Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 246

Search results for: sleep/wake scheduling.

246 Enhancing the Performance of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Low Power Design

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Madhuranthi

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs), are constantly in demand to process information more rapidly with less energy and area cost. Presently, processor based solutions have difficult to achieve high processing speed with low-power consumption. This paper presents a simple and accurate data processing scheme for low power wireless sensor node, based on reduced number of processing element (PE). The presented model provides a simple recursive structure (SRS) to process the sampled data in the wireless sensor environment and to reduce the power consumption in wireless sensor node. Based on this model, to process the incoming samples and produce a smaller amount of data sufficient to reconstruct the original signal. The ModelSim simulator used to simulate SRS structure. Functional simulation is carried out for the validation of the presented architecture. Xilinx Power Estimator (XPE) tool is used to measure the power consumption. The experimental results show the average power consumption of 91 mW; this is 42% improvement compared to the folded tree architecture.

Keywords: Power consumption, energy efficiency, low power WSN node, recursive structure, sleep/wake scheduling.

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245 Sleep Scheduling Schemes Based on Location of Mobile User in Sensor-Cloud

Authors: N. Mahendran, R. Priya

Abstract:

The mobile cloud computing (MCC) with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) technology gets more attraction by research scholars because its combines the sensors data gathering ability with the cloud data processing capacity. This approach overcomes the limitation of data storage capacity and computational ability of sensor nodes. Finally, the stored data are sent to the mobile users when the user sends the request. The most of the integrated sensor-cloud schemes fail to observe the following criteria: 1) The mobile users request the specific data to the cloud based on their present location. 2) Power consumption since most of them are equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. Mostly, the sensors are deployed in hazardous and remote areas. This paper focuses on above observations and introduces an approach known as collaborative location-based sleep scheduling (CLSS) scheme. Both awake and asleep status of each sensor node is dynamically devised by schedulers and the scheduling is done purely based on the of mobile users’ current location; in this manner, large amount of energy consumption is minimized at WSN. CLSS work depends on two different methods; CLSS1 scheme provides lower energy consumption and CLSS2 provides the scalability and robustness of the integrated WSN.

Keywords: Sleep scheduling, mobile cloud computing, wireless sensor network, integration, location, network lifetime.

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244 On the Verification of Power Nap Associated with Stage 2 Sleep and Its Application

Authors: Jetsada Arnin, Yodchanan Wongsawat

Abstract:

One of the most important causes of accidents is driver fatigue. To reduce the accidental rate, the driver needs a quick nap when feeling sleepy. Hence, searching for the minimum time period of nap is a very challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is twofold, i.e. to investigate the possible fastest time period for nap and its relationship with stage 2 sleep, and to develop an automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device. The experiment for this investigation is designed with 21 subjects. It yields the result that waking up the subjects after getting into stage 2 sleep for 3-5 minutes can efficiently reduce the sleepiness. Furthermore, the automatic stage 2 sleep detection and alarm device yields the real-time detection accuracy of approximately 85% which is comparable with the commercial sleep lab system.

Keywords: Stage 2 sleep, nap, sleep detection, real-time, EEG

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243 Dry Needling Treatment in 38 Cases of Chronic Sleep Disturbance

Authors: P. Gao, Z. Q. Li, Y. G. Jin

Abstract:

In the past 10 years, computers and cellphones have become one of the most important factors in our lives, and one which has a tremendously negative impact on our muscles. Muscle tension may be one of the causes of sleep disturbance. Tension in the shoulders and neck can affect blood circulation to the muscles. This research uses a dry needling treatment to reduce muscle tension in order to determine if the strain in the head and shoulders can influence sleep duration. All 38 patients taking part in the testing suffered from tinnitus and have been experiencing disturbed sleep for at least one to five years. Even after undergoing drug therapy treatments and traditional acupuncture therapies, their sleep disturbances have not shown any improvement. After five to 10 dry needling treatments, 24 of the patients reported an improvement in their sleep duration. Five patients considered themselves to be completely recovered, while 12 patients experienced no improvement. This study investigated these pathogenic and therapeutic problems. The standard treatment for sleep disturbances is drug-based therapy; the results of most standard treatments are unfortunately negative. The result of this clinical research has demonstrated that: The possible cause of sleep disturbance for a lot of patients is the result of tensions in the neck and shoulder muscles. Blood circulation to those muscles is also influenced by the duration of sleep. Hypertonic neck and shoulder muscles are considered to impact sleeping patterns and lead to disturbed sleep. Poor posture, often adopted while speaking on the phone, is one of the main causes of hypertonic neck and shoulder muscle problems. The dry needling treatment specifically focuses on the release of muscle tension.

