Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: breathing

32 A Comparative Study of Cardio Respiratory Efficiency between Aquatic and Track and Field Performers

Authors: Sumanta Daw, Gopal Chandra Saha

Abstract:

The present study was conducted to explore the basic pulmonary functions which may generally vary according to the bio-physical characteristics including age, height, body weight, and environment etc. of the sports performers. Regular and specific training exercises also change the characteristics of an athlete’s prowess and produce a positive effect on the physiological functioning, mostly upon cardio-pulmonary efficiency and thereby improving the body mechanism. The objective of the present study was to compare the differences in cardio-respiratory functions between aquatics and track and field performers. As cardio-respiratory functions are influenced by pulse rate and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), so both of the factors were also taken into consideration. The component selected under cardio-respiratory functions for the present study were i) FEVI/FVC ratio (forced expiratory volume divided by forced vital capacity ratio, i.e. the number represents the percentage of lung capacity to exhale in one second) ii) FVC1 (this is the amount of air which can force out of lungs in one second) and iii) FVC (forced vital capacity is the greatest total amount of air forcefully breathe out after breathing in as deeply as possible). All the three selected components of the cardio-respiratory efficiency were measured by spirometry method. Pulse rate was determined manually. The radial artery which is located on the thumb side of our wrist was used to assess the pulse rate. Blood pressure was assessed by sphygmomanometer. All the data were taken in the resting condition. 36subjects were selected for the present study out of which 18were water polo players and rest were sprinters. The age group of the subjects was considered between 18 to 23 years. In this study the obtained data inform of digital score were treated statistically to get result and draw conclusions. The Mean and Standard Deviation (SD) were used as descriptive statistics and the significant difference between the two subject groups was assessed with the help of statistical ‘t’-test. It was found from the study that all the three components i.e. FEVI/FVC ratio (p-value 0.0148 < 0.01), FVC1 (p-value 0.0010 < 0.01) and FVC (p-value 0.0067 < 0.01) differ significantly as water polo players proved to be better in terms of cardio-respiratory functions than sprinters. Thus study clearly suggests that the exercise training as well as the medium of practice arena associated with water polo players has played an important role to determine better cardio respiratory efficiency than track and field athletes. The outcome of the present study revealed that the lung function in land-based activities may not provide much impact than that of in water activities.

Keywords: Cardio-respiratory efficiency, spirometry, water polo players, sprinters.

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31 Development of Affordable and Reliable Diagnostic Tools to Record Vital Parameters for Improving Health Care in Low Resources Settings

Authors: Mannan Mridha, Usama Gazay, Kosovare V. Aslani, Hugo Linder, Alice Ravizza, Carmelo de Maria

Abstract:

In most developing countries, although the vast majority of the people are living in the rural areas, the qualified medical doctors are not available there. Health care workers and paramedics, called village doctors, informal healthcare providers, are largely responsible for the rural medical care. Mishaps due to wrong diagnosis and inappropriate medication have been causing serious suffering that is preventable. While innovators have created many devices, the vast majority of these technologies do not find applications to address the needs and conditions in low-resource settings. The primary motive is to address the acute lack of affordable medical technologies for the poor people in low-resource settings. A low cost smart medical device that is portable, battery operated and can be used at any point of care has been developed to detect breathing rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial pulse rate to improve diagnosis and monitoring of patients and thus improve care and safety. This simple and easy to use smart medical device can be used, managed and maintained effectively and safely by any health worker with some training. In order to empower the health workers and village doctors, our device is being further developed to integrate with ICT tools like smart phones and connect to the medical experts wherever available, to manage the serious health problems.

Keywords: Healthcare for low resources settings, health awareness education, improve patient care and safety, smart and affordable medical device.

