Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4623

Search results for: Generator of Systems Expert

4623 VISUAL JESS: AN Expandable Visual Generator of Oriented Object Expert systems

Authors: Amel Grissa-Touzi, Habib Ounally, Aissa Boulila

Abstract:

The utility of expert system generators has been widely recognized in many applications. Several generators based on concept of the paradigm object, have been recently proposed. The generator of oriented object expert system (GSEOO) offers languages that are often complex and difficult to use. We propose in this paper an extension of the expert system generator, JESS, which permits a friendly use of this expert system. The new tool, called VISUAL JESS, bring two main improvements to JESS. The first improvement concerns the easiness of its utilization while giving back transparency to the syntax and semantic aspects of the JESS programming language. The second improvement permits an easy access and modification of the JESS knowledge basis. The implementation of VISUAL JESS is made so that it is extensible and portable.

Keywords: Generator of Systems Expert, Programming oriented object classifies, object, inheritance, polymorphism.

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4622 The Role of Medical Expert Systems in Pakistan

Authors: Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Fahad Maqbool, Saad Razzaq, Kashif Irfan, Tehseen Zia

Abstract:

Expert systems are used extensively in many domains. This paper discusses the use of medical expert systems in Pakistan. Countries all over the world pay special attention on health facilities. A country like Pakistan faces a lot of trouble in health sector. Several attempts have been made in Pakistan to improve the health conditions of the people but the situation is still not encouraging. There is a shortage of doctors and other trained personnel in Pakistan. Expert systems can play a vital role in such cases where the medical expert is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the role that such systems can play in improving the health conditions of the people in Pakistan.

Keywords: Medical Diagnostics, Expert Systems, Pakistan.

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4621 Design of Expert System for Search Allergy and Selection of the Skin Tests using CLIPS

Authors: St. Karagiannis, A. I. Dounis, T. Chalastras, P. Tiropanis, D. Papachristos

Abstract:

This work presents the design of an expert system that aims in the procurement of patient medial background and in the search for suitable skin test selections. Skin testing is the tool used most widely to diagnose allergies. The language of expert systems CLIPS is used as a tool of designing. Finally, we present the evaluation of the proposed expert system which was achieved with the import of certain medical cases and the system produced with suitable successful skin tests.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, expert system - CLIPS, allergy and skin test.

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4620 To Design Holistic Health Service Systems on the Internet

Authors: Åsa Smedberg

Abstract:

There are different kinds of online systems on the Internet for people who need support and develop new knowledge. Online communities and Ask the Expert systems are two such systems. In the health care area, the number of users of these systems has increased at a rapid pace. Interactions with medical trained experts take place online, and people with concerns about similar health problems come together to share experiences and advice. The systems are also used as storages and browsed for health information. Over the years, studies have been conducted of the usage of the different systems. However, in what ways the systems can be used together to enhance learning has not been explored. This paper presents results from a study of online health-communities and an Ask the Expert system for people who suffer from overweight. Differences and similarities in regards to posted issues and replies are discussed, and suggestions for a new holistic design of the two systems are presented.

Keywords: Learning, Ask the Expert, online community, healthcare, holistic, overweight.

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4619 Influence of Vortex Generator on Flow Behavior of Air Stream

Authors: Chakkapong Supasri, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat, Atipoang Nuntaphan

Abstract:

 

This research studied the influence of delta wing and delta winglet vortex generators on air flow characteristic. Normally, the vortex generator has been used for enhancing the heat transfer performance by promote the helical flow of air stream. The vortex generator was setup in the wind tunnel and the flow pattern of air stream passing the vortex generator was observed by using smoke generator. The Reynolds number of air stream was between 30,000 and 80,000. It is found that the delta winglet having 20mm fin height and 30 degree of air stream contact angle generates the maximum helical flow of air stream.

Keywords: Vortex generator, Flow behavior, Visual study, Delta wing, Delta winglet, Smoke generator.

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4618 Rule-Based Expert System for Headache Diagnosis and Medication Recommendation

Authors: Noura Al-Ajmi, Mohammed A. Almulla

Abstract:

With the increased utilization of technology devices around the world, healthcare and medical diagnosis are critical issues that people worry about these days. Doctors are doing their best to avoid any medical errors while diagnosing diseases and prescribing the wrong medication. Subsequently, artificial intelligence applications that can be installed on mobile devices such as rule-based expert systems facilitate the task of assisting doctors in several ways. Due to their many advantages, the usage of expert systems has increased recently in health sciences. This work presents a backward rule-based expert system that can be used for a headache diagnosis and medication recommendation system. The structure of the system consists of three main modules, namely the input unit, the processing unit, and the output unit.

