Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 401

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Psychological and Behavioral Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

401 Association between ADHD Medication, Cannabis, and Nicotine Use, Mental Distress, and Other Psychoactive Substances

Authors: Nicole Scott, Emily Dwyer, Cara Patrissy, Samantha Bonventre, Lina Begdache

Abstract:

Across North America, the use and abuse of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication, cannabis, nicotine, and other psychoactive substances across college campuses have become an increasingly prevalent problem. Students frequently use these substances to aid their studying or deal with their mental health issues. However, it is still unknown what psychoactive substances are likely to be abused when college students illicitly use ADHD medication. In addition, it is not clear which psychoactive substance is associated with mental distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to fill these gaps by assessing the use of different psychoactive substances when illicit ADHD medication is used; and how this association relates to mental stress. A total of 702 undergraduate students from different college campuses in the US completed an anonymous survey distributed online. Data were self-reported on demographics, the use of ADHD medications, cannabis, nicotine, other psychoactive drugs, and mental distress, and feelings and opinions on the use of illicit study drugs were all included in the survey. Mental distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress 6 Scale. Data were analyzed in SPSS, Version 25.0, using Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient. Our results show use of ADHD medication, cannabis use (non-frequent and very frequent), and nicotine use (non-frequent and very frequent); there were both statistically significant positive and negative correlations to specific psychoactive substances and their corresponding frequencies. Along the same lines, ADHD medication, cannabis use (non-frequent and very frequent), and nicotine use (non-frequent and very frequent) had statistically significant positive and negative correlations to specific mental distress experiences. As these findings are combined, a vicious loop can initiate a cycle where individuals who abuse psychoactive substances may or may not be inclined to use other psychoactive substances. This may later inhibit brain functions in those main areas of the brain stem, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex where this vicious cycle may or may not impact their mental distress. Addressing the impact of study drug abuse and its potential to be associated with further substance abuse may provide an educational framework and support proactive approaches to promote awareness among college students.

Keywords: Stimulant, depressant, nicotine, ADHD medication, psychoactive substances, mental health, illicit, ecstasy, adrenochrome.

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400 Addressing Global Trauma: Somatic Interventions in PTSD Treatment and Clinician Burnout Prevention

Authors: Nina Kaufmans

Abstract:

Traditional treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that rely primarily on oral narratives are partially insufficient to prevent PTSD symptoms from recurrence. As a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic, war conflicts, and economic crises, a rising proportion of users of mental health services express somatically based distress in addition to their existing mental health symptoms. Furthermore, the rapid increase in demand for mental health services has resulted in substantial burnout among mental health professionals, which may further impact the quality of services provided and the sustainability of professional life-work balance. This article examines the implications of current developments and challenges in mental health services demand and subsequent responses, as well as the effects of those responses on mental health professionals. The article examines the neurobiological mechanisms underlying traumatic experiences, then discusses the premises for "bottom-up," or somatically oriented, psychotherapy approaches, and concludes with suggestions for clinical skills and interventions to be used by practitioners who work with clients diagnosed with PTSD. In addition, we examine how somatically based psychotherapy interventions performed in sessions might reduce clinician burnout and improve their well-being. We examine how incorporating somatically based therapies into counseling will boost the efficacy of mental health recovery and maintain remission while providing mental health practitioners with chances for self-care.

Keywords: Somatic psychotherapy interventions, trauma counseling, preventing and treating burnout, adults with PTSD, bottom-up skills, the effectiveness of trauma treatment.

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399 Correlation between Meaning in Life and Academic Performance in Japanese College Students

Authors: Jihyun Park

Abstract:

This research suggests that meaning in life or Ikigai can be associated with better academic performances in Japanese college students. To measure meaning in life in Japanese college students, the Ikigai questionnaire and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) are both used, and the survey was collected using Microsoft Teams Forms for a total of 80 Japanese college students. The data revealed that students who have a higher than a 3.0 grade point average (GPA) showed the highest score in both the Ikigai and MLQ. The participants with between a 2.0 and a 3.0 GPA reported lower scores in both MLQ and Ikigai than the previous participants. The group of students who have lower than a 2.0 GPA had the lowest scores for MLQ and Ikigai. This result can indicate that implementing meaning in life or Ikigai to early college students can bring about better academic performance, which also can improve students’ college life better as well.

Keywords: College students’ academic performance, Ikigai, meaning in life, purpose of life.

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398 Improving Decision Support for Organ Transplant

Authors: I. McCulloh, A. Placona, D. Stewart, D. Gause, K. Kiernan, M. Stuart, C. Zinner, L. Cartwright

Abstract:

We find in our data that an alarming number of viable deceased donor kidneys are discarded every year in the US, while waitlisted candidates are dying every day. We observe as many as 85% of transplanted organs are refused at least once for a patient that scored higher on the match list. There are hundreds of clinical variables involved in making a clinical transplant decision and there is rarely an ideal match. Decision makers exhibit an optimism bias where they may refuse an organ offer assuming a better match is imminent. We propose a semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard model, augmented by an accelerated failure time model based on patient-specific suitable organ supply and demand to estimate a time-to-next-offer. Performance is assessed with Cox-Snell residuals and decision curve analysis, demonstrating improved decision support for up to a 5-year outlook. Providing clinical decision-makers with quantitative evidence of likely patient outcomes (e.g., time to next offer and the mortality associated with waiting) may improve decisions and reduce optimism bias, thus reducing discarded organs and matching more patients on the waitlist.

