Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: R. A. Abraham

18 Decomposition of Graphs into Induced Paths and Cycles

Authors: I. Sahul Hamid, Abraham V. M.

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of subgraphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path or an induced cycle in G, then ψ is called an induced path decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced path decomposition of G is called the induced path decomposition number of G and is denoted by πi(G). In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter.

Keywords: Path decomposition, Induced path decomposition, Induced path decomposition number.

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17 Induced Acyclic Path Decomposition in Graphs

Authors: Abraham V. M., I. Sahul Hamid

Abstract:

A decomposition of a graph G is a collection ψ of graphs H1,H2, . . . , Hr of G such that every edge of G belongs to exactly one Hi. If each Hi is either an induced path in G, then ψ is called an induced acyclic path decomposition of G and if each Hi is a (induced) cycle in G then ψ is called a (induced) cycle decomposition of G. The minimum cardinality of an induced acyclic path decomposition of G is called the induced acyclic path decomposition number of G and is denoted by ¤Çia(G). Similarly the cyclic decomposition number ¤Çc(G) is defined. In this paper we begin an investigation of these parameters.

Keywords: Cycle decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition, Induced acyclic path decomposition number.

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16 Automatic Generation Control of an Interconnected Power System with Capacitive Energy Storage

Authors: Rajesh Joseph Abraham, D. Das, Amit Patra

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the application of small rating Capacitive Energy Storage units for the improvement of Automatic Generation Control of a multiunit multiarea power system. Generation Rate Constraints are also considered in the investigations. Integral Squared Error technique is used to obtain the optimal integral gain settings by minimizing a quadratic performance index. Simulation studies reveal that with CES units, the deviations in area frequencies and inter-area tie-power are considerably improved in terms of peak deviations and settling time as compared to that obtained without CES units.

Keywords: Automatic Generation Control, Capacitive EnergyStorage, Integral Squared Error.

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15 A Hybrid Method for Determination of Effective Poles Using Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm

Authors: Anuj Abraham, N. Pappa, Daniel Honc, Rahul Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis of some model order reduction techniques is presented. A new hybrid algorithm for model order reduction of linear time invariant systems is compared with the conventional techniques namely Balanced Truncation, Hankel Norm reduction and Dominant Pole Algorithm (DPA). The proposed hybrid algorithm is known as Clustering Dominant Pole Algorithm (CDPA), is able to compute the full set of dominant poles and its cluster center efficiently. The dominant poles of a transfer function are specific eigenvalues of the state space matrix of the corresponding dynamical system. The effectiveness of this novel technique is shown through the simulation results.

Keywords: Balanced truncation, Clustering, Dominant pole, Hankel norm, Model reduction.

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14 Evaluation of Fuzzy ARTMAP with DBSCAN in VLSI Application

Authors: K. A. Sumithradevi, Vijayalakshmi. M. N., Annamma Abraham., Dr. Vasanta

Abstract:

The various applications of VLSI circuits in highperformance computing, telecommunications, and consumer electronics has been expanding progressively, and at a very hasty pace. This paper describes a new model for partitioning a circuit using DBSCAN and fuzzy ARTMAP neural network. The first step is concerned with feature extraction, where we had make use DBSCAN algorithm. The second step is the classification and is composed of a fuzzy ARTMAP neural network. The performance of both approaches is compared using benchmark data provided by MCNC standard cell placement benchmark netlists. Analysis of the investigational results proved that the fuzzy ARTMAP with DBSCAN model achieves greater performance then only fuzzy ARTMAP in recognizing sub-circuits with lowest amount of interconnections between them The recognition rate using fuzzy ARTMAP with DBSCAN is 97.7% compared to only fuzzy ARTMAP.

Keywords: VLSI, Circuit partitioning, DBSCAN, fuzzyARTMAP.

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13 Terrain Classification for Ground Robots Based on Acoustic Features

Authors: Bernd Kiefer, Abraham Gebru Tesfay, Dietrich Klakow

Abstract:

The motivation of our work is to detect different terrain types traversed by a robot based on acoustic data from the robot-terrain interaction. Different acoustic features and classifiers were investigated, such as Mel-frequency cepstral coefficient and Gamma-tone frequency cepstral coefficient for the feature extraction, and Gaussian mixture model and Feed forward neural network for the classification. We analyze the system’s performance by comparing our proposed techniques with some other features surveyed from distinct related works. We achieve precision and recall values between 87% and 100% per class, and an average accuracy at 95.2%. We also study the effect of varying audio chunk size in the application phase of the models and find only a mild impact on performance.

Keywords: Terrain classification, acoustic features, autonomous robots, feature extraction.

