Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 192

Search results for: Mahalanobis distance

192 The Survey and the Comparison of Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance Methods in Preparing Landuse Map in the Western Part of Isfahan Province

Authors: Ali Gholami, M.Esfadiari, M.H.Masihabadi

Abstract:

In this research three methods of Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance were analyzed in the Western part of Isfahan province in the Iran country. For this purpose, the IRS satellite images and various land preparation uses in region including rangelands, irrigation farming, dry farming, gardens and urban areas were separated and identified. In these methods, matrix error and Kappa index were calculated and accuracy of each method, based on percentages: 53.13, 56.64 and 48.44, were obtained respectively. Considering the low accuracy of these methods to separate land uses due to spread of the land uses, it-s suggested the visual interpretation of the map, to preparing the land use map in this region. The map prepared by visual interpretation is in high accuracy if it will be accompany with the visit of the region.

Keywords: Aghche Region, land use map, MaximumLikelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance.

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191 Investigating the Performance of Minimax Search and Aggregate Mahalanobis Distance Function in Evolving an Ayo/Awale Player

Authors: Randle O. A., Olugbara, O. O., Lall M.

Abstract:

In this paper we describe a hybrid technique of Minimax search and aggregate Mahalanobis distance function synthesis to evolve Awale game player. The hybrid technique helps to suggest a move in a short amount of time without looking into endgame database. However, the effectiveness of the technique is heavily dependent on the training dataset of the Awale strategies utilized. The evolved player was tested against Awale shareware program and the result is appealing.

Keywords: Minimax Search, Mahalanobis Distance, Strategic Game, Awale

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190 Health Assessment of Electronic Products using Mahalanobis Distance and Projection Pursuit Analysis

Authors: Sachin Kumar, Vasilis Sotiris, Michael Pecht

Abstract:

With increasing complexity in electronic systems there is a need for system level anomaly detection and fault isolation. Anomaly detection based on vector similarity to a training set is used in this paper through two approaches, one the preserves the original information, Mahalanobis Distance (MD), and the other that compresses the data into its principal components, Projection Pursuit Analysis. These methods have been used to detect deviations in system performance from normal operation and for critical parameter isolation in multivariate environments. The study evaluates the detection capability of each approach on a set of test data with known faults against a baseline set of data representative of such “healthy" systems.

Keywords: Mahalanobis distance, Principle components, Projection pursuit, Health assessment, Anomaly.

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189 A Mahalanobis Distance-based Diversification and Nelder-Mead Simplex Intensification Search Scheme for Continuous Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: Sasadhar Bera, Indrajit Mukherjee

Abstract:

Ant colony optimization (ACO) and its variants are applied extensively to resolve various continuous optimization problems. As per the various diversification and intensification schemes of ACO for continuous function optimization, researchers generally consider components of multidimensional state space to generate the new search point(s). However, diversifying to a new search space by updating only components of the multidimensional vector may not ensure that the new point is at a significant distance from the current solution. If a minimum distance is not ensured during diversification, then there is always a possibility that the search will end up with reaching only local optimum. Therefore, to overcome such situations, a Mahalanobis distance-based diversification with Nelder-Mead simplex-based search scheme for each ant is proposed for the ACO strategy. A comparative computational run results, based on nine nonlinear standard test problems, confirms that the performance of ACO is improved significantly with the integration of the proposed schemes in the ACO.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Diversification Scheme, Intensification, Mahalanobis Distance, Nelder-Mead Simplex.

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188 Comparison of Power Generation Status of Photovoltaic Systems under Different Weather Conditions

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Qinqin Cui, Xingwan Ren

Abstract:

Based on multivariate statistical analysis theory, this paper uses the principal component analysis method, Mahalanobis distance analysis method and fitting method to establish the photovoltaic health model to evaluate the health of photovoltaic panels. First of all, according to weather conditions, the photovoltaic panel variable data are classified into five categories: sunny, cloudy, rainy, foggy, overcast. The health of photovoltaic panels in these five types of weather is studied. Secondly, a scatterplot of the relationship between the amount of electricity produced by each kind of weather and other variables was plotted. It was found that the amount of electricity generated by photovoltaic panels has a significant nonlinear relationship with time. The fitting method was used to fit the relationship between the amount of weather generated and the time, and the nonlinear equation was obtained. Then, using the principal component analysis method to analyze the independent variables under five kinds of weather conditions, according to the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, it was found that three types of weather such as overcast, foggy, and sunny meet the conditions for factor analysis, while cloudy and rainy weather do not satisfy the conditions for factor analysis. Therefore, through the principal component analysis method, the main components of overcast weather are temperature, AQI, and pm2.5. The main component of foggy weather is temperature, and the main components of sunny weather are temperature, AQI, and pm2.5. Cloudy and rainy weather require analysis of all of their variables, namely temperature, AQI, pm2.5, solar radiation intensity and time. Finally, taking the variable values in sunny weather as observed values, taking the main components of cloudy, foggy, overcast and rainy weather as sample data, the Mahalanobis distances between observed value and these sample values are obtained. A comparative analysis was carried out to compare the degree of deviation of the Mahalanobis distance to determine the health of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions. It was found that the weather conditions in which the Mahalanobis distance fluctuations ranged from small to large were: foggy, cloudy, overcast and rainy.

Keywords: Fitting, principal component analysis, Mahalanobis distance, SPSS, MATLAB.

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187 On Preprocessing of Speech Signals

Authors: Ayaz Keerio, Bhargav Kumar Mitra, Philip Birch, Rupert Young, Chris Chatwin

Abstract:

Preprocessing of speech signals is considered a crucial step in the development of a robust and efficient speech or speaker recognition system. In this paper, we present some popular statistical outlier-detection based strategies to segregate the silence/unvoiced part of the speech signal from the voiced portion. The proposed methods are based on the utilization of the 3 σ edit rule, and the Hampel Identifier which are compared with the conventional techniques: (i) short-time energy (STE) based methods, and (ii) distribution based methods. The results obtained after applying the proposed strategies on some test voice signals are encouraging.

Keywords: STE based methods, Mahalanobis distance, 3 edit σ rule, Hampel Identifier.

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186 Indoor Localization by Pattern Matching Method Based On Extended Database

Authors: Gyumin Hwang, Jihong Lee

Abstract:

This paper studied the CSS-based indoor localization system which is easy to implement, inexpensive to compose the systems, additionally CSS-based indoor localization system covers larger area than other system. However, this system has problem which is affected by reflected distance data. This problem in localization is caused by the multi-path effect. Error caused by multi-path is difficult to be corrected because the indoor environment cannot be described. In this paper, in order to solve the problem by multi-path, we have supplemented the localization system by using pattern matching method based on extended database. Thereby, this method improves precision of estimated. Also this method is verified by experiments in gymnasium. Database was constructed by 1m intervals, and 16 sample data were collected from random position inside the region of DB points. As a result, this paper shows higher accuracy than existing method through graph and table.

Keywords: Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS), Indoor Localization, Pattern-Matching, Time of Arrival (ToA), Multi-Path, Mahalanobis Distance, Reception Rate, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM), Laser Range Finder (LRF).

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185 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal

Abstract:

Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: Missing values, distance metric, Bhattacharyya distance.

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184 A Distance Function for Data with Missing Values and Its Application

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Ilan Shimshoni

Abstract:

Missing values in data are common in real world applications. Since the performance of many data mining algorithms depend critically on it being given a good metric over the input space, we decided in this paper to define a distance function for unlabeled datasets with missing values. We use the Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions, to define our new distance function. According to this distance, the distance between two points without missing attributes values is simply the Mahalanobis distance. When on the other hand there is a missing value of one of the coordinates, the distance is computed according to the distribution of the missing coordinate. Our distance is general and can be used as part of any algorithm that computes the distance between data points. Because its performance depends strongly on the chosen distance measure, we opted for the k nearest neighbor classifier to evaluate its ability to accurately reflect object similarity. We experimented on standard numerical datasets from the UCI repository from different fields. On these datasets we simulated missing values and compared the performance of the kNN classifier using our distance to other three basic methods. Our  experiments show that kNN using our distance function outperforms the kNN using other methods. Moreover, the runtime performance of our method is only slightly higher than the other methods.

Keywords: Missing values, Distance metric, Bhattacharyya distance.