Keywords: Decision science, KDPI, optimism bias, organ transplant.

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397 Love and Money: Societal Attitudes Toward Income Disparities in Age-Gap Relationships

Authors: Victoria S. Scarratt

Abstract:

Couples involved in age-gap relationships generally evoke negative stereotypes, opinions, and social disapproval. This research seeks to examine whether financial disparities in age-discrepant relationships cause negative attitudes in study participants. It was hypothesized that an age-gap couple (29-year difference) would receive a greater degree of societal disapproval when the couple also had a large salary-gap compared to a similarly aged couple (1-year difference) with a salary-gap. Additionally, there would be no significant difference between age-gap couples without a salary-gap compared to a similarly aged couple without a salary gap. To test the hypothesis, participants were given one of four scenarios regarding a couple in a romantic relationship. Then they were asked to respond to nine Likert scale questions. Results indicated that participants perceived age-gap relationships with a salary disparity to be less equitable in regard to a power imbalance between the couple and the financial and general gain that one partner will receive. A significant interaction was also detected for evoking feelings of disgust in participants, and how morally correct it is for the couple to continue their relationship.

Keywords: Age-gap relationships, financial discrepancies, love, relationships, societal stigmas.

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396 Effects of Gratitude Practice on Relationship Satisfaction and the Role of Perceived Superiority

Authors: Anomi Bearden, Brooke Goodyear, Alicia Khan

Abstract:

This repeated-measures experiment explored the effects of six weeks of gratitude practice on college students (N = 67) on relationship satisfaction and perceived superiority. Replicating previous research on gratitude practice, it was hypothesized that after consistent gratitude practice, participants in the experimental group (n = 32) would feel increased levels of relationship satisfaction compared to the control group (n = 35). Of particular interest was whether the level of perceived superiority would moderate the effect of gratitude practice on relationship satisfaction. The gratitude group evidenced significantly higher appreciation and marginally higher relationship satisfaction at post-test than the control group (both groups being equal at pre-test). Significant enhancements in gratitude, satisfaction, and feeling both appreciative and appreciated were found in the gratitude group, as well as significant enhancements in gratitude, satisfaction, and feeling appreciated in the control group. Appreciation for one’s partner was the only measure that improved in the gratitude group and not the control group from pre-test to post-test. Perceived superiority did not change significantly from pre-test to post-test in either group, supporting the prevalence and stability of this bias within people’s overall perceptions of their relationships.

Keywords: Gratitude, relationship satisfaction, perceived superiority, partner appreciation.

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395 Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Optimizing Self-Esteem and Well-Being: The Key Role of Contingent Self-Esteem in Predicting Well-Being Compared to Explicit Self-Esteem

Authors: Sergio Luna, Raquel Rodríguez-Carvajal

Abstract:

This research examines the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in optimizing psychological well-being, with a particular focus on self-esteem, due to the rapid growth and consolidation of social network use and the increased frequency and intensity of upward comparisons of the self. The study aims to assess the potential of a mindfulness-based intervention to improve self-esteem and, in particular, to contribute to its greater stability by reducing levels of contingent self-esteem. Results show that an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction program was effective in increasing participants' (n = 206) trait mindfulness, explicit self-esteem, and well-being, while decreasing contingent self-esteem. Furthermore, the study found that improvements in both explicit and contingent self-esteem were significantly correlated with increases in psychological well-being, but that contingent self-esteem had a stronger effect on well-being than explicit self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering additional dimensions of self-esteem beyond levels and suggest that mindfulness-based interventions may be a valuable tool for promoting a healthier form of self-esteem that contributes to personal well-being.

Keywords: Mindfulness-based stress reduction, contingent self-esteem, explicit self-esteem, well-being.

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394 Helping Others and Youth Mental Health: A Qualitative Study Exploring Perspectives of Youth Engaging in Prosocial Activities

Authors: Saima Hirani, Emmanuela Ojukwu, Nilanga Aki Bandara

Abstract:

Mental health challenges that begin during the youth age period may continue across the entire life course. One way to support youth mental health is to encourage youth engagement in prosocial activities. This study aimed to explore youth’s perceptions about helping others and mental wellbeing, barriers, and enablers for youth to initiate and continue prosocial activities, and strategies for developing the attribute of helping others in youth. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured, virtual interviews with 18 young individuals (aged 16-24 years) living in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Youth perceived helping others as a source of feeling peace and calm, finding meaning in life, experiencing social connection and promoting self-care, and relieving stress. Participants reported opportunities to learn new skills, the role of religion, social connections, previous positive experiences, and role modeling as enablers for their prosocial behavior. Heavy time commitment, negative behavior from others, self-doubt, and late exposure to such activities were considered barriers by youth when participating in prosocial activities. Youth also brought forward key recommendations for engaging youth in helping others. The findings of this study support the notion that youth have positive experiences when engaging in helping others and that involving young people in prosocial activities could be used as a protective intervention for promoting youth mental health and overall wellbeing.

