Search results for: Kengo Nakamura
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Kengo Nakamura

15 Total and Leachable Concentration of Trace Elements in Soil towards Human Health Risk, Related with Coal Mine in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Arie Pujiwati, Kengo Nakamura, Noriaki Watanabe, Takeshi Komai

Abstract:

Coal mining is well known to cause considerable environmental impacts, including trace element contamination of soil. This study aimed to assess the trace element (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) contamination of soil in the vicinity of coal mining activities, using the case study of Asam-asam River basin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, and to assess the human health risk, incorporating total and bioavailable (water-leachable and acid-leachable) concentrations. The results show the enrichment of As and Co in soil, surpassing the background soil value. Contamination was evaluated based on the index of geo-accumulation, Igeo and the pollution index, PI. Igeo values showed that the soil was generally uncontaminated (Igeo ≤ 0), except for elevated As and Co. Mean PI for Ni and Cu indicated slight contamination. Regarding the assessment of health risks, the Hazard Index, HI showed adverse risks (HI > 1) for Ni, Co, and As. Further, Ni and As were found to pose unacceptable carcinogenic risk (risk > 1.10-5). Farming, settlement, and plantation were found to present greater risk than coal mines. These results show that coal mining activity in the study area contaminates the soils by particular elements and may pose potential human health risk in its surrounding area. This study is important for setting appropriate countermeasure actions and improving basic coal mining management in Indonesia.

Keywords: Coal mine, risk, soil, trace elements.

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14 Synthesis of Y2O3 Films by Spray Coating with Milled EDTA·Y·H Complexes

Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Tetsuo Sekiya, Ayumu Toyama, Atsushi Nakamura, Ikumi Toda, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Hidetoshi Saitoh, Atsushi Nakamura, Ariyuki Kato

Abstract:

Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films have been successfully deposited with yttrium-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA·Y·H) complexes prepared by various milling techniques. The effects of the properties of the EDTA·Y·H complex on the properties of the deposited Y2O3 films have been analyzed. Seven different types of the raw EDTA·Y·H complexes were prepared by various commercial milling techniques such as ball milling, hammer milling, commercial milling, and mortar milling. The milled EDTA·Y·H complexes exhibited various particle sizes and distributions, depending on the milling method. Furthermore, we analyzed the crystal structure, morphology and elemental distribution profile of the metal oxide films deposited on stainless steel substrate with the milled EDTA·Y·H complexes. Depending on the milling technique, the flow properties of the raw powders differed. The X-ray diffraction pattern of all the samples revealed the formation of Y2O3 crystalline phase, irrespective of the milling technique. Of all the different milling techniques, the hammer milling technique is considered suitable for fabricating dense Y2O3 films.

Keywords: Powder sizes and distributions, Flame spray coating techniques, Yttrium oxide.

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13 On-line Identification of Continuous-time Hammerstein Systems via RBF Networks and Immune Algorithm

Authors: Tomohiro Hachino, Kengo Nagatomo, Hitoshi Takata

Abstract:

This paper deals with an on-line identification method of continuous-time Hammerstein systems by using the radial basis function (RBF) networks and immune algorithm (IA). An unknown nonlinear static part to be estimated is approximately represented by the RBF network. The IA is efficiently combined with the recursive least-squares (RLS) method. The objective function for the identification is regarded as the antigen. The candidates of the RBF parameters such as the centers and widths are coded into binary bit strings as the antibodies and searched by the IA. On the other hand, the candidates of both the weighting parameters of the RBF network and the system parameters of the linear dynamic part are updated by the RLS method. Simulation results are shown to illustrate the proposed method.

Keywords: Continuous-time System, Hammerstein System, OnlineIdentification, Immune Algorithm, RBF network.

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12 Extending E-learning systems based on Clause-Rule model

Authors: Keisuke Nakamura, Kiyoshi Akama, Hiroshi Mabuchi

Abstract:

E-Learning systems are used by many learners and teachers. The developer is developing the e-Learning system. However, the developer cannot do system construction to satisfy all of users- demands. We discuss a method of constructing e-Learning systems where learners and teachers can design, try to use, and share extending system functions that they want to use; which may be nally added to the system by system managers.

Keywords: Clause-Rule-Model, database-access, e-Learning, Web-Application.

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11 A Formulation of the Latent Class Vector Model for Pairwise Data

Authors: Tomoya Okubo, Kuninori Nakamura, Shin-ichi Mayekawa

Abstract:

In this research, a latent class vector model for pairwise data is formulated. As compared to the basic vector model, this model yields consistent estimates of the parameters since the number of parameters to be estimated does not increase with the number of subjects. The result of the analysis reveals that the model was stable and could classify each subject to the latent classes representing the typical scales used by these subjects.