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183 Interaction at a Distance – An Approach for Redesigning for Distance Education

Authors: Martin Henkel

Abstract:

Different forms of interaction are an integral part of modern courses. Traditional courses held on-campus might focus on teacher-student interaction, or student-student interaction, or both. However when these traditional on-campus courses are to be held as distance courses there is a risk that these well-designed interactions will be difficult or impossible to uphold. For example, studentstudent interaction in traditional project assignments might not work well if the students are scattered across the world. Thus, even a welldesigned traditional on-site course cannot without modification be turned into a distance course. Traditional on-site courses simply have to be redesigned to become true distance courses. This paper describes a structured approach which facilitates the redesign of a traditional course into a distance course. The approach is based on that the desired forms of course flexibility are identified, and thereafter that the course activities are redesigned to facilitate interaction in a distance course. The approach is making use of known patterns of pedagogic interaction and existing guidelines for distance education design. The approach is illustrated with an example course in the field of information systems design.

Keywords: Distance education, interaction in education, course design.

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182 Web Application for Evaluating Tests in Distance Learning Systems

Authors: Bogdan Walek, Vladimir Bradac, Radim Farana

Abstract:

Distance learning systems offer useful methods of learning and usually contain a final course test or another form of test. The paper proposes a web application for evaluating tests using an expert system in distance learning systems. The proposed web application is appropriate for didactic tests or tests with results for subsequent studying follow-up courses. The web application works with test questions and uses an expert system and LFLC tool for test evaluation. After test evaluation, the results are visualized and shown to the student.

Keywords: Distance learning, test, uncertainty, fuzzy, expert system, student.

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181 Design and Development of an MPH Program for Distance Education Delivery

Authors: Steven R. Hawks

Abstract:

The Master-s of Public Health (MPH) degree is growing in popularity among a number of higher education institutions throughout the world as a distance education graduate program. This paper offers an overview of program design and development strategies that promote successful distance delivery of MPH programs. Design and development challenges are discussed in terms of type of distance delivery, accreditation, student demand, faculty development, user needs, course content, and marketing strategies. The ongoing development of a distance education MPH program at Utah State University will be used to highlight and consider various aspects of this important but challenging process.

Keywords: Public health, course content, distance education, higher education, graduate students.

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180 Evaluation of Classifiers Based On I2C Distance for Action Recognition

Authors: Lei Zhang, Tao Wang, Xiantong Zhen

Abstract:

Naive Bayes Nearest Neighbor (NBNN) and its variants, i,e., local NBNN and the NBNN kernels, are local feature-based classifiers that have achieved impressive performance in image classification. By exploiting instance-to-class (I2C) distances (instance means image/video in image/video classification), they avoid quantization errors of local image descriptors in the bag of words (BoW) model. However, the performances of NBNN, local NBNN and the NBNN kernels have not been validated on video analysis. In this paper, we introduce these three classifiers into human action recognition and conduct comprehensive experiments on the benchmark KTH and the realistic HMDB datasets. The results shows that those I2C based classifiers consistently outperform the SVM classifier with the BoW model.

Keywords: Instance-to-class distance, NBNN, Local NBNN, NBNN kernel.

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179 An Edit-Distance Algorithm to Detect Correlated Attacks in Distributed Systems

Authors: Sule Simsek

Abstract:

Intrusion detection systems (IDS)are crucial components of the security mechanisms of today-s computer systems. Existing research on intrusion detection has focused on sequential intrusions. However, intrusions can also be formed by concurrent interactions of multiple processes. Some of the intrusions caused by these interactions cannot be detected using sequential intrusion detection methods. Therefore, there is a need for a mechanism that views the distributed system as a whole. L-BIDS (Lattice-Based Intrusion Detection System) is proposed to address this problem. In the L-BIDS framework, a library of intrusions and distributed traces are represented as lattices. Then these lattices are compared in order to detect intrusions in the distributed traces.

Keywords: Attack graph, distributed, edit-distance, misuse detection.

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178 Counseling For Distance Learners in Malaysia According to Gender

Authors: A.A.Andaleeb, Rozhan.M.Idrus, Issham Ismail

Abstract:

This survey highlights a number of important issues which relate to the needs to counseling for distance learners studying at the School of Distance Education in University science Malaysia (DEUSM) according to their gender. Data were obtained by selfreport questionnaire that had been developed by the researchers in counseling and educational psychology and interviews were take place. 116 voluntary respondents complete the Questionnaire and returned it back during new student-s registration week.64% of the respondents were female and 52% were males that means 55%ofthem were females and 45% were males. The data was analyzed to find out the frequencies of respondents agreements of the items. The average of the female was 18 and the average of the male was 19.6 by using t- test there is no significant values between the genders. The findings show that respondents have needs for counseling. (22) Significant needs for mails (DEUSM) the highest was their families complain about the amount of time they spend at work. (11) Significant needs for females the highest was they convinced themselves that they only need 4 to 5 hours of sleep per night.