Keywords: Headache diagnosis system, treatment recommender system, rule-based expert system.

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4617 A New Nonlinear Excitation Controller for Transient Stability Enhancement in Power Systems

Authors: M. Ouassaid, A. Nejmi, M. Cherkaoui, M. Maaroufi

Abstract:

The very nonlinear nature of the generator and system behaviour following a severe disturbance precludes the use of classical linear control technique. In this paper, a new approach of nonlinear control is proposed for transient and steady state stability analysis of a synchronous generator. The control law of the generator excitation is derived from the basis of Lyapunov stability criterion. The overall stability of the system is shown using Lyapunov technique. The application of the proposed controller to simulated generator excitation control under a large sudden fault and wide range of operating conditions demonstrates that the new control strategy is superior to conventional automatic voltage regulator (AVR), and show very promising results.

Keywords: Excitation control, Lyapunov technique, non linearcontrol, synchronous generator, transient stability, voltage regulation.

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4616 Generator of Hypotheses an Approach of Data Mining Based on Monotone Systems Theory

Authors: Rein Kuusik, Grete Lind

Abstract:

Generator of hypotheses is a new method for data mining. It makes possible to classify the source data automatically and produces a particular enumeration of patterns. Pattern is an expression (in a certain language) describing facts in a subset of facts. The goal is to describe the source data via patterns and/or IF...THEN rules. Used evaluation criteria are deterministic (not probabilistic). The search results are trees - form that is easy to comprehend and interpret. Generator of hypotheses uses very effective algorithm based on the theory of monotone systems (MS) named MONSA (MONotone System Algorithm).

Keywords: data mining, monotone systems, pattern, rule.

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4615 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani

Abstract:

The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator.

Keywords: Coreless machine, electrical machine design, hydraulic generator, rim-driven machine, superconducting generator.

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4614 Fuzzy Expert System Design for Determining Wearing Properties of Nitrided and Non Nitrided Steel

Authors: Serafettin Ekinci, Kursat Zuhtuogullari

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Fuzzy Expert System design to determine the wearing properties of nitrided and non nitrided steel. The proposed Fuzzy Expert System approach helps the user and the manufacturer to forecast the wearing properties of nitrided and non nitrided steel under specified laboratory conditions. Surfaces of the engineering components are often nitrided for improving wear, corosion, fatigue specifications. A major property of nitriding process is reducing distortion and wearing of the metalic alloys. A Fuzzy Expert System was developed for determining the wearing and durability properties of nitrided and non nitrided steels that were tested under different loads and different sliding speeds in the laboratory conditions.

Keywords: Fuzzy Expert System Design, Rule Based Systems, Fatigue, Corrosion

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4613 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

Authors: Ahmed Elsebaay, Maged A. Abu Adma, Mahmoud Ramadan

Abstract:

This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors.

Keywords: Ambient temperature, de-rating factor, electric generator, power factor.

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4612 Web Application for Evaluating Tests in Distance Learning Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Vladimir Bradac, Radim Farana

Abstract:

Distance learning systems offer useful methods of learning and usually contain a final course test or another form of test. The paper proposes a web application for evaluating tests using an expert system in distance learning systems. The proposed web application is appropriate for didactic tests or tests with results for subsequent studying follow-up courses. The web application works with test questions and uses an expert system and LFLC tool for test evaluation. After test evaluation, the results are visualized and shown to the student.

Keywords: Distance learning, test, uncertainty, fuzzy, expert system, student.

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4611 Generator Damage Recognition Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Chang-Hung Hsu, Chun-Yao Lee, Guan-Lin Liao, Yung-Tsan Jou, Jin-Maun Ho, Yu-Hua Hsieh, Yi-Xing Shen

Abstract:

This article simulates the wind generator set which has two fault bearing collar rail destruction and the gear box oil leak fault. The electric current signal which produced by the generator, We use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) as well as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) obtains the frequency range-s signal figure and characteristic value. The last step is use a kind of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifies which determination fault signal's type and reason. The ANN purpose of the automatic identification wind generator set fault..