Keywords: Helping others, prosocial behavior, youth, mental wellbeing.

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393 Suicide Wrongful Death: Standard of Care Problems Involving the Inaccurate Discernment of Lethal Risk When Focusing on the Elicitation of Suicide Ideation

Authors: Bill D. Geis, Frederick Newman

Abstract:

Suicide and wrongful death forensic cases are the fastest rising tort in mental health law. Most suicide-related personal injury claims fall into the legal category of “wrongful death.” Though mental health experts may be called on to address a range of forensic questions in wrongful death cases, the central consultation that most experts provide is about the negligence element—specifically, the issue of whether the clinician met the clinical standard of care in assessing, treating, and managing the deceased person’s mental health care. Standards of care, varying from US state to state, are broad and address what a reasonable clinician might do in a similar circumstance. This fact leaves the issue of the suicide standard of care, in each case, up to forensic experts to put forth a reasoned estimate of what the standard of care should have been in the specific case under litigation. Because the general state guidelines for standard of care are broad, forensic experts are readily retained to provide scientific and clinical opinions about whether or not a clinician met the standard of care in their suicide assessment, treatment, and management of the case. In the past and in much of current practice, the assessment of suicide has centered on the elicitation of verbalized suicide ideation. But suicide ideation, in the matter of suicide risk determination, may be a necessary but insufficient target of lethal suicide risk assessment. Assessment of near-term suicide risk—assessment that goes beyond verbalized suicide ideation and relates to acute crisis variables—is likely needed. Specifically, such other or additional suicide risk variable assessment may be required in the context of lethal suicide risk situations, as opposed to the discernment of general, nonlethal suicide behavior as a standard of practice (whether a patient is having suicidal thoughts or exhibiting an ambivalent suicide attempt potential). In the current study, verbalized suicide ideation information was unhelpful in the assessment of lethal risk. The Lethal Suicide Risk Assessment, Acute Model, and other dynamic, near-term risk models (such as the Acute Suicide Affective Disorder Model and the Suicide Crisis Syndrome Model)—going beyond elicited suicide ideation—need to be incorporated into current clinical suicide assessment training and become the legal standard of care for expected clinical behavior. Without this expanded clinical assessment perspective, the standard of care for suicide assessment is out of sync with current knowledge—an emerging dilemma for the forensic evaluation of suicide wrongful death cases.

Keywords: Forensic evaluation, standard of care, suicide, suicide assessment, wrongful death.

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392 Experiences and Impact of Attachment among Women with Insecure Attachment in Cohabitation: Implications for Therapeutic Practice

Authors: Ka Yan Chan

Abstract:

Cohabitation among couples has been increasingly common in recent decades. Nonetheless, insufficient attention was given to the impact of attachment on cohabitation. This study discussed the experience of cohabitation among women with insecure attachments by collecting qualitative data through semi-structured interviews. Through thematic analysis, the study explored the characteristics of the women, the formation of cohabitation, struggles, coping mechanisms, and the impacts of cohabitation on the women. Moreover, the influences of the family-of-origin on cohabitation and the needs of the women were explored. The findings indicated that insecure attachment and the family-of-origin had significant effects on cohabitation and the interaction among the cohabitating couples. Women with insecure attachments were more likely to enter cohabitation unconsciously and without discussing what cohabitation means for their relationship with their partners. The findings also suggested that committing to marriage was not the only method for the women to feel secure in the relationship. Instead, long-lasting love and care, as well as reliability from their partners, could satisfy their emotional needs. More importantly, the findings revealed that repairing attachment problems and dealing with challenges in life stage transition is associated with positive impacts on the cohabitation experience. Additionally, to meet the needs of diverse family structures and to provide all-rounded support for enhancing the wellbeing of individuals, cohabitants, and couples, a comprehensive intervention model of relationship enrichment was discussed. 

