Total and Leachable Concentration of Trace Elements in Soil towards Human Health Risk, Related with Coal Mine in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia
Coal mining is well known to cause considerable environmental impacts, including trace element contamination of soil. This study aimed to assess the trace element (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) contamination of soil in the vicinity of coal mining activities, using the case study of Asam-asam River basin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, and to assess the human health risk, incorporating total and bioavailable (water-leachable and acid-leachable) concentrations. The results show the enrichment of As and Co in soil, surpassing the background soil value. Contamination was evaluated based on the index of geo-accumulation, Igeo and the pollution index, PI. Igeo values showed that the soil was generally uncontaminated (Igeo ≤ 0), except for elevated As and Co. Mean PI for Ni and Cu indicated slight contamination. Regarding the assessment of health risks, the Hazard Index, HI showed adverse risks (HI > 1) for Ni, Co, and As. Further, Ni and As were found to pose unacceptable carcinogenic risk (risk > 1.10-5). Farming, settlement, and plantation were found to present greater risk than coal mines. These results show that coal mining activity in the study area contaminates the soils by particular elements and may pose potential human health risk in its surrounding area. This study is important for setting appropriate countermeasure actions and improving basic coal mining management in Indonesia.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132329Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 703
 World Coal Institute, “The Coal Resource: A Comprehensive Overview of Coal,” World Coal Inst., pp. 1–44, 2005.
 APERC, A quest for Energy Security in The 21st Century Resources and Constraints. 2007.
 World Energy Council, “World Energy Resources 2016,” 2016.
 R. of I. National Energy Council, “Key Energy Indicators,” 2016. (Online). Available: http://statistik.den.go.id/. (Accessed: 08-Mar-2017).
 Z. Bian, H. I. Inyang, J. L. Daniels, F. Otto, and S. Struthers, “Environmental issues from coal mining and their solutions,” Min. Sci. Technol., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 215–223, 2010.
 J. Chen et al., “Coal utilization in China: Environmental impacts and human health,” Environ. Geochem. Health, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 735–753, 2014.
 Y. E. Yudovich and M. P. Ketris, “Geochemistry of Coal: Occurrences and Environmental Impacts of Trace Elements,” in Coal Production and Processing Technology, no. March, M. R. Riazi and R. Gupta, Eds. 2016, pp. 51–77.
 A. Kolker and R. B. Finkelman, “Potentially hazardous elements in coal: Modes of occurrence and summary of concentration data for coal components,” Coal Prep., vol. 19, no. 3–4, pp. 133–157, 1998.
 A. Akcil and S. Koldas, “Acid Mine Drainage (AMD): causes, treatment and case studies,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 14, no. 12–13 SPEC. ISS., pp. 1139–1145, 2006.
 F. D. Ardejani, B. J. Shokri, M. Bagheri, and E. Soleimani, “Investigation of pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage characterization associated with Razi active coal mine and coal washing waste dumps in the Azad shahr-Ramian region, northeast Iran,” Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1547–1560, 2010.
 M. A. H. Bhuiyan, M. A. Islam, S. B. Dampare, L. Parvez, and S. Suzuki, “Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh,” J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 179, no. 1–3, pp. 1065–1077, 2010.
 F. Doulati Ardejani, B. Jodieri Shokri, A. Moradzadeh, S. Z. Shafaei, and R. Kakaei, “Geochemical characterisation of pyrite oxidation and environmental problems related to release and transport of metals from a coal washing low-grade waste dump, Shahrood, northeast Iran,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 183, no. 1–4, pp. 41–55, 2011.
 R. E. Masto, J. George, T. K. Rout, and L. C. Ram, “Multi element exposure risk from soil and dust in a coal industrial area,” J. Geochemical Explor., 2015.
 R. B. Finkelman, “Health Impacts of Coal: Should We Be Concerned?,” Petrology, no. January 2004, 2002.
 B. Zheng et al., “The Se-rich carbonaceous siliceous rock and endemic selenosis in southwest Hubei, China,” China Sci. Bull., vol. 37, no. 20, pp. 1725–1729, 1992.
 B. Zheng, X. Yu, J. Zhand, and D. Zhou, “Environmental geochemistry of coal and endemic arsenism in southwest Guizhou, PR China,” 30th Int. Geol. Congr. Abstr., vol. 3, p. 410, 1996.
 G. Sun, “Arsenic contamination and arsenicosis in China,” Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., vol. 198, no. 3, pp. 268–271, 2004.
 G. Yapici, G. Can, A. R. Kiziler, B. Aydemir, I. H. Timur, and A. Kaypmaz, “Lead and cadmium exposure in children living around a coal-mining area in Yatagan, Turkey,” Toxicol. Ind. Health, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 357–362, 2006.
