Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: PAPR

24 Impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction Technique on Bit Error Rate in OFDM Based Systems

Authors: Theodore Grosch, Felipe Koji Godinho Hoshino

Abstract:

In wireless communications, 3GPP LTE is one of the solutions to meet the greater transmission data rate demand. One issue inherent to this technology is the PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) modulation. This high PAPR affects the efficiency of power amplifiers. One approach to mitigate this effect is the Crest Factor Reduction (CFR) technique. In this work, we simulate the impact of Hard Limited Clipping Crest Factor Reduction technique on BER (Bit Error Rate) in OFDM based Systems. In general, the results showed that CFR has more effects on higher digital modulation schemes, as expected. More importantly, we show the worst-case degradation due to CFR on QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM signals in a linear system. For example, hard clipping of 9 dB results in a 2 dB increase in signal to noise energy at a 1% BER for 64-QAM modulation.

Keywords: OFDM, bit error rate, crest factor reduction, physical layer simulation

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23 Low Complexity Hybrid Scheme for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Based on SLM and Clipping

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a low complexity hybrid scheme using conventional selective mapping (C-SLM) and clipping algorithms to reduce the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal. In the proposed scheme, the input data sequence (X) is divided into two sub-blocks, then clipping algorithm is applied to the first sub-block, whereas C-SLM algorithm is applied to the second sub-block in order to reduce both computational complexity and PAPR. The resultant time domain OFDM signal is obtained by combining the output of two sub-blocks. The simulation results show that the proposed hybrid scheme provides 0.45 dB PAPR reduction gain at CCDF value of 10-2 and 52% of computational complexity reduction when compared to C-SLM scheme at the expense of slight degradation in bit error rate (BER) performance.

Keywords: OFDM, clipping, PAPR, SLM, CCDF

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22 Food Safety Aspects of Pesticide Residues in Spice Paprika

Authors: Sz. Klátyik, B. Darvas, M. Mörtl, M. Ottucsák, E. Takács, H. Bánáti, L. Simon, G. Gyurcsó, A. Székács

Abstract:

Environmental and health safety of condiments used for spicing food products in food processing or by culinary means receive relatively low attention, even though possible contamination of spices may affect food quality and safety. Contamination surveys mostly focus on microbial contaminants or their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. Chemical contaminants, particularly pesticide residues, however, are clearly substantial factors in the case of given condiments in the Capsicum family including spice paprika and chilli. To assess food safety and support the quality of the Hungaricum product spice paprika, the pesticide residue status of spice paprika and chilli is assessed on the basis of reported pesticide contamination cases and non-compliances in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Union since 1998.

Keywords: pesticide residues, spice paprika, Capsicum, RASFF

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21 Quality Management in Spice Paprika Production as a Synergy of Internal and External Quality Measures

Authors: É. Kónya, E. Szabó, I. Bata-Vidács, T. Deák, M. Ottucsák, N. Adányi, A. Székács

Abstract:

Spice paprika is a major spice commodity in the European Union (EU), produced locally and imported from non-EU countries, reported not only for chemical and microbiological contamination, but also for fraud. The effective interaction between producers’ quality management practices and government and EU activities is described on the example of spice paprika production and control in Hungary, a country of leading spice paprika producer and per capita consumer in Europe. To demonstrate the importance of various contamination factors in the Hungarian production and EU trade of spice paprika, several aspects concerning food safety of this commodity are presented. Alerts in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) of the EU between 2005 and 2013, as well as Hungarian state inspection results on spice paprika in 2004 are discussed, and quality non-compliance claims regarding spice paprika among EU member states are summarized in by means of network analysis. Quality assurance measures established along the spice paprika production technology chain at the leading Hungarian spice paprika manufacturer, Kalocsai Fűszerpaprika Zrt. are surveyed with main critical control points identified. The structure and operation of the Hungarian state food safety inspection system is described. Concerted performance of the latter two quality management systems illustrates the effective interaction between internal (manufacturer) and external (state) quality control measures.