Keywords: Counseling, Needs, Distance Education, Malaysia.

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177 Using the OWA Operator in the Minkowski Distance

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

We study different types of aggregation operators such as the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator and the generalized OWA (GOWA) operator. We analyze the use of OWA operators in the Minkowski distance. We will call these new distance aggregation operator the Minkowski ordered weighted averaging distance (MOWAD) operator. We give a general overview of this type of generalization and study some of their main properties. We also analyze a wide range of particular cases found in this generalization such as the ordered weighted averaging distance (OWAD) operator, the Euclidean ordered weighted averaging distance (EOWAD) operator, the normalized Minkowski distance, etc. Finally, we give an illustrative example of the new approach where we can see the different results obtained by using different aggregation operators.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Minkowski distance, OWA operators, Selection of strategies.

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176 Distance Estimation for Radar Systems Using DS-UWB Signals

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a distance estimation scheme for radar systems using direct sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) signals. The proposed distance estimation scheme averages out the noise by accumulating the correlator outputs of the radar, and thus, helps the radar to employ a short-length DS-UWB signal reducing the correlation processing time. Numerical results confirm that the proposed distance estimation scheme provides a better estimation performance and a reduced correlation processing time compared with those of the conventional DS-UWB radars.

Keywords: Radar, DS-UWB, distance estimation, correlation accumulation.

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175 The Effect of Interlamellar Distance in Pearlite on CGI Machining

Authors: Anders Berglund, Cornel Mihai Nicolescu, Henrik Svensson

Abstract:

Swedish truck industry is investigating the possibility for implementing the use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) in their heavy duty diesel engines. Compared to the alloyed gray iron used today, CGI has superior mechanical properties but not as good machinability. Another issue that needs to be addressed when implementing CGI is the inhomogeneous microstructure when the cast component has different section thicknesses, as in cylinder blocks. Thinner sections results in finer pearlite, in the material, with higher strength. Therefore an investigation on its influence on machinability was needed. This paper focuses on the effect that interlamellar distance in pearlite has on CGI machinability and material physical properties. The effect of pearlite content and nodularity is also examined. The results showed that interlamellar distance in pearlite did not have as large effect on the material physical properties or machinability as pearlite content. The paper also shows the difficulties of obtaining a homogeneous microstructure in inhomogeneous workpieces.

Keywords: Compacted graphite iron (CGI), machinability, microstructure, milling, interlamellar distance in pearlite.

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174 Transmitting a Distance Training Model to the Community in the Upper Northeastern Region

Authors: Teerawach Khamkorn, Laongtip Mathurasa, Savittree Rochanasmita Arnold, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

The objective of this research seeks to transmit a distance training model to the community in the upper northeastern region. The group sampling consists of 60 community leaders in the municipality of sub-district Kumphawapi, Kumphawapi Disrict, Udonthani Province. The research tools rely on the following instruments, they are : 1) the achievement test of community leaders- training and 2) the satisfaction questionnaires of community leaders. The statistics used in data analysis takes the statistical mean, percentage, standard deviation, and statistical T-test. The resulted findings reveal : 1) the efficiency of the distance training developed by the researcher for the community leaders joining in the training received the average score between in-training and post-training period higher than the setup criterion, 2) the two groups of participants in the training achieved higher knowledge than their pre-training state, 3) the comparison of the achievements between the two group presented no different results, 4) the community leaders obtained the high-to-highest satisfaction.

Keywords: Distance Training, Management, Technology, Transmitting.

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173 Comparative Evaluation of Adaptive and Conventional Distance Relay for Parallel Transmission Line with Mutual Coupling

Authors: S.G. Srivani, Chandrasekhar Reddy Atla, K.P.Vittal

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of adaptive distance relay for protection of parallel transmission line with mutual coupling. The proposed adaptive relay, automatically adjusts its operation based on the acquisition of the data from distance relay of adjacent line and status of adjacent line from line circuit breaker IED (Intelligent Electronic Device). The zero sequence current of the adjacent parallel transmission line is used to compute zero sequence current ratio and the mutual coupling effect is fully compensated. The relay adapts to changing circumstances, like failure in communication from other relays and non - availability of adjacent transmission line. The performance of the proposed adaptive relay is tested using steady state and dynamic test procedures. The fault transients are obtained by simulating a realistic parallel transmission line system with mutual coupling effect in PSCAD. The evaluation test results show the efficacy of adaptive distance relay over the conventional distance relay.