 M. V Ruby et al., “Advances in Evaluating the Oral Bioavailability of Inorganics in Soil for Use in Human Health Risk Assessment,” vol. 33, no. 21, pp. 3697–3705, 1999.
 M. Nordberg and M. G. Cherian, “Biological Responses of Elements,” in Essentials of Medical Geology, 2005, pp. 179–200.
 G. Rauret, “Extraction procedures for the determination of heavy metals in contaminated soil and sediment,” Talanta, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 449–455, 1998.
 H. van der Sloot, L. Heasman, and P. Quevauviller, Harmonization of leaching/extraction tests. Elsevier B.V., 1998.
 W. Kordel et al., “Incorporating availability/bioavailability in risk assessment and decision making of polluted sites, Using Germany as an example,” J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 261, pp. 854–862, 2013.
 K. Nakamura, T. Kuwatani, Y. Kawabe, and T. Komai, “Extraction of heavy metals characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits using multiple classification analysis,” Chemosphere, vol. 144, pp. 1241–1248, 2016.
 S. K. Das and G. J. Chakrapani, “Assessment of trace metal toxicity in soils of Raniganj Coalfield, India,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 177, no. 1–4, pp. 63–71, 2011.
 T. Fang, G. Liu, C. Zhou, and L. Lu, “Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 187, no. 3, 2015.
 T. Fang, G. Liu, C. Zhou, Z. Yuan, and P. K. S. Lam, “Distribution and assessment of Pb in the supergene environment of the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 186, no. 8, pp. 4753–4765, 2014.
 M. N. Hossain, S. K. Paul, and M. M. Hasan, “Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 187, no. 4, 2015.
 Z. Xu, J. Li, Y. Pan, and X. Chai, “Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in a replaced urban industrial area of Qingdao, China,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 188, no. 4, 2016.
 K. Nakazawa et al., “Human health risk assessment of mercury vapor around artisanal small-scale gold mining area, Palu city, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia,” Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 124, pp. 155–162, 2016.
 Y. T. Male, A. J. Reichelt-Brushett, M. Pocock, and A. Nanlohy, “Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining on Buru Island, Indonesia--potential future risks to environmental health and food safety.,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 77, no. 1–2, pp. 428–33, Dec. 2013.
 D. Limbong, J. Kumampung, J. Rimper, T. Arai, and N. Miyazaki, “Emissions and environmental implications of mercury from artisanal gold mining in north Sulawesi, Indonesia,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 302, no. 1–3, pp. 227–236, Jan. 2003.
 H. Tresnadi, “Pertambangan sumberdaya mineral dan batubara sebagai penggerak perekonomian daerah di Kabupaten Tanah Laut,” in RPSEP, 2014, no. 113.
 M. of I. Affair, “Tanah Laut Regency,” 2016. (Online). Available: http://www.kemendagri.go.id/pages/profil-daerah/kabupaten/id/63/name/kalimantan-selatan/detail/6301/tanah-laut. (Accessed: 24-Jan-2017).
 Local government of Tanah Laut Regency, “Geography of Tanah Laut Regency,” 2016. (Online). Available: https://tanahlautkab.go.id/?q=node/57. (Accessed: 24-Mar-2017).
 M. Edraki et al., “Mitigating Acid and Metalliferous Drainage in the Asam-Asam Basin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia,” 2015.
 R. of I. MEF, “South Kalimantan land use,” 2016. (Online). Available: http://webgis.dephut.go.id:8080/kemenhut/index.php/en/feature/download. (Accessed: 24-Jul-2017).
 I. Suherman, Suhendar, T. Suseno, Jafril, Sujono, and E. A. Daranin, “Analisis Tata Pemasokan dan Permintaan Batubara untuk PLTU Existing dan Program Pembangunan PLTU 10,000 MW,” 2010.
 B. M. C. Friederich, R. P. Langford, and T. A. Moore, “The geological setting of Indonesian coal deposits,” no. 2, pp. 23–29, 1999.
 N. Sikumbang and R. Heryanto, “Geological Map of The Banjarmasin Sheet, Kalimantan.” Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung, 1994.
 H. Matsunami et al., “Rapid simultaneous multi-element determination of soils and environmental samples with polarizing energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry using pressed powder pellets,” Soil Sci. Plant Nutr., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 530–540, 2010.
 C. Vandecasteele, M. Nagels, H. Vanhoe, and R. Dams, “Suppression of analyte signal in inductively-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry and the use of an internal standard,” Anal. Chim. Acta, vol. 211, no. C, pp. 91–98, 1988.