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30 University Students Sport’s Activities Assessment in Harsh Weather Conditions

Authors: Ammar S. M. Moohialdin, Bambang T. Suhariadi, Mohsin Siddiqui

Abstract:

This paper addresses the application of physiological status monitoring (PSM) for assessing the impact of harsh weather conditions on sports activities in universities in Saudi Arabia. Real sports measurement was conducted during sports activities such that the physiological status (HR and BR) of five students were continuously monitored by using Zephyr BioHarnessTM 3.0 sensors in order to identify the physiological bonds and zones. These bonds and zones were employed as indicators of the associated physiological risks of the performed sports activities. Furthermore, a short yes/no questionnaire was applied to collect information on participants’ health conditions and opinions of the applied PSM sensors. The results show the absence of a warning system as a protective aid for the hazardous levels of extremely hot and humid weather conditions that may cause dangerous and fatal circumstances. The applied formulas for estimating maximum HR provides accurate estimations for Maximum Heart Rate (HRmax). The physiological results reveal that the performed activities by the participants are considered the highest category (90–100%) in terms of activity intensity. This category is associated with higher HR, BR and physiological risks including losing the ability to control human body behaviors. Therefore, there is a need for immediate intervention actions to reduce the intensity of the performed activities to safer zones. The outcomes of this study assist the safety improvement of sports activities inside universities and athletes performing their sports activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to represent a special case of the application of PSM technology for assessing sports activities in universities considering the impacts of harsh weather conditions on students’ health and safety.

Keywords: PSM, heart rate, HR, breathing rate, BR.

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29 Voyage Analysis of a Marine Gas Turbine Engine Installed to Power and Propel an Ocean-Going Cruise Ship

Authors: Mathias U. Bonet, Pericles Pilidis, Georgios Doulgeris

Abstract:

A gas turbine-powered cruise Liner is scheduled to transport pilgrim passengers from Lagos-Nigeria to the Islamic port city of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Since the gas turbine is an air breathing machine, changes in the density and/or mass flow at the compressor inlet due to an encounter with variations in weather conditions induce negative effects on the performance of the power plant during the voyage. In practice, all deviations from the reference atmospheric conditions of 15 oC and 1.103 bar tend to affect the power output and other thermodynamic parameters of the gas turbine cycle. Therefore, this paper seeks to evaluate how a simple cycle marine gas turbine power plant would react under a variety of scenarios that may be encountered during a voyage as the ship sails across the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea before arriving at its designated port of discharge. It is also an assessment that focuses on the effect of varying aerodynamic and hydrodynamic conditions which deteriorate the efficient operation of the propulsion system due to an increase in resistance that results from some projected levels of the ship hull fouling. The investigated passenger ship is designed to run at a service speed of 22 knots and cover a distance of 5787 nautical miles. The performance evaluation consists of three separate voyages that cover a variety of weather conditions in winter, spring and summer seasons. Real-time daily temperatures and the sea states for the selected transit route were obtained and used to simulate the voyage under the aforementioned operating conditions. Changes in engine firing temperature, power output as well as the total fuel consumed per voyage including other performance variables were separately predicted under both calm and adverse weather conditions. The collated data were obtained online from the UK Meteorological Office as well as the UK Hydrographic Office websites, while adopting the Beaufort scale for determining the magnitude of sea waves resulting from rough weather situations. The simulation of the gas turbine performance and voyage analysis was effected through the use of an integrated Cranfield-University-developed computer code known as ‘Turbomatch’ and ‘Poseidon’. It is a project that is aimed at developing a method for predicting the off design behavior of the marine gas turbine when installed and operated as the main prime mover for both propulsion and powering of all other auxiliary services onboard a passenger cruise liner. Furthermore, it is a techno-economic and environmental assessment that seeks to enable the forecast of the marine gas turbine part and full load performance as it relates to the fuel requirement for a complete voyage.

Keywords:

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28 An Intelligent Baby Care System Based on IoT and Deep Learning Techniques

Authors: Chinlun Lai, Lunjyh Jiang

Abstract:

Due to the heavy burden and pressure of caring for infants, an integrated automatic baby watching system based on IoT smart sensing and deep learning machine vision techniques is proposed in this paper. By monitoring infant body conditions such as heartbeat, breathing, body temperature, sleeping posture, as well as the surrounding conditions such as dangerous/sharp objects, light, noise, humidity and temperature, the proposed system can analyze and predict the obvious/potential dangerous conditions according to observed data and then adopt suitable actions in real time to protect the infant from harm. Thus, reducing the burden of the caregiver and improving safety efficiency of the caring work. The experimental results show that the proposed system works successfully for the infant care work and thus can be implemented in various life fields practically.

Keywords: Baby care system, internet of things, deep learning, machine vision.

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27 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: Crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft.