Keywords: Adaptive relaying, distance measurement, mutualcoupling, quadrilateral trip characteristic, zones of protection.

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172 The Traits That Facilitate Successful Student Performance in Distance Education: The Case of the Distance Education Unit at European University Cyprus

Authors: D. Vlachopoulos, G. Tsokkas

Abstract:

Although it is not intended to identify distance education students as a homogeneous group, recent research has demonstrated that there are some demographic and personality common traits among most of them that provide the basis for the description of a typical distance learning student. The purpose of this paper is to describe these common traits and to facilitate their learning journey within a distance education program. The described research is an initiative of the Distance Education Unit at the European University Cyprus (Laureate International Universities) in the context of its action for the improvement of the students’ performance.

Keywords: Distance education students, successful student performance, European University Cyprus, common traits.

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171 Satisfaction of Distance Education University Students with the Use of Audio Media as a Medium of Instruction: The Case of Mountains of the Moon University in Uganda

Authors: Mark Kaahwa, Chang Zhu, Moses Muhumuza

Abstract:

This study investigates the satisfaction of distance education university students (DEUS) with the use of audio media as a medium of instruction. Studying students’ satisfaction is vital because it shows whether learners are comfortable with a certain instructional strategy or not. Although previous studies have investigated the use of audio media, the satisfaction of students with an instructional strategy that combines radio teaching and podcasts as an independent teaching strategy has not been fully investigated. In this study, all lectures were delivered through the radio and students had no direct contact with their instructors. No modules or any other material in form of text were given to the students. They instead, revised the taught content by listening to podcasts saved on their mobile electronic gadgets. Prior to data collection, DEUS received orientation through workshops on how to use audio media in distance education. To achieve objectives of the study, a survey, naturalistic observations and face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from a sample of 211 undergraduate and graduate students. Findings indicate that there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction between male and female students. The results from post hoc analysis show that there is a statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction regarding the use of audio media between diploma and graduate students. Diploma students are more satisfied compared to their graduate counterparts. T-test results reveal that there was no statistically significant difference in the general satisfaction with audio media between rural and urban-based students. And ANOVA results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction with the use of audio media across age groups. Furthermore, results from observations and interviews reveal that DEUS found learning using audio media a pleasurable medium of instruction. This is an indication that audio media can be considered as an instructional strategy on its own merit.

Keywords: Audio media, distance education, distance education university students, medium of instruction, satisfaction.

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170 Blood Lactate, Heart Rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in Collegiate Sprint, Middle Distance, and Long Distance Runners after 400 and 1600 Meter Runs

Authors: Taylor J. Canfield, Kathe A. Gabel

Abstract:

The aim of this studywas toinvestigate the effect ofrunning classification (sprint, middle, and long distance)and two distances on blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) Borg scale ratings in collegiate athletes. On different days, runners (n = 15) ran 400m and 1600m at a five min mile pace, followed by a two min 6mph jog, and a two min 3mph walk as part of the cool down. BLa, HR, and RPE were taken at baseline, post-run, plus 2 and 4 min recovery times. The middle and long distance runners exhibited lower BLa concentrations than sprint runners after two min of recovery post 400 m runs, immediately after, and two and four min recovery periods post 1600 m runs. When compared to sprint runners, distance runners may have exhibited the ability to clear BLa more quickly, particularly after running 1600 m.

Keywords: Blood lactate, HR, RPE, running.

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169 Constructing a Suitable Model of Distance Training for Community Leader in the Upper Northeastern Region

Authors: Teerawach Khamkorn, Laongtip Mathurasa, Savittree Rochanasmita Arnold, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

The objective of this research intends to create a suitable model of distance training for community leaders in the upper northeastern region of Thailand. The implementation of the research process is divided into four steps: The first step is to analyze relevant documents. The second step deals with an interview in depth with experts. The third step is concerned with constructing a model. And the fourth step takes aim at model validation by expert assessments. The findings reveal the two important components for constructing an appropriate model of distance training for community leaders in the upper northeastern region. The first component consists of the context of technology management, e.g., principle, policy and goals. The second component can be viewed in two ways. Firstly, there are elements comprising input, process, output and feedback. Secondly, the sub-components include steps and process in training. The result of expert assessments informs that the researcher-s constructed model is consistent and suitable and overall the most appropriate.