Keywords: Wind-driven generator, Fast Fourier Transform, Neural network

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4610 Development of Online Islamic Medication Expert System (OIMES)

Authors: Hanita Daud, Noorhana Yahya, Low Tan Jung, Azizuddin Abd Aziz, Rabibah Ahmad Samawe

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an online rule-based Expert Systems for Islamic medication. T his Online Islamic Medication Expert System (OIMES) focuses on physical illnesses only. Knowledge base of this Expert System contains exhaustively the types of illness together with their related cures or treatments/therapies, obtained exclusively from the Quran and Hadith. Extensive research and study are conducted to ensure that the Expert System is able to provide the most suitable treatment with reference to the relevant verses cited in Quran or Hadith. These verses come together with their related 'actions' (bodily actions/gestures or some acts) to be performed by the patient to treat a particular illness/sickness. These verses and the instructions for the 'actions' are to be displayed unambiguously on the computer screen. The online platform provides the advantage for patient getting treatment practically anytime and anywhere as long as the computer and Internet facility exist. Patient does not need to make appointment to see an expert for a therapy.

Keywords: Expert System, Quran and Hadith, Islamic Medication, Rule-Based.

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4609 A Methodology for Data Migration between Different Database Management Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Cyril Klimes

Abstract:

In present days the area of data migration is very topical. Current tools for data migration in the area of relational database have several disadvantages that are presented in this paper. We propose a methodology for data migration of the database tables and their data between various types of relational database systems (RDBMS). The proposed methodology contains an expert system. The expert system contains a knowledge base that is composed of IFTHEN rules and based on the input data suggests appropriate data types of columns of database tables. The proposed tool, which contains an expert system, also includes the possibility of optimizing the data types in the target RDBMS database tables based on processed data of the source RDBMS database tables. The proposed expert system is shown on data migration of selected database of the source RDBMS to the target RDBMS.

Keywords: Expert system, fuzzy, data migration, database, relational database, data type, relational database management system.

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4608 An Expert System for Car Failure Diagnosis

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani

Abstract:

Car failure detection is a complicated process and requires high level of expertise. Any attempt of developing an expert system dealing with car failure detection has to overcome various difficulties. This paper describes a proposed knowledge-based system for car failure detection. The paper explains the need for an expert system and the some issues on developing knowledge-based systems, the car failure detection process and the difficulties involved in developing the system. The system structure and its components and their functions are described. The system has about 150 rules for different types of failures and causes. It can detect over 100 types of failures. The system has been tested and gave promising results.

Keywords: Expert system, car failure diagnosis, knowledgebasedsystem, CLIPS.

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4607 Comparison of an Interior Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Synchronous Reluctance Generator for a Wind Application

Authors: Poopak Roshanfekr, Torbjörn Thiringer, Sonja Lundmark, Mikael Alatalo

Abstract:

This article presents a performance comparison of an interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG) with a synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG) with the same size for a wind application. It is found that using the same geometrical dimensions, a SynRG can convert 74 % of the power that an IPMSG can convert, while it has 80% of the IPMSG weight. Moreover it is found that the efficieny for the IMPSG is 99% at rated power compared to 98.7% for the SynRG.

Keywords: Interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG), synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG), wind energy, annual energy efficiency.

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4606 AGHAZ : An Expert System Based approach for the Translation of English to Urdu

Authors: Uzair Muhammad, Kashif Bilal, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS12 Tagging for Urdu, Expert Systems.

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4605 A New Design of Permanent Magnets Reluctance Generator

Authors: Andi Pawawoi, Syafii

Abstract:

Instantaneous electromagnetic torque of simple reflectance generator can be positive at a time and negative at other time. It is utilized to design a permanent magnet reluctance generator specifically. Generator is designed by combining two simple reluctance generators, consists of two rotors mounted on the same shaft, two output-windings and a field source of the permanent magnet. By this design, the electromagnetic torque on both rotor will be eliminated each other, so the input torque generator can be smaller. Rotor is expected only to regulate the flux flow to both output windings alternately, until the magnetic energy is converted into electrical energy, such as occurs in the transformer energy conversion. ​​The prototype trials have been made to test this design. The test result show that the new design of permanent magnets reluctance generator able to convert energy from permanent magnets into electrical energy, this is proven by the existence 167% power output compared to the shaft input power.

Keywords: Energy, Magnet permanent, Reluctance generator.

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4604 Real-Time Image Encryption Using a 3D Discrete Dual Chaotic Cipher

Authors: M. F. Haroun, T. A. Gulliver

Abstract:

In this paper, an encryption algorithm is proposed for real-time image encryption. The scheme employs a dual chaotic generator based on a three dimensional (3D) discrete Lorenz attractor. Encryption is achieved using non-autonomous modulation where the data is injected into the dynamics of the master chaotic generator. The second generator is used to permute the dynamics of the master generator using the same approach. Since the data stream can be regarded as a random source, the resulting permutations of the generator dynamics greatly increase the security of the transmitted signal. In addition, a technique is proposed to mitigate the error propagation due to the finite precision arithmetic of digital hardware. In particular, truncation and rounding errors are eliminated by employing an integer representation of the data which can easily be implemented. The simple hardware architecture of the algorithm makes it suitable for secure real-time applications.

