Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1085

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1085 Task-Based Language Teaching: A Paradigm Shift in ESL/EFL Teaching and Learning: A Case Study-Based Approach

Authors: Zehra Sultan

Abstract:

The study is based on the Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) approach which is found to be very effective in the EFL/ESL classroom. This approach engages learners to acquire the usage of authentic language skills by interacting with the real world through a sequence of pedagogical tasks. The use of technology enhances the effectiveness of this approach. This study throws light on the historical background of TBLT, and its efficacy in the EFL /ESL classroom. In addition, this study precisely talks about the implementation of this approach in the General Foundation Program (GFP) of Muscat College, Oman. It furnishes the list of the pedagogical tasks embedded in the language curriculum of the GFP which are skillfully allied to the College graduate attributes. Moreover, the study also discusses the challenges pertaining to this approach from the point of view of teachers, students and its classroom application. Additionally, the operational success of this methodology is gauged through formative assessments of the GFP which is apparent in the students’ progress.

Keywords: Task-based language teaching, authentic language, communicative approach, real world activities, ESL/EFL activities.

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1084 A Case Study in Using the Can-Sized Satellite Platforms for Interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning in Aeronautical and Electronic Engineering

Authors: Michael Johnson, Vincenzo Oliveri

Abstract:

This work considers an interdisciplinary Problem-Based Learning (PBL) project developed by lecturers from the Aeronautical and Electronic and Computer Engineering departments at the University of Limerick. This “CANSAT” project utilises the CanSat can-sized satellite platform in order to allow students from aeronautical and electronic engineering to engage in a mixed format (online/face-to-face), interdisciplinary PBL assignment using a real-world platform and application. The project introduces students to the design, development, and construction of the CanSat system over the course of a single semester, enabling student(s) to apply their aeronautical and technical skills/capabilities to the realisation of a working CanSat system. In this case study, the CanSat kits are used to pivot the real-world, discipline-relevant PBL goal of designing, building, and testing the CanSat system with payload(s) from a traditional module-based setting to an online PBL setting. Feedback, impressions, benefits, and challenges identified through the semester are presented. Students found the project to be interesting and rewarding, with the interdisciplinary nature of the project appealing to them. Challenges and difficulties encountered are also addressed, with solutions developed between the students and facilitators to overcoming these discussed.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, Online PBL, Electronic Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering, Interdisciplinary Project, CanSat.

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1083 Cybersecurity Awareness among Applied Sciences Student Population

Authors: Nikolina Kasunic, Sanja Bracun

Abstract:

After graduation, student population of applied sciences will become the population of employees on IT experts’ positions or "just" business users of certain IT technologies for which the level of awareness of existing cybersecurity risks is extremely important. This research results define the current cybersecurity awareness level of students at Zagreb University of Applied Sciences (TVZ), what can be useful not only for teaching staff to form a curriculum related to cybersecurity more accurately but also to employers to know what to expect from their future employees regarding cybersecurity awareness level. There is also a connection determined between the student’s behaviour and their level of cybersecurity awareness.

Keywords: Applied sciences students’ population, cybersecurity, cybersecurity awareness, student population cybersecurity awareness.

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1082 Positioning a Southern Inclusive Framework Embedded in the Social Model of Disability Theory Contextualized for Guyana

Authors: Lidon Lashley

Abstract:

This paper presents how the social model of disability can be used to reshape inclusive education practices in Guyana. Inclusive education in Guyana is metamorphosizing but still firmly held in the tenets of the Medical Model of Disability which influences the experiences of children with Special Education Needs and/or Disabilities (SEN/D). An ethnographic approach to data gathering was employed in this study. Qualitative data were gathered from the voices of children with and without SEN/D as well as their mainstream teachers to present the interplay of discourses and subjectivities in the situation. The data were analyzed using Adele Clarke's situational analysis. The data suggest that it is possible but will be challenging to fully contextualize and adopt Loreman's synthesis and Booths and Ainscow's Index in the two mainstream schools studied. In addition, the data paved the way for the presentation of the 'Southern Inclusive Education Framework for Guyana' and its support tool 'The Inclusive Checker created for Southern mainstream primary classrooms'.

Keywords: Social Model of Disability, Medical Model of Disability, subjectivities, metamorphosis, special education needs, postcolonial Guyana, Quasi-inclusion practices, Guyanese cultural challenges, mainstream primary schools, Loreman's Synthesis, Booths and Ainscow's Index.

