaluation of the dependency on the information and communication facility (ICF) and influence on potential incidents, and evaluation of major items according to their service classification, in order to identify the ISCS target. MSRS could be an efficient risk analysis model to help ICSPs to identify their core information assets and take information protection measures first, so that stability of the ICS can be ensured.

Keywords: Information Asset, Information CommunicationFacility, Evaluation, ISCS (Information Security Check Service), Evaluation, Grade.

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2822 Applications of Trigonometic Measures of Fuzzy Entropy to Geometry

Authors: Om Parkash, C.P.Gandhi

Abstract:

In the literature of fuzzy measures, there exist many well known parametric and non-parametric measures, each with its own merits and limitations. But our main emphasis is on applications of these measures to a variety of disciplines. To extend the scope of applications of these fuzzy measures to geometry, we need some special fuzzy measures. In this communication, we have introduced two new fuzzy measures involving trigonometric functions and simultaneously provided their applications to obtain the basic results already existing in the literature of geometry.

Keywords: Entropy, Uncertainty, Fuzzy Entropy, Concavity, Symmetry.

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2821 A Novel Metric for Performance Evaluation of Image Fusion Algorithms

Authors: Nedeljko Cvejic, Artur Łoza, David Bull, Nishan Canagarajah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel objective nonreference performance assessment algorithm for image fusion. It takes into account local measurements to estimate how well the important information in the source images is represented by the fused image. The metric is based on the Universal Image Quality Index and uses the similarity between blocks of pixels in the input images and the fused image as the weighting factors for the metrics. Experimental results confirm that the values of the proposed metrics correlate well with the subjective quality of the fused images, giving a significant improvement over standard measures based on mean squared error and mutual information.

Keywords: Fusion performance measures, image fusion, non-reference quality measures, objective quality measures.

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2820 Normalization and Constrained Optimization of Measures of Fuzzy Entropy

Authors: K.C. Deshmukh, P.G. Khot, Nikhil

Abstract:

In the literature of information theory, there is necessity for comparing the different measures of fuzzy entropy and this consequently, gives rise to the need for normalizing measures of fuzzy entropy. In this paper, we have discussed this need and hence developed some normalized measures of fuzzy entropy. It is also desirable to maximize entropy and to minimize directed divergence or distance. Keeping in mind this idea, we have explained the method of optimizing different measures of fuzzy entropy.

Keywords: Fuzzy set, Uncertainty, Fuzzy entropy, Normalization, Membership function

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2819 Empirical Exploration of Correlations between Software Design Measures: A Replication Study

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal

Abstract:

Software engineers apply different measures to quantify the quality of software design. These measures consider artifacts developed at low or high level software design phases. The results are used to point to design weaknesses and to indicate design points that have to be restructured. Understanding the relationship among the quality measures and among the design quality aspects considered by these measures is important to interpreting the impact of a measure for a quality aspect on other potentially related aspects. In addition, exploring the relationship between quality measures helps to explain the impact of different quality measures on external quality aspects, such as reliability and maintainability. In this paper, we report a replication study that empirically explores the correlation between six well known and commonly applied design quality measures. These measures consider several quality aspects, including complexity, cohesion, coupling, and inheritance. The results indicate that inheritance measures are weakly correlated to other measures, whereas complexity, coupling, and cohesion measures are mostly strongly correlated.  

Keywords: Quality attribute, quality measure, software design quality, spearman correlation.

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2818 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Using the Tθ Family of Similarity Measures

Authors: Salima Kouici, Abdelkader Khelladi

Abstract:

In this work, we begin with the presentation of the Tθ family of usual similarity measures concerning multidimensional binary data. Subsequently, some properties of these measures are proposed. Finally the impact of the use of different inter-elements measures on the results of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Methods is studied.

Keywords: Binary data, similarity measure, Tθ measures, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering.