Keywords: finite mixture models, latent class analysis, Thrustone's paired comparison method, vector model

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10 Some Relationships between Classes of Reverse Watson-Crick Finite Automata

Authors: Kazuki Murakami, Takashige Nakamura, Noriko Sakamoto, Kunio Aizawa

Abstract:

A Watson-Crick automaton is recently introduced as a computational model of DNA computing framework. It works on tapes consisting of double stranded sequences of symbols. Symbols placed on the corresponding cells of the double-stranded sequences are related by a complimentary relation. In this paper, we investigate a variation of Watson-Crick automata in which both heads read the tape in reverse directions. They are called reverse Watson-Crick finite automata (RWKFA). We show that all of following four classes, i.e., simple, 1-limited, all-final, all-final and simple, are equal to non-restricted version of RWKFA.

Keywords: automaton, DNA computing, formal languages, Watson-Crick automaton

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9 Partner Selection in International Strategic Alliances: The Case of the Information Industry

Authors: H. Nakamura

Abstract:

This study analyzes international strategic alliances in the information industry. The purpose of this study is to clarify the strategic intention of an international alliance. Secondly, it investigates the influence of differences in the target markets of partner companies on alliances. Using an international strategy theory approach to analyze the global strategies of global companies, the study compares a database business and an electronic publishing business. In particular, these cases emphasized factors attributable to "people" and "learning", reliability and communication between organizations and the evolution of the IT infrastructure. The theory evolved in this study validates the effectiveness of these strategies.

Keywords: Database business, electronic library, international strategic alliances, partner selection.

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8 Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles

Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Hayato Maruyama, Ariyuki Kato, Atsushi Nakamura, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroki Akasaka, Hidetoshi Saitoh

Abstract:

Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.

Keywords: Low temperature luminescence spectroscopy, Material Identification, Strontium aluminates phosphor.

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7 Ultraviolet Lasing from Vertically-Aligned ZnO Nanowall Array

Authors: Masahiro Takahashi, Kosuke Harada, Shihomi Nakao, Mitsuhiro Higashihata, Hiroshi Ikenoue, Daisuke Nakamura, Tatsuo Okada

Abstract:

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the light emitting materials in ultraviolet (UV) region. In addition, ZnO nanostructures are also attracting increasing research interest as buildingblocks for UV optoelectronic applications. We have succeeded in synthesizing vertically-aligned ZnO nanostructures by laser interference patterning, which is catalyst-free and non-contact technique. In this study, vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall arrays were synthesized using two-beam interference. The maximum height and average thickness of the ZnO nanowalls were about 4.5µm and 200 nm, respectively.UV lasing from a piece of the ZnO nanowall was obtained under the third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser excitation, and the estimated threshold power density for lasing was about 150 kW/cm2. Furthermore, UV lasing from the vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall was also achieved. The results indicate that ZnO nanowalls can be applied to random laser.

Keywords: Zinc Oxide, nanowall, interference laser, UV lasing.

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6 Field Investigation on Modification of Japanese Cedar Pollen Allergen in Urban Air-Polluted Area

Authors: Qingyue Wang, Jun Morita, Shinichi Nakamura, Di Wu, Xiumin Gong, Miho Suzuki, Makoto Miwa, Daisuke Nakajima

Abstract:

Cry j 1 is a causative substance of Japanese cedar pollinosis, and it may deteriorate by Cry j 1 invasion to a lower respiratory tract. We observed airborne particles containing Cry j 1 by an immunofluorescence technique using a fluorescence microscope, and we clarified that Cry j 1 exist as aggregates of airborne fine particles (< 1.1 μm) in the urban atmosphere. Airborne Cry j 1 may react with air pollutants and be denature to a substance deteriorated Japanese cedar pollinosis. Therefore, we applied a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to evaluate a Cry j 1 reacted with various air pollutants by liquid phase reaction, and calculated kinetics constants of Cry j 1 extracted from pollens collected in various sites and airborne fine particles containing Cry j 1 by using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. As a result, it is suggested that Cry j 1 may be denatured by air pollutants during the transportation to the urban atmosphere.

Keywords: Cry j 1, Japanese cedar pollinosis, SDS-PAGE, SPR

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5 Program Camouflage: A Systematic Instruction Hiding Method for Protecting Secrets

Authors: Yuichiro Kanzaki, Akito Monden, Masahide Nakamura, Ken-ichi Matsumoto

Abstract:

This paper proposes an easy-to-use instruction hiding method to protect software from malicious reverse engineering attacks. Given a source program (original) to be protected, the proposed method (1) takes its modified version (fake) as an input, (2) differences in assembly code instructions between original and fake are analyzed, and, (3) self-modification routines are introduced so that fake instructions become correct (i.e., original instructions) before they are executed and that they go back to fake ones after they are executed. The proposed method can add a certain amount of security to a program since the fake instructions in the resultant program confuse attackers and it requires significant effort to discover and remove all the fake instructions and self-modification routines. Also, this method is easy to use (with little effort) because all a user (who uses the proposed method) has to do is to prepare a fake source code by modifying the original source code.

Keywords: Copyright protection, program encryption, program obfuscation, self-modification, software protection.