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1081 Developing a Research Culture in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology at the Central University of Technology, Free State: Implications for Knowledge Management

Authors: Mpho A. Mbeo, Patient Rambe

Abstract:

The 13th year of the Central University of Technology, Free State’s (CUT) transition from a vocational and professional training orientation institution (i.e. a technikon) into a university with a strong research focus has neither been a smooth nor an easy one. At the heart of this transition was the need to transform the psychological faculties of academic and research staffs compliment who were accustomed to training graduates for industrial placement. The lack of a research culture that fully embraces the strong solid ethos of conducting cutting-edge research needs to be addressed. The induction and socialisation of academic staff into the development and execution of cutting-edge research also required the provision of research support and the creation of a conducive academic environment for research, both for emerging and non-research active academics. Drawing on ten cases, consisting of four heads of departments, three seasoned researchers, and three novice researchers, this study explores the challenges faced in establishing a strong research culture at the university. Furthermore, it gives an account of the extent to which the current research interventions have addressed the perceivably “missing research culture”, and the implications of these interventions for knowledge management. Evidence suggests that the capability of an ideal institutional research environment, consisting of mentorship of novice researchers by seasoned researchers, balanced effort into teaching and research responsibilities, should be supported by strong research-oriented leadership. Furthermore, recruitment of research passionate staff, adoption of a salary structure that encourages the retention of excellent scholars should be matched by a coherent research incentive culture to growth research publication outputs. This is critical for building new knowledge and entrenching knowledge management founded on communities of practice and scholarly networking through the documentation and communication of research findings. The study concludes that the multiple policy documents set for the different domains of research may be creating pressure on researchers to engage research activities and increase output at the expense of research quality.

Keywords: Central University of Technology, performance, publication, research culture, university.

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1080 3D Multi-User Virtual Environment in Language Teaching

Authors: Hana Maresova, Daniel Ecler, Miroslava Mensikova

Abstract:

This article focuses on the use of 3D multi-user virtual environment in language teaching and presents the results of a four-year research at the Palacky University Olomouc Faculty of Education (Czech Republic). Language teaching was conducted in an experimental form in the 3D virtual worlds of Second Life and Kitely (experimental group) and, in parallel to this, there was also traditional teaching conducted on identical topics in the form of lectures using a textbook (control group). The didactic test, which was presented to both of the groups in an identical form before the start of teaching and after its implementation, verified the effect of teaching in the experimental group by comparing the achieved results of both groups. Out of the three components of mother tongue teaching (grammar, literature, composition and communication education) students achieved partial better results (in the case of points focused on the visualization of the subject matter, these were statistically significant) in literature. Students from the control group performed better in grammar and composition. Based on the achieved results, we can state that the most appropriate use of multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) can be seen in teaching those topics that have the possibility of dramatization, experiential learning and group cooperation.

Keywords: 3D virtual reality, multiuser environments, online education, language education.

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1079 Gender Discrimination in Education in Croatia

Authors: Ivana Šalinović

Abstract:

The term gender emerged in the second half of the last century and since then a growing body of research dealing with the topic demonstrates its importance. Primarily, the research and the theories that were addressing the topic were focused on stating the differences between the terms sex and gender, where sex refers to the biological aspect of a person, while gender refers to the socially ascribed roles, attitudes, behaviors, and etc., and on gender discrimination whose visible and invisible repercussions are harming society and one of the agents of change should be educators on all educational levels since they are emotionally sculpting their students, that is why considerable effort should be put into implementing education about this topic into the standard curriculum. Not only educators, but it is also necessary to change the mindset of the younger generations because they will be important agents in the further elimination of gender discrimination, thus causing societal changes. Therefore, it is very important to hear their voices and their experiences and for these reasons, this research has been done, to see what the students of the second year at a private college university Aspira in Croatia have gone through in their educational ladder. The hypothesis was that the findings would most certainly show a huge difference between female and male students’ experiences and effects of gender discrimination, but the results have actually shown a very mixed picture and the original hypothesis was somewhat disapproved. Instead of finding out that girls experienced a lot of gender discrimination, it turned out that it was the boys who believed that in their previous and current education, there was no equal time distribution between genders, they noticed that the language was not gender-sensitive, teaching aids were not adopted to the genders. They were also the ones that pointed out that the discipline path was not the same for everyone, and they were the ones that the teacher’s gender had more influence on and were also the ones that experienced more gender discrimination.

Keywords: Gender, discrimination, elementary school, high school.

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1078 Examination of Readiness of Teachers in the Use of Information-Communication Technologies in the Classroom

Authors: Nikolina Ribarić

Abstract:

This paper compares the readiness of chemistry teachers to use information and communication technologies in chemistry in 2018 and 2021. A survey conducted in 2018 on a sample of teachers showed that most teachers occasionally use visualization and digitization tools in chemistry teaching (65%), but feel that they are not educated enough to use them (56%). Also, most teachers do not have adequate equipment in their schools and are not able to use ICT in teaching or digital tools for visualization and digitization of content (44%). None of the teachers find the use of digitization and visualization tools useless. Furthermore, a survey conducted in 2021 shows that most teachers occasionally use visualization and digitization tools in chemistry teaching (83%). Also, the research shows that some teachers still do not have adequate equipment in their schools and are not able to use ICT in chemistry teaching or digital tools for visualization and digitization of content (14%). Advances in the use of ICT in chemistry teaching are linked to pandemic conditions and the obligation to conduct online teaching. The share of 14% of teachers who still do not have adequate equipment to use digital tools in teaching is worrying.