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2817 Predicting Groundwater Areas Using Data Mining Techniques: Groundwater in Jordan as Case Study

Authors: Faisal Aburub, Wael Hadi

Abstract:

Data mining is the process of extracting useful or hidden information from a large database. Extracted information can be used to discover relationships among features, where data objects are grouped according to logical relationships; or to predict unseen objects to one of the predefined groups. In this paper, we aim to investigate four well-known data mining algorithms in order to predict groundwater areas in Jordan. These algorithms are Support Vector Machines (SVMs), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Classification Based on Association Rule (CBA). The experimental results indicate that the SVMs algorithm outperformed other algorithms in terms of classification accuracy, precision and F1 evaluation measures using the datasets of groundwater areas that were collected from Jordanian Ministry of Water and Irrigation.

Keywords: Classification, data mining, evaluation measures, groundwater.

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2816 Extension and Evaluation of Interface “2D-RIB“ for Impression-Based Retrieval

Authors: S. Kikuchi, Y. Hashimoto, T. Takayama, T. Ikeda, Y. Murata

Abstract:

Recently, lots of researchers are attracted to retrieving multimedia database by using some impression words and their values. Ikezoe-s research is one of the representatives and uses eight pairs of opposite impression words. We had modified its retrieval interface and proposed '2D-RIB'. In '2D-RIB', after a retrieval person selects a single basic music, the system visually shows some other music around the basic one along relative position. He/she can select one of them fitting to his/her intention, as a retrieval result. The purpose of this paper is to improve his/her satisfaction level to the retrieval result in 2D-RIB. One of our extensions is to define and introduce the following two measures: 'melody goodness' and 'general acceptance'. We implement them in different five combinations. According to an evaluation experiment, both of these two measures can contribute to the improvement. Another extension is three types of customization. We have implemented them and clarified which customization is effective.

Keywords: Multimedia database, impression-based retrieval, interface, satisfaction level.

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2815 Response Quality Evaluation in Heterogeneous Question Answering System: A Black-box Approach

Authors: Goh Ong Sing, C. Ardil, Wilson Wong, Shahrin Sahib

Abstract:

The evaluation of the question answering system is a major research area that needs much attention. Before the rise of domain-oriented question answering systems based on natural language understanding and reasoning, evaluation is never a problem as information retrieval-based metrics are readily available for use. However, when question answering systems began to be more domains specific, evaluation becomes a real issue. This is especially true when understanding and reasoning is required to cater for a wider variety of questions and at the same time achieve higher quality responses The research in this paper discusses the inappropriateness of the existing measure for response quality evaluation and in a later part, the call for new standard measures and the related considerations are brought forward. As a short-term solution for evaluating response quality of heterogeneous systems, and to demonstrate the challenges in evaluating systems of different nature, this research presents a black-box approach using observation, classification scheme and a scoring mechanism to assess and rank three example systems (i.e. AnswerBus, START and NaLURI).

Keywords: Evaluation, question answering, response quality.

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2814 Extended “2D-RIB“ for Impression-Based Satisfactory Retrieval and its Evaluation

Authors: T. Takayama, S. Kikuchi, Y. Hashimoto, T. Ikeda, Y. Murata

Abstract:

Recently, lots of researchers are attracted to retrieving multimedia database by using some impression words and their values. Ikezoe-s research is one of the representatives and uses eight pairs of opposite impression words. We had modified its retrieval interface and proposed '2D-RIB' in the previous work. The aim of the present paper is to improve his/her satisfaction level to the retrieval result in the 2D-RIB. Our method is to extend the 2D-RIB. One of our extensions is to define and introduce the following two measures: 'melody goodness' and 'general acceptance'. Another extension is three types of customization menus. The result of evaluation using a pilot system is as follows. Both of these two measures 'melody goodness' and -general acceptance- can contribute to the improvement. Moreover, it is effective if we introduce the customization menu which enables a retrieval person to reduce the strictness level of retrieval condition in an impression pair based on his/her need.

Keywords: Multimedia database, impression-based retrieval, interface, satisfaction level.