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26 A Study of Applying the Use of Breathing Training to Palliative Care Patients, Based on the Bio-Psycho-Social Model

Authors: Wenhsuan Lee, Yachi Chang, Yingyih Shih

Abstract:

In clinical practices, it is common that while facing the unknown progress of their disease, palliative care patients may easily feel anxious and depressed. These types of reactions are a cause of psychosomatic diseases and may also influence treatment results. However, the purpose of palliative care is to provide relief from all kinds of pains. Therefore, how to make patients more comfortable is an issue worth studying. This study adopted the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel and applied spontaneous breathing training, in the hope of seeing patients’ psychological state changes caused by their physiological state changes, improvements in their anxious conditions, corresponding adjustments of their cognitive functions, and further enhancement of their social functions and the social support system. This study will be a one-year study. Palliative care outpatients will be recruited and assigned to the experimental group or the control group for six outpatient visits (once a month), with 80 patients in each group. The patients of both groups agreed that this study can collect their physiological quantitative data using an HRV device before the first outpatient visit. They also agreed to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” before the first outpatient visit, to fill a self-report questionnaire after each outpatient visit, and to answer the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire” after the last outpatient visit. The patients of the experimental group agreed to receive the breathing training under HRV monitoring during the first outpatient visit of this study. Before each of the following three outpatient visits, they were required to fill a self-report questionnaire regarding their breathing practices after going home. After the outpatient visits, they were taught how to practice breathing through an HRV device and asked to practice it after going home. Later, based on the results from the HRV data analyses and the pre-tests and post-tests of the “Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)”, the “Taiwanese version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire”, the influence of the breathing training in the bio, psycho, and social aspects were evaluated. The data collected through the self-report questionnaires of the patients of both groups were used to explore the possible interfering factors among the bio, psycho, and social changes. It is expected that this study will support the “bio-psycho-social model” proposed by Engel, meaning that bio, psycho, and social supports are closely related, and that breathing training helps to transform palliative care patients’ psychological feelings of anxiety and depression, to facilitate their positive interactions with others, and to improve the quality medical care for them.

Keywords: Palliative care, breathing training, bio-psycho-social Model, heart rate variability.

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25 The Magnetized Quantum Breathing in Cylindrical Dusty Plasma

Authors: A. Abdikian

Abstract:

A quantum breathing mode has been theatrically studied in quantum dusty plasma. By using linear quantum hydrodynamic model, not only the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode but also void structure has been derived in the presence of an external magnetic field. Although the phase velocity of the magnetized quantum breathing mode is greater than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode, attenuation of the magnetized quantum breathing mode along radial distance seems to be slower than that of unmagnetized quantum breathing mode. Clearly, drawing the quantum breathing mode in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, we found that the magnetic field alters the distribution of dust particles and changes the radial and azimuthal velocities around the axis. Because the magnetic field rotates the dust particles and collects them, it could compensate the void structure.

Keywords: The linear quantum hydrodynamic model, the magnetized quantum breathing mode, the quantum dispersion relation of rotation mode, void structure.

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24 HelpMeBreathe: A Web-Based System for Asthma Management

Authors: Alia Al Rayssi, Mahra Al Marar, Alyazia Alkhaili, Reem Al Dhaheri, Shayma Alkobaisi, Hoda Amer

Abstract:

We present in this paper a web-based system called “HelpMeBreathe” for managing asthma. The proposed system provides analytical tools, which allow better understanding of environmental triggers of asthma, hence better support of data-driven decision making. The developed system provides warning messages to a specific asthma patient if the weather in his/her area might cause any difficulty in breathing or could trigger an asthma attack. HelpMeBreathe collects, stores, and analyzes individuals’ moving trajectories and health conditions as well as environmental data. It then processes and displays the patients’ data through an analytical tool that leads to an effective decision making by physicians and other decision makers.

Keywords: Asthma, environmental triggers, map interface, peak flow, web-based system.

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23 Landfill Leachate: A Promising Substrate for Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: Jayesh M. Sonawane, Prakash C. Ghosh

Abstract:

Landfill leachate emerges as a promising feedstock for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In the present investigation, direct air-breathing cathode-based MFCs are fabricated to investigate the potential of landfill leachate. Three MFCs that have different cathode areas are fabricated and investigated for 17 days under open circuit conditions. The maximum open circuit voltage (OCV) is observed to be as high as 1.29 V. The maximum cathode area specific power density achieved in the reactor is 1513 mW m-2. Further studies are under progress to understand the origin of high OCV obtained from landfill leachate-based MFCs.

