Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: WSNs

57 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: Base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, wireless sensor networks.

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56 A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Kardi, R. Zagrouba, M. Alqahtani

Abstract:

The Internet of Everything (IoE) presents today a very attractive and motivating field of research. It is basically based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in which the routing task is the major analysis topic. In fact, it directly affects the effectiveness and the lifetime of the network. This paper, developed from recent works and based on extensive researches, proposes a taxonomy of routing protocols in WSNs. Our main contribution is that we propose a classification model based on nine classes namely application type, delivery mode, initiator of communication, network architecture, path establishment (route discovery), network topology (structure), protocol operation, next hop selection and latency-awareness and energy-efficient routing protocols. In order to provide a total classification pattern to serve as reference for network designers, each class is subdivided into possible subclasses, presented, and discussed using different parameters such as purposes and characteristics.

Keywords: WSNs, sensor, routing protocols, survey.

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55 Relay Node Placement for Connectivity Restoration in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Hanieh Tarbiat Khosrowshahi, Mojtaba Shakeri

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of a set of sensor nodes with limited capability. WSNs may suffer from multiple node failures when they are exposed to harsh environments such as military zones or disaster locations and lose connectivity by getting partitioned into disjoint segments. Relay nodes (RNs) are alternatively introduced to restore connectivity. They cost more than sensors as they benefit from mobility, more power and more transmission range, enforcing a minimum number of them to be used. This paper addresses the problem of RN placement in a multiple disjoint network by developing a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem is reintroduced as the Steiner tree problem (which is known to be an NP-hard problem) by the aim of finding the minimum number of Steiner points where RNs are to be placed for restoring connectivity. An upper bound to the number of RNs is first computed to set up the length of initial chromosomes. The GA algorithm then iteratively reduces the number of RNs and determines their location at the same time. Experimental results indicate that the proposed GA is capable of establishing network connectivity using a reasonable number of RNs compared to the best existing work.

Keywords: Connectivity restoration, genetic algorithms, multiple-node failure, relay nodes, wireless sensor networks.

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54 Design and Implementation of Medium Access Control Based Routing on Real Wireless Sensor Networks Testbed

Authors: Smriti Agarwal, Ashish Payal, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

IEEE 802.15.4 is a Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) standard combined with ZigBee, which is going to enable new applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Internet of Things (IoT) domain. In recent years, it has become a popular standard for WSNs. Wireless communication among sensor motes, enabled by IEEE 802.15.4 standard, is extensively replacing the existing wired technology in a wide range of monitoring and control applications. Researchers have proposed a routing framework and mechanism that interacts with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using software platform. In this paper, we have designed and implemented MAC based routing (MBR) based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard using a hardware platform “SENSEnuts”. The experimental results include data through light and temperature sensors obtained from communication between PAN coordinator and source node through coordinator, MAC address of some modules used in the experimental setup, topology of the network created for simulation and the remaining battery power of the source node. Our experimental effort on a WSN Testbed has helped us in bridging the gap between theoretical and practical aspect of implementing IEEE 802.15.4 for WSNs applications.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, routing, wireless sensor networks, ZigBee.

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53 Solar-Inducted Cluster Head Relocation Algorithm

Authors: Goran Djukanovic, Goran Popovic

Abstract:

A special area in the study of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is how to move sensor nodes, as it expands the scope of application of wireless sensors and provides new opportunities to improve network performance. On the other side, it opens a set of new problems, especially if complete clusters are mobile. Node mobility can prolong the network lifetime. In such WSN, some nodes are possibly moveable or nomadic (relocated periodically), while others are static. This paper presents an idea of mobile, solar-powered CHs that relocate themselves inside clusters in such a way that the total energy consumption in the network reduces, and the lifetime of the network extends. Positioning of CHs is made in each round based on selfish herd hypothesis, where leader retreats to the center of gravity. Based on this idea, an algorithm, together with its modified version, has been presented and tested in this paper. Simulation results show that both algorithms have benefits in network lifetime, and prolongation of network stability period duration.

Keywords: CH-active algorithm, mobile cluster head, sensors, wireless sensor network.