Keywords: Quality Control, HACCP, spice paprika, RASFF, reporting mechanisms, vulnerable points, BRC Global Standard

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20 Combined Effect of Moving and Open Boundary Conditions in the Simulation of Inland Inundation Due to Far Field Tsunami

Authors: M. Ashaque Meah, Md. Fazlul Karim, M. Shah Noor, Nazmun Nahar Papri, M. Khalid Hossen, M. Ismoen

Abstract:

Tsunami and inundation modelling due to far field tsunami propagation in a limited area is a very challenging numerical task because it involves many aspects such as the formation of various types of waves and the irregularities of coastal boundaries. To compute the effect of far field tsunami and extent of inland inundation due to far field tsunami along the coastal belts of west coast of Malaysia and Southern Thailand, a formulated boundary condition and a moving boundary condition are simultaneously used. In this study, a boundary fitted curvilinear grid system is used in order to incorporate the coastal and island boundaries accurately as the boundaries of the model domain are curvilinear in nature and the bending is high. The tsunami response of the event 26 December 2004 along the west open boundary of the model domain is computed to simulate the effect of far field tsunami. Based on the data of the tsunami source at the west open boundary of the model domain, a boundary condition is formulated and applied to simulate the tsunami response along the coastal and island boundaries. During the simulation process, a moving boundary condition is initiated instead of fixed vertical seaside wall. The extent of inland inundation and tsunami propagation pattern are computed. Some comparisons are carried out to test the validation of the simultaneous use of the two boundary conditions. All simulations show excellent agreement with the data of observation.

Keywords: Indonesian tsunami of 2004, open boundary condition, moving boundary condition, boundary-fitted curvilinear grids, shallow water equations, tsunami source, far field tsunami

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19 Low Complexity Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing System by Simultaneously Applying Partial Transmit Sequence and Clipping Algorithms

Authors: V. Sudha, D. Sriram Kumar

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in many advanced wireless communication systems due to its high spectral efficiency and robustness to frequency selective fading channels. However, the major concern with OFDM system is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal. Some of the popular techniques used for PAPR reduction in OFDM system are conventional partial transmit sequences (CPTS) and clipping. In this paper, a parallel combination/hybrid scheme of PAPR reduction using clipping and CPTS algorithms is proposed. The proposed method intelligently applies both the algorithms in order to reduce both PAPR as well as computational complexity. The proposed scheme slightly degrades bit error rate (BER) performance due to clipping operation and it can be reduced by selecting an appropriate value of the clipping ratio (CR). The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves significant PAPR reduction with much reduced computational complexity.

Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, CCDF, PTS

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18 Effect of Iterative Algorithm on the Performance of MC-CDMA System with Nonlinear Models of HPA

Authors: R. Blicha

Abstract:

High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal is a serious problem in multicarrier systems (MC), such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), or in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) systems, due to large number of subcarriers. This effect is possible reduce with some PAPR reduction techniques. Spreading sequences at the presence of Saleh and Rapp models of high power amplifier (HPA) have big influence on the behavior of system. In this paper we investigate the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of MC-CDMA systems. Basically we can see from simulations that the MC-CDMA system with Iterative algorithm can be providing significantly better results than the MC-CDMA system. The results of our analyses are verified via simulation.

Keywords: BER, iterative algorithm, MC-CDMA, PAPR, Saleh, Rapp, Spreading Sequences

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17 Channel Sounding and PAPR Reduction in OFDM for WiMAX Using Software Defined Radio

Authors: B. Siva Kumar Reddy, B. Lakshmi

Abstract:

This paper addresses the reduction of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) for the OFDM in Mobile-WiMAX physical layer (PHY) standard. In the process, the best achievable PAPR of 0 dB is found for the OFDM spectrum using phase modulation technique which avoids the nonlinear distortion. The performance of the WiMAX PHY standard is handled by the software defined radio (SDR) prototype in which GNU Radio and USRP N210 employed as software and hardware platforms respectively. It is also found that BER performance is shown for different coding and different modulation schemes. To empathize wireless propagation in specific environments, a sliding correlator wireless channel sounding system is designed by using SDR testbed.