Keywords: Microbial fuel cells, landfill leachate, air-breathing cathode, performance study.

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22 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang

Abstract:

In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: Cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force.

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21 A Method for Evaluating the Mechanical Stress on Mandibular Advancement Devices

Authors: Tsung-yin Lin, Yi-yu Lee, Ching-hua Hung

Abstract:

This study focuses on the stress analysis of Mandibular Advancement Devices (MADs), which are considered as a standard treatment of snoring that promoted by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Snoring is the most significant feature of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). SDB will lead to serious problems in human health. Oral appliances are ensured in therapeutic effect and compliance, especially the MADs. This paper proposes a new MAD design, and the finite element analysis (FEA) is introduced to precede the stress simulation for this MAD.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, mandibular advancement devices, mechanical stress, snoring.

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20 Response of Diaphragmatic Excursion to Inspiratory Muscle Trainer Post Thoracotomy

Authors: H. M. Haytham, E. A. Azza, E.S. Mohamed, E. G. Nesreen

Abstract:

Thoracotomy is a great surgery that has serious pulmonary complications, so purpose of this study was to determine the response of diaphragmatic excursion to inspiratory muscle trainer post thoracotomy. Thirty patients of both sexes (16 men and 14 women) with age ranged from 20 to 40 years old had done thoracotomy participated in this study. The practical work was done in cardiothoracic department, Kasr-El-Aini hospital at faculty of medicine for individuals 3 days Post operatively. Patients were assigned into two groups: group A (study group) included 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) who received inspiratory muscle training by using inspiratory muscle trainer for 20 minutes and routine chest physiotherapy (deep breathing, cough and early ambulation) twice daily, 3 days per week for one month. Group B (control group) included 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) who received the routine chest physiotherapy only (deep breathing, cough and early ambulation) twice daily, 3 days per week for one month. Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the changes in diaphragmatic excursion before and after training program. Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in diaphragmatic excursion in the study group (59.52%) more than control group (18.66%) after using inspiratory muscle trainer post operatively in patients post thoracotomy. It was concluded that the inspiratory muscle training device increases diaphragmatic excursion in patients post thoracotomy through improving inspiratory muscle strength and improving mechanics of breathing and using of inspiratory muscle trainer as a method of physical therapy rehabilitation to reduce post-operative pulmonary complications post thoracotomy.

Keywords: Diaphragmatic excursion, inspiratory muscle trainer, ultrasonography, thoracotomy.

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19 A Fault Analysis Cracked-Rotor-to-Stator Rub and Unbalance by Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

An analytical 4-DOF nonlinear model of a de Laval rotor-stator system based on Energy Principles has been used theoretically and experimentally to investigate fault symptoms in a rotating system. The faults, namely rotor-stator-rub, crack and unbalance are modeled as excitations on the rotor shaft. Mayes steering function is used to simulate the breathing behaviour of the crack. The fault analysis technique is based on waveform signal, orbits and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) derived from simulated and real measured signals. Simulated and experimental results manifest considerable mutual resemblance of elliptic-shaped orbits and FFT for a same range of test data.

Keywords: A breathing crack, fault, FFT, nonlinear, orbit, rotorstator rub, vibration analysis.

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18 Time-Frequency Modeling and Analysis of Faulty Rotor

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

In this paper, de Laval rotor system has been characterized by a hinge model and its transient response numerically treated for a dynamic solution. The effect of the ensuing non-linear disturbances namely rub and breathing crack is numerically simulated. Subsequently, three analysis methods: Orbit Analysis, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and Wavelet Transform (WT) are employed to extract features of the vibration signal of the faulty system. An analysis of the system response orbits clearly indicates the perturbations due to the rotor-to-stator contact. The sensitivities of WT to the variation in system speed have been investigated by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). The analysis reveals that features of crack, rubs and unbalance in vibration response can be useful for condition monitoring. WT reveals its ability to detect nonlinear signal, and obtained results provide a useful tool method for detecting machinery faults.

Keywords: Continuous wavelet, crack, discrete wavelet, high acceleration, low acceleration, nonlinear, rotor-stator, rub.