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52 Perception-Oriented Model Driven Development for Designing Data Acquisition Process in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: K. Indra Gandhi

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have always been characterized for application-specific sensing, relaying and collection of information for further analysis. However, software development was not considered as a separate entity in this process of data collection which has posed severe limitations on the software development for WSN. Software development for WSN is a complex process since the components involved are data-driven, network-driven and application-driven in nature. This implies that there is a tremendous need for the separation of concern from the software development perspective. A layered approach for developing data acquisition design based on Model Driven Development (MDD) has been proposed as the sensed data collection process itself varies depending upon the application taken into consideration. This work focuses on the layered view of the data acquisition process so as to ease the software point of development. A metamodel has been proposed that enables reusability and realization of the software development as an adaptable component for WSN systems. Further, observing users perception indicates that proposed model helps in improving the programmer's productivity by realizing the collaborative system involved.

Keywords: Model-driven development, wireless sensor networks, data acquisition, separation of concern, layered design.

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51 Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks for Healthcare Monitoring

Authors: Ebrahim Farahmand, Ali Mahani

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can facilitate continuous monitoring of patients and increase early detection of emergency conditions and diseases. High density WSNs helps us to accurately monitor a remote environment by intelligently combining the data from the individual nodes. Due to energy capacity limitation of sensors, enhancing the lifetime and the reliability of WSNs are important factors in designing of these networks. The clustering strategies are verified as effective and practical algorithms for reducing energy consumption in WSNs and can tackle WSNs limitations. In this paper, an Energy-efficient weight-based Clustering Protocol (EWCP) is presented. Artificial retina is selected as a case study of WSNs applied in body sensors. Cluster heads’ (CHs) selection is equipped with energy efficient parameters. Moreover, cluster members are selected based on their distance to the selected CHs. Comparing with the other benchmark protocols, the lifetime of EWCP is improved significantly.

Keywords: Clustering of WSNs, healthcare monitoring, weight-based clustering, wireless sensor networks.

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50 Optimized Energy Scheduling Algorithm for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: S. Arun Rajan, S. Bhavani

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks can be tiny, low cost, intelligent sensors connected with advanced communication systems. WSNs have pulled in significant consideration as a matter of fact that, industrial as well as medical solicitations employ these in monitoring targets, conservational observation, obstacle exposure, movement regulator etc. In these applications, sensor hubs are thickly sent in the unattended environment with little non-rechargeable batteries. This constraint requires energy-efficient systems to drag out the system lifetime. There are redundancies in data sent over the network. To overcome this, multiple virtual spine scheduling has been presented. Such networks problems are called Maximum Lifetime Backbone Scheduling (MLBS) problems. Though this sleep wake cycle reduces radio usage, improvement can be made in the path in which the group heads stay selected. Cluster head selection with emphasis on geometrical relation of the system will enhance the load sharing among the nodes. Also the data are analyzed to reduce redundant transmission. Multi-hop communication will facilitate lighter loads on the network.

Keywords: WSN, wireless sensor networks, MLBS, maximum lifetime backbone scheduling.

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49 A Comparative Study on Fuzzy and Neuro-Fuzzy Enabled Cluster Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, E. Golden Julie

Abstract:

Dynamic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has played a significant task in research for the recent years. Energy consumption and data delivery in time are the major parameters with the usage of sensor nodes that are significant criteria for these networks. The location of sensor nodes must not be prearranged. Clustering in WSN is a key methodology which is used to enlarge the life-time of a sensor network. It consists of numerous real-time applications. The features of WSNs are minimized the consumption of energy. Soft computing techniques can be included to accomplish improved performance. This paper surveys the modern trends in routing enclose fuzzy logic and Neuro-fuzzy logic based on the clustering techniques and implements a comparative study of the numerous related methodologies.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, clustering, fuzzy logic, neuro-fuzzy logic, energy efficiency.

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48 Comparative Analysis of Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks and Radial Basis Function Networks Approach for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ashish Payal, C. S. Rai, B. V. R. Reddy

Abstract:

With the increasing use and application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), need has arisen to explore them in more effective and efficient manner. An important area which can bring efficiency to WSNs is the localization process, which refers to the estimation of the position of wireless sensor nodes in an ad hoc network setting, in reference to a coordinate system that may be internal or external to the network. In this paper, we have done comparison and analysed Sigmoidal Feedforward Artificial Neural Networks (SFFANNs) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks for developing localization framework in WSNs. The presented work utilizes the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), measured by static node on 100 x 100 m2 grid from three anchor nodes. The comprehensive evaluation of these approaches is done using MATLAB software. The simulation results effectively demonstrate that FFANNs based sensor motes will show better localization accuracy as compared to RBF.