Keywords: BER, GNU Radio, OFDM/OFDMA, USRP N210, Channel sounding

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16 PAPR Reduction of FBMC Using Sliding Window Tone Reservation Active Constellation Extension Technique

Authors: V. Sandeep Kumar, S. Anuradha

Abstract:

The high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAR) in Filter Bank Multicarrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (FBMC-OQAM) can significantly reduce power efficiency and performance. In this paper, we address the problem of PAPR reduction for FBMC-OQAM systems using Tone Reservation (TR) technique. Due to the overlapping structure of FBMCOQAM signals, directly applying TR schemes of OFDM systems to FBMC-OQAM systems is not effective. We improve the tone reservation (TR) technique by employing sliding window with Active Constellation Extension for the PAPR reduction of FBMC-OQAM signals, called sliding window tone reservation Active Constellation Extension (SW-TRACE) technique. The proposed SW-TRACE technique uses the peak reduction tones (PRTs) of several consecutive data blocks to cancel the peaks of the FBMC-OQAM signal inside a window, with dynamically extending outer constellation points in active(data-carrying) channels, within margin-preserving constraints, in order to minimize the peak magnitude. Analysis and simulation results compared to the existing Tone Reservation (TR) technique for FBMC/OQAM system. The proposed method SW-TRACE has better PAPR performance and lower computational complexity.

Keywords: FBMC-OQAM, peak-to-average power ratio, tone reservation Active Constellation Extension, sliding window

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15 Performance Analysis of Wavelet Based Multiuser MIMO OFDM

Authors: Md. Mahmudul Hasan

Abstract:

Wavelet analysis has some strong advantages over Fourier analysis, as it allows a time-frequency domain analysis, allowing optimal resolution and flexibility. As a result, they have been satisfactorily applied in almost all the fields of communication systems including OFDM which is a strong candidate for next generation of wireless technology. In this paper, the performances of wavelet based Multiuser Multiple Input and Multiple Output Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (MU-MIMO OFDM) systems are analyzed in terms of BER. It has been shown that the wavelet based systems outperform the classical FFT based systems. This analysis also unfolds an interesting result, where wavelet based OFDM system will have a constant error performance using Regularized Channel Inversion (RCI) beamforming for any number of users, and outperforms in all possible scenario in a multiuser environment. An extensive computer simulations show that a PAPR reduction of up to 6.8dB can be obtained with M=64.

Keywords: Wavelet Based OFDM, Optimal Beam-forming, Multiuser MIMO OFDM, Signal to Leakage Ratio

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14 PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems Using Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix

Authors: Md. Mahmudul Hasan

Abstract:

OFDM systems are known to have a high PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio) compared with single-carrier systems. In fact, the high PAPR is one of the most detrimental aspects in the OFDM system, as it can cause power degradation (Inband distortion) and spectral spreading (Out-of-band radiation). In this paper, from the foundation of the PAPR analysis an effective method of PAPR reduction has been proposed based on Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix (OEM) transform. Extensive computer simulations show that a PAPR reduction of up to 4.4 dB can be obtained without introducing in-band distortion or out-of-band radiation in the system.

Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), Orthogonal Eigenvector Matrix (OEM)

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13 M-ary Chaotic Sequence Based SLM-OFDM System for PAPR Reduction without Side-Information

Authors: A.Goel, M. Agrawal, P. Gupta Poddar

Abstract:

Selected Mapping (SLM) is a PAPR reduction technique, which converts the OFDM signal into several independent signals by multiplication with the phase sequence set and transmits one of the signals with lowest PAPR. But it requires the index of the selected signal i.e. side information (SI) to be transmitted with each OFDM symbol. The PAPR reduction capability of the SLM scheme depends on the selection of phase sequence set. In this paper, we have proposed a new phase sequence set generation scheme based on M-ary chaotic sequence and a mapping scheme to map quaternary data to concentric circle constellation (CCC) is used. It is shown that this method does not require SI and provides better SER performance with good PAPR reduction capability as compared to existing SLMOFDM methods.

