Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: F. Keller

14 Magnetohydrodynamics Boundary Layer Flows over a Stretching Surface with Radiation Effect and Embedded in Porous Medium

Authors: Siti Khuzaimah Soid, Zanariah Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Sukri Abd Aziz, Seripah Awang Kechil

Abstract:

A steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics flow and heat transfer over a stretching vertical sheet influenced by radiation and porosity is studied. The governing boundary layer equations of partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The system is solved numerically by using a finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method for some values of parameters, namely the radiation parameter N, magnetic parameter M, buoyancy parameter l , Prandtl number Pr and permeability parameter K. The effects of the parameters on the heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed. It is found that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. Heat transfer rate at the surface decreases as the radiation parameter increases.

Keywords: Keller-box, MHD boundary layer flow, permeability stretching.

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13 Unsteady Laminar Boundary Layer Forced Flow in the Region of the Stagnation Point on a Stretching Flat Sheet

Authors: A. T. Eswara

Abstract:

This paper analyses the unsteady, two-dimensional stagnation point flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a flat sheet when the flow is started impulsively from rest and at the same time, the sheet is suddenly stretched in its own plane with a velocity proportional to the distance from the stagnation point. The partial differential equations governing the laminar boundary layer forced convection flow are non-dimensionalised using semi-similar transformations and then solved numerically using an implicit finitedifference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Results pertaining to the flow and heat transfer characteristics are computed for all dimensionless time, uniformly valid in the whole spatial region without any numerical difficulties. Analytical solutions are also obtained for both small and large times, respectively representing the initial unsteady and final steady state flow and heat transfer. Numerical results indicate that the velocity ratio parameter is found to have a significant effect on skin friction and heat transfer rate at the surface. Furthermore, it is exposed that there is a smooth transition from the initial unsteady state flow (small time solution) to the final steady state (large time solution).

Keywords: Forced flow, Keller-box method, Stagnation point, Stretching flat sheet, Unsteady laminar boundary layer, Velocity ratio parameter.

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12 Choosing an Ontology Language

Authors: Anna V. Zhdanova, Uwe Keller

Abstract:

We summarize information that facilitates choosing an ontology language for knowledge intensive applications. This paper is a short version of the ontology language state-of-the-art and evolution analysis carried out for choosing an ontology language in the IST Esperonto project. At first, we analyze changes and evolution that took place in the filed of Semantic Web languages during the last years, in particular, around the ontology languages of the RDF/S and OWL family. Second, we present current trends in development of Semantic Web languages, in particular, rule support extensions for Semantic Web languages and emerging ontology languages such as WSMO languages.

Keywords: OWL, RDF/S, Semantic Web Languages, WSML

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11 Systematic Approach for Energy-Supply-Orientated Production Planning

Authors: F. Keller, G. Reinhart

Abstract:

The efficient and economic allocation of resources is one main goal in the field of production planning and control. Nowadays, a new variable gains in importance throughout the planning process: Energy. Energy-efficiency has already been widely discussed in literature, but with a strong focus on reducing the overall amount of energy used in production. This paper provides a brief systematic approach, how energy-supply-orientation can be used for an energy-cost-efficient production planning and thus combining the idea of energy-efficiency and energy-flexibility.

Keywords: Production planning and control, energy, efficiency, flexibility.

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10 Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet in a Micropolar Fluid

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Anuar Ishak, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

Unsteady boundary layer flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid over a stretching sheet when the sheet is stretched in its own plane is studied in this paper. The stretching velocity is assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the sheet. Two equal and opposite forces are impulsively applied along the x-axis so that the sheet is stretched, keeping the origin fixed in a micropolar fluid. The transformed unsteady boundary layer equations are solved numerically using the Keller-box method for the whole transient from the initial state to final steady-state flow. Numerical results are obtained for the velocity and microrotation distributions as well as the skin friction coefficient for various values of the material parameter K. It is found that there is a smooth transition from the small-time solution to the large-time solution.

Keywords: Boundary layer, micropolar fluid, stretching surface, unsteady flow.

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9 Fuzzy Control of Macroeconomic Models

Authors: Andre A. Keller

Abstract:

The optimal control is one of the possible controllers for a dynamic system, having a linear quadratic regulator and using the Pontryagin-s principle or the dynamic programming method . Stochastic disturbances may affect the coefficients (multiplicative disturbances) or the equations (additive disturbances), provided that the shocks are not too great . Nevertheless, this approach encounters difficulties when uncertainties are very important or when the probability calculus is of no help with very imprecise data. The fuzzy logic contributes to a pragmatic solution of such a problem since it operates on fuzzy numbers. A fuzzy controller acts as an artificial decision maker that operates in a closed-loop system in real time. This contribution seeks to explore the tracking problem and control of dynamic macroeconomic models using a fuzzy learning algorithm. A two inputs - single output (TISO) fuzzy model is applied to the linear fluctuation model of Phillips and to the nonlinear growth model of Goodwin.