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2813 Development of Subjective Measures of Interestingness: From Unexpectedness to Shocking

Authors: Eiad Yafi, M. A. Alam, Ranjit Biswas

Abstract:

Knowledge Discovery of Databases (KDD) is the process of extracting previously unknown but useful and significant information from large massive volume of databases. Data Mining is a stage in the entire process of KDD which applies an algorithm to extract interesting patterns. Usually, such algorithms generate huge volume of patterns. These patterns have to be evaluated by using interestingness measures to reflect the user requirements. Interestingness is defined in different ways, (i) Objective measures (ii) Subjective measures. Objective measures such as support and confidence extract meaningful patterns based on the structure of the patterns, while subjective measures such as unexpectedness and novelty reflect the user perspective. In this report, we try to brief the more widely spread and successful subjective measures and propose a new subjective measure of interestingness, i.e. shocking.

Keywords: Shocking rules (SHR).

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2812 Object-Oriented Cognitive-Spatial Complexity Measures

Authors: Varun Gupta, Jitender Kumar Chhabra

Abstract:

Software maintenance and mainly software comprehension pose the largest costs in the software lifecycle. In order to assess the cost of software comprehension, various complexity measures have been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes new cognitive-spatial complexity measures, which combine the impact of spatial as well as architectural aspect of the software to compute the software complexity. The spatial aspect of the software complexity is taken into account using the lexical distances (in number of lines of code) between different program elements and the architectural aspect of the software complexity is taken into consideration using the cognitive weights of control structures present in control flow of the program. The proposed measures are evaluated using standard axiomatic frameworks and then, the proposed measures are compared with the corresponding existing cognitive complexity measures as well as the spatial complexity measures for object-oriented software. This study establishes that the proposed measures are better indicators of the cognitive effort required for software comprehension than the other existing complexity measures for object-oriented software.

Keywords: cognitive complexity, software comprehension, software metrics, spatial complexity, Object-oriented software

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2811 The Study on Evaluation System and Method of Legacy System

Authors: Chao Qi, Fuyang Peng, Bo Deng, Xiaoyan Su

Abstract:

In the upgrade process of enterprise information systems, how to deal with and utilize those legacy systems affects the efficiency of construction and development of the new system. We propose an evaluation system, which comprehensively describes the capacity of legacy information systems in five aspects. Then we propose a practical legacy systems evaluation method. Base on the evaluation result, we can determine the current state of legacy system which was evaluated.

Keywords: Legacy Information Systems, Evaluation IndexSystem, Evaluation Method, Evaluation Level

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2810 Current Issues on Enterprise Architecture Implementation Evaluation

Authors: Fatemeh Nikpay, Rodina Binti Ahmad, Babak Darvish Rouhani

Abstract:

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is employed by enterprises for providing integrated Information Systems (ISs) in order to support alignment of their business and Information Technology (IT). Evaluation of EA implementation can support enterprise to reach intended goals. There are some problems in current evaluation methods of EA implementation that lead to ineffectiveness implementation of EA. This paper represents current issues on evaluation of EA implementation. In this regard, we set the framework in order to represent evaluation’s issues based on their functionality and structure. The results of this research not only increase the knowledge of evaluation, but also could be useful for both academics and practitioners in order to realize the current situation of evaluations.

Keywords: Current issues on EA, implementation evaluation, Evaluation, Enterprise Architecture, Evaluation of Enterprise Architecture Implementation.

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2809 Proposal of a Model Supporting Decision-Making on Information Security Risk Treatment

Authors: Ritsuko Kawasaki (Aiba), Takeshi Hiromatsu

Abstract:

Management is required to understand all information security risks within an organization, and to make decisions on which information security risks should be treated in what level by allocating how much amount of cost. However, such decision-making is not usually easy, because various measures for risk treatment must be selected with the suitable application levels. In addition, some measures may have objectives conflicting with each other. It also makes the selection difficult. Therefore, this paper provides a model which supports the selection of measures by applying multi-objective analysis to find an optimal solution. Additionally, a list of measures is also provided to make the selection easier and more effective without any leakage of measures.

Keywords: Information security risk treatment, Selection of risk measures, Risk acceptance and Multi-objective optimization.