Keywords: peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Selected mapping (SLM), Side information (SI)

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12 SLM Using Riemann Sequence Combined with DCT Transform for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Communication Systems

Authors: Pepin Magnangana Zoko Goyoro, Ibrahim James Moumouni, Sroy Abouty

Abstract:

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is an efficient method of data transmission for high speed communication systems. However, the main drawback of OFDM systems is that, it suffers from the problem of high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) which causes inefficient use of the High Power Amplifier and could limit transmission efficiency. OFDM consist of large number of independent subcarriers, as a result of which the amplitude of such a signal can have high peak values. In this paper, we propose an effective reduction scheme that combines DCT and SLM techniques. The scheme is composed of the DCT followed by the SLM using the Riemann matrix to obtain phase sequences for the SLM technique. The simulation results show PAPR can be greatly reduced by applying the proposed scheme. In comparison with OFDM, while OFDM had high values of PAPR –about 10.4dB our proposed method achieved about 4.7dB reduction of the PAPR with low complexities computation. This approach also avoids randomness in phase sequence selection, which makes it simpler to decode at the receiver. As an added benefit, the matrices can be generated at the receiver end to obtain the data signal and hence it is not required to transmit side information (SI).

Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, SLM, DCT transform, Riemann matrix

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11 Adaptive Square-Rooting Companding Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

Authors: Wisam F. Al-Azzo, Borhanuddin Mohd. Ali

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. It also introduces a new PAPR reduction technique based on adaptive square-rooting (SQRT) companding process. The SQRT process of the proposed technique changes the statistical characteristics of the OFDM output signals from Rayleigh distribution to Gaussian-like distribution. This change in statistical distribution results changes of both the peak and average power values of OFDM signals, and consequently reduces significantly the PAPR. For the 64QAM OFDM system using 512 subcarriers, up to 6 dB reduction in PAPR was achieved by square-rooting technique with fixed degradation in bit error rate (BER) equal to 3 dB. However, the PAPR is reduced at the expense of only -15 dB out-ofband spectral shoulder re-growth below the in-band signal level. The proposed adaptive SQRT technique is superior in terms of BER performance than the original, non-adaptive, square-rooting technique when the required reduction in PAPR is no more than 5 dB. Also, it provides fixed amount of PAPR reduction in which it is not available in the original SQRT technique.

Keywords: OFDM, complementary cumulative distribution function(CCDF), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), adaptivesquare-rooting PAPR reduction technique

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10 Power Efficient OFDM Signals with Reduced Symbol's Aperiodic Autocorrelation

Authors: Ibrahim M. Hussain

Abstract:

Three new algorithms based on minimization of autocorrelation of transmitted symbols and the SLM approach which are computationally less demanding have been proposed. In the first algorithm, autocorrelation of complex data sequence is minimized to a value of 1 that results in reduction of PAPR. Second algorithm generates multiple random sequences from the sequence generated in the first algorithm with same value of autocorrelation i.e. 1. Out of these, the sequence with minimum PAPR is transmitted. Third algorithm is an extension of the second algorithm and requires minimum side information to be transmitted. Multiple sequences are generated by modifying a fixed number of complex numbers in an OFDM data sequence using only one factor. The multiple sequences represent the same data sequence and the one giving minimum PAPR is transmitted. Simulation results for a 256 subcarrier OFDM system show that significant reduction in PAPR is achieved using the proposed algorithms.