Keywords: Chaotic systems, image encryption, 3D Lorenz attractor, non-autonomous modulation, FPGA.

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4603 Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification: Malaysian Perspective

Authors: B.-Y.-S. Lau, Y.-C.-T. Jonathan, M.-S. Alias

Abstract:

Heritage trees are natural large, individual trees with exceptionally value due to association with age or event or distinguished people. In Malaysia, there is an abundance of tropical heritage trees throughout the country. It is essential to set up a repository of heritage trees to prevent valuable trees from being cut down. In this cross domain study, a web-based online expert system namely the Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification (HTEAC) is developed and deployed for public to nominate potential heritage trees. Based on the nomination, tree care experts or arborists would evaluate and verify the nominated trees as heritage trees. The expert system automatically rates the approved heritage trees according to pre-defined grades via Delphi technique. Features and usability test of the expert system are presented. Preliminary result is promising for the system to be used as a full scale public system.

Keywords: Arboriculture, Delphi, expert system, heritage tree, urban forestry.

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4602 Applicability of Linearized Model of Synchronous Generator for Power System Stability Analysis

Authors: J. Ritonja, B. Grcar

Abstract:

For the synchronous generator simulation and analysis and for the power system stabilizer design and synthesis a mathematical model of synchronous generator is needed. The model has to accurately describe dynamics of oscillations, while at the same time has to be transparent enough for an analysis and sufficiently simplified for design of control system. To study the oscillations of the synchronous generator against to the rest of the power system, the model of the synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance and inductance is needed. In this paper, the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the synchronous generator connected to the infinite bus is presented and analysed in details. This model accurately describes dynamics of the synchronous generator only in a small vicinity of an equilibrium state. With the digression from the selected equilibrium point the accuracy of this model is decreasing considerably. In this paper, the equations’ descriptions and the parameters’ determinations for the linearized reduced order mathematical model of the synchronous generator are explained and summarized and represent the useful origin for works in the areas of synchronous generators’ dynamic behaviour analysis and synchronous generator’s control systems design and synthesis. The main contribution of this paper represents the detailed analysis of the accuracy of the linearized reduced order dynamic model in the entire synchronous generator’s operating range. Borders of the areas where the linearized reduced order mathematical model represents accurate description of the synchronous generator’s dynamics are determined with the systemic numerical analysis. The thorough eigenvalue analysis of the linearized models in the entire operating range is performed. In the paper, the parameters of the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the laboratory salient poles synchronous generator were determined and used for the analysis. The theoretical conclusions were confirmed with the agreement of experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: Eigenvalue analysis, mathematical model, power system stability, synchronous generator.

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4601 The Strategy of Creating a Virtual Interactive Platform for the Low-Carbon Open Innovations Relay

Authors: Mykola S. Shestavin

Abstract:

A strategy for the creation of a Virtual Interactive Platform (or Networking Platform) to combine the four web-baseness of expert systems on the transfer and diffusion of low-carbon technologies. It used the concept of “Open Innovation” and “Triple Helix” with regard to theories of “Green Growth” and “Carbon Footprint”. Interpreters expert systems operate on the basis of models of the “Predator-Prey” for the process of transfer and diffusion of technologies, taking into account the features caused by the need to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Expert Systems, Low-Carbon Technology, Open Innovation, Virtual Interactive Platform.

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4600 The Influence of Voltage Flicker for the Wind Generator upon Distribution System

Authors: Jin-Lung Guan, Jyh-Cherng Gu, Ming-Ta Yang, Hsin-Hung Chang, Chun-Wei Huang, Shao-Yu Huang

Abstract:

One of the most important power quality issues is voltage flicker. Nowadays this issue also impacts the power system all over the world. The fact of the matter is that the more and the larger capacity of wind generator has been installed. Under unstable wind power situation, the variation of output current and voltage have caused trouble to voltage flicker. Hence, the major purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of wind generator on voltage flicker of power system. First of all, digital simulation and analysis are carried out based on wind generator operating under various system short circuit capacity, impedance angle, loading, and power factor of load. The simulation results have been confirmed by field measurements.