Keywords: Chemistry, digital content, e-learning, ICT, visualization.

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1077 How to Improve Teaching and Learning Strategies through Educational Research: An Experience of Peer Observation in Legal Education

Authors: L. Mortari, A. Bevilacqua, R. Silva

Abstract:

The experience presented in this paper aims to understand how educational research can support the introduction and optimization of teaching innovations in legal education. In this increasingly complex context, a strong need to introduce paths aimed at acquiring not only professional knowledge and skills but also reflective, critical and problem-solving skills emerges. Through a peer observation intertwined with an analysis of discursive practices, researchers and the teacher worked together through a process of participatory and transformative accompaniment whose objective was to promote the active participation and engagement of students in learning processes, an element indispensable to work in the more specific direction of strengthening key competences. This reflective faculty development path led the teacher to activate metacognitive processes, becoming thus aware of the strengths and areas of improvement of his teaching innovation.

Keywords: Discursive analysis, faculty development, legal education, peer observation, teaching innovation.

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1076 Predictive Analytics of Student Performance Determinants in Education

Authors: Mahtab Davari, Charles Edward Okon, Somayeh Aghanavesi

Abstract:

Every institute of learning is usually interested in the performance of enrolled students. The level of these performances determines the approach an institute of study may adopt in rendering academic services. The focus of this paper is to evaluate students' academic performance in given courses of study using machine learning methods. This study evaluated various supervised machine learning classification algorithms such as Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest, Decision Tree, K-Nearest Neighbors, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis, using selected features to predict study performance. The accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score obtained from a 5-Fold Cross-Validation were used to determine the best classification algorithm to predict students’ performances. SVM (using a linear kernel), LDA, and LR were identified as the best-performing machine learning methods. Also, using the LR model, this study identified students' educational habits such as reading and paying attention in class as strong determinants for a student to have an above-average performance. Other important features include the academic history of the student and work. Demographic factors such as age, gender, high school graduation, etc., had no significant effect on a student's performance.

Keywords: Student performance, supervised machine learning, prediction, classification, cross-validation.

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1075 Using Scrum in an Online Smart Classroom Environment: A Case Study

Authors: Ye Wei, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman, Fahri Benli, Fiona Wahr

Abstract:

The present digital world poses many challenges to various stakeholders in the education sector. In particular, lecturers of higher education (HE) are faced with the problem of ensuring that students are able to achieve the required learning outcomes despite rapid changes taking place worldwide. Different strategies are adopted to retain student engagement and commitment in classrooms to address the differences in learning habits, preferences and styles of the digital generation of students recently. Further, with the onset of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, online classroom has become the most suitable alternate mode of teaching environment to cope with lockdown restrictions. These changes have compounded the problems in the learning engagement and short attention span of HE students. New Agile methodologies that have been successfully employed to manage projects in different fields are gaining prominence in the education domain. In this paper, we present the application of Scrum as an agile methodology to enhance student learning and engagement in an online smart classroom environment. We demonstrate the use of our proposed approach using a case study to teach key topics in information technology that require students to gain technical and business-related data analytics skills.

Keywords: Agile methodology, Scrum, online learning, smart classroom environment, student engagement, active learning.

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1074 The Effect of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Foreign Students Studying in Hungary

Authors: Anita Kéri

Abstract:

Satisfying foreign student needs has been in the center of research interest in the past several years. Higher education institutions have been exploring factors influencing foreign student satisfaction to stay competitive on the educational market. Even though foreign student satisfaction and loyalty are topics investigated deeply in the literature, the academic years of 2020 and 2021 have revealed challenges never experienced before. With the COVID-19 pandemic, new factors have emerged that might influence foreign student satisfaction and loyalty in higher education. The aim of the current research is to shed lights on what factors influence foreign student satisfaction and loyalty in the post-pandemic educational era, and to reveal if the effects of factors influencing satisfaction and loyalty have changed compared to previous findings. Initial results show that students are less willing to participate in online surveys during and after the pandemic. The return rate of the survey instrument is below 5%. Results also reveal that there is a slight difference in what factors students deem important during pandemic times regarding their satisfaction and loyalty. The results of the current study help us determine what factors higher education institutions need to consider, when planning the future service affordances for their foreign students, that might influence their satisfaction and loyalty.

Keywords: COVID-19, foreign students, loyalty, pandemic, satisfaction.