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17 The Application of FSI Techniques in Modeling of Realist Pulmonary Systems

Authors: Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Hassan Athari, Dogan Ciloglu

Abstract:

The modeling lung respiratory system that has complex anatomy and biophysics presents several challenges including tissue-driven flow patterns and wall motion. Also, the pulmonary lung system because of that they stretch and recoil with each breath, has not static walls and structures. The direct relationship between air flow and tissue motion in the lung structures naturally prefers an FSI simulation technique. Therefore, in order to toward the realistic simulation of pulmonary breathing mechanics the development of a coupled FSI computational model is an important step. A simple but physiologically relevant three-dimensional deep long geometry is designed and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) coupling technique is utilized for simulating the deformation of the lung parenchyma tissue that produces airflow fields. The real understanding of respiratory tissue system as a complex phenomenon have been investigated with respect to respiratory patterns, fluid dynamics and tissue viscoelasticity and tidal breathing period. 

Keywords: Lung deformation and mechanics, tissue mechanics, viscoelasticity, fluid-structure interactions, ANSYS.

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16 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner

Abstract:

Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculation of pressure losses in the real lungs is time consuming and inefficient process due to its complexity and diversity. For these calculations is necessary to slightly simplify the geometry of lungs (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the idealized models of lungs (Horsfield, Weibel). The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli and continuity equations. The aim of the article is to analyse the accuracy of the analytical method and its possibility of use for the calculation of pressure losses in lower generations, which is difficult to solve by numerical method due to the small geometry.

Keywords: Pressure gradient, airways resistance, real geometry of bronchial tree, breathing.

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15 The Pressure Losses in the Model of Human Lungs

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Pavel Niedoba

Abstract:

For the treatment of acute and chronic lung diseases it is preferred to deliver medicaments by inhalation. The drug is delivered directly to tracheobronchial tree. This way allows the given medicament to get directly into the place of action and it makes rapid onset of action and maximum efficiency. The transport of aerosol particles in the particular part of the lung is influenced by their size, anatomy of the lungs, breathing pattern and airway resistance. This article deals with calculation of airway resistance in the lung model of Horsfield. It solves the problem of determination of the pressure losses in bifurcation and thus defines the pressure drop at a given location in the bronchial tree. The obtained data will be used as boundary conditions for transport of aerosol particles in a central part of bronchial tree realized by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The results obtained from CFD simulation will allow us to provide information on the required particle size and optimal inhalation technique for particle transport into particular part of the lung.

Keywords: Human lungs, bronchial tree, pressure losses, airways resistance, flow, breathing.

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14 Training Isolated Respiratory in Rehabilitation

Authors: Marketa Kotova, Jana Kolarova, Ludek Zalud, Petr Dobsak

Abstract:

A game for training of breath (TRABR) for continuous monitoring of pulmonary ventilation during the patients’ therapy focuses especially on monitoring of their ventilation processes. It is necessary to detect, monitor and differentiate abdominal and thoracic breathing during the therapy. It is a fun form of rehabilitation where the patient plays and also practicing isolated breathing. Finally the game to practice breath was designed to evaluate whether the patient uses two types of breathing or not.

Keywords: Pulmonary ventilation, thoracic breathing, abdominal breathing, breath monitoring using pressure sensors, game TRABR (TRAining of BReath).

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13 In situ Modelling of Lateral-Torsional Vibration of a Rotor-Stator with Multiple Parametric Excitations

Authors: B. X. Tchomeni, A. A. Alugongo, L. M. Masu

Abstract:

This paper presents a 4-DOF nonlinear model of a cracked de Laval rotor-stator system derived based on Energy Principles. The model has been used to simulate coupled torsionallateral response of the faulty system with multiple parametric excitations; rotor-stator-rub, a breathing transverse crack, eccentric mass and an axial force. Nonlinearity of a “breathing” crack is incorporated in the model using a simple hinge mechanism suitable for a shallow crack. Response of the system while passing via its critical speed with intermittent rotor-stator rub is analyzed. Effects of eccentricity with phase and acceleration are investigated. Features of crack, rub and eccentricity in vibration response are explored for condition monitoring. The presence of a crack and rub are observable in the power spectrum despite excitations by an axial force and rotor unbalance. Obtained results are consistent with existing literature and could be adopted into rotor condition monitoring strategies.

Keywords: Axial force, Crack, Nonlinear, Rotor-Stator, Rub.