Keywords: Wireless Communication, OFDM, PAPR, SLM, Aperiodic autocorrelation

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9 Effect of Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction on the Multicarrier Communication System Performance Parameters

Authors: Sanjay Singh, M Sathish Kumar, H. S Mruthyunjaya

Abstract:

Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication system. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. However the price paid for this high spectral efficiency and less intensive equalization is low power efficiency. OFDM signals are very sensitive to nonlinear effects due to the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), which leads to the power inefficiency in the RF section of the transmitter. This paper investigates the effect of PAPR reduction on the performance parameter of multicarrier communication system. Performance parameters considered are power consumption of Power Amplifier (PA) and Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC), power amplifier efficiency, SNR of DAC and BER performance of the system. From our analysis it is found that irrespective of PAPR reduction technique being employed, the power consumption of PA and DAC reduces and power amplifier efficiency increases due to reduction in PAPR. Moreover, it has been shown that for a given BER performance the requirement of Input-Backoff (IBO) reduces with reduction in PAPR.

Keywords: BER, SNR, peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM), Crest Factor (CF), Digital-to-Analog Converter(DAC), Input-Backoff (IBO), PowerAmplifier efficiency

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8 Joint Microstatistic Multiuser Detection and Cancellation of Nonlinear Distortion Effects for the Uplink of MC-CDMA Systems Using Golay Codes

Authors: Peter Drotar, Juraj Gazda, Pavol Galajda, Dusan Kocur

Abstract:

The study in this paper underlines the importance of correct joint selection of the spreading codes for uplink of multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) at the transmitter side and detector at the receiver side in the presence of nonlinear distortion due to high power amplifier (HPA). The bit error rate (BER) of system for different spreading sequences (Walsh code, Gold code, orthogonal Gold code, Golay code and Zadoff-Chu code) and different kinds of receivers (minimum mean-square error receiver (MMSE-MUD) and microstatistic multi-user receiver (MSF-MUD)) is compared by means of simulations for MC-CDMA transmission system. Finally, the results of analysis will show, that the application of MSF-MUD in combination with Golay codes can outperform significantly the other tested spreading codes and receivers for all mostly used models of HPA.

Keywords: HPA, MC-CDMA, PAPR, microstatistic filter, multi-user receivers

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7 A Performance Comparison of Golay and Reed-Muller Coded OFDM Signal for Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction

Authors: Sanjay Singh, M Sathish Kumar, H. S Mruthyunjaya

Abstract:

Multicarrier transmission system such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising technique for high bit rate transmission in wireless communication systems. OFDM is a spectrally efficient modulation technique that can achieve high speed data transmission over multipath fading channels without the need for powerful equalization techniques. A major drawback of OFDM is the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmit signal which can significantly impact the performance of the power amplifier. In this paper we have compared the PAPR reduction performance of Golay and Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. From our simulation it has been found that the PAPR reduction performance of Golay coded OFDM is better than the Reed-Muller coded OFDM signal. Moreover, for the optimum PAPR reduction performance, code configuration for Golay and Reed-Muller codes has been identified.

Keywords: OFDM, PAPR, Perfect Codes, Golay Codes, Reed-Muller Codes

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6 Fast Dummy Sequence Insertion Method for PAPR Reduction in WiMAX Systems

Authors: Peerapong Uthansakul, Sakkarin Chaokuntod, Monthippa Uthansakul

Abstract:

In literatures, many researches proposed various methods to reduce PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio). Among those, DSI (Dummy Sequence Insertion) is one of the most attractive methods for WiMAX systems because it does not require side information transmitted along with user data. However, the conventional DSI methods find dummy sequence by performing an iterative procedure until achieving PAPR under a desired threshold. This causes a significant delay on finding dummy sequence and also effects to the overall performances in WiMAX systems. In this paper, the new method based on DSI is proposed by finding dummy sequence without the need of iterative procedure. The fast DSI method can reduce PAPR without either delays or required side information. The simulation results confirm that the proposed method is able to carry out PAPR performances as similar to the other methods without any delays. In addition, the simulations of WiMAX system with adaptive modulations are also investigated to realize the use of proposed methods on various fading schemes. The results suggest the WiMAX designers to modify a new Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) criteria for adaptation.