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1073 The Extension of Monomeric Computational Results to Polymeric Measurable Properties: An Introductory Computational Chemistry Experiment

Authors: Zhao Jing, Bai Yongqing, Shi Qiaofang, Zang Yang, Zhang Huaihao

Abstract:

Advances in software technology enable the computational chemistry to be commonly applied in various research fields, especially in pedagogy. Thus, in order to expand and improve experimental instructions of computational chemistry for undergraduates, we designed an introductory experiment—research on acrylamide molecular structure and physicochemical properties. Initially, students construct molecular models of acrylamide and polyacrylamide in Gaussian and Materials Studio software respectively. Then, the infrared spectral data, atomic charge and molecular orbitals of acrylamide as well as solvation effect of polyacrylamide are calculated to predict their physicochemical performance. At last, rheological experiments are used to validate these predictions. Through the combination of molecular simulation (performed on Gaussian, Materials Studio) with experimental verification (rheology experiment), learners have deeply comprehended the chemical nature of acrylamide and polyacrylamide, achieving good learning outcomes.

Keywords: Upper-division undergraduate, computer-based learning, laboratory instruction, amides, molecular modeling, spectroscopy.

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1072 Changes in Vocational Teacher Training in Hungary: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: A. Bacsa-Bán

Abstract:

The training of vocational education teachers in Hungary was a special training system before the Bologna system, but under the influence of the Bologna system, the structure and content of the training changed significantly. The training of vocational teachers, including engineering teacher and vocational trainers, is considerably different when compared to the training of public education teachers. This study aims to present these differences and peculiarities, problems, and issues of the training as well as to outline the possibilities of further development. During the study the following methods were implemented: empirical research among students and graduates of vocational teacher training, as well as analysis of the relevant literature. The study summarizes the research and theoretical results related to Vocational Education and Training (VET) teacher training over the past 15 years, with the aim of developing the training and mapping new directions in the field.

Keywords: Bologna system, vocational educators, vocational teachers, vocational teacher training.

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1071 Metaverse as a Form of Reality and the Impact of Metaverse in Higher Education

Authors: Josefina Bengoechea, Alex Bell

Abstract:

In the metaverse, the characters were avatars working in a 3-dimensional virtual reality. This virtual reality existed beyond reality. The metaverse is a “the post-reality universe”; a perpetual and persistent multiuser environment in which physical reality and digital virtuality are merged. The virtual infrastructure needed to build a metaverse (which is in the process of being created), are: web3 technologies, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), blockchain, smart contracts, and cryptocurrencies. Web3 refers to a new iteration of the actual web2. The actual web2 is dominated by powerful providers like Google, Apple, Amazon, and other corporate tech companies. The vision for web3 is a decentralized, and thus more equitable version of the web. The aim of this paper is, first, to present the Metaverse as a form of reality in which physical reality and digital virtuality combined to provide new experiences to users; second, to discuss the implications for education, specifically for higher education, and how programs will have to be modified so that the skills obtained by graduates match those demanded by the virtual labour market. This paper builds upon a constructivist approach, combining a literature review and research on key publications.

Keywords: Ethics in technology, cross realities, cryptocurrencies, labour market, metaverse, technology in higher education.

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1070 Flipped Classroom in Bioethics Education: A Blended and Interactive Online Learning Courseware that Enhances Active Learning and Student Engagement

Authors: Molly P. M. Wong

Abstract:

In this study, a blended and interactive e-learning Courseware that our team developed will be introduced, and our team’s experiences on how the e-learning Courseware and the flipped classroom benefit student learning in bioethics in the medical program will be shared. This study is a continuation of the previously established study, which provides a summary of the well-developed e-learning Courseware in a blended learning approach and an update on its efficiency and efficacy. First, a collection of animated videos capturing selected topics of bioethics and related ethical issues and dilemma will be introduced. Next, a selection of problem-based learning videos (“simulated doctor-patient role play”) with pop-up questions and discussions will be further discussed. Our findings demonstrated that these activities launched by the Courseware strongly engaged students in bioethics education and enhanced students’ critical thinking and creativity. Moreover, the educational benefits of the online art exhibition, art jamming and competition will be discussed, through which students could express bioethics through arts and enrich their learning in medical research in an interactive, fun and entertaining way, strengthening their interests in bioethics. Furthermore, online survey questionnaires and focus group interviews were conducted. Our results indicated that implementing the e-learning Courseware with a flipped classroom in bioethics education enhanced both active learning and student engagement. In conclusion, our Courseware not only reinforces education in art, bioethics and medicine, but also benefits students in understanding and critical thinking in socio-ethical issues, and serves as a valuable learning tool in bioethics teaching and learning.

Keywords: Bioethics, courseware, e-learning, flipped classroom.