Keywords: Localization, wireless sensor networks, artificial neural network, radial basis function, multi-layer perceptron, backpropagation, RSSI.

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47 Data Collection with Bounded-Sized Messages in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the data collection problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) adopting the two interference models: The graph model and the more realistic physical interference model known as Signal-to-Interference-Noise-Ratio (SINR). The main issue of the problem is to compute schedules with the minimum number of timeslots, that is, to compute the minimum latency schedules, such that data from every node can be collected without any collision or interference to a sink node. While existing works studied the problem with unit-sized and unbounded-sized message models, we investigate the problem with the bounded-sized message model, and introduce a constant factor approximation algorithm. To the best known of our knowledge, our result is the first result of the data collection problem with bounded-sized model in both interference models.

Keywords: Data collection, collision-free, interference-free, physical interference model, SINR, approximation, bounded-sized message model, wireless sensor networks, WSN.

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46 Efficient Broadcasting in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Min Kyung An, Hyuk Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Minimum Latency Broadcast Scheduling (MLBS) problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main issue of the MLBS problem is to compute schedules with the minimum number of timeslots such that a base station can broadcast data to all other sensor nodes with no collisions. Unlike existing works that utilize the traditional omni-directional WSNs, we target the directional WSNs where nodes can collaboratively determine and orientate their antenna directions. We first develop a 7-approximation algorithm, adopting directional WSNs. Our ratio is currently the best, to the best of our knowledge. We then validate the performance of the proposed algorithm through simulation.

Keywords: Broadcast, collision-free, directional antenna, approximation, wireless sensor networks.

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45 Tree Based Data Fusion Clustering Routing Algorithm for Illimitable Network Administration in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

In wireless sensor networks, locality and positioning information can be captured using Global Positioning System (GPS). This message can be congregated initially from spot to identify the system. Users can retrieve information of interest from a wireless sensor network (WSN) by injecting queries and gathering results from the mobile sink nodes. Routing is the progression of choosing optimal path in a mobile network. Intermediate node employs permutation of device nodes into teams and generating cluster heads that gather the data from entity cluster’s node and encourage the collective data to base station. WSNs are widely used for gathering data. Since sensors are power-constrained devices, it is quite vital for them to reduce the power utilization. A tree-based data fusion clustering routing algorithm (TBDFC) is used to reduce energy consumption in wireless device networks. Here, the nodes in a tree use the cluster formation, whereas the elevation of the tree is decided based on the distance of the member nodes to the cluster-head. Network simulation shows that this scheme improves the power utilization by the nodes, and thus considerably improves the lifetime.

Keywords: WSN, TBDFC, LEACH, PEGASIS, TREEPSI.

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44 Enhancing the Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Low Power Design

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Madhuranthi

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are constantly in demand to process information more rapidly with less energy and area cost. Presently, processor based solutions have difficult to achieve high processing speed with low-power consumption. This paper presents a simple and accurate data processing scheme for low power wireless sensor node, based on reduced number of processing element (PE). The presented model provides a simple recursive structure (SRS) to process the sampled data in the wireless sensor environment and to reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor node. Based on this model, to process the incoming samples and produce a smaller amount of data sufficient to reconstruct the original signal. The ModelSim simulator used to simulate SRS structure. Functional simulation is carried out for the validation of the presented architecture. Xilinx Power Estimator (XPE) tool is used to measure the power consumption. The experimental results show the average power consumption of 91 mW; this is 42% improvement compared to the folded tree architecture.

Keywords: Power consumption, energy efficiency, low power WSN node, recursive structure, sleep/wake scheduling.