Keywords: Constructing, Distance Training, Management, Technology.

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168 Edit Distance Algorithm to Increase Storage Efficiency of Javanese Corpora

Authors: Aji P. Wibawa, Andrew Nafalski, Neil Murray, Wayan F. Mahmudy

Abstract:

Since the one-to-one word translator does not have the facility to translate pragmatic aspects of Javanese, the parallel text alignment model described uses a phrase pair combination. The algorithm aligns the parallel text automatically from the beginning to the end of each sentence. Even though the results of the phrase pair combination outperform the previous algorithm, it is still inefficient. Recording all possible combinations consume more space in the database and time consuming. The original algorithm is modified by applying the edit distance coefficient to improve the data-storage efficiency. As a result, the data-storage consumption is 90% reduced as well as its learning period (42s).

Keywords: edit distance coefficient, Javanese, parallel text alignment, phrase pair combination

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167 The Distance between a Point and a Bezier Curveon a Bezier Surface

Authors: Wen-Haw Chen, Sheng-Gwo Chen

Abstract:

The distance between two objects is an important problem in CAGD, CAD and CG etc. It will be presented in this paper that a simple and quick method to estimate the distance between a point and a Bezier curve on a Bezier surface.

Keywords: Geodesic-like curve, distance, projection, Bezier.

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166 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

Authors: Wan Chian Li, Justie Su-Tzu Juan, Yi-Chun Wang, Shu-Chuan Chen

Abstract:

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

Keywords: evolutionary tree, mixture tree, mutated site, distance.

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165 A Study on Inference from Distance Variables in Hedonic Regression

Authors: Yan Wang, Yasushi Asami, Yukio Sadahiro

Abstract:

In urban area, several landmarks may affect housing price and rents, and hedonic analysis should employ distance variables corresponding to each landmarks. Unfortunately, the effects of distances to landmarks on housing prices are generally not consistent with the true price. These distance variables may cause magnitude error in regression, pointing a problem of spatial multicollinearity. In this paper, we provided some approaches for getting the samples with less bias and method on locating the specific sampling area to avoid the multicollinerity problem in two specific landmarks case.

Keywords: Landmarks, hedonic regression, distance variables, collinearity, multicollinerity.

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164 Between Policy Options and Technology Applications: Measuring the Sustainable Impacts on Distance Learning

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran

Abstract:

This paper examines the interplay of policy options and cost-effective technology in providing sustainable distance education. A case study has been conducted among the learners and teachers. The emergence of learning technologies through CD, internet, and mobile is increasingly adopted by distance institutes for quick delivery and cost-effective factors. Their sustainability is conditioned by the structure of learners and well as the teaching community. The structure of learners in terms of rural and urban background revealed similarity in adoption and utilization of mobile learning. In other words, the technology transcended the rural-urban dichotomy. The teaching community was divided into two groups on policy issues. This study revealed both cost-effective as well as sustainability impacts on different learners groups divided by rural and urban location.

Keywords: Distance Education, Mobile Learning, Policy, Technology

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163 Analyzing Methods of the Relation between Concepts based on a Concept Hierarchy

Authors: Ke Lu, Tetsuya Furukawa

Abstract:

Data objects are usually organized hierarchically, and the relations between them are analyzed based on a corresponding concept hierarchy. The relation between data objects, for example how similar they are, are usually analyzed based on the conceptual distance in the hierarchy. If a node is an ancestor of another node, it is enough to analyze how close they are by calculating the distance vertically. However, if there is not such relation between two nodes, the vertical distance cannot express their relation explicitly. This paper tries to fill this gap by improving the analysis method for data objects based on hierarchy. The contributions of this paper include: (1) proposing an improved method to evaluate the vertical distance between concepts; (2) defining the concept horizontal distance and a method to calculate the horizontal distance; and (3) discussing the methods to confine a range by the horizontal distance and the vertical distance, and evaluating the relation between concepts.

Keywords: Concept Hierarchy, Horizontal Distance, Relation Analysis, Vertical Distance

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