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1069 The Impact of 21st Century Technology in Higher Education: The Role of Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Josefina Bengoechea, Alex Bell

Abstract:

Higher education, with its brick-and-mortar facilities and credits-based on hours of study, was developed to serve the needs of a national, industrial, analogue economy. However, the ongoing process of globalization on the one hand, and the emergence of ever-changing needs of employers on the other hand, make this type of process-based education obsolete, and exclusive to students who can afford to pay a full-time tuition and dedicate 4 years of their lives exclusively to study. The creative destruction brought about by new technologies in the 21st century will not only reconfigure the labour market, as millions of jobs will be lost to Artificial Intelligence. The purpose of this paper is to consider if the implementation of technology is the solution to the problems faced in higher education. The paper builds upon a constructivist approach, combining a literature review and research on key publications.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, employability, labour market, new technology in higher education.

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1068 The Practice of Teaching Chemistry by the Application of Online Tests

Authors: Nikolina Ribarić

Abstract:

E-learning is most commonly defined as a set of applications and processes, such as Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration, that enable access to instructional content through a variety of electronic media. The main goal of an e-learning system is learning, and the way to evaluate the impact of an e-learning system is by examining whether students learn effectively with the help of that system. Testmoz is a program for online preparation of knowledge evaluation assignments. The program provides teachers with computer support during the design of assignments and evaluating them. Students can review and solve assignments and also check the correctness of their solutions. Research into the increase of motivation by the practice of providing teaching content by applying online tests prepared in the Testmoz program, was carried out with students of the 8th grade of Ljubo Babić Primary School in Jastrebarsko. The students took the tests in their free time, from home, for an unlimited number of times. SPSS was used to process the data obtained by the research instruments. The results of the research showed that students preferred to practice teaching content, and achieved better educational results in chemistry, when they had access to online tests for repetition and practicing in relation to subject content which was checked after repetition and practicing in "the classical way" – i.e., solving assignments in a workbook or writing assignments in worksheets.

Keywords: Chemistry class, e-learning, online test, Testmoz.

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1067 Enhancing Experiential Learning in a Smart Flipped Classroom: A Case Study

Authors: Fahri Benli, Sitalakshmi Venkatraman, Ye Wei, Fiona Wahr

Abstract:

A flipped classroom which is a form of blended learning shifts the focus from a teacher-centered approach to a learner-centered approach. However, not all learners are ready to take the active role of knowledge and skill acquisition through a flipped classroom and they continue to delve in a passive mode of learning. This challenges educators in designing, scaffolding and facilitating in-class activities for students to have active learning experiences in a flipped classroom environment. Experiential learning theories have been employed by educators in the past in physical classrooms based on the principle that knowledge could be actively developed through direct experience. However, with more of online teaching witnessed recently, there are inherent limitations in designing and simulating an experiential learning activity for an online environment. In this paper, we explore enhancing experiential learning using smart digital tools that could be employed in a flipped classroom within a higher education setting. We present the use of smart collaborative tools online to enhance the experiential learning activity to teach higher-order cognitive concepts of business process modeling as a case study.

Keywords: Experiential learning, flipped classroom, smart software tools, online learning higher-order learning attributes.

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1066 Teaching Math to Preschool Children with Autism

Authors: Hui Fang Huang Su, Jia Borror

Abstract:

This study compared two different interventions for math instruction among preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The first intervention, a combination of discrete trial teaching and Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research (STAR), was the regular math curriculum utilized at the preschool. The second activity-based, naturalistic intervention was Project Mind, also known as Math is Not Difficult. The curricular interventions were randomly assigned to four preschool classrooms with ASD students and implemented over three months for Project MIND. Measurements gained during the same three months for the STAR intervention were used. A quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test design was selected to compare which intervention was the most effective in increasing mathematical knowledge and skills among preschoolers with ASD. Standardized pre and post-test instruments included the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-3 Receptive, the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement, and the TEMA 3: Test of Early Mathematics Ability – Third Edition. The STAR assessment is typically administered to all preschoolers at the study site three times per year, and those results were used in this study. We anticipated that the implementation of these two approaches would lead to improvement in the mathematical knowledge and skills of children with ASD. Still, it is essential to see whether a behavioral or naturalistic teaching approach leads to more significant results.

Keywords: Autism, mathematics, preschool, special education.

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1065 Teaching Science Content Area Literacy to 21st Century Learners

Authors: Melissa C. LaDuke

Abstract:

The use of new literacies within science classrooms needs to be balanced by teachers to both teach different forms of communication while assessing content area proficiency. Using new literacies such as Twitter and Facebook needs to be incorporated into science content area literacy studies in addition to continuing to use generally-accepted forms of scientific content area presentation which include scientific papers and textbooks. The research question this literature review seeks to answer is “What are some ways in which new forms of literacy are better suited to teach scientific content area literacy to 21st century learners?” The research question is addressed through a literature review that highlights methods currently being used to educate the next wave of learners in the world of science content area literacy. Both temporal discourse analysis (TDA) and critical discourse analysis (CDA) were used to determine the need to use new literacies to teach science content area literacy. Increased use of digital technologies and a change in science content area pedagogy were explored.