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43 Identifying a Drug Addict Person Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Mustafa Al Sukar, Azzam Sleit, Abdullatif Abu-Dalhoum, Bassam Al-Kasasbeh

Abstract:

Use and abuse of drugs by teens is very common and can have dangerous consequences. The drugs contribute to physical and sexual aggression such as assault or rape. Some teenagers regularly use drugs to compensate for depression, anxiety or a lack of positive social skills. Teen resort to smoking should not be minimized because it can be "gateway drugs" for other drugs (marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and heroin). The combination of teenagers' curiosity, risk taking behavior, and social pressure make it very difficult to say no. This leads most teenagers to the questions: "Will it hurt to try once?" Nowadays, technological advances are changing our lives very rapidly and adding a lot of technologies that help us to track the risk of drug abuse such as smart phones, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Internet of Things (IoT), etc. This technique may help us to early discovery of drug abuse in order to prevent an aggravation of the influence of drugs on the abuser. In this paper, we have developed a Decision Support System (DSS) for detecting the drug abuse using Artificial Neural Network (ANN); we used a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network in developing the system. The input layer includes 50 variables while the output layer contains one neuron which indicates whether the person is a drug addict. An iterative process is used to determine the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in each one. We used multiple experiment models that have been completed with Log-Sigmoid transfer function. Particularly, 10-fold cross validation schemes are used to access the generalization of the proposed system. The experiment results have obtained 98.42% classification accuracy for correct diagnosis in our system. The data had been taken from 184 cases in Jordan according to a set of questions compiled from Specialists, and data have been obtained through the families of drug abusers.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Decision Support System, drug abuse, drug addiction, Multilayer Perceptron.

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42 Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated Data for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Krishna Veni, R.Geetha

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are suitable for many scenarios in the real world. The retrieval of data is made efficient by the data aggregation techniques. Many techniques for the data aggregation are offered and most of the existing schemes are not energy efficient and secure. However, the existing techniques use the traditional clustering approach where there is a delay during the packet transmission since there is no proper scheduling. The presented system uses the Velocity Energy-efficient and Link-aware Cluster-Tree (VELCT) scheme in which there is a Data Collection Tree (DCT) which improves the lifetime of the network. The VELCT scheme and the construction of DCT reduce the delay and traffic. The network lifetime can be increased by avoiding the frequent change in cluster topology. Secure and Efficient Transmission of Aggregated data (SETA) improves the security of the data transmission via the trust value of the nodes prior the aggregation of data. Since SETA considers the data only from the trustworthy nodes for aggregation, it is more secure in transmitting the data thereby improving the accuracy of aggregated data.

Keywords: Aggregation, lifetime, network security, wireless sensor network.

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41 Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Priya

Abstract:

The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.

Keywords: Sleep scheduling, mobile cloud computing, wireless sensor network, integration, location, network lifetime.

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40 Dominating Set Algorithm and Trust Evaluation Scheme for Secured Cluster Formation and Data Transferring

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram, E. Golden Julie, S. Balaji

Abstract:

This paper describes the proficient way of choosing the cluster head based on dominating set algorithm in a wireless sensor network (WSN). The algorithm overcomes the energy deterioration problems by this selection process of cluster heads. Clustering algorithms such as LEACH, EEHC and HEED enhance scalability in WSNs. Dominating set algorithm keeps the first node alive longer than the other protocols previously used. As the dominating set of cluster heads are directly connected to each node, the energy of the network is saved by eliminating the intermediate nodes in WSN. Security and trust is pivotal in network messaging. Cluster head is secured with a unique key. The member can only connect with the cluster head if and only if they are secured too. The secured trust model provides security for data transmission in the dominated set network with the group key. The concept can be extended to add a mobile sink for each or for no of clusters to transmit data or messages between cluster heads and to base station. Data security id preferably high and data loss can be prevented. The simulation demonstrates the concept of choosing cluster heads by dominating set algorithm and trust evaluation using DSTE. The research done is rationalized.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, LEECH, EEHC, HEED, DSTE.

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39 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, virtual rail, residual energy.

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38 Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Julien Romieux, Fabio Verdicchio

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy. Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the network.

Keywords: Cooperative signal processing, power management, signal representation, signal approximation, wireless sensor networks.