Keywords: cohabitation, family-of-origin, insecure attachment, relationship enrichment

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391 Cultural Practices as a Coping Measure for Women who Terminated a Pregnancy in Adolescence: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Botshelo R. Sebola

Abstract:

Unintended pregnancy often results in pregnancy termination. Most countries have legalised the termination of a pregnancy and pregnant adolescents can visit designated clinics without their parents’ consent. In most African and Asian countries, certain cultural practices are performed following any form of childbirth, including abortion, and such practices are ingrained in societies. The aim of this paper was to understand how women who terminated a pregnancy during adolescence coped by embracing cultural practices. A descriptive multiple case study design was adopted for the study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews and reflective diaries were used for data collection. Participants were 13 women aged 20 to 35 years who had terminated a pregnancy in adolescence. Three women kept their soiled sanitary pads, burned them to ash and waited for the rainy season to scatter the ash in a flowing stream. This ritual was performed to appease the ancestors, ask them for forgiveness and as a send-off for the aborted foetus. Five women secretly consulted Sangoma (traditional healers) to perform certain rituals. Three women isolated themselves to perform herbal cleansings, and the last two chose not to engage in any sexual activity for one year, which led to the loss of their partners. This study offers a unique contribution to understanding the solitary journey of women who terminate a pregnancy. The study challenges healthcare professionals who work in clinics that offer pregnancy termination services to look beyond releasing the foetus to advocating and providing women with the necessary care and support in performing cultural practices.

Keywords: Adolescence, case study, cultural rituals, pregnancy.

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390 Epistemological Functions of Emotions and Their Relevance to the Formation of Citizens and Scientists

Authors: Dení Stincer Gómez, Zuraya Monroy Nasr

Abstract:

Pedagogy of science historically has given priority to teaching strategies that mobilize the cognitive mechanisms leaving out emotional mechanisms. Modern epistemology, cognitive psychology and psychoanalysis begin to argue and prove that emotions are relevant epistemological functions. They are 1) the selection function: that allows the perception and reason choose, to multiple alternative explanation of a particular fact, those are relevant and discard those that are not, 2) heuristic function: that is related to the activation cognitive processes that are effective in the process of knowing; and 3) the so-called content-bearing function: it argues that emotions provide the material reasoning that is subsequently transformed into linguistic propositions. According to these hypotheses, scientific knowledge seems to come from emotions that meet these functions. This paper argues that science education must start from the presence of certain emotions in the learner if we want to form citizens with a scientific or cultural future.

Keywords: Epistemic emotions, science education, formation of citizens and scientists, epistemic functions of emotions.

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389 An Exploration of Cross-Cultural Behaviour: The Characteristics of Chinese Consumers’ Decision Making in Europe

Authors: Yongsheng Guo, Xiaoxian Zhu, Mandella Osei-Assibey Bonsu

Abstract:

This study explores the effects of national culture on consumer behaviour by identifying the characteristics of Chinese consumers’ decision making in Europe. It offers a better understanding of how cultural factors affect consumers’ behaviour, and how consumers make decisions in other nations with different culture. It adopted a grounded theory approach and conducted 24 in-depth interviews. Grounded theory models are developed to link the causal conditions, process, and consequences. Results reveal that some cultural factors including conservatism, emotionality, acquaintance community, long-term orientation and principles affect Chinese consumers when making purchase decisions in Europe. Most Chinese consumers plan and prepare their expenditure and stay in Europe as cultural learners, and purchase durable products or assets as investment, and share their experiences within a community. This study identified potential problems such as political and social environment, complex procedures, and restrictions. This study found that external factors influence internal factors and then internal characters determine consumer behaviour. This study proposes that cultural traits developed in convergence evolution through social selection and Chinese consumers persist most characters but adapt some perceptions and actions overtime in other countries. This study suggests that cultural marketing could be adopted by companies to reflect consumers’ preferences. Agencies, shops, and the authorities could take actions to reduce the complexity and restrictions.

Keywords: National culture, consumer behaviour, cultural marketing, decision making.

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388 Academic Achievement Differences in Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissists and the Mediating Effects of Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Amber L. Dummett, Efstathia Tzemou

Abstract:

Narcissism is a personality trait characterised by selfishness, entitlement, and superiority. Narcissism is split into two subtypes, grandiose narcissism (GN) and vulnerable narcissism (VN). Grandiose narcissists are extraverted and arrogant, while vulnerable narcissists are introverted and insecure. This study investigates the psychological mechanisms that lead to differences in academic achievement (AA) between grandiose and vulnerable narcissists, specifically the mediating effects of self-esteem and self-efficacy. While narcissism is considered to be a negative trait, this study considers if better AA is one of them. Moreover, further research into VN is essential to fully compare and contrast it with GN. We hypothesise that grandiose narcissists achieve higher marks due to having high self-esteem which in turn boosts their sense of self-efficacy. In comparison, we hypothesise that vulnerable narcissists underperform due to having low self-esteem which limits their self-efficacy. Two online surveys were distributed to undergraduate university students. The first was a collection of scales measuring the mentioned dimensions, and the second investigated end of year AA. Sequential mediation analyses were conducted using the gathered data. Our analysis shows that neither self-esteem nor self-efficacy mediate the relationship between GN and AA. GN positively predicts self-esteem but has no relationship with self-efficacy. Self-esteem does not mediate the relationship between VN and AA. VN has a negative indirect effect on AA via self-efficacy, and VN negatively predicts self-esteem. Self-efficacy positively predicts AA. GN does not affect AA through the mediation of self-esteem and then self-efficacy, and neither does VN in this way. Overall, having grandiose or vulnerable narcissistic traits does not affect students’ AA. However, being highly efficacious does lead to academic success, therefore, universities should employ methods to improve the self-efficacy of their students.