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12 Propagation of Viscous Waves and Activation Energy of Hydrocarbon Fluids

Authors: Ram N. Singh, Abraham K. George, Dawood N. Al-Namaani

Abstract:

The Euler-s equation of motion is extended to include the viscosity stress tensor leading to the formulation of Navier– Stokes type equation. The latter is linearized and applied to investigate the rotational motion or vorticity in a viscous fluid. Relations for the velocity of viscous waves and attenuation parameter are obtained in terms of viscosity (μ) and the density (¤ü) of the fluid. μ and ¤ü are measured experimentally as a function of temperature for two different samples of light and heavy crude oil. These data facilitated to determine the activation energy, velocity of viscous wave and the attenuation parameter. Shear wave velocity in heavy oil is found to be much larger than the light oil, whereas the attenuation parameter in heavy oil is quite low in comparison to light one. The activation energy of heavy oil is three times larger than light oil.

Keywords: Activation Energy, Attenuation, Crude Oil, Navier- Stokes Equation, Viscosity.

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11 Use of Fuzzy Edge Image in Block Truncation Coding for Image Compression

Authors: Amarunnishad T.M., Govindan V.K., Abraham T. Mathew

Abstract:

An image compression method has been developed using fuzzy edge image utilizing the basic Block Truncation Coding (BTC) algorithm. The fuzzy edge image has been validated with classical edge detectors on the basis of the results of the well-known Canny edge detector prior to applying to the proposed method. The bit plane generated by the conventional BTC method is replaced with the fuzzy bit plane generated by the logical OR operation between the fuzzy edge image and the corresponding conventional BTC bit plane. The input image is encoded with the block mean and standard deviation and the fuzzy bit plane. The proposed method has been tested with test images of 8 bits/pixel and size 512×512 and found to be superior with better Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) when compared to the conventional BTC, and adaptive bit plane selection BTC (ABTC) methods. The raggedness and jagged appearance, and the ringing artifacts at sharp edges are greatly reduced in reconstructed images by the proposed method with the fuzzy bit plane.

Keywords: Image compression, Edge detection, Ground truth image, Peak signal to noise ratio

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10 Content Based Image Retrieval of Brain MR Images across Different Classes

Authors: Abraham Varghese, Kannan Balakrishnan, Reji R. Varghese, Joseph S. Paul

Abstract:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging play a vital role in the decision-diagnosis process of brain MR images. For an accurate diagnosis of brain related problems, the experts mostly compares both T1 and T2 weighted images as the information presented in these two images are complementary. In this paper, rotational and translational invariant form of Local binary Pattern (LBP) with additional gray scale information is used to retrieve similar slices of T1 weighted images from T2 weighted images or vice versa. The incorporation of additional gray scale information on LBP can extract more local texture information. The accuracy of retrieval can be improved by extracting moment features of LBP and reweighting the features based on users feedback. Here retrieval is done in a single subject scenario where similar images of a particular subject at a particular level are retrieved, and multiple subjects scenario where relevant images at a particular level across the subjects are retrieved.

Keywords: Local Binary pattern (LBP), Modified Local Binary pattern (MOD-LBP), T1 and T2 weighted images, Moment features.

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9 Multiple Model and Neural based Adaptive Multi-loop PID Controller for a CSTR Process

Authors: R.Vinodha S. Abraham Lincoln, J. Prakash

Abstract:

Multi-loop (De-centralized) Proportional-Integral- Derivative (PID) controllers have been used extensively in process industries due to their simple structure for control of multivariable processes. The objective of this work is to design multiple-model adaptive multi-loop PID strategy (Multiple Model Adaptive-PID) and neural network based multi-loop PID strategy (Neural Net Adaptive-PID) for the control of multivariable system. The first method combines the output of multiple linear PID controllers, each describing process dynamics at a specific level of operation. The global output is an interpolation of the individual multi-loop PID controller outputs weighted based on the current value of the measured process variable. In the second method, neural network is used to calculate the PID controller parameters based on the scheduling variable that corresponds to major shift in the process dynamics. The proposed control schemes are simple in structure with less computational complexity. The effectiveness of the proposed control schemes have been demonstrated on the CSTR process, which exhibits dynamic non-linearity.

Keywords: Multiple-model Adaptive PID controller, Multivariableprocess, CSTR process.