Keywords: fuzzy control, macroeconomic model, multiplier - accelerator, nonlinear accelerator, stabilization policy.

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8 Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids through a Porous Media Due to a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Viscous Dissipation and Chemical Reaction Effects

Authors: Yohannes Yirga, Daniel Tesfay

Abstract:

The convective heat and mass transfer in nanofluid flow through a porous media due to a permeable stretching sheet with magnetic field, viscous dissipation, chemical reaction and Soret effects are numerically investigated. Two types of nanofluids, namely Cu-water and Ag-water were studied. The governing boundary layer equations are formulated and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Keller box method. Numerical results are obtained for the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number as well as for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles for selected values of the governing parameters. Excellent validation of the present numerical results has been achieved with the earlier linearly stretching sheet problems in the literature.

Keywords: Heat and mass transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, nanofluid.

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7 Unsteady Heat and Mass Transfer in MHD Flow of Nanofluids over Stretching Sheet with a Non-Uniform Heat Source/Sink

Authors: Bandaris Shankar, Yohannes Yirga

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of heat and mass transfer in unsteady MHD boundary-layer flow of nanofluids over stretching sheet with a non uniform heat source/sink is considered. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature is caused by the time-dependent stretching velocity and surface temperature. The unsteady boundary layer equations are transformed to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations and solved numerically using Keller box method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles were obtained and utilized to compute the skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number for different values of the governing parameters viz. solid volume fraction parameter, unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field parameter, Schmidt number, space-dependent and temperature-dependent parameters for heat source/sink. A comparison of the numerical results of the present study with previously published data revealed an excellent agreement.

Keywords: Manetohydrodynamics, nanofluid, non-uniform heat source/sink, unsteady.

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6 Determinants of Brand Equity: Offering a Model to Chocolate Industry

Authors: Emari Hossien

Abstract:

This study examined the underlying dimensions of brand equity in the chocolate industry. For this purpose, researchers developed a model to identify which factors are influential in building brand equity. The second purpose was to assess brand loyalty and brand images mediating effect between brand attitude, brand personality, brand association with brand equity. The study employed structural equation modeling to investigate the causal relationships between the dimensions of brand equity and brand equity itself. It specifically measured the way in which consumers’ perceptions of the dimensions of brand equity affected the overall brand equity evaluations. Data were collected from a sample of consumers of chocolate industry in Iran. The results of this empirical study indicate that brand loyalty and brand image are important components of brand equity in this industry. Moreover, the role of brand loyalty and brand image as mediating factors in the intention of brand equity are supported. The principal contribution of the present research is that it provides empirical evidence of the multidimensionality of consumer based brand equity, supporting Aaker´s and Keller´s conceptualization of brand equity. The present research also enriched brand equity building by incorporating the brand personality and brand image, as recommended by previous researchers. Moreover, creating the brand equity index in chocolate industry of Iran particularly is novel.

Keywords: brand equity, brand personality, structural equationmodeling, Iran.

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5 Interplay of Power Management at Core and Server Level

Authors: Jörg Lenhardt, Wolfram Schiffmann, Jörg Keller

Abstract:

While the feature sizes of recent Complementary Metal Oxid Semiconductor (CMOS) devices decrease the influence of static power prevails their energy consumption. Thus, power savings that benefit from Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS) are diminishing and temporal shutdown of cores or other microchip components become more worthwhile. A consequence of powering off unused parts of a chip is that the relative difference between idle and fully loaded power consumption is increased. That means, future chips and whole server systems gain more power saving potential through power-aware load balancing, whereas in former times this power saving approach had only limited effect, and thus, was not widely adopted. While powering off complete servers was used to save energy, it will be superfluous in many cases when cores can be powered down. An important advantage that comes with that is a largely reduced time to respond to increased computational demand. We include the above developments in a server power model and quantify the advantage. Our conclusion is that strategies from datacenters when to power off server systems might be used in the future on core level, while load balancing mechanisms previously used at core level might be used in the future at server level.

Keywords: Power efficiency, static power consumption, dynamic power consumption, CMOS.

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4 Free Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid in the Presence of Heat Generation

Authors: Abdul Rahman Mohd Kasim, Mohd Ariff Admon, Sharidan Shafie

Abstract:

The present paper considers the steady free convection boundary layer flow of a viscoelastics fluid with constant temperature in the presence of heat generation. The boundary layer equations are an order higher than those for the Newtonian (viscous) fluid and the adherence boundary conditions are insufficient to determine the solution of these equations completely. The governing boundary layer equations are first transformed into non-dimensional form by using special dimensionless group. Computations are performed numerically by using Keller-box method by augmenting an extra boundary condition at infinity and the results are displayed graphically to illustrate the influence of viscoelastic K, heat generation γ , and Prandtl Number, Pr parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles. The results of the surface shear stress in terms of the local skin friction and the surface rate of heat transfer in terms of the local Nusselt number for a selection of the heat generation parameterγ (=0.0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0) are obtained and presented in both tabular and graphical formats. Without effect of the internal heat generation inside the fluid domain for which we take γ = 0.0, the present numerical results show an excellent agreement with previous publication.