Keywords: Academic achievement, grandiose narcissism, self-efficacy, self-esteem, vulnerable narcissism.

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387 Emotional Security in Relationship to Tikrit University Students' Emotional Efficiency

Authors: Ibtisam Mahmoud Mohammed Sultan

Abstract:

The present research aims at identifying the level of both emotional security and emotional competence among Tikrit University students. It also meant to know the statistically significant differences according to variables such as gender variables (m-f) and specialization variables (scientific-humanities). The research also attempts to learn what kind of relationship is there between emotional security and emotional efficiency Tikrit University students have achieved. We constructed emotional security measure which consists of 54 items as well as a measure of emotional competence consisting of 46 items. We extracted full psychometric characteristics of both scales. The research sample consisted of 600 students selected randomly and applying the scales on a basic research sample and processed statistical data using a variety of methods, including statistical measure Pearson correlation coefficient, we found a set of results as follows: Tikrit University students possess a high level of emotional security, males enjoy more emotional security than females, there is no difference between students of scientific and humanitarian specialization in variable emotional security, Tikrit University students enjoy a high level of emotional competence, females outperform males in emotional competence level, the humanitarian specialization students excel in emotional competence more than those specialized in non-humanitarian sciences. Furthermore, the research comes up with a positive correlative relationship between these two variables. Through research results, we developed a set of conclusions, proposals, and recommendations.

Keywords: Emotional security, gender variable, specialization variable, Tikrit University students.

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386 Individuals’ Inner Wellbeing during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Quantitative Comparison of Social Connections and Close Relationships between the UK and India

Authors: Maria Spanoudaki, Pauldy C. J. Otermans, Dev Aditya

Abstract:

Relationships form an integral part of our everyday wellbeing. In this study, the focus is on Inner Wellbeing which can be described as an individuals' thoughts and feelings about what they can do and be. Relationships can come in many forms and can be divided into Social Connections (thoughts and feelings about the social network people can establish and rely on), and Close Relationships (thoughts and feeling about the emotional support people can receive from significant others or their close, intimate circle). The purpose of this study is to compare the Social Connections and Close Relationship dimensions of Inner Wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic between the UK and India. As part of the study, 392 participants in the UK and 205 participants India completed an online questionnaire using the Inner Wellbeing scale. Factor analyses showed that the construct of Inner Wellbeing can be described as one factor for the UK sample whereas it can be described as two factors (one focusing on positive items and one focusing on negative items) for the Indian sample. Results showed that during COVID-19, Social Connections were significantly different in the UK compared to India, whereas there is no significant difference for Close Relationships. The implications on relationships and wellbeing are discussed in detail.

Keywords: Social networks, relationship maintenance, relationship satisfaction, inner wellbeing.

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385 Developing a Practice Guideline for Enhancing Communication in Hearing Families with Deaf Children

Authors: Nomataru P. Gontse, Lavanithum Joseph

Abstract:

Deafness coupled with a lack of support and resources in developing countries poses a serious threat to the well- being of children. The mismatch between the needs of persons with disabilities and the resources available to them is a key factor in service provision in resource constrained contexts. Furthermore, deafness in children is the most common childhood sensory disorder in developing countries, and as such seriously affected with regard to resource constraints. This paper discusses the issues and research protocol for a Ph.D. study that aims to develop a practice guideline that is contextually sensitive and includes an interdisciplinary approach that will improve the outcomes of learners and the relationships in hearing households with deaf learners in rural areas of the Eastern Cape, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. The guideline developed will consider the lived experiences of deaf children and their hearing families on the impact deafness has on their relationships and communication at home. Ethical clearance for the study has been obtained. The methodology is a mixed-methods approach in the form of a survey using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with deaf learners in primary and high school and their hearing parents to get their perspective on the impact deafness has on their relationships and communication at home. The study is conducted using adolescent learners from Grades 7 to 12 (excluding learners younger than 12 years and older than 21 years). An audiologist, teachers, and support staff will also give their views on how the intervention is currently done and possible suggestions on how management can be done differently. Data collection will be conducted in isiXhosa by the researcher, as isiXhosa is dominant in this region. The interviews will be conducted in South African Sign Language by the sign language interpreter for deaf learners and educational professionals. An expected outcome for this study is the development of recommendations and a practice guideline for deaf children diagnosed late from rural or under-resourced environments. To ensure the implementation of the findings, in the end, professionals will be given feedback on the outcomes of the study so that they can identify areas within their practices that require updated knowledge. The developed guideline is expected to have an impact on the Department of Education policies both regionally and nationally, providing recommendations for a strategic management plan and practice guidelines for this vulnerable and marginalized population. The IsiXhosa specific context could be generalized to other similar contexts.

Keywords: Deafness, family-centred approach, early identification, rural communities.