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37 An Energy Aware Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network Using Connected Dominant Set

Authors: M. Santhalakshmi, P Suganthi

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have many advantages. Their deployment is easier and faster than wired sensor networks or other wireless networks, as they do not need fixed infrastructure. Nodes are partitioned into many small groups named clusters to aggregate data through network organization. WSN clustering guarantees performance achievement of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes energy consumption is reduced by eliminating redundant energy use and balancing energy sensor nodes use over a network. The aim of such clustering protocols is to prolong network life. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a popular protocol in WSN. LEACH is a clustering protocol in which the random rotations of local cluster heads are utilized in order to distribute energy load among all sensor nodes in the network. This paper proposes Connected Dominant Set (CDS) based cluster formation. CDS aggregates data in a promising approach for reducing routing overhead since messages are transmitted only within virtual backbone by means of CDS and also data aggregating lowers the ratio of responding hosts to the hosts existing in virtual backbones. CDS tries to increase networks lifetime considering such parameters as sensors lifetime, remaining and consumption energies in order to have an almost optimal data aggregation within networks. Experimental results proved CDS outperformed LEACH regarding number of cluster formations, average packet loss rate, average end to end delay, life computation, and remaining energy computation.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, connected dominant set, clustering, data aggregation.

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36 Performance Evaluation of XMAC and BMAC Routing Protocol under Static and Mobility Scenarios in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: M. V. Ramana Rao, T. Adilakshmi

Abstract:

Based on application requirements, nodes are static or mobile in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Mobility poses challenges in protocol design, especially at the link layer requiring mobility adaptation algorithms to localize mobile nodes and predict link quality to be established with them. This study implements XMAC and Berkeley Media Access Control (BMAC) routing protocols to evaluate performance under WSN’s static and mobility conditions. This paper gives a comparative study of mobility-aware MAC protocols. Routing protocol performance, based on Average End to End Delay, Average Packet Delivery Ratio, Average Number of hops, and Jitter is evaluated.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Medium Access Control (MAC), Berkeley Media Access Control (BMAC), mobility.

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35 Soft Computing Based Cluster Head Selection in Wireless Sensor Network Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm

Authors: A. Rajagopal, S. Somasundaram, B. Sowmya, T. Suguna

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) enable new applications and need non-conventional paradigms for the protocol because of energy and bandwidth constraints, In WSN, sensor node’s life is a critical parameter. Research on life extension is based on Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) scheme, which rotates Cluster Head (CH) among sensor nodes to distribute energy consumption over all network nodes. CH selection in WSN affects network energy efficiency greatly. This study proposes an improved CH selection for efficient data aggregation in sensor networks. This new algorithm is based on Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) incorporated in LEACH.

Keywords: Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO), Cluster Head (CH), Data-aggregation protocols, Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH).

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34 Fault Tolerance in Wireless Sensor Networks – A Survey

Authors: B. R. Tapas Bapu, K. Thanigaivelu, A. Rajkumar

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have wide variety of applications and provide limitless future potentials. Nodes in WSNs are prone to failure due to energy depletion, hardware failure, communication link errors, malicious attacks, and so on. Therefore, fault tolerance is one of the critical issues in WSNs. We study how fault tolerance is addressed in different applications of WSNs. Fault tolerant routing is a critical task for sensor networks operating in dynamic environments. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. The focus, however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ depending on the application and network architecture.

Keywords: Resiliency, Self-diagnosis, Smart Grid, TinyOS, WSANs.

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33 Establishing Pairwise Keys Using Key Predistribution Schemes for Sensor Networks

Authors: Y. Harold Robinson, M. Rajaram

Abstract:

Designing cost-efficient, secure network protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging problem because sensors are resource-limited wireless devices. Security services such as authentication and improved pairwise key establishment are critical to high efficient networks with sensor nodes. For sensor nodes to correspond securely with each other efficiently, usage of cryptographic techniques is necessary. In this paper, two key predistribution schemes that enable a mobile sink to establish a secure data-communication link, on the fly, with any sensor nodes. The intermediate nodes along the path to the sink are able to verify the authenticity and integrity of the incoming packets using a predicted value of the key generated by the sender’s essential power. The proposed schemes are based on the pairwise key with the mobile sink, our analytical results clearly show that our schemes perform better in terms of network resilience to node capture than existing schemes if used in wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, predistribution scheme, cryptographic techniques.