Keywords: Dry needling, sleep disturbance, sleep duration, muscle tension, trigger points.

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242 A Hybrid Classification Method using Artificial Neural Network Based Decision Tree for Automatic Sleep Scoring

Authors: Haoyu Ma, Bin Hu, Mike Jackson, Jingzhi Yan, Wen Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a new classification method for automatic sleep scoring using an artificial neural network based decision tree. It attempts to treat sleep scoring progress as a series of two-class problems and solves them with a decision tree made up of a group of neural network classifiers, each of which uses a special feature set and is aimed at only one specific sleep stage in order to maximize the classification effect. A single electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is used for our analysis rather than depending on multiple biological signals, which makes greatly simplifies the data acquisition process. Experimental results demonstrate that the average epoch by epoch agreement between the visual and the proposed method in separating 30s wakefulness+S1, REM, S2 and SWS epochs was 88.83%. This study shows that the proposed method performed well in all the four stages, and can effectively limit error propagation at the same time. It could, therefore, be an efficient method for automatic sleep scoring. Additionally, since it requires only a small volume of data it could be suited to pervasive applications.

Keywords: Sleep, Sleep stage, Automatic sleep scoring, Electroencephalography, Decision tree, Artificial neural network

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241 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: Sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis.

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240 The Effect of Tmax in Energy Consumption in 0IEEE 802.16e with Traffic Load

Authors: Mohammadreza Sahebi, Arash Azizi Mazreah, Asadollah Shahbahrami, Bahram Bakhshi

Abstract:

Energy consumption is an important design issue for Mobile Subscriber Station (MSS) in the standard IEEE 802.16e. Because mobility of MSS implies that energy saving becomes an issue so that lifetime of MSS can be extended before re-charging. Also, the mechanism in efficiently managing the limited energy is becoming very significant since a MSS is generally energized by battery. For these, sleep mode operation is recently specified in the MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol. In order to reduce the energy consumption, we focus on the sleep-mode and wake-mode of the MAC layer, which are included in the IEEE 802.16 standards [1- 2].

Keywords: IEEE 802.16e, Sleep-mode, Wake-mode, Downlink, Mobile Subscriber Station.

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239 Numerical Analysis of Flow past Circular Cylinder with Triangular and Rectangular Wake Splitter

Authors: Pavan Badami, Vivek Shrivastava, Saravanan V., Nandeesh Hiremath, K. N. Seetharamu

Abstract:

In the present work flow past circular cylinder and cylinder with rectangular and triangular wake splitter is studied to improve aerodynamic parameters. The Comparison of drag coefficient is tabulated for bare cylinder, cylinder with rectangular and triangular wake splitters. Flow past circular cylinder and cylinder with triangular and rectangular wake splitter is performed at Reynoldsnumber 5, 20, 40, 50,80, 100.An incompressible PISO finite volume code employing a non-staggered grid arrangement is used, a second order upwind scheme is used for convective terms. The time discretization is implicit and a Second order Crank-Nicholson scheme is employed. Length of wake splitter in both configurations is taken to be equal to diameter of cylinder. Wake length is found to be less with rectangular wake splitter when compared to bare cylinder and cylinder with triangular wake splitter. Coefficient of drag is found to be less for triangular wake splitter when compared to bare cylinder & cylinder with rectangular wake splitter.

Keywords: Coefficient of drag and pressure, CFDFLUENT, Triangular and rectangular wake splitter, wake length.

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238 Development of Position Changing System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient using HRV

Authors: Soo- Young Ye, Dong-Hyun Kim

Abstract:

Obstructive sleep apnea in patients, between 70 and 80 percent, can be cured with just a posture correcting. The most import thing to do this is detection of obstructive sleep apnea. Detection of obstructive sleep apnea can be performed through heart rate variability analysis using power spectrum density analysis. After HRV analysis we needed to know the current position information for correcting the position. The pressure sensors of the array type were used to obtain position information. These sensors can obtain information from the experimenter about position. In addition, air cylinder corrected the position of the experimenter by lifting the bed. The experimenter can be changed position without breaking during sleep by the system. Polysomnograph recording were obtained from 10 patients. The results of HRV analysis were that NLF and LF/HF ratio increased, while NHF decreased during OSA. Position change had to be done the periods.

Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnea, Heart rate variability, Air cylinder, PSD, RR interval, ANS

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237 Automatic Sleep Stage Scoring with Wavelet Packets Based on Single EEG Recording

Authors: Luay A. Fraiwan, Natheer Y. Khaswaneh, Khaldon Y. Lweesy

Abstract:

Sleep stage scoring is the process of classifying the stage of the sleep in which the subject is in. Sleep is classified into two states based on the constellation of physiological parameters. The two states are the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and the rapid eye movement (REM). The NREM sleep is also classified into four stages (1-4). These states and the state wakefulness are distinguished from each other based on the brain activity. In this work, a classification method for automated sleep stage scoring based on a single EEG recording using wavelet packet decomposition was implemented. Thirty two ploysomnographic recording from the MIT-BIH database were used for training and validation of the proposed method. A single EEG recording was extracted and smoothed using Savitzky-Golay filter. Wavelet packets decomposition up to the fourth level based on 20th order Daubechies filter was used to extract features from the EEG signal. A features vector of 54 features was formed. It was reduced to a size of 25 using the gain ratio method and fed into a classifier of regression trees. The regression trees were trained using 67% of the records available. The records for training were selected based on cross validation of the records. The remaining of the records was used for testing the classifier. The overall correct rate of the proposed method was found to be around 75%, which is acceptable compared to the techniques in the literature.

Keywords: Features selection, regression trees, sleep stagescoring, wavelet packets.

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236 An Automatic Sleep Spindle Detector based on WT, STFT and WMSD

Authors: J. Costa, M. Ortigueira, A. Batista, T. Paiva

Abstract:

Sleep spindles are the most interesting hallmark of stage 2 sleep EEG. Their accurate identification in a polysomnographic signal is essential for sleep professionals to help them mark Stage 2 sleep. Sleep Spindles are also promising objective indicators for neurodegenerative disorders. Visual spindle scoring however is a tedious workload. In this paper three different approaches are used for the automatic detection of sleep spindles: Short Time Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform and Wave Morphology for Spindle Detection. In order to improve the results, a combination of the three detectors is presented and comparison with human expert scorers is performed. The best performance is obtained with a combination of the three algorithms which resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 94% when compared to human expert scorers.

Keywords: EEG, Short Time Fourier Transform, Sleep Spindles, Wave Morphology for Spindle Detection, Wavelet Transform.

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235 Streamwise Vorticity in the Wake of a Sliding Bubble

Authors: R. O’Reilly Meehan, D. B. Murray

Abstract:

In many practical situations, bubbles are dispersed in a liquid phase. Understanding these complex bubbly flows is therefore a key issue for applications such as shell and tube heat exchangers, mineral flotation and oxidation in water treatment. Although a large body of work exists for bubbles rising in an unbounded medium, that of bubbles rising in constricted geometries has received less attention. The particular case of a bubble sliding underneath an inclined surface is common to two-phase flow systems. The current study intends to expand this knowledge by performing experiments to quantify the streamwise flow structures associated with a single sliding air bubble under an inclined surface in quiescent water. This is achieved by means of two-dimensional, two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV), performed with a continuous wave laser and high-speed camera. PIV vorticity fields obtained in a plane perpendicular to the sliding surface show that there is significant bulk fluid motion away from the surface. The associated momentum of the bubble means that this wake motion persists for a significant time before viscous dissipation. The magnitude and direction of the flow structures in the streamwise measurement plane are found to depend on the point on its path through which the bubble enters the plane. This entry point, represented by a phase angle, affects the nature and strength of the vortical structures. This study reconstructs the vorticity field in the wake of the bubble, converting the field at different instances in time to slices of a large-scale wake structure. This is, in essence, Taylor’s ”frozen turbulence” hypothesis. Applying this to the vorticity fields provides a pseudo three-dimensional representation from 2-D data, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of the bubble wake. This study provides insights into the complex dynamics of a situation common to many engineering applications, particularly shell and tube heat exchangers in the nucleate boiling regime.

Keywords: Bubbly flow, particle image velocimetry, two-phase flow, wake structures.

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234 Case Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Methods of Treatment for a Professional Driver

Authors: R. Pääkkönen, L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi

Abstract:

This study evaluates obstructive sleep apnea treatment through a case study involving a 67-year-old male driver who had a successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment at home but experienced difficulties with traveling and dental care. There are many cheap sleep apnea and snoring devices available, but there is little professional advice on what kind of devices can help. Professional drivers receive yearly specialized medical care follow-up.