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2808 Performance Evaluation of Prioritized Limited Processor-Sharing System

Authors: Yoshiaki Shikata, Wataru Katagiri, Yoshitaka Takahashi

Abstract:

We propose a novel prioritized limited processor-sharing (PS) rule and a simulation algorithm for the performance evaluation of this rule. The performance measures of practical interest are evaluated using this algorithm. Suppose that there are two classes and that an arriving (class-1 or class-2) request encounters n1 class-1 and n2 class-2 requests (including the arriving one) in a single-server system. According to the proposed rule, class-1 requests individually and simultaneously receive m / (m * n1+ n2) of the service-facility capacity, whereas class-2 requests receive 1 / (m *n1 + n2) of it, if m * n1 + n2 ≤ C. Otherwise (m * n1 + n2 > C), the arriving request will be queued in the corresponding class waiting room or rejected. Here, m (1) denotes the priority ratio, and C ( ∞), the service-facility capacity. In this rule, when a request arrives at [or departs from] the system, the extension [shortening] of the remaining sojourn time of each request receiving service can be calculated using the number of requests of each class and the priority ratio. Employing a simulation program to execute these events and calculations enables us to analyze the performance of the proposed prioritized limited PS rule, which is realistic in a time-sharing system (TSS) with a sufficiently small time slot. Moreover, this simulation algorithm is expanded for the evaluation of the prioritized limited PS system with N  3 priority classes.

Keywords: PS rule, priority ratio, service-facility capacity, simulation algorithm, sojourn time, performance measures

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2807 Evaluation of Energy Upgrade Measures and Connection of Renewable Energy Sources Using Software Tools: Case Study of an Academic Library Building in Larissa, Greece

Authors: Giwrgos S. Gkarmpounis, Aikaterini G. Rokkou, Marios N. Moschakis

Abstract:

Increased energy consumption in the academic buildings, creates the need to implement energy saving measures and to take advantage of the renewable energy sources to cover the electrical needs of those buildings. An Academic Library will be used as a case study. With the aid of RETScreen software that takes into account the energy consumptions and characteristics of the Library Building, it is proved that measures such as the replacement of fluorescent lights with led lights, the installation of outdoor shading, the replacement of the openings and Building Management System installation, provide a high level of energy savings. Moreover, given the available space of the building and the climatic data, the installation of a photovoltaic system of 100 kW can also cover a serious amount of the building energy consumption, unlike a wind system that seems uncompromising. Lastly, HOMER software is used to compare the use of a photovoltaic system against a wind system in order to verify the results that came up from the RETScreen software concerning the renewable energy sources.

Keywords: Energy saving measures, homer software, renewable energy sources, RETScreen software, energy efficiency and quality.

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2806 Toward Discovering an Architectural Typology Based on the Theory of Affordance

Authors: Falntina Ahmad Alata, Natheer Abu Obeid

Abstract:

This paper revolves around the concept of affordance. It aims to discover and develop an architectural typology based on the ecological concept of affordance. In order to achieve this aim, an analytical study is conducted and two sources were taken into account: 1- Gibson's definition of the concept of affordance and 2- The researches that are concerned on the affordance categorisation. As a result, this paper concluded 16 typologies of affordances, including the possibilities of mixing them based on both sources. To clarify these typologies and provide further understanding, a wide range of architectural examples are presented and proposed in the paper. To prove this vocabulary’s capability to diagnose and evaluate the affordance of different environments, an experimental study with two processes have been adapted: 1. Diagnostic process: the interpretation of the environments with regards to its affordance by using the new vocabulary (the developed typologies). 2. Evaluating process: the evaluation of the environments that have been interpreted and classified with regards to their affordances. By using the measures of emotional experience (the positive affect ‘PA’ and the negative affect ‘NA’) and the architectural evaluation criteria (beauty, economy and function). The experimental study proves that the typologies are capable of reading the affordance within different environments. Additionally, it explains how these different typologies reflect different interactions based on the previous processes. The data which are concluded from the evaluation of measures explain how different typologies of affordance that have already reflected different environments had different evaluations. In fact, some of them are recommended while the others are not. In other words, the paper draws a roadmap for designers to diagnose, evaluate and analyse the affordance into different architectural environments. After that, it guides them through adapting the best interaction (affordance category), which they intend to adapt into their proposed designs.

Keywords: Affordance theory, affordance categories, architectural environments, architectural evaluation criteria, emotional experience.