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32 An Overview of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Acoustic Sensor Network

Authors: V. P. Dhivya, R. Arthi

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic network is one of the rapidly growing areas of research and finds different applications for monitoring and collecting various data for environmental studies. The communication among dynamic nodes and high error probability in an acoustic medium forced to maximize energy consumption in Underwater Sensor Networks (USN) than in traditional sensor networks. Developing energy-efficient routing protocol is the fundamental and a curb challenge because all the sensor nodes are powered by batteries, and they cannot be easily replaced in UWSNs. This paper surveys the various recent routing techniques that mainly focus on energy efficiency.

Keywords: Acoustic channels, Energy efficiency, Routing in sensor networks, Underwater Sensor Network.

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31 A Review: Comparative Study of Enhanced Hierarchical Clustering Protocols in WSN

Authors: M. Sangeetha, A. Sabari, T. Shanthi Priya

Abstract:

Recent advances in wireless networking technologies introduce several energy aware routing protocols in sensor networks. Such protocols aim to extend the lifetime of network by reducing the energy consumption of nodes. Many researchers are looking for certain challenges that are predominant in the grounds of energy consumption. One such protocol that addresses this energy consumption issue is ‘Cluster based hierarchical routing protocol’. In this paper, we intend to discuss some of the major hierarchical routing protocols adhering towards sensor networks. Furthermore, we examine and compare several aspects and characteristics of few widely explored hierarchical clustering protocols, and its operations in wireless sensor networks (WSN). This paper also presents a discussion on the future research topics and the challenges of hierarchical clustering in WSNs.

Keywords: Clustering, Energy Efficiency, Hierarchical routing, Wireless sensor networks.

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30 A Virtual Grid Based Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Authors: Siddhartha Chauhan, Nitin Kumar Kotania

Abstract:

Traditional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) generally use static sinks to collect data from the sensor nodes via multiple forwarding. Therefore, network suffers with some problems like long message relay time, bottle neck problem which reduces the performance of the network.

Many approaches have been proposed to prevent this problem with the help of mobile sink to collect the data from the sensor nodes, but these approaches still suffer from the buffer overflow problem due to limited memory size of sensor nodes. This paper proposes an energy efficient scheme for data gathering which overcomes the buffer overflow problem. The proposed scheme creates virtual grid structure of heterogeneous nodes. Scheme has been designed for sensor nodes having variable sensing rate. Every node finds out its buffer overflow time and on the basis of this cluster heads are elected. A controlled traversing approach is used by the proposed scheme in order to transmit data to sink. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation.

Keywords: Buffer overflow problem, Mobile sink, Virtual grid, Wireless sensor networks.

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29 Clustering in WSN Based on Minimum Spanning Tree Using Divide and Conquer Approach

Authors: Uttam Vijay, Nitin Gupta

Abstract:

Due to heavy energy constraints in WSNs clustering is an efficient way to manage the energy in sensors. There are many methods already proposed in the area of clustering and research is still going on to make clustering more energy efficient. In our paper we are proposing a minimum spanning tree based clustering using divide and conquer approach. The MST based clustering was first proposed in 1970’s for large databases. Here we are taking divide and conquer approach and implementing it for wireless sensor networks with the constraints attached to the sensor networks. This Divide and conquer approach is implemented in a way that we don’t have to construct the whole MST before clustering but we just find the edge which will be the part of the MST to a corresponding graph and divide the graph in clusters there itself if that edge from the graph can be removed judging on certain constraints and hence saving lot of computation.

Keywords: Algorithm, Clustering, Edge-Weighted Graph, Weighted-LEACH.

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28 REDD: Reliable Energy-Efficient Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Mobile Sinks

Authors: K. Singh, T. P. Sharma

Abstract:

In wireless sensor network (WSN) the use of mobile sink has been attracting more attention in recent times. Mobile sinks are more effective means of balancing load, reducing hotspot problem and elongating network lifetime. The sensor nodes in WSN have limited power supply, computational capability and storage and therefore for continuous data delivery reliability becomes high priority in these networks. In this paper, we propose a Reliable Energy-efficient Data Dissemination (REDD) scheme for WSNs with multiple mobile sinks. In this strategy, sink first determines the location of source and then directly communicates with the source using geographical forwarding. Every forwarding node (FN) creates a local zone comprising some sensor nodes that can act as representative of FN when it fails. Analytical and simulation study reveals significant improvement in energy conservation and reliable data delivery in comparison to existing schemes.

Keywords: Energy Efficient, REED, Sink Mobility, WSN.

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