Keywords: Sleep, apnea patient, CPAP, professional driver.

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233 Using the V-Sphere Code for the Passive Scalar in the Wake of a Bluff Body

Authors: Y. Obikane, T. Nemoto , K. Ogura, M. Iwata, K. Ono

Abstract:

The objective of this research was to find the diffusion properties of vehicles on the road by using the V-Sphere Code. The diffusion coefficient and the size of the height of the wake were estimated with the LES option and the third order MUSCL scheme. We evaluated the code with the changes in the moments of Reynolds Stress along the mean streamline. The results show that at the leading part of a bluff body the LES has some advantages over the RNS since the changes in the strain rates are larger for the leading part. We estimated that the diffusion coefficient with the computed Reynolds stress (non-dimensional) was about 0.96 times the mean velocity.

Keywords: Wake , bluff body, V-CAD, turbulence diffusion.

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232 Alternative Approach in Ground Vehicle Wake Analysis

Authors: L. Sterken, S. Sebben, L. Löfdahl

Abstract:

In this paper an alternative visualisation approach of the wake behind different vehicle body shapes with simplified and fully-detailed underbody has been proposed and analysed. This allows for a more clear distinction among the different wake regions. This visualisation is based on a transformation of the cartesian coordinates of a chosen wake plane to polar coordinates, using as filter velocities lower than the freestream. This transformation produces a polar wake plot that enables the division and quantification of the wake in a number of sections. In this paper, local drag has been used to visualise the drag contribution of the flow by the different sections. Visually, a balanced wake can be observed by the concentric behaviour of the polar plots. Alternatively, integration of the local drag of each degree section as a ratio of the total local drag yields a quantifiable approach of the wake uniformity, where different sections contribute equally to the local drag, with the exception of the wheels.

Keywords: Coordinate transformation, ground vehicle, local drag, wake.

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231 Characterization of the Near-Wake of an Ahmed Body Profile

Authors: Stéphanie Pellerin, Bérengére Podvin, Luc Pastur

Abstract:

In aerovehicles context, the flow around an Ahmed body profile is simulated using the velocity-vorticity formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations, associated to a penalization method for solids and Large Eddy Simulation for turbulence. The study focuses both on the ground influence on the flow and on the dissymetry of the wake, observed for a ground clearance greater than 10% of the body height H. Unsteady and mean flows are presented and analyzed. POD study completes the analysis and gives information on the most energetic structures of the flow.

Keywords: Ahmed body, bi-stability, LES, near wake.

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230 Investigation of Self-Similarity Solution for Wake Flow of a Cylinder

Authors: A. B. Khoshnevis, F. Zeydabadi, F. Sokhanvar

Abstract:

The data measurement of mean velocity has been taken for the wake of single circular cylinder with three different diameters for two different velocities. The effects of change in diameter and in velocity are studied in self-similar coordinate system. The spatial variations of velocity defect and that of the half-width have been investigated. The results are compared with those published by H.Schlichting. In the normalized coordinates, it is also observed that all cases except for the first station are self-similar. By attention to self-similarity profiles of mean velocity, it is observed for all the cases at the each station curves tend to zero at a same point.

Keywords: Self-similarity, wake of single circular cylinder

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229 Operating Model of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients in North Karelia Central Hospital

Authors: L. Korpinen, T. Kava, I. Salmi

Abstract:

This study aimed to describe the operating model of obstructive sleep apnea. Due to the large number of patients, the role of nurses in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnea was important. Pulmonary physicians met only a minority of the patients. The sleep apnea study in 2018 included about 800 patients, of which about 28% were normal and 180 patients were classified as severe (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] over 30). The operating model has proven to be workable and appropriate. The patients understand well that they may not be referred to a pulmonary doctor. However, specialized medical follow-up on professional drivers continues every year.

Keywords: Sleep, apnea patient, operating model, hospital.

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228 Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Dietary Intake

Authors: Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Makan Cheraghpour, Saeed Shirali, Roya Rafie, Matin Ghanavati, Arezoo Amjadi, Meysam Alipour

Abstract:

Background: There is a mutual relationship between sleep duration and obesity. We studied the relationship between sleep duration with obesity and dietary Intake. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 444 male students in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science. Dietary intake was analyzed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric indices were analyzed. Participants were being asked about their sleep duration and they were categorized into three groups according to their responses (less than six hours, between six and eight hours, and more than eight hours). Results: Macronutrient, micronutrient, and antioxidant intake did not show significant difference between three groups. Moreover, we did not observe any significant difference between anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat). Conclusions: Our study results show no significant relationship between sleep duration, nutrition pattern, and obesity. Further study is recommended.