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12 Separation Characteristics of Dissolved Gases from Water Using a Polypropylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Module with High Surface Area

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

A polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module is used for separating dissolved gases which contain dissolved oxygen from water. These dissolved gases can be used for underwater breathing. To be used for a human, the minimum amount of oxygen is essential. To increase separation of dissolved gases, much water and high surface area of hollow fibers are requested. For efficient separation system, performance of single membrane module with high surface area needs to be investigated.

In this study, we set up experimental devices for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module. Separation of dissolved gases from water is investigated with variations of water flow rates. Composition of dissolved gases is also measured using GC. These results expect to be used in developing the portable separation system.

Keywords: High surface area, breathing, vacuum, composition.

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11 Separation of Dissolved Gases from Water for a Portable Underwater Breathing

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

Water contains oxygen which may make a human breathe under water like a fish. Centrifugal separator can separate dissolved gases from water. Carrier solution can increase the separation of dissolved oxygen from water. But, to develop an breathing device for a human under water, the enhancement of separation of dissolved gases including oxygen and portable devices which have dc battery based device and proper size are needed. In this study, we set up experimental device for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a battery based portable vacuum pump. We characterized vacuum state, flow rate of separation of dissolved gases and oxygen concentration which were influenced by the manufactured vacuum pump.

Keywords: Portable, breathing, water, separation, battery.

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10 Mass Casualty Acute Pepper Spray Inhalation Respiratory Effect Severity

Authors: B. Michelle Sweeting

Abstract:

Pepper spray use has gained momentum since 1992 and although the active ingredient is readily available, it is considered a weapon with restricted use in many regions, including The Bahamas. In light of controversy in the literature regarding the severity of presenting respiration complaints among individuals postacute exposure of pepper spray inhalation, this descriptive case series study was conducted to assess the respiratory status of persons evaluated during a mass casualty in The Bahamas. Parameters noted were patients- demographics and respiration severity determined via clinical examination findings, disposition and follow-up review of the 20 persons. Their most common complaint was difficulty breathing post exposure. Two required admission and stayed for <24 hours uneventfully. All cases remained without residual complaints upon follow-up. Results showed that although respiration difficulty was perceived as the most detrimental of presenting complaints, it was noted to be mostly subjective with benign outcome.

Keywords: Acute Pepper Spray Inhalation, Capsaicinoids, Oleoresin Capsicum, Pepper spray, Respiratory severity severity.

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9 Separation of Dissolved Gas for Breathing of a Human against Sudden Waves Using Hollow Fiber Membranes

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

The separation of dissolved gas including dissolved oxygen can be used in breathing for a human under water. When one is suddenly wrecked or meets a tsunami, one is instantly drowned and cannot breathe under water. To avoid this crisis, when we meet waves, the dissolved gas separated from water by wave is used, while air can be used to breathe when we are about to escape from water. In this thesis, we investigated the separation characteristics of dissolved gas using the pipe type of hollow fiber membrane with polypropylene and the nude type of one with polysulfone. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics under water are used to separate the dissolved gas. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics in an air are used to transfer air. The combination of membranes with good separation characteristics under water and good transferring one in an air is used to breathe instantly under water to be alive at crisis. These results showed that polypropylene represented better performance than polysulfone under both of air and water conditions.

Keywords: separation, wave, dissolved gas, hollow fiber

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8 Cognitive Behaviour Therapy to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: A Psychology Case

Authors: Yasmin Binti Othman Mydin, Mohd. Fadzillah Abdul Razak

Abstract:

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy is the first cognitive behavior therapy which was introduced by Albert Ellis. This is a systematic and structured psychotherapy which is effective in treating various psychological problems. A patient, 25 years old male, experienced intense fear and situational panic attack to return to his faculty and to face his class-mates after a long absence (2 years). This social anxiety disorder was a major factor that impeded the progress of his study. He was treated with the use of behavioural technique such as relaxation breathing technique and cognitive techniques such as imagery, cognitive restructuring, rationalization technique and systematic desensitization. The patient reported positive improvement in the anxiety disorder, able to progress well in studies and lead a better quality of life as a student.