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4 Various Information Obtained from Acoustic Emissions Owing to Discharges in XLPE Cable

Authors: Tatsuya Sakoda, Yuta Nakamura, Junichiro Kitajima, Masaki Sugiura, Satoshi Kurihara, Kenji Baba, Koichiro Kaneko, Takayoshi Yarimitsu

Abstract:

An acoustic emission (AE) technique is useful for detection of partial discharges (PDs) at a joint and a terminal section of a cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable. For AE technique, it is not difficult to detect a PD using AE sensors. However, it is difficult to grasp whether the detected AE signal is owing to a single discharge or not. Additionally, when an AE technique is applied at a terminal section of a XLPE cable in salt pollution district, for example, there is possibility of detection of AE signals owing to creeping discharges on the surface of electric power apparatus. In this study, we evaluated AE signals in order to grasp what kind of information we can get from detected AE signals. The results showed that envelop detection of AE signal and a period which some AE signals were continuously detected were good indexes for estimating state-of-discharge.

Keywords: acoustic emission, creeping discharge, partial discharge, XLPE cable

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3 State Estimation Method Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Vehicle Nonlinear Dynamics

Authors: Wataru Nakamura, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Liang-Kuang Chen

Abstract:

This paper provides a state estimation method for automatic control systems of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. A nonlinear tire model is employed to represent the realistic behavior of a vehicle. In general, all the state variables of control systems are not precisedly known, because those variables are observed through output sensors and limited parts of them might be only measurable. Hence, automatic control systems must incorporate some type of state estimation. It is needed to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear vehicle dynamics with restricted measurable state variables. For this purpose, unscented Kalman filter method is applied in this study for estimating the state variables of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The objective of this paper is to propose a state estimation method using unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: State estimation, control systems, observer systems, unscented Kalman filter, nonlinear vehicle dynamics.

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2 Direct Measurement of Electromagnetic Thrust of Electrodeless Helicon Plasma Thruster Using Magnetic Nozzle

Authors: Takahiro Nakamura, Kenji Takahashi, Hiroyuki Nishida, Shunjiro Shinohara, Takeshi Matsuoka, Ikkoh Funaki, Takao Tanikawa, Tohru Hada

Abstract:

In order to realize long-lived electric propulsion systems, we have been investigating an electrodeless plasma thruster. In our concept, a helicon plasma is accelerated by the magnetic nozzle for the thrusts production. In addition, the electromagnetic thrust can be enhanced by the additional radio-frequency rotating electric field (REF) power in the magnetic nozzle. In this study, a direct measurement of the electromagnetic thrust and a probe measurement have been conducted using a laboratory model of the thruster under the condition without the REF power input. Fromthrust measurement, it is shown that the thruster produces a sub-milli-newton order electromagnetic thrust force without the additional REF power. The thrust force and the density jump are observed due to the discharge mode transition from the inductive coupled plasma to the helicon wave excited plasma. The thermal thrust is theoretically estimated, and the total thrust force, which is a sum of the electromagnetic and the thermal thrust force and specific impulse are calculated to be up to 650 μN (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 1.0 mg/s) and 210 s (plasma production power of 400 W, Ar gas mass flow rate of 0.2 mg/s), respectively.

Keywords: Electric propulsion, Helicon plasma, Lissajous acceleration, Thrust stand.

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1 Automatic Distance Compensation for Robust Voice-based Human-Computer Interaction

Authors: Randy Gomez, Keisuke Nakamura, Kazuhiro Nakadai

Abstract:

Distant-talking voice-based HCI system suffers from performance degradation due to mismatch between the acoustic speech (runtime) and the acoustic model (training). Mismatch is caused by the change in the power of the speech signal as observed at the microphones. This change is greatly influenced by the change in distance, affecting speech dynamics inside the room before reaching the microphones. Moreover, as the speech signal is reflected, its acoustical characteristic is also altered by the room properties. In general, power mismatch due to distance is a complex problem. This paper presents a novel approach in dealing with distance-induced mismatch by intelligently sensing instantaneous voice power variation and compensating model parameters. First, the distant-talking speech signal is processed through microphone array processing, and the corresponding distance information is extracted. Distance-sensitive Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), pre-trained to capture both speech power and room property are used to predict the optimal distance of the speech source. Consequently, pre-computed statistic priors corresponding to the optimal distance is selected to correct the statistics of the generic model which was frozen during training. Thus, model combinatorics are post-conditioned to match the power of instantaneous speech acoustics at runtime. This results to an improved likelihood in predicting the correct speech command at farther distances. We experiment using real data recorded inside two rooms. Experimental evaluation shows voice recognition performance using our method is more robust to the change in distance compared to the conventional approach. In our experiment, under the most acoustically challenging environment (i.e., Room 2: 2.5 meters), our method achieved 24.2% improvement in recognition performance against the best-performing conventional method.

Keywords: Human Machine Interaction, Human Computer Interaction, Voice Recognition, Acoustic Model Compensation, Acoustic Speech Enhancement.

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