Keywords: Science content area literacy, new literacies, critical discourse analysis, temporal discourse analysis.

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1064 Teachers’ Continuance Intention Towards Using Madrasati Platform: A Conceptual Framework

Authors: Fiasal Assiri, Joanna Wincenciak, David Morrison-Love

Abstract:

With the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi government suspended students from going to school to combat the outbreak. As e-learning was not applied at all in schools, online teaching and learning have been revived in Saudi Arabia by providing a new platform called ‘Madrasati’. The Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) is used to examine individuals’ intention behaviour in many fields. Nevertheless, the factors that affect teachers’ continuance intention of the Madrasati platform have not yet been investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model in light with DTPB. To enhance the predictability of the model, the study incorporates other variables including learning content quality and interactivity as sub-factors under the perceived usefulness, students and government influences under the subjective norms, and technical support and prior e-learning experience under the perceived behavioural control. The model will be further validated using a mixed methods approach. Such findings would help administrators and stakeholders to understand teachers’ needs and develop new methods that might encourage teachers to continue using Madrasati effectively in their teaching.

Keywords: Madrasati, Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour, continuance intention, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control.

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1063 Holistic Approach to Teaching Mathematics in Secondary School as a Means of Improving Students’ Comprehension of Study Material

Authors: Natalia Podkhodova, Olga Sheremeteva, Mariia Soldaeva

Abstract:

Creating favourable conditions for students’ comprehension of mathematical content is one of the primary problems in teaching mathematics in secondary school. The fact of comprehension includes the ability to build a working situational model and thus becomes an important means of solving mathematical problems. This paper describes a holistic approach to teaching mathematics designed to address the primary challenges of such teaching; specifically, the challenge of students’ comprehension. Essentially, this approach consists of (1) establishing links between the attributes of the notion: the sense, the meaning, and the term; (2) taking into account the components of student’s subjective experience—value-based emotions, contextual, procedural and communicative—during the educational process; (3) linking together different ways to present mathematical information; (4) identifying and leveraging the relationships between real, perceptual and conceptual (scientific) mathematical spaces by applying real-life situational modelling. The article describes approaches to the practical use of these foundational concepts. Identifying how proposed methods and techniques influence understanding of material used in teaching mathematics was the primary goal. The study included an experiment in which 256 secondary school students took part: 142 in the study group and 114 in the control group. All students in these groups had similar levels of achievement in math and studied math under the same curriculum. In the course of the experiment, comprehension of two topics — “Derivative” and “Trigonometric functions”—was evaluated. Control group participants were taught using traditional methods. Students in the study group were taught using the holistic method: under teacher’s guidance, they carried out assignments designed to establish linkages between notion’s characteristics, to convert information from one mode of presentation to another, as well as assignments that required the ability to operate with all modes of presentation. Identification, accounting for and transformation of subjective experience were associated with methods of stimulating the emotional value component of the studied mathematical content (discussions of lesson titles, assignments aimed to create study dominants, performing theme-related physical exercise ...) The use of techniques that forms inter-subject notions based on linkages between, perceptual real and mathematical conceptual spaces proved to be of special interest to the students. Results of the experiment were analysed by presenting students in each of the groups with a final test in each of the studied topics. The test included assignments that required building real situational models. Statistical analysis was used to aggregate test results. Pierson criterion x2 was used to reveal statistics significance of results (pass-fail the modelling test). Significant difference of results was revealed (p < 0.001), which allowed to conclude that students in the study group showed better comprehension of mathematical information than those in the control group. The total number of completed assignments of each student was analysed as well, with average results calculated for each group. Statistical significance of result differences against the quantitative criterion (number of completed assignments) was determined using Student’s t-test, which showed that students in the study group completed significantly more assignments than those in the control group (p = 0.0001). Authors thus come to the conclusion that suggested increase in the level of comprehension of study material took place as a result of applying implemented methods and techniques.

Keywords: Comprehension of mathematical content, holistic approach to teaching mathematics in secondary school, subjective experience, technology of the formation of inter-subject notions.