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8 Comparative Study of Evolutionary Model and Clustering Methods in Circuit Partitioning Pertaining to VLSI Design

Authors: K. A. Sumitra Devi, N. P. Banashree, Annamma Abraham

Abstract:

Partitioning is a critical area of VLSI CAD. In order to build complex digital logic circuits its often essential to sub-divide multi -million transistor design into manageable Pieces. This paper looks at the various partitioning techniques aspects of VLSI CAD, targeted at various applications. We proposed an evolutionary time-series model and a statistical glitch prediction system using a neural network with selection of global feature by making use of clustering method model, for partitioning a circuit. For evolutionary time-series model, we made use of genetic, memetic & neuro-memetic techniques. Our work focused in use of clustering methods - K-means & EM methodology. A comparative study is provided for all techniques to solve the problem of circuit partitioning pertaining to VLSI design. The performance of all approaches is compared using benchmark data provided by MCNC standard cell placement benchmark net lists. Analysis of the investigational results proved that the Neuro-memetic model achieves greater performance then other model in recognizing sub-circuits with minimum amount of interconnections between them.

Keywords: VLSI, circuit partitioning, memetic algorithm, genetic algorithm.

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7 Biodiesel Production from Broiler Chicken Waste

Authors: John Abraham, Ramesh Saravana Kumar, Francis Xavier, Deepak Mathew

Abstract:

Broiler slaughter waste has become a major source of pollution throughout the world. Utilization of broiler slaughter waste by dry rendering process produced Rendered Chicken Oil (RCO), a cheap raw material for biodiesel production and Carcass Meal a feed ingredient for pets and fishes. Conversion of RCO into biodiesel may open new vistas for generating wealth from waste besides controlling the major havoc of environmental pollution. A two-step process to convert RCO to good quality Biodiesel was invented. Acid catalysed esterification of FFA followed by base catalysed transesterification of triglycerides was carried out after meticulously standardizing the methanol molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to obtain the maximum biodiesel yield of 97.62% and lowest glycerol yield of 6.96%. RCO biodiesel blend was tested in a CRDI diesel engine. The results revealed that the blending of commercial diesel with 20% RCO biodiesel (B20) lead to less engine wear, a quieter engine and better fuel economy. The better lubricating qualities of RCO B20 prevented over heating of engine, which prolongs the engine life. RCO B20 can reduce the import of crude oil and substantially reduce the engine emissions as proved by significantly lower smoke levels, thus mitigating climatic changes.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Broiler Waste, Engine Testing, Rendered Chicken Oil.

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6 Resettlement and Livelihood Sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Bui Hydro-Power Dam Project, Ghana

Authors: Francis Z. Naab, Abraham M. Nunbogu, Romanus D. Dinye, Alfred Dongzagla

Abstract:

The study assesses the effectiveness of the Bui Dam resettlement scheme in the Tain and the Bole districts in Ghana. The study adopted a mixed approach in its data collection and analyses. Of the eight communities affected by Bui hydropower project, and thus require resettlement, four were purposively selected for primary data collection. Primary data was gathered through questionnaire administration to 157 heads of resettled households, focus group discussions with men and women and in-depth interviews with key informants. The findings indicated that the affected people had been sufficiently contacted at all levels of their resettlement. In particular, the Ghana Dams Dialogue, which served as a liaison entity between the government and the resettlement communities came up for praise for its usefulness. Many tangible policies were put in place to address the socio-cultural differences of traditional authorities. The Bui Dam Authority also rigorously followed national and international laws and protocols in the design and implementation of the resettlement scheme.  In assessing the effectiveness of the resettlement scheme, it was clear that there had been a great appreciation of the compensation regarding infrastructural development, but much more would have to be done to satisfy livelihood empowerment requirements. It was recommended that candid efforts be made to restore the lost identities of the communities resettled, and more dialogue is encouraged among communities living together.

Keywords: Resettlement, livelihood, hydro-power project, Bui Dam, Ghana.

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5 Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea

Authors: Nickson Kipng’etich Lang’at, Thomas Thoruwa, John Abraham, John Wanyoko

Abstract:

Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 ± 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 ºC, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.

Keywords: Evaporation rate, fluid bed dryer, maceration, specific energy consumption.

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4 Closed Greenhouse Production Systems for Smart Plant Production in Urban Areas

Authors: U. Schmidt, D. Dannehl, I. Schuch, J. Suhl, T. Rocksch, R. Salazar-Moreno, E. Fitz-Rodrigues, A. Rojano Aquilar, I. Lopez Cruz, G. Navas Gomez, R. A. Abraham, L. C. Irineo, N. G. Gilberto

Abstract:

The integration of agricultural production systems into urban areas is a challenge for the coming decades. Because of increasing greenhouse gas emission and rising resource consumption as well as costs in animal husbandry, the dietary habits of people in the 21st century have to focus on herbal foods. Intensive plant cultivation systems in large cities and megacities require a smart coupling of information, material and energy flow with the urban infrastructure in terms of Horticulture 4.0. In recent years, many puzzle pieces have been developed for these closed processes at the Humboldt University. To compile these for an urban plant production, it has to be optimized and networked with urban infrastructure systems. In the field of heat energy production, it was shown that with closed greenhouse technology and patented heat exchange and storage technology energy can be provided for heating and domestic hot water supply in the city. Closed water circuits can be drastically reducing the water requirements of plant production in urban areas. Ion sensitive sensors and new disinfection methods can help keep circulating nutrient solutions in the system for a longer time in urban plant production greenhouses.