Keywords: Anxiety, behaviour, cognitive, therapy

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7 Patents Analysis and Design Suggestions for the Mandibular Advancement Devices

Authors: Tsung-yin Lin, Yi-yu Lee

Abstract:

Snoring is prevalent and is the most significant feature of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Ignore the therapies of SDB will lead to serious problems in health. Based on the research of mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatments of snoring, oral appliances are ensured in therapeutic effect and compliance, especially the mandibular advancement devices (MADs). Market survey includes commercial product reviews and patent analyses. Due to pay more attention to the sleep medicine, the oral appliances are considered as a standard treatment of snoring that promoted by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). There are more and more adjustable MADs developed since 1995. According to the patent analyses, there are many drawbacks existed in the present design, such as uncomfortable, high cost, bulky volume, and complex adjustment. In this study, several new designs of the MAD are proposed.

Keywords: mandibular advancement device, mechanism design, patent review

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6 Radon in Drinking Water in Novi Sad

Authors: J. Nikolov, N. Todorovic, S. Forkapic, I. Bikit, D. Mrdja

Abstract:

Exposure to radon occurs when breathing airborne radon while using water: showering, washing dishes, cooking, and drinking water that contain radon. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain in city of Novi Sad, Serbia is presented in this paper. Radon level in some samples exceeded EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) recommendation for maximum contaminant level (MCL) for radon in drinking water of 11.1 Bq/l.

Keywords: radon, radioactivity dose, public drink fountain.

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5 Fenestration Effects on Cross Ventilation for a Typical Taiwanese School Building When Applying Wind Profile

Authors: Wei-Hwa Chiang, Hao-Hsiang Hsu, Jian-Sheng Huang

Abstract:

Appropriate ventilation in a classroom is helpful for enhancing air exchange rate and student concentration. This study focuses on the effects of fenestration in a four-story school building by performing numerical simulation of a building when considering indoor and outdoor environments simultaneously. The wind profile function embedded in PHOENICS code was set as the inlet boundary condition in a suburban environment. Sixteen fenestration combinations were compared in a classroom containing thirty seats. This study evaluates mean age of air (AGE) and airflow pattern of a classroom on different floors. Considering both wind profile and fenestration effects, the airflow on higher floors is channeled toward the area near ceiling in a room and causes older mean age of air in the breathing zone. The results in this study serve as a useful guide for enhancing natural ventilation in a typical school building.

Keywords: Cross ventilation, Fenestration effect, Wind profile, Mean age of air, CFD

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4 Development of Synthetic Jet Air Blower for Air-breathing PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Jongpil Choi, Eon-Soo Lee, Jae-Huk Jang, Young Ho Seo, Byeonghee Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a synthetic jet air blower actuated by PZT for air blowing for air-breathing micro PEM fuel cell. The several factors to affect the performance of air-breathing PEM fuel cell such as air flow rate, opening ratio and cathode open type in the cathode side were studied. Especially, an air flow rate is critical condition to improve its performance. In this paper, we developed a synthetic jet air blower to supply a high stoichiometric air flow. The synthetic jet mechanism is a zero mass flux device that converts electrical energy into the momentum. The synthetic jet actuation is usually generated by a traditional PZT actuator, which consists of a small cylindrical cavity, in/outlet channel and PZT diaphragms. The flow rate of the fabricated synthetic jet air blower was 400cc/min at 550Hz and its power consumption was very low under 0.3W. The proposed air-breathing PEM fuel cell which installed synthetic jet air blower was higher performance and stability during continuous operation than the air-breathing fuel cell without auxiliary device to supply the air. The results showed that the maximum power density was 188mW/cm2 at 400mA/cm2. This maximum power density and durability were improved more than 40% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell, Synthetic jet air blower, Opening ratio, Power consumption.

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3 Use of Heliox during Spontaneous Ventilation: Model Study

Authors: Martin Rozanek, Karel Roubik

Abstract:

The study deals with the modelling of the gas flow during heliox therapy. A special model has been developed to study the effect of the helium upon the gas flow in the airways during the spontaneous breathing. Lower density of helium compared with air decreases the Reynolds number and it allows improving the flow during the spontaneous breathing. In the cases, where the flow becomes turbulent while the patient inspires air the flow is still laminar when the patient inspires heliox. The use of heliox decreases the work of breathing and improves ventilation. It allows in some cases to prevent the intubation of the patients.

Keywords: Gas flow, heliox, Reynolds number, turbulent flow.

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