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1062 Online Think–Pair–Share in a Third-Age ICT Course

Authors: Daniele Traversaro

Abstract:

Problem: Senior citizens have been facing a challenging reality as a result of strict public health measures designed to protect people from the COVID-19 outbreak. These include the risk of social isolation due to the inability of the elderly to integrate with technology. Never before have Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills become essential for their everyday life. Although third-age ICT education and lifelong learning are widely supported by universities and governments, there is a lack of literature on which teaching strategy/methodology to adopt in an entirely online ICT course aimed at third-age learners. This contribution aims to present an application of the Think-Pair-Share (TPS) learning method in an ICT third-age virtual classroom with an intergenerational approach to conducting online group labs and review activities. Research Question: Is collaborative learning suitable and effective, in terms of student engagement and learning outcomes, in an online ICT course for the elderly? Methods: In the TPS strategy a problem is posed by the teacher, students have time to think about it individually, and then they work in pairs (or small groups) to solve the problem and share their ideas with the entire class. We performed four experiments in the ICT course of the University of the Third Age of Genova (University of Genova, Italy) on the Microsoft Teams platform. The study cohort consisted of 26 students over the age of 45. Data were collected through online questionnaires. Two have been proposed, one at the end of the first activity and another at the end of the course. They consisted of five and three close-ended questions, respectively. The answers were on a Likert scale (from 1 to 4) except two questions (which asked the number of correct answers given individually and in groups) and the field for free comments/suggestions. Results: Groups achieve better results than individual students (with scores greater than one order of magnitude) and most students found TPS helpful to work in groups and interact with their peers. Insights: From these early results, it appears that TPS is suitable for an online third-age ICT classroom and useful for promoting discussion and active learning. Despite this, our work has several limitations. First of all, the results highlight the need for more data to be able to perform a statistical analysis in order to determine the effectiveness of this methodology in terms of student engagement and learning outcomes as future direction.

Keywords: Collaborative learning, information technology education, lifelong learning, older adult education, think-pair-share.

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1061 School-Based Intervention for Academic Achievement: Targeting Cognitive, Motivational and Affective Factors

Authors: Joan Antony

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Outcome in any learning process should target three goals – propelling the underachiever’s engagement in the learning process, enhancing the drive to achieve, and modifying attitudes and beliefs in his/her capabilities. An intervention study with a three-pronged approach incorporating self-regulatory training targeting three categories of strategies – cognitive, metacognitive and motivational – was designed adopting the before and after control-experimental group design. The evaluation of the training process was based on pre- and post-intervention measures obtained through three indices of measurement – academic scores based on grades on school examinations and comprehension tests, affective variables scores and level of strategy use obtained through responses on scales and questionnaires, and content analysis of subjective responses to open-ended probes. The evaluation relied on three sources – student, teacher and parent. The t-test results for the experimental and control groups on the pre- and post-intervention measurements indicate a significant increase on comprehension tasks for the experimental group. Though statistically significant difference was not found on the school examination scores for the experimental group, there was considerable decline in performance for the control group. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied on the scores obtained on affective variables, namely, self-esteem, personal achievement goals, personal ego goals, personal task goals, and locus of control. The experimental group showed increase in personal achievement goals and personal ego goals as compared to the control group. Responses given by the experimental group to the open-ended probes on causal attributions indicated a considerable shift from external to internal causes when moving from the pre- to post-intervention stage. ANCOVA results revealed significantly higher use of learning strategies inclusive of mental learning strategies, behavioral learning strategies, self-regulatory strategies, and an improvement in study orientation encompassing study habits and study attitudes among the experimental group students. Parents and teachers reported significant progressive transformation towards constructive engagement with study material and self-imposed regulation. The implications of this study are three-fold: firstly, strategies training (cognitive, metacognitive and motivational) should be embedded into daily classroom routine; secondly, scaffolding by teachers through activities based on curriculum will eventually enable students to rely more on their own judgements of effective strategy use; thirdly, enhanced confidence will radiate to the affective aspects with enduring effects on other domains of life as well. The cyclic nature of the interaction between utilizing one’s resources, managing effort and regulating emotions forms the foundation for academic achievement.

Keywords: Academic achievement, cognitive strategies, metacognitive strategies, motivational strategies.

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1060 Cultivating Individuality and Equality in Education: Ideas on Respecting Dimensions of Diversity within the Classroom

Authors: Melissa C. LaDuke

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This systematic literature review sought to explore the dimensions of diversity that can affect classroom learning. This review is significant as it can aid educators in reaching more of their diverse student population and creating supportive classrooms for teachers and students. For this study, peer-reviewed articles were found and compiled using Google Scholar. Key terms used in the search include student individuality, classroom equality, student development, teacher development, and teacher individuality. Relevant educational standards such as Common Core and Partnership for the 21st Century were also included as part of this review. Student and teacher individuality and equality is discussed as well as methods to grow both within educational settings. Embracing student and teacher individuality was found to be key as it may affect how each person interacts with given information. One method to grow individuality and equality in educational settings included drafting and employing revised teaching standards which include various Common Core and US State standards. Another was to use educational theories such as constructivism, cognitive learning, and Experiential Learning Theory. However, barriers to growing individuality, such as not acknowledging differences in a population’s dimensions of diversity, still exist. Studies found preserving the dimensions of diversity owned by both teachers and students yielded more positive and beneficial classroom experiences.

Keywords: Classroom equality, student development, student individuality, teacher development, teacher individuality.