Keywords: Semi closed, greenhouses, urban farming, solar heat collector, closed water cycles, aquaponics.

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3 Investigating the Usability of a University Website from the Users’ Perspective: An Empirical Study of Benue State University Website

Authors: Abraham Undu, Stephen Akuma

Abstract:

Websites are becoming a major component of an organization’s success in our ever globalizing competitive world. The website symbolizes an organization, interacting or projecting an organization’s principles, culture, values, vision, and perspectives. It is an interface connecting organizations and their clients. The university, as an academic institution, makes use of a website to communicate and offer computing services to its stakeholders (students, staff, host community, university management etc). Unfortunately, website designers often give more consideration to the technology, organizational structure and business objectives of the university than to the usability of the site. Website designers end up designing university websites which do not meet the needs of the primary users. This empirical study investigated the Benue State University website from the point view of students. This research was realized by using a standardized website usability questionnaire based on the five factors of usability defined by WAMMI (Website Analysis and Measurement Inventory): attractiveness, controllability, efficiency, learnability and helpfulness. The result of the investigation showed that the university website (https://portal.bsum.edu.ng/) has neutral usability level because of the usability issues associated with the website. The research recommended feasible solutions to improve the usability of the website from the users’ perspective and also provided a modified usability model that will be used for better evaluation of the Benue State University website.

Keywords: Usability, usability factors, university websites, user’s perspective, WAMMI, modified usability model, Benue State University.

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2 Speech Enhancement Using Wavelet Coefficients Masking with Local Binary Patterns

Authors: Christian Arcos, Marley Vellasco, Abraham Alcaim

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a wavelet coefficients masking based on Local Binary Patterns (WLBP) approach to enhance the temporal spectra of the wavelet coefficients for speech enhancement. This technique exploits the wavelet denoising scheme, which splits the degraded speech into pyramidal subband components and extracts frequency information without losing temporal information. Speech enhancement in each high-frequency subband is performed by binary labels through the local binary pattern masking that encodes the ratio between the original value of each coefficient and the values of the neighbour coefficients. This approach enhances the high-frequency spectra of the wavelet transform instead of eliminating them through a threshold. A comparative analysis is carried out with conventional speech enhancement algorithms, demonstrating that the proposed technique achieves significant improvements in terms of PESQ, an international recommendation of objective measure for estimating subjective speech quality. Informal listening tests also show that the proposed method in an acoustic context improves the quality of speech, avoiding the annoying musical noise present in other speech enhancement techniques. Experimental results obtained with a DNN based speech recognizer in noisy environments corroborate the superiority of the proposed scheme in the robust speech recognition scenario.

Keywords: Binary labels, local binary patterns, mask, wavelet coefficients, speech enhancement, speech recognition.

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1 Total Organic Carbon, Porosity and Permeability Correlation: A Tool for Carbon Dioxide Storage Potential Evaluation in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin, Brazil

Authors: Richardson M. Abraham-A., Colombo Celso Gaeta Tassinari

Abstract:

The correlation between Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and flow units have been carried out to predict and compare the carbon dioxide (CO2) storage potential of the shale and carbonate rocks in Irati Formation of the Parana Basin. The equations for permeability (K), reservoir quality index (RQI) and flow zone indicator (FZI) are redefined and engaged to evaluate the flow units in both potential reservoir rocks. Shales show higher values of TOC compared to carbonates, as such,  porosity (Ф) is most likely to be higher in shales compared to carbonates. The increase in Ф corresponds to the increase in K (in both rocks). Nonetheless, at lower values of Ф, K is higher in carbonates compared to shales. This shows that at lower values of TOC in carbonates, Ф is low, yet, K is likely to be high compared to shale. In the same vein, at higher values of TOC in shales, Ф is high, yet, K is expected to be low compared to carbonates.  Overall, the flow unit factors (RQI and FZI) are better in the carbonates compared to the shales. Moreso, within the study location,  there are some portions where the thicknesses of the carbonate units are higher compared to the shale units. Most parts of the carbonate strata in the study location are fractured in situ, hence,  this could provide easy access for the storage of CO2. Therefore, based on these points and the disparities between the flow units in the evaluated rock types, the carbonate units are expected to show better potentials for the storage of CO2. The shale units may be considered as potential cap rocks or seals.

Keywords: Total organic carbon, flow units, carbon dioxide storage.

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