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384 Learning Difficulties of Children with Disabilities

Authors: Chalise Kiran

Abstract:

The learning difficulties of children with disabilities are always a matter of concern when we talk about educational needs and quality education of children with disabilities. This paper is the outcome of the review of the literature focused on the educational needs and learning difficulties of children with disabilities. For the paper, different studies written on children with disabilities and their education were collected through search engines. The literature put together were analyzed from the angle of learning difficulties faced by children with disabilities and the same were used as a precursor to arrive at the findings on the learning of the children. The analysis showed that children with disabilities face learning difficulties. The reasons for these difficulties could be attributed to factors in terms of authority, structure, school environment and behaviors of teachers and parents and the society as a whole.

Keywords: Children with disabilities, learning difficulties, education of children with disabilities, disabled children.

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383 Observations of Conformity in the Health Professions

Authors: Tanya N. Beran, Michelle A. Drefs, Ghazwan Altabbaa, Nouf Al Harbi, Noof Al Baz, Elizabeth Oddone Paolucci

Abstract:

Although interprofessional practice is a collaborative approach for problem solving among health professionals, its implementation can present challenges to its team members. In particular, they may feel pressured to agree with or conform to other members who share information that is contrary to their own understanding. Obtaining evidence of this phenomenon is challenging, as team members may underreport their conformity behaviors due to reasons such as social desirability. In this paper, a series of studies are reviewed in which several approaches to assessing conformity in the health care professions are tested. Simulations, questionnaires, and behavior checklists can be used to measure conformity behaviors. Insights from these studies show that a significant proportion of people conform either in the presence or absence of others, express a variety of verbal and nonverbal behaviors when considering whether to conform to others, may shift between conforming and moments later not conforming (and vice versa), and may not accurately report whether they conformed. A method of measuring conformity using the implicit bias test is also discussed. People at all levels in the healthcare system are encouraged to develop both formal and informal strategies to manage the conformity pressures that people face.

Keywords: Conformity, decision-making, interprofessional teams, medical simulation.

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382 Motivations for Engaging in Consensual Non-Monogamous Relationships in North America: McClelland's Human Motivation Theory

Authors: Alisha Fisher

Abstract:

Exploring and engaging in intimate, sexual, and romantic relationships carries the opportunity of personal growth, pleasure, connection, and enhancement of well-being. As more and more North Americans begin to consider and engage in romantic and sexual orientations outside of monogamy, the question of their motivations arises. We utilize McClelland's human motivation theory to investigate the intersections of motivational attributes for North Americans engaging in consensual non-monogamous (CNM) relationships. The need for achievement, power, and affiliation all influence and interact with each other within CNM relationships. The interplay of these motivations is vital for CNM relational structures to operate and effectively navigate conflict. Further studies should explore these motivational components within the individuals who practice CNM and examining the differences in various CNM relational structures.

Keywords: Consensual non-monogamy, motivations for non-monogamy, McClelland Motivation theory, CNM.

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381 Understanding Factor Influence in Mask-Wearing Intention Onboard Airplanes during COVID-19: Attitude as a Mediator

Authors: Jing Yu Pan, Dahai Liu

Abstract:

Airlines in the US have taken protective measures to battle the COVID-19 pandemic, with a mask mandate being the most important one, especially in the aircraft cabin. As the airline industry is recovering from the pandemic, mask-wearing will eventually become a personal choice during a flight. Nevertheless, COVID-19 will continue to create uncertainty for a long time into the future, making it necessary to understand the attitude and voluntary use of masks by air travelers on airplanes even after masks are no longer mandatory. This study aimed to understand the relationship between demographic characteristics and mask-wearing intention in the US. For age, gender, income, educational, and ethnicity groups, this study examined three factors – subjective norms, risk avoidance, and information seeking and their influence on the mask-wearing intention onboard airplanes during COVID-19, and whether or not attitude toward masks was an important mediator. The results show that all demographic factors except gender could help to explain the group variations in factor impact and the mediating effect in mask-wearing intentions. In particular, Asian travelers had mask-wearing intentions that were not affected by attitude either directly or indirectly. These findings provide useful implications to enhance the health safety of air travelers, especially in the US where opposing views toward mask-wearing still widely exist.

Keywords: COVID-19, passenger demographics, aircraft cabin, mask-wearing intention, attitude as mediator.

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380 Reliability of Eyewitness Statements in Fire and Explosion Investigations

Authors: Jeff D. Colwell, Benjamin W. Knox

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While fire and explosion incidents are often observed by eyewitnesses, the weight that fire investigators should place on those observations in their investigations is a complex issue. There is no doubt that eyewitness statements can be an important component to an investigation, particularly when other evidence is sparse, as is often the case when damage to the scene is severe. However, it is well known that eyewitness statements can be incorrect for a variety of reasons, including deception. In this paper, we reviewed factors that can have an effect on the complex processes associated with the perception, retention, and retrieval of an event. We then review the accuracy of eyewitness statements from unique criminal and civil incidents, including fire and explosion incidents, in which the accuracy of the statements could be independently evaluated. Finally, the motives for deceptive eyewitness statements are described, along with techniques that fire and explosion investigators can employ, to increase the accuracy of the eyewitness statements that they solicit.