Keywords: Wind Generator, Voltage Flicker

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4599 Hardware Stream Cipher Based On LFSR and Modular Division Circuit

Authors: Deepthi P.P., P.S. Sathidevi

Abstract:

Proposal for a secure stream cipher based on Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSR) is presented here. In this method, shift register structure used for polynomial modular division is combined with LFSR keystream generator to yield a new keystream generator with much higher periodicity. Security is brought into this structure by using the Boolean function to combine state bits of the LFSR keystream generator and taking the output through the Boolean function. This introduces non-linearity and security into the structure in a way similar to the Non-linear filter generator. The security and throughput of the suggested stream cipher is found to be much greater than the known LFSR based structures for the same key length.

Keywords: Linear Feedback Shift Register, Stream Cipher, Filter generator, Keystream generator, Modular division circuit

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4598 Techno-Economic Analysis of Motor-Generator Pair System and Virtual Synchronous Generator for Providing Inertia of Power System

Authors: Zhou Yingkun, Xu Guorui, Wei Siming, Huang Yongzhang

Abstract:

With the increasing of the penetration of renewable energy in power system, the whole inertia of the power system is declining, which will endanger the frequency stability of the power system. In order to enhance the inertia, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been proposed. In addition, the motor-generator pair (MGP) system is proposed to enhance grid inertia. Both of them need additional equipment to provide instantaneous energy, so the economic problem should be considered. In this paper, the basic working principle of MGP system and VSG are introduced firstly. Then, the technical characteristics and economic investment of MGP/VSG are compared by calculation and simulation. The results show that the MGP system can provide same inertia with less cost than VSG.

Keywords: High renewable energy penetration, inertia of power system, virtual synchronous generator, motor-generator pair system, techno-economic analysis.

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4597 Design and Simulation of a New Self-Learning Expert System for Mobile Robot

Authors: Rabi W. Yousif, Mohd Asri Hj Mansor

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel technique called Self-Learning Expert System (SLES). Unlike Expert System, where there is a need for an expert to impart experiences and knowledge to create the knowledge base, this technique tries to acquire the experience and knowledge automatically. To display this technique at work, a simulation of a mobile robot navigating through an environment with obstacles is employed using visual basic. The mobile robot will move through this area without colliding with any obstacle and save the path that it took. If the mobile robot has to go through a similar environment again, then it will apply this experience to help it move through quicker without having to check for collision.

Keywords: Expert system, knowledge base, mobile robot, visual basic.

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4596 Sliding Mode Power System Stabilizer for Synchronous Generator Stability Improvement

Authors: J. Ritonja, R. Brezovnik, M. Petrun, B. Polajžer

Abstract:

Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators.

Keywords: Control theory, power system stabilizer, robust control, sliding mode control, stability, synchronous generator.

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4595 A Two-Stage Expert System for Diagnosis of Leukemia Based on Type-2 Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Ali Akbar Sadat Asl

Abstract:

Diagnosis and deciding about diseases in medical fields is facing innate uncertainty which can affect the whole process of treatment. This decision is made based on expert knowledge and the way in which an expert interprets the patient's condition, and the interpretation of the various experts from the patient's condition may be different. Fuzzy logic can provide mathematical modeling for many concepts, variables, and systems that are unclear and ambiguous and also it can provide a framework for reasoning, inference, control, and decision making in conditions of uncertainty. In systems with high uncertainty and high complexity, fuzzy logic is a suitable method for modeling. In this paper, we use type-2 fuzzy logic for uncertainty modeling that is in diagnosis of leukemia. The proposed system uses an indirect-direct approach and consists of two stages: In the first stage, the inference of blood test state is determined. In this step, we use an indirect approach where the rules are extracted automatically by implementing a clustering approach. In the second stage, signs of leukemia, duration of disease until its progress and the output of the first stage are combined and the final diagnosis of the system is obtained. In this stage, the system uses a direct approach and final diagnosis is determined by the expert. The obtained results show that the type-2 fuzzy expert system can diagnose leukemia with the average accuracy about 97%.

Keywords: Expert system, leukemia, medical diagnosis, type-2 fuzzy logic.

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4594 Determination of Regimes of the Equivalent Generator Based On Projective Geometry: The Generalized Equivalent Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

Requirements that should be met when determining the regimes of circuits with variable elements are formulated. The interpretation of the variations in the regimes, based on projective geometry, enables adequate expressions for determining and comparing the regimes to be derived. It is proposed to use as the parameters of a generalized equivalent generator of an active two-pole with changeable resistor such load current and voltage which provide the current through this resistor equal to zero.

Keywords: Equivalent generator, geometric circuits theory, circuits regimes, load characteristics, variable elements.

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