Keywords: Sleep duration, obesity, dietary intake, cross-sectional.

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227 Effect of Amplitude and Mean Angle of Attack on Wake of an Oscillating Airfoil

Authors: Sadeghi H., Mani M., Ardakani M. A.

Abstract:

The unsteady wake of an EPPLER 361 airfoil in pitching motion has been investigated in a subsonic wind tunnel by hot-wire anemometry. The airfoil was given the pitching motion about the one-quarter chord axis at reduced frequency of 0182. Streamwise mean velocity profiles (wake profiles) were investigated at several vertically aligned points behind the airfoil at one-quarter chord downstream distance from trailing edge. Oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack were varied to determine the effects on wake profiles. When the maximum dynamic angle of attack was below the static stall angle of attack, weak effects on wake were found by increasing oscillation amplitude and mean angle of attack. But, for higher angles of attack strong unsteady effects were appeared on the wake.

Keywords: Unsteady wake, amplitude, mean angle, EPPLER 361 airfoil.

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226 Harmonic Parameters with HHT and Wavelet Transform for Automatic Sleep Stages Scoring

Authors: Wei-Chih Tang, Shih-Wei Lu, Chih-Mong Tsai, Cheng-Yan Kao, Hsiu-Hui Lee

Abstract:

Previously, harmonic parameters (HPs) have been selected as features extracted from EEG signals for automatic sleep scoring. However, in previous studies, only one HP parameter was used, which were directly extracted from the whole epoch of EEG signal. In this study, two different transformations were applied to extract HPs from EEG signals: Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and wavelet transform (WT). EEG signals are decomposed by the two transformations; and features were extracted from different components. Twelve parameters (four sets of HPs) were extracted. Some of the parameters are highly diverse among different stages. Afterward, HPs from two transformations were used to building a rough sleep stages scoring model using the classifier SVM. The performance of this model is about 78% using the features obtained by our proposed extractions. Our results suggest that these features may be useful for automatic sleep stages scoring.

Keywords: EEG, harmonic parameter, Hilbert-Huang transform, sleep stages, wavelet transform.

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225 SATA: A Web Based Scheduling Support System

Authors: Rajeswari Raju, Saiful Nizam Warris, Hazlifah Mohd Rusli

Abstract:

Developing a university course schedule is difficult. This is due to the limitations in the resources available. The process is made even harder with different faculties or departments having different ways of stating their schedule requirements. The person in charge of taking the schedule requirements and turning them into a proper course schedule is not only burden with the task of allocating the appropriate classes and time to lecturers and students, they also need to understand the schedule requirements. Therefore a scheduling support system named SATA is developed to assist ICRESS in the course scheduling process. SATA has been put to use for several semesters and the results have been encouraging. It won a bronze medal in the 2008 Invention, Innovation and Design competition (IID-08) and has been submitted to be patented in October 2008

Keywords: Course Scheduling, Scheduling Tool Aid.

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224 Ginzburg-Landau Model : an Amplitude Evolution Equation for Shallow Wake Flows

Authors: Imad Chaddad, Andrei A. Kolyshkin

Abstract:

Linear and weakly nonlinear analysis of shallow wake flows is presented in the present paper. The evolution of the most unstable linear mode is described by the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (CGLE). The coefficients of the CGLE are calculated numerically from the solution of the corresponding linear stability problem for a one-parametric family of shallow wake flows. It is shown that the coefficients of the CGLE are not so sensitive to the variation of the base flow profile.

Keywords: Ginzburg-Landau equation, shallow wake flow, weakly nonlinear theory.

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223 Phase-Averaged Analysis of Three-Dimensional Vorticity in the Wake of Two Yawed Side-By-Side Circular Cylinders

Authors: T. Zhou, S. F. Mohd. Razali, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, L. Cheng

Abstract:

Thewake flow behind two yawed side-by-sidecircular  cylinders is investigated using athree-dimensional vorticity probe.  Four yaw angles (α), namely, 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° and twocylinder  spacing ratios T*  of 1.7 and 3.0 were tested. For T*  = 3.0, there exist  two vortex streets and the cylinders behave as independent and  isolated ones. The maximum contour value of the coherent streamwise  vorticity ~* ωx  is only about 10% of that of the spanwise vorticity ~* ωz .  With the increase of α,  ~* ωx  increases whereas ~* ωz  decreases. At α =  45°, ~* ωx  is about 67% of ~* ωz .For T* = 1.7, only a single peak is  detected in the energy spectrum. The spanwise vorticity contours have  an organized pattern only at α = 0°. The maximum coherent vorticity  contours of ~* ω x  and ~* ωz  for T*  = 1.7 are about 30% and 7% of those  for T*  = 3.0.The independence principle (IP)in terms of Strouhal  numbers is applicable in both wakes when α< 40°.