Keywords: Explosion, eyewitness, fire, reliability.

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379 Factors Affecting Employee Decision Making in an AI Environment

Authors: Yogesh C. Sharma, A. Seetharaman

Abstract:

The decision-making process in humans is a complicated system influenced by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Human decisions have a ripple effect on subsequent decisions. In this study, the scope of human decision making is limited to employees. In an organisation, a person makes a variety of decisions from the time they are hired to the time they retire. The goal of this research is to identify various elements that influence decision making. In addition, the environment in which a decision is made is a significant aspect of the decision-making process. Employees in today's workplace use artificial intelligence (AI) systems for automation and decision augmentation. The impact of AI systems on the decision-making process is examined in this study. This research is designed based on a systematic literature review. Based on gaps in the literature, limitations and the scope of future research have been identified. Based on these findings, a research framework has been designed to identify various factors affecting employee decision making. Employee decision making is influenced by technological advancement, data-driven culture, human trust, decision automation-augmentation and workplace motivation. Hybrid human-AI systems require development of new skill sets and organisational design. Employee psychological safety and supportive leadership influences overall job satisfaction.

Keywords: Employee decision making, artificial intelligence, environment, human trust, technology innovation, psychological safety.

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378 The Psychological Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Non-Healthcare Migrant Workers in a Construction Company in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Viviane Nascimento, Dania Mehmod

Abstract:

Introduction: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) disease was firstly reported in Asia at the end of 2019 and became a pandemic at the beginning of 2020. It resulted in a significant impact over the global economy and the health care systems around the world. The immediate measure adopted worldwide to contain the virus was mainly the lockdown and curfews. This certainly had an important impact on expats workers due to the financial insecurity, culture barrier and distance from the family. Saudi Arabia has one of the largest flows of foreign workers in the world and expats are the majority of the workforce. The aim of this essay was assessing the psychological impact of COVID-19 in non-health care expats living in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study was conducted in a construction company in Riyadh with non-health care employees. The cross-sectional study protocol was approved by the company's executive management. Employees who verbally agreed to participate in the study were asked to anonymously answer a questionnaire validated for behavioral research (DASS-21). In addition, a second questionnaire was created to assess feelings and emotions. Results: More than a third of participants screened positive for one or more psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety and stress) on the DASS-21 scale. Moreover, it was observed an increase on negative feelings on the additional questionnaire. Conclusion: This study reveals an increase on negative feelings and psychological symptoms among non-health care migrant workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of this, it is crucial to understand the emotional effects caused by the pandemic on migrant workers in order to create supportive and informative strategies minimizing the emotional impact on this vulnerable group.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, Saudi Arabia, psychological effects, migrant workers.

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377 Voice Features as the Diagnostic Marker of Autism

Authors: Elena Lyakso, Olga Frolova, Yuri Matveev

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The aim of the study is to determine the acoustic features of voice and speech of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as a possible additional diagnostic criterion. The participants in the study were 95 children with ASD aged 5-16 years, 150 typically development (TD) children, and 103 adults – listening to children’s speech samples. Three types of experimental methods for speech analysis were performed: spectrographic, perceptual by listeners, and automatic recognition. In the speech of children with ASD, the pitch values, pitch range, values of frequency and intensity of the third formant (emotional) leading to the “atypical” spectrogram of vowels are higher than corresponding parameters in the speech of TD children. High values of vowel articulation index (VAI) are specific for ASD children’s speech signals. These acoustic features can be considered as diagnostic marker of autism. The ability of humans and automatic recognition of the psychoneurological state of children via their speech is determined.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, biomarker of autism, child speech, voice features.

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376 Auditory Brainstem Response in Wave VI for the Detection of Learning Disabilities

Authors: M.Victoria Garcia-Camba, M.Isabel Garcia-Planas

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The use of brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) is a common way to study the hearing function of people, a way to learn the functionality of a part of the brain neuronal groups that intervene in the learning process by studying the behaviour of wave VI. The latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the existence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of innocuous, low-cost and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the BAEP that can help us to detect early possible neurodevelopmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and cure. To date and the authors best knowledge, only the latency data obtained, observing the first to V waves and mainly in the left ear, were taken into account. This work shows that it is essential to consider both ears; with these latest data, it has been possible to diagnose more precisely some cases than with the previous data had been diagnosed as “normal”despite showing signs of some alteration that motivated the new consultation to the specialist.

Keywords: Ear, neurodevelopment, auditory evoked potentials, intervals of normality, learning disabilities.