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2805 An Empirical Analysis of Arabic WebPages Classification using Fuzzy Operators

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani, Noor Aldeen K. Al-Awad

Abstract:

In this study, a fuzzy similarity approach for Arabic web pages classification is presented. The approach uses a fuzzy term-category relation by manipulating membership degree for the training data and the degree value for a test web page. Six measures are used and compared in this study. These measures include: Einstein, Algebraic, Hamacher, MinMax, Special case fuzzy and Bounded Difference approaches. These measures are applied and compared using 50 different Arabic web pages. Einstein measure was gave best performance among the other measures. An analysis of these measures and concluding remarks are drawn in this study.

Keywords: Text classification, HTML documents, Web pages, Machine learning, Fuzzy logic, Arabic Web pages.

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2804 A Comparative Study of Web-pages Classification Methods using Fuzzy Operators Applied to Arabic Web-pages

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani, Noor Aldeen K. Al-Awad

Abstract:

In this study, a fuzzy similarity approach for Arabic web pages classification is presented. The approach uses a fuzzy term-category relation by manipulating membership degree for the training data and the degree value for a test web page. Six measures are used and compared in this study. These measures include: Einstein, Algebraic, Hamacher, MinMax, Special case fuzzy and Bounded Difference approaches. These measures are applied and compared using 50 different Arabic web-pages. Einstein measure was gave best performance among the other measures. An analysis of these measures and concluding remarks are drawn in this study.

Keywords: Text classification, HTML, web pages, machine learning, fuzzy logic, Arabic web pages.

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2803 A New Similarity Measure on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Binyamin Yusoff, Imran Taib, Lazim Abdullah, Abd Fatah Wahab

Abstract:

Intuitionistic fuzzy sets as proposed by Atanassov, have gained much attention from past and latter researchers for applications in various fields. Similarity measures between intuitionistic fuzzy sets were developed afterwards. However, it does not cater the conflicting behavior of each element evaluated. We therefore made some modification to the similarity measure of IFS by considering conflicting concept to the model. In this paper, we concentrate on Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures for IFSs and some examples are given to validate these similarity measures. A simple modification to Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures of IFSs was proposed to find the best result according to the use of degree of indeterminacy. Finally, we mark up with the application to real decision making problems.

Keywords: Intuitionistic fuzzy sets, similarity measures, multicriteriadecision making.

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2802 Generalized Measures of Fuzzy Entropy and their Properties

Authors: K.C. Deshmukh, P.G. Khot, Nikhil

Abstract:

In the present communication, we have proposed some new generalized measure of fuzzy entropy based upon real parameters, discussed their and desirable properties, and presented these measures graphically. An important property, that is, monotonicity of the proposed measures has also been studied.

Keywords: Fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy entropy, Characteristicfunction, Crisp set, Monotonicity.

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2801 A Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Mobility Projects

Authors: H. Omrani, P. Gerber

Abstract:

Success is a European project that will implement several clean transport offers in three European cities and evaluate the environmental impacts. The goal of these measures is to improve urban mobility or the displacement of residents inside cities. For e.g. park and ride, electric vehicles, hybrid bus and bike sharing etc. A list of 28 criteria and 60 measures has been established for evaluation of these transport projects. The evaluation criteria can be grouped into: Transport, environment, social, economic and fuel consumption. This article proposes a decision support system based that encapsulates a hybrid approach based on fuzzy logic, multicriteria analysis and belief theory for the evaluation of impacts of urban mobility solutions. A web-based tool called DeSSIA (Decision Support System for Impacts Assessment) has been developed that treats complex data. The tool has several functionalities starting from data integration (import of data), evaluation of projects and finishes by graphical display of results. The tool development is based on the concept of MVC (Model, View, and Controller). The MVC is a conception model adapted to the creation of software's which impose separation between data, their treatment and presentation. Effort is laid on the ergonomic aspects of the application. It has codes compatible with the latest norms (XHTML, CSS) and has been validated by W3C (World Wide Web Consortium). The main ergonomic aspect focuses on the usability of the application, ease of learning and adoption. By the usage of technologies such as AJAX (XML and Java Script asynchrones), the application is more rapid and convivial. The positive points of our approach are that it treats heterogeneous data (qualitative, quantitative) from various information sources (human experts, survey, sensors, model etc.).