Keywords: Free Convection, Boundary Layer, CircularCylinder, Viscoelastic Fluid, Heat Generation

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3 Monitoring the Drying and Grinding Process during Production of Celitement through a NIR-Spectroscopy Based Approach

Authors: Carolin Lutz, Jörg Matthes, Patrick Waibel, Ulrich Precht, Krassimir Garbev, Günter Beuchle, Uwe Schweike, Peter Stemmermann, Hubert B. Keller

Abstract:

Online measurement of the product quality is a challenging task in cement production, especially in the production of Celitement, a novel environmentally friendly hydraulic binder. The mineralogy and chemical composition of clinker in ordinary Portland cement production is measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), where only crystalline constituents can be detected. But only a small part of the Celitement components can be measured via XRD, because most constituents have an amorphous structure. This paper describes the development of algorithms suitable for an on-line monitoring of the final processing step of Celitement based on NIR-data. For calibration intermediate products were dried at different temperatures and ground for variable durations. The products were analyzed using XRD and thermogravimetric analyses together with NIR-spectroscopy to investigate the dependency between the drying and the milling processes on one and the NIR-signal on the other side. As a result, different characteristic parameters have been defined. A short overview of the Celitement process and the challenging tasks of the online measurement and evaluation of the product quality will be presented. Subsequently, methods for systematic development of near-infrared calibration models and the determination of the final calibration model will be introduced. The application of the model on experimental data illustrates that NIR-spectroscopy allows for a quick and sufficiently exact determination of crucial process parameters.

Keywords: Calibration model, celitement, cementitious material, NIR spectroscopy.

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2 MHD Stagnation Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Suction in an Upper-Convected Maxwell (UCM) Fluid

Authors: K. Jafar, R. Nazar, A. Ishak, I. Pop

Abstract:

The present analysis considers the steady stagnation point flow and heat transfer towards a permeable shrinking sheet in an upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) electrically conducting fluid, with a constant magnetic field applied in the transverse direction to flow and a local heat generation within the boundary layer, with a heat generation rate proportional to (T-T\infty)p Using a similarity transformation, the governing system of partial differential equations is first transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Numerical results are obtained for the flow and thermal fields for various values of the stretching/shrinking parameter λ, the magnetic parameter M, the elastic parameter K, the Prandtl number Pr, the suction parameter s, the heat generation parameter Q, and the exponent p. The results indicate the existence of dual solutions for the shrinking sheet up to a critical value λc whose value depends on the value of M, K, and s. In the presence of internal heat absorption (Q<0)  the surface heat transfer rate decreases with increasing p but increases with parameters Q and s when the sheet is either stretched or shrunk.

Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), boundary layer flow, UCM fluid, stagnation point, shrinking sheet.

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1 How Virtualization, Decentralization and Network Building Change the Manufacturing Landscape: An Industry 4.0 Perspective

Authors: Malte Brettel, Niklas Friederichsen, Michael Keller, Marius Rosenberg

Abstract:

The German manufacturing industry has to withstand an increasing global competition on product quality and production costs. As labor costs are high, several industries have suffered severely under the relocation of production facilities towards aspiring countries, which have managed to close the productivity and quality gap substantially. Established manufacturing companies have recognized that customers are not willing to pay large price premiums for incremental quality improvements. As a consequence, many companies from the German manufacturing industry adjust their production focusing on customized products and fast time to market. Leveraging the advantages of novel production strategies such as Agile Manufacturing and Mass Customization, manufacturing companies transform into integrated networks, in which companies unite their core competencies. Hereby, virtualization of the process- and supply-chain ensures smooth inter-company operations providing real-time access to relevant product and production information for all participating entities. Boundaries of companies deteriorate, as autonomous systems exchange data, gained by embedded systems throughout the entire value chain. By including Cyber-Physical-Systems, advanced communication between machines is tantamount to their dialogue with humans. The increasing utilization of information and communication technology allows digital engineering of products and production processes alike. Modular simulation and modeling techniques allow decentralized units to flexibly alter products and thereby enable rapid product innovation. The present article describes the developments of Industry 4.0 within the literature and reviews the associated research streams. Hereby, we analyze eight scientific journals with regards to the following research fields: Individualized production, end-to-end engineering in a virtual process chain and production networks. We employ cluster analysis to assign sub-topics into the respective research field. To assess the practical implications, we conducted face-to-face interviews with managers from the industry as well as from the consulting business using a structured interview guideline. The results reveal reasons for the adaption and refusal of Industry 4.0 practices from a managerial point of view. Our findings contribute to the upcoming research stream of Industry 4.0 and support decision-makers to assess their need for transformation towards Industry 4.0 practices. 

Keywords: Industry 4.0., Mass Customization, Production networks, Virtual Process-Chain.

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