 D. A. Storer, “A simple high sample volume ashing procedure for determination of soil organic matter,” Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 759–772, 1984.
 G. Muller, “Index of Geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River,” Geo J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 108–118, 1969.
 Baharuddin, “Correlation of Ofiolite Debris and Metal Concentration in Stream Sediments of Pelaihari, South Kalimantan (in Indonesian language: Hubungan Keberadaan Runtuhan Ofiolit dengan Konsentrasi Unsur Logam dalam Endapan Sungai Aktif di Daerah Pelaihari, Kalimant,” J. Geol. Res., vol. XVI, no. 4, 2006.
 Z. Yuan et al., “Potentially toxic trace element contamination, sources, and pollution assessment in farmlands, Bijie City, southwestern China,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 189, no. 1, p. 25, 2017.
 S. Wu et al., “Levels and health risk assessments of heavy metals in urban soils in Dongguan, China,” J. Geochemical Explor., vol. 148, pp. 71–78, 2015.
 RI, “Government Regulation no 101 year 2014 on Hazardous Waste Management - Appendix.” 2014.
 US EPA, “Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition,” U.S. Environ. Prot. Agency, vol. EPA/600/R-, no. September, pp. 1–1466, 2011.
 US EPA, “Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume I Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part A),” vol. I, no. December, p. 289, 1989.
 US EPA, “Supplemental Guidance for Developing Soil Screening Levels for Superfund Sites,” no. December, p. 106, 2002.
 A. L. Rantetampang and A. Mallongi, “Environmental Risks Assessment Of Total Mercury Accumulation At Sentani Lake Papua, Indonesia,” vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 157–163, 2014.
 T. McKone and K. Bogen, “Predicting the uncertainties in risk assessment,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1674–1681, 1991.
 US EPA, “Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part B, Development of Risk-based Preliminary Remediation Goals)” U.S. Environ. Prot. Agency, vol. I, 1991.
 X. Qing, Z. Yutong, and L. Shenggao, “Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China,” Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., vol. 120, pp. 377–385, 2015.
 Z. Jin et al., “Canonical correspondence analysis of soil heavy metal pollution, microflora and enzyme activities in the Pb–Zn mine tailing dam collapse area of Sidi village, SW China,” Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 267–274, 2015.
 G. W. Thomas, “Soil pH and soil acidity,” Methods soil Anal. Part 3 - Chem. methods., no. 5, pp. 475–490, 1996.
 M. Xi-jun, L. Zhao-hua, and C. Jian-long, “Ecological risk assessment of open coal mine area,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 147, no. 1–3, pp. 471–481, 2008.
 M. Radojevic and V. N. Bashkin, Practical Environmental Analysis. Cambridge, UK: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999.
 R. B. Finkelman, “Modes of Occurrences of Potential Hazardous Elements in Coal, Level of Confidence,” Fuel Process Technol., vol. 39, no. 1–3, pp. 21–34, 1994.
 X. Querol, R. Juan, A. Lopez-Soler, J. L. Fernandez-Turiel, and C. R. Ruiz, “Mobility of trace elements from coal and combustion wastes,” Fuel, vol. 75, no. 7, pp. 821–838, 1996.
 M. A. H. Bhuiyan, L. Parvez, M. A. Islam, S. B. Dampare, and S. Suzuki, “Heavy metal pollution of coal mine-affected agricultural soils in the northern part of Bangladesh,” J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 173, no. 1–3, pp. 384–392, 2010.
 B. Finley, D. Proctor, P. Scott, N. Harrington, D. Paustenbach, and P. Price, “Recommended distributions for exposure factors frequently used in health risk assessment.,” Risk Anal., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 533–53, 1994.
 ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry), “Toxicological Profile for Nickel,” U.S Public Heal. Serv. Agency Toxic Subst. Dis. Regist., no. August, p. 397, 2005.
 ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry), “Toxicological Profile for Cobalt,” Agency Toxic Subst. Dis. Regist., no. April, p. 486, 2004.
 R. Lauwerys and D. Lison, “Health risks associated with cobalt exposure - an overview,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 150, no. 1–3, pp. 1–6, 1994.
 ASTDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry), “Toxicological Profile for Arsenic,” U.S Public Heal. Serv. Agency Toxic Subst. Dis. Regist., vol. 2013, no. August, p. 24, 2013.
 O. Tarragó, “Issues Brief Series (Lead),” Agency Toxic Subst. Dis. Regist. Case Stud. Environ. Med. Lead Toxic., p. 71, 2015.
 ATSDR, “Toxicological Profile for Cadmium,” J. Public Heal., no. September, pp. 1–487, 2012.