A Comparison of Signal Processing Techniques for the Extraction of Breathing Rate from the Photoplethysmogram
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32856
A Comparison of Signal Processing Techniques for the Extraction of Breathing Rate from the Photoplethysmogram

Authors: Susannah G. Fleming Lionel Tarassenko


The photoplethysmogram (PPG) is the pulsatile waveform produced by the pulse oximeter, which is widely used for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation in patients. Various methods for extracting the breathing rate from the PPG waveform have been compared using a consistent data set, and a novel technique using autoregressive modelling is presented. This novel technique is shown to outperform the existing techniques, with a mean error in breathing rate of 0.04 breaths per minute.

Keywords: Autoregressive modelling, breathing rate, photoplethysmogram, pulse oximetry.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1080904

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3267


[1] A. L. Goldberger, L. A. N. Amaral, L. Glass, J. M. Hausdorff, P. C. Ivanov, R. G. Mark, J. E. Mietus, G. B. Moody, C.-K. Peng, and H. E. Stanley, "PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a new research resource for complex physiologic signals," Circulation, vol. 101, no. 23, pp. e215-e220, 2000, circulation Electronic Pages: http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/101/23/e215.
[2] L. Nilsson, A. Johansson, and S. Kalman, "Respiration can be monitored by photoplethysmography with high sensitivity and specificity regardless of anaesthesia and ventilatory mode," Acta Anaesthesiol. Scand., vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1157-62, Sep. 2005.
[3] L. Nilsson, T. Goscinski, A. Johansson, L. G. Lindberg, and S. Kalman, "Age and gender do not influence the ability to detect respiration by photoplethysmography," J. Clin. Monit. Comput., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 431-6, Dec. 2006.
[4] K. Nakajima, T. Tamura, and H. Miike, "Monitoring of heart and respiratory rates by photoplethysmography using a digital filtering technique," Med. Eng. Phys., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 365-72, Jul. 1996.
[5] P. Addison and J. Watson, "Secondary wavelet feature decoupling (SWFD) and its use in detecting patient respiration from the photoplethysmogram," in Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Proceedings of the 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE, Sep. 2003, pp. 2602-5.
[6] P. Leonard, T. F. Beattie, P. S. Addison, and J. N. Watson, "Standard pulse oximeters can be used to monitor respiratory rate," Emerg. Med. J., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 524-5, Nov. 2003.
[7] P. S. Addison and J. N. Watson, "Secondary transform decoupling of shifted nonstationary signal modulation components: application to photoplethysmography," Int. J. Wavelets Multiresolut. Inf. Process., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 43-57, Mar. 2004.
[8] P. Leonard, T. Beattie, P. Addison, and J. Watson, "Wavelet analysis of pulse oximeter waveform permits identification of unwell children," Emerg. Med. J., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 59-60, Jan. 2004.
[9] P. Leonard, N. R. Grubb, P. S. Addison, D. Clifton, and J. N. Watson, "An algorithm for the detection of individual breaths from the pulse oximeter waveform," J. Clin. Monit. Comput., vol. 18, no. 5-6, pp. 309- 12, Dec. 2004.
[10] P. A. Leonard, J. G. Douglas, N. R. Grubb, D. Clifton, P. S. Addison, and J. N. Watson, "A fully automated algorithm for the determination of respiratory rate from the photoplethysmogram," J. Clin. Monit. Comput., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 33-6, Feb. 2006.
[11] P. A. Leonard, D. Clifton, P. S. Addison, J. N. Watson, and T. Beattie, "An automated algorithm for determining respiratory rate by photoplethysmogram in children," Acta Paediatr., vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 1124-8, Sep. 2006.
[12] D. Clifton, J. G. Douglas, P. S. Addison, and J. N. Watson, "Measurement of respiratory rate from the photoplethysmogram in chest clinic patients," J. Clin. Monit. Comput., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 55-61, Feb. 2007.
[13] J. Pardey, S. Roberts, and L. Tarassenko, "A review of parametric modelling techniques for EEG analysis," Med. Eng. Phys., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 2-11, Jan. 1996.
[14] S. Cazares, M. Moulden, W. G. Redman, and L. Tarassenko, "Tracking poles with an autoregressive model: a confidence index for the analysis of the intrapartum cardiotocogram," Med. Eng. Phys., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 603-14, Nov. 2001.
[15] L. Tarassenko, A. Hann, A. Patterson, E. Braithwaite, K. Davidson, V. Barber, and D. Young, "BiosignTM: multi-parameter monitoring for early warning of patient deterioration," in Proc. 3rd IEE International Seminar on Medical Applications of Signal Processing, 2005, pp. 71-6.