Keywords: Decision support tool, hybrid approach, urban mobility.

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2800 Evaluation Method for Information Security Levels of CIIP (Critical Information Infrastructure Protection)

Authors: Soon-Tai Park, Jong-Whoi Shin, Bog-Ki Min, Ik-Sub Lee, Gang-Shin Lee, Jae-Il Lee

Abstract:

As the information age matures, major social infrastructures such as communication, finance, military and energy, have become ever more dependent on information communication systems. And since these infrastructures are connected to the Internet, electronic intrusions such as hacking and viruses have become a new security threat. Especially, disturbance or neutralization of a major social infrastructure can result in extensive material damage and social disorder. To address this issue, many nations around the world are researching and developing various techniques and information security policies as a government-wide effort to protect their infrastructures from newly emerging threats. This paper proposes an evaluation method for information security levels of CIIP (Critical Information Infrastructure Protection), which can enhance the security level of critical information infrastructure by checking the current security status and establish security measures accordingly to protect infrastructures effectively.

Keywords: Information Security Evaluation Methodology, Critical Information Infrastructure Protection.

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2799 Optimal Measures in Production Developing an Universal Decision Supporter for Evaluating Measures in a Production

Authors: Michael Grigutsch, Marco Kennemann, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

Due to the recovering global economy, enterprises are increasingly focusing on logistics. Investing in logistic measures for a production generates a large potential for achieving a good starting point within a competitive field. Unlike during the global economic crisis, enterprises are now challenged with investing available capital to maximize profits. In order to be able to create an informed and quantifiably comprehensible basis for a decision, enterprises need an adequate model for logistically and monetarily evaluating measures in production. The Collaborate Research Centre 489 (SFB 489) at the Institute for Production Systems (IFA) developed a Logistic Information System which provides support in making decisions and is designed specifically for the forging industry. The aim of a project that has been applied for is to now transfer this process in order to develop a universal approach to logistically and monetarily evaluate measures in production.

Keywords: Measures in Production, Logistic Operating Curves, Transfer Functions, Production Logistics

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2798 An Investigation of Final Tests of Translation as Practiced in Iranian Undergraduate English Translation Program

Authors: Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Azizeh Chalak

Abstract:

The present study examined how translation teachers develop final tests as measures for checking on the quality of students’ academic translation in Iranian context. To achieve this goal, thirty experienced male and female translation teachers from the four types of the universities offering the program were invited to an in-depth 30-minute one-session semi-structured interview. The responses provided showed how much discrepancy exists among the Iranian translation teachers (as developers of final translation tests), who are least informed with the current translation evaluation methods. It was also revealed that the criteria they use for developing such tests and scoring student translations are not theory-driven but are highly subjective, mainly based on their personal experience and intuition. Hence, the quality and accountability of such tests are under serious question. The results also confirmed that the dominant method commonly and currently practiced is the purely essay-type format. To remedy the situation, some suggestions are in order. As part of the solution, to improve the reliability and validity of such tests, the present summative, product-oriented evaluation should be accompanied with some formative, process-oriented methods of evaluation. Training the teachers and helping them get acquainted with modern principles of translation evaluation as well as the existing models, and rating scales does improve the quality of academic translation evaluation.

Keywords: Iranian universities, students’ academic translations, translation final tests, undergraduate translation programs.

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2797 Accuracy of Divergence Measures for Detection of Abrupt Changes

Authors: P. Bergl

Abstract:

Numerous divergence measures (spectral distance, cepstral distance, difference of the cepstral coefficients, Kullback-Leibler divergence, distance given by the General Likelihood Ratio, distance defined by the Recursive Bayesian Changepoint Detector and the Mahalanobis measure) are compared in this study. The measures are used for detection of abrupt spectral changes in synthetic AR signals via the sliding window algorithm. Two experiments are performed; the first is focused on detection of single boundary while the second concentrates on detection of a couple of boundaries. Accuracy of detection is judged for each method; the measures are compared according to results of both experiments.

Keywords: Abrupt changes detection, autoregressive model, divergence measure.

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