Keywords: OFDM, WiMAX, PAPR, Dummy SequenceInsertion method

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5 A Blind SLM Scheme for Reduction of PAPR in OFDM Systems

Authors: K. Kasiri, M. J. Dehghani

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a blind algorithm for peakto- average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM systems, based on selected mapping (SLM) algorithm as a distortionless method. The main drawback of the conventional SLM technique is the need for transmission of several side information bits, for each data block, which results in loss in data rate transmission. In the proposed method some special number of carriers in the OFDM frame is reserved to be rotated with one of the possible phases according to the number of phase sequence blocks in SLM algorithm. Reserving some limited number of carriers wont effect the reduction in PAPR of OFDM signal. Simulation results show using ML criteria at the receiver will lead to the same system-performance as the conventional SLM algorithm, while there is no need to send any side information to the receiver.

Keywords: peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing(OFDM), Selected Mapping(SLM), Blind SLM (BSLM)

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4 The Minimum PAPR Code for OFDM Systems

Authors: Inderjeet Kaur, M. Kulkarni, Daya Gupta, Kamal Thakur, Janki Arora

Abstract:

In this paper, a block code to minimize the peak-toaverage power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals is proposed. It is shown that cyclic shift and codeword inversion cause not change to peak envelope power. The encoding rule for the proposed code comprises of searching for a seed codeword, shifting the register elements, and determining codeword inversion, eliminating the look-up table for one-to-one correspondence between the source and the coded data. Simulation results show that OFDM systems with the proposed code always have the minimum PAPR.

Keywords: Wireless Communications, OFDM, block codes, peak-to averagepower ratio, peak envelope power

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3 Utilizing Dutch Auction in an Agent-based Model E-commerce System

Authors: Costin Badica, Maria Ganzha, Maciej Gawinecki, Pawel Kobzdej, Marcin Paprzycki

Abstract:

Recently, we have presented an initial implementation of a model agent-based e-commerce system, which utilized a simple price negotiation mechanism–English Auction. In this note we discuss how a Dutch Auction involving multiple units of a product can be included in our system. We present UML diagrams of agents involved in price negotiations and briefly discuss rule-based mechanism exemplifying Dutch Auction.

Keywords: E-Commerce, agent system, rule-based price negotiation mechanism, Dutch Auction

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2 PAPR Reduction Method for OFDM Signalby Using Dummy Sub-carriers

Authors: Pisit Boonsrimuang, Arjin Numsomran, Tawil Paungma, Hideo Kobayashi

Abstract:

One of the disadvantages of using OFDM is the larger peak to averaged power ratio (PAPR) in its time domain signal. The larger PAPR signal would course the fatal degradation of bit error rate performance (BER) due to the inter-modulation noise in the nonlinear channel. This paper proposes an improved DSI (Dummy Sequence Insertion) method, which can achieve the better PAPR and BER performances. The feature of proposed method is to optimize the phase of each dummy sub-carrier so as to reduce the PAPR performance by changing all predetermined phase coefficients in the time domain signal, which is calculated for data sub-carriers and dummy sub-carriers separately. To achieve the better PAPR performance, this paper also proposes to employ the time-frequency domain swapping algorithm for fine adjustment of phase coefficient of the dummy subcarriers, which can achieve the less complexity of processing and achieves the better PAPR and BER performances than those for the conventional DSI method. This paper presents various computer simulation results to verify the effectiveness of proposed method as comparing with the conventional methods in the non-linear channel.

Keywords: non-linear, OFDM, PAPR, dummy sub-carriers

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1 Two Approaches to Code Mobility in an Agent-based E-commerce System

Authors: Costin Badica, Maria Ganzha, Marcin Paprzycki

Abstract:

Recently, a model multi-agent e-commerce system based on mobile buyer agents and transfer of strategy modules was proposed. In this paper a different approach to code mobility is introduced, where agent mobility is replaced by local agent creation supplemented by similar code mobility as in the original proposal. UML diagrams of agents involved in the new approach to mobility and the augmented system activity diagram are presented and discussed.

Keywords: E-Commerce, UML formalization, agent system, agent mobility, code mobility

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