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1059 Vocational Skills, Recognition of Prior Learning and Technology: The Future of Higher Education

Authors: Shankar Subramanian Iyer

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The vocational education, enhanced by technology and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) is going to be the main ingredient of the future of education. This is coming from the various issues of the current educational system like cost, time, type of course, type of curriculum, unemployment, to name the major reasons. Most millennials like to perform and learn rather than learning how to perform. This is the essence of vocational education be it any field from cooking, painting, plumbing to modern technologies using computers. Even a more theoretical course like entrepreneurship can be taught as to be an entrepreneur and learn about its nuances. The best way to learn accountancy is actually keeping accounts for a small business or grocer and learn the ropes of accountancy and finance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocational skills, RPL and new technologies with future employability. This study implies that individual's knowledge and skills are essential aspects to be emphasized in future education and to give credit for prior experience for future employability. Virtual reality can be used to stimulate workplace situations for vocational learning for fields like hospitality, medical emergencies, healthcare, draughtsman ship, building inspection, quantity surveying, estimation, to name a few. All disruptions in future education, especially vocational education, are going to be technology driven with the advent of AI, ML, IoT, VR, VI etc. Vocational education not only helps institutes cut costs drastically, but allows all students to have hands-on experiences, rather than to be observers. The earlier experiential learning theory and the recent theory of knowledge and skills-based learning modified and applied to the vocational education and development of skills is the proposed contribution of this paper. Apart from secondary research study on major scholarly articles, books, primary research using interviews, questionnaire surveys have been used to validate and test the reliability of the suggested model using Partial Least Square- Structural Equation Method (PLS-SEM), the factors being assimilated using an existing literature review. Major findings have been that there exists high relationship between the vocational skills, RPL, new technology to the future employability through mediation of future employability skills.

Keywords: Vocational education, vocational skills, competencies, modern technologies, Recognition of Prior Learning, RPL.

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1058 A Study of Learning to Enhance Career Skills Consistent with Disruptive Innovation in the Creative Strategies for Advertising Course

Authors: Kornchanok Chidchaisuwan

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This project is a study of learning activities of creating experience from actual work performance to enhance career skills and technological usage abilities for uses in advertising career work performance for undergraduate students who enroll in the Creative Strategies for Advertising Course. The instructional model consisted of two learning approaches: (1) simulation-based learning, which is the learning with the use of simulations of working in various sections of creative advertisement work with their own work process and steps as well as the virtual technology learning in advertising companies; and (2) project-based learning, which is the learning that the learners engage in actual work performance based on the process of creating and producing creative advertisement works to be present on new media channels. The results of learning management showed that the effects on the students in various aspects were as follows: (1) the students had experience in the advertising process at the higher level; and (2) the students had work performance skills from the actual work performance that enabled them to possess the abilities to create and present their own work; also, they had created more efficient work outcomes and disseminated them on new media channels at a better level.

Keywords: Technical literacy, career skill, experience, simulation-based learning.

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1057 How International College Students Understand Entrepreneurial Readiness and Business-Related Skills: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Aleksandar Chonevski

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The free-market economy provides many opportunities for entrepreneurship or starting one’s own business, attracting many students to study business at for-profit colleges in the United States. This is also true for international students, many of whom are filled with the hope of making a better life for themselves and their families through entrepreneurial endeavors. This qualitative research showed that not all graduates business students start their own business. In investigating this phenomenon, the effectiveness of entrepreneurship curricula at international colleges needs to be examined in order to adjust, improve and reform entrepreneurship curricula. This qualitative study will explore how business skills learned in college for-profit play a role in the entrepreneurial readiness of undergraduate business students in the south Florida. Business curricula helps international students achieve goals and transform their actions to understand challenges in a corporate society. Students will be interviewed to gain information about the students’ experience with entrepreneurship curricula in a for-profit college in south Florida.

Keywords: Business skills, college curriculum, entrepreneurial readiness, international students.

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1056 eLearning for Electric Distribution Planning Engineers

Authors: Isaias Ramirez, Jose Luis Silva, Carlos Gonzalez, Gustavo Candelaria, Jose Pepe Rasgado, Carlos Carrillo

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This paper presents the experience in an eLearning training project that is being implemented for electrical planning engineers from the national Mexican utility Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) Distribution. This modality is implemented and will be used in the utility for training purposes to help personnel in their daily technical activities. One important advantage of this training project is that once it is implemented and applied, financial resources will be saved by CFE Distribution Company because online training will be used in all the country; the infrastructure for the eLearning training will be uploaded in computational servers installed in the National CFE Distribution Training Department, in Ciudad de Mexico, and can be used in workplaces of 16 Distribution Divisions and 150 Zones of CFE Distribution. In this way, workers will not need to travel to the National Training Department, saving enormous efforts, financial, and human resources.

Keywords: Moodle, eLearning, corporate training, electrical planning engineer.

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