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375 The Latency-Amplitude Binomial of Waves Resulting from the Application of Evoked Potentials for the Diagnosis of Dyscalculia

Authors: Maria Isabel Garcia-Planas, Maria Victoria Garcia-Camba

Abstract:

Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have allowed a step forward in perceiving the processes involved in learning from the point of view of acquiring new information or the modification of existing mental content. The evoked potentials technique reveals how basic brain processes interact to achieve adequate and flexible behaviours. The objective of this work, using evoked potentials, is to study if it is possible to distinguish if a patient suffers a specific type of learning disorder to decide the possible therapies to follow. The methodology used in this work is to analyze the dynamics of different brain areas during a cognitive activity to find the relationships between the other areas analyzed to understand the functioning of neural networks better. Also, the latest advances in neuroscience have revealed the exis-tence of different brain activity in the learning process that can be highlighted through the use of non-invasive, innocuous, low-cost and easy-access techniques such as, among others, the evoked potentials that can help to detect early possible neurodevelopmental difficulties for their subsequent assessment and therapy. From the study of the amplitudes and latencies of the evoked potentials, it is possible to detect brain alterations in the learning process, specifically in dyscalculia, to achieve specific corrective measures for the application of personalized psycho-pedagogical plans that allow obtaining an optimal integral development of the affected people.

Keywords: dyscalculia, neurodevelopment, evoked potentials, learning disabilities, neural networks

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374 A Taxonomy of Behavior for a Medical Coordinator by Utlizing Leadership Styles

Authors: Aryana Collins Jackson, Elisabetta Bevacqua, Pierre De Loor, Ronan Querrec

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This paper presents a taxonomy of non-technical skills, communicative intentions, and behavior for an individual acting as a medical coordinator. In medical emergency situations, a leader among the group is imperative to both patient health and team emotional and mental health. Situational Leadership is used to make clear and easy-to-follow guidelines for behavior depending on circumstantial factors. Low-level leadership behaviors belonging to two different styles, directive and supporting, are identified from literature and are included in the proposed taxonomy. The high-level information in the taxonomy consists of the necessary non-technical skills belonging to a medical coordinator: situation awareness, decision making, task management, and teamwork. Finally, communicative intentions, dimensions, and functions are included. Thus this work brings high-level and low-level information - medical non-technical skills, communication capabilities, and leadership behavior - into a single versatile taxonomy of behavior.

Keywords: Medical, leadership styles, taxonomy, human behavior.

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373 The Effects of Subjective and Objective Indicators of Inequality on Life Satisfaction in a Comparative Perspective Using a Multi-Level Analysis

Authors: Atefeh Bagherianziarat, Dana Hamplova

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The inverse social gradient in life satisfaction (LS) is a well-established research finding. Although objective aspects of inequality or individuals’ socioeconomic status are among the approved predictors of life satisfaction; however, less is known about the effect of subjective inequality and the interplay of these two aspects of inequality on life satisfaction. It is suggested that individuals’ perception of their socioeconomic status in society can moderate the link between their absolute socioeconomic status and life satisfaction. Nevertheless, this moderating link has not been affirmed to work likewise in societies with different welfare regimes associating with different levels of social inequality. In this study, we compared the moderative influence of subjective inequality on the link between objective inequality and LS. In particular, we focus on differences across welfare state regimes based on Esping-Andersen's theory. Also, we explored the moderative role of believing in the value of equality on the link between objective and subjective inequality on LS, in the given societies. Since our studied variables were measured at both individual and country levels, we applied a multilevel analysis to the European Social Survey data (round 9). The results showed that people in different regimes reported statistically meaningful different levels of LS that is explained to different extends by their household income and their perception of their income inequality. The findings of the study supported the previous findings of the moderator influence of perceived inequality on the link between objective inequality and LS. However, this link is different in various welfare state regimes. The results of the multilevel modeling showed that country-level subjective equality is a positive predictor for individuals’ LS, while the Gini coefficient that was considered as the indicator of absolute inequality has a smaller effect on LS. Also, country-level subjective equality moderates the confirmed link between individuals’ income and their LS. It can be concluded that both individual and country-level subjective inequality slightly moderate the effect of individuals’ income on their LS.

Keywords: individual values, life satisfaction, multi-level analysis, objective inequality, subjective inequality, welfare regimes status

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372 Developing Research Involving Different Species: Opportunities and Empirical Foundations

Authors: A. V. Varfolomeeva, N. S. Tkachenko, A. G. Tishchenko

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In this study, we addressed the problem of weak validity, implausible results, and inaccurate reporting in psychological research on different species. The theoretical basis of the study was the systems-evolutionary approach (SEA). We assumed that the root of the problem is the values and attitudes of the researchers (in particular anthropomorphism and anthropocentrism). The first aim of the study was the formulation of a research design that avoids this problem. Based on a literature review, we concluded that such design, amongst other things, should include methodics with playful components. The second aim was to conduct a series of studies on the differences in the formation of instrumental skill in rats raised and housed in different environments. As a result, we revealed that there are contradictions between some of the statements of SEA, so that it is not possible to choose one of the alternative hypotheses. We suggested that in order to get out of this problem, it is necessary to modify these provisions by aligning them with the attitude of multicentrism.

Keywords: epistemological attitudes, experimental design, validity, psychological structure, learning

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