 

Keywords: Circular cylinder wake, vorticity, vortex shedding.

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222 Vortex Wake Formation and Its Effects on Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency of an Oscillating Airfoil

Authors: Ahmet Selim Durna, Bayram Celik, Aydin Misirlioglu

Abstract:

Flows over a harmonically oscillating NACA 0012 airfoil are simulated here using a two-dimensional, unsteady, incompressibleNavier-Stokes solver.Both pure-plunging and pitching-plunging combined oscillations are considered at a Reynolds number of 5000. Special attention is paid to the vortex shedding and interaction mechanism of the motions. For all the simulations presented here, the reduced frequency (k) is fixed at a value of 2.5 and plunging amplitude (h) is selected to be in the range of 0.2-0.5. The simulation results show that the interaction mechanism between the leading and trailing edge vortices has a decisive effect on the values of the resulting thrust and propulsive efficiency.

Keywords: pithing and plunging airfoil, leading edge vortex, trailing edge vortex, vortex interaction, wake structure.

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221 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

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220 Linear Instability of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability analysis of wake-shear layers in twophase shallow flows is performed in the present paper. Twodimensional shallow water equations are used in the analysis. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. The stability calculations are performed for different values of the particle loading parameter and two other parameters which characterize the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. The results show that the particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow while the increase in the velocity ratio or in the velocity deficit destabilizes the flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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219 Towards Developing a Self-Explanatory Scheduling System Based on a Hybrid Approach

Authors: Jian Zheng, Yoshiyasu Takahashi, Yuichi Kobayashi, Tatsuhiro Sato

Abstract:

In the study, we present a conceptual framework for developing a scheduling system that can generate self-explanatory and easy-understanding schedules. To this end, a user interface is conceived to help planners record factors that are considered crucial in scheduling, as well as internal and external sources relating to such factors. A hybrid approach combining machine learning and constraint programming is developed to generate schedules and the corresponding factors, and accordingly display them on the user interface. Effects of the proposed system on scheduling are discussed, and it is expected that scheduling efficiency and system understandability will be improved, compared with previous scheduling systems.

Keywords: Constraint programming, Factors considered in scheduling, machine learning, scheduling system.

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218 Linear Stability Characteristics of Wake-Shear Layers in Two-Phase Shallow Flows

Authors: Inta Volodko, Valentina Koliskina

Abstract:

Linear stability of wake-shear layers in two-phase shallow flows is analyzed in the present paper. Stability analysis is based on two-dimensional shallow water equations. It is assumed that the fluid contains uniformly distributed solid particles. No dynamic interaction between the carrier fluid and particles is expected in the initial moment. Linear stability curves are obtained for different values of the particle loading parameter, the velocity ratio and the velocity deficit. It is shown that the increase in the velocity ratio destabilizes the flow. The particle loading parameter has a stabilizing effect on the flow. The role of the velocity deficit is also destabilizing: the increase of the velocity deficit leads to less stable flow.

Keywords: Linear stability, Shallow flows, Wake-shear flows.

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217 Stochastic Scheduling to Minimize Expected Lateness in Multiple Identical Machines

Authors: Ghulam Zakria, Zailin Guan , Yasser Riaz Awan, Wan Lizhi

Abstract:

There are many real world problems in which parameters like the arrival time of new jobs, failure of resources, and completion time of jobs change continuously. This paper tackles the problem of scheduling jobs with random due dates on multiple identical machines in a stochastic environment. First to assign jobs to different machine centers LPT scheduling methods have been used, after that the particular sequence of jobs to be processed on the machine have been found using simple stochastic techniques. The performance parameter under consideration has been the maximum lateness concerning the stochastic due dates which are independent and exponentially distributed. At the end a relevant problem has been solved using the techniques in the paper..

Keywords: Quantity Production Flow Shop, LPT Scheduling, Stochastic Scheduling, Maximum Lateness, Random Due Dates

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