Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1136

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1136 Impact of Non-parental Early Childhood Education on Digital Friendship Tendency

Authors: Sheel Chakraborty


Modern society in developed countries has distanced itself from the earlier norm of joint family living, and with the increase of economic pressure, parents' availability for their children during their infant years has been consistently decreasing over the past three decades. This has been promoted in the US through the legislature and funding. Early care and education may have a positive impact on young minds, but a growing number of kids facing social challenges in making friendships in their teenage years raises serious concerns about its effectiveness. The survey-based primary research presented here shows that a statistically significant number of millennials between the ages of 10 and 25 years prefer to build friendships virtually than face-to-face interactions. Moreover, many teenagers depend more on their virtual friends whom they never met. Contrary to the belief that early social interactions in a non-home setup make the kids confident and more prepared for the real world, many shy-natured kids seem to develop a sense of shakiness in forming social relationships, resulting in loneliness by the time they are young adults. Reflecting on George Mead’s theory of self that is made up of “I” and “Me”, most functioning homes provide the required freedom and forgivable, congenial environment for building the "I" of a toddler; however, daycare or preschools can barely match that. It seems social images created from the “Me” perspective in preschoolers in a daycare environment has interfered and greatly overpowered the formation of a confident "I" thus created a crisis around the inability to form friendships face to face when they grow older. Though the pervasive nature of social media cannot be ignored, the non-parental early care and education practices adopted largely by the urban population have created a favorable platform of teen psychology on which social media popularity thrived, especially providing refuge to shy Gen-Z teenagers. This can explain why young adults today perceive social media as their preferred outlet of expression and a place to form dependable friendships, despite the risk of being cyberbullied.

Keywords: Digital socialization, shyness, developmental psychology, friendship, early education.

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1135 A Case Study to Observe How Students’ Perception of the Possibility of Success Impacts Their Performance in Summative Exams

Authors: Rochelle Elva


Faculty in Higher Education today are faced with the challenge of convincing their students of the importance of the mastery of skills through learning. This is because most students often have a single motivation -to get high grades. If it appears that this goal will not be met, they lose their motivation and their academic efforts wane. This is true even for students in the competitive fields of STEM, including Computer Science majors. As educators, we have to understand our students and leverage what motivates them, to achieve our learning outcomes. This paper presents a case study that utilizes cognitive psychology’s Expectancy-Value Theory and Motivation Theory, to investigate the effect of sustained expectancy for success on students’ learning outcomes. In our case study, we explore how students’ motivation and persistence in their academic efforts are impacted by providing them with an unexpected path to success, which continues to the end of the semester. The approach was tested in an undergraduate computer science course with n = 56. The results of the study indicate that when presented with the real possibility of success, despite existing low grades, both low and high-scoring students persisted in their efforts to improve their performance. Their final grades were on average one place higher on the +/-letter grade scale, with some students scoring as high as three places above their predicted grade.

Keywords: Expectancy for success and persistence, motivation and performance, computer science education, motivation and performance in computer science.

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1134 Digital Content Strategy: Detailed Review of the Key Content Components

Authors: Oksana Razina, Shakeel Ahmad, Jessie Qun Ren, Olufemi Isiaq


The modern life of businesses is categorically reliant on their established position online, where digital (and particularly website) content plays a significant role as the first point of information. Digital content, therefore, becomes essential – from making the first impression through to the building and development of client relationships. Despite a number of valuable papers suggesting a strategic approach when dealing with digital data, other sources often do not view or accept the approach to digital content as a holistic or continuous process. Associations are frequently made with merely a one-off marketing campaign or similar. The challenge is in establishing an agreed definition for the notion of Digital Content Strategy (DCS), which currently does not exist, as it is viewed from an excessive number of angles. A strategic approach to content, nonetheless, is required, both practically and contextually. We, therefore, aimed at attempting to identify the key content components, comprising a DCS, to ensure all the aspects were covered and strategically applied – from the company’s understanding of the content value to the ability to display flexibility of content and advances in technology. This conceptual project evaluated existing literature on the topic of DCS and related aspects, using PRISMA Systematic Review Method, Document Analysis, Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria, Scoping Review, Snow-Balling Technique and Thematic Analysis. The data were collected from academic and statistical sources, government and relevant trade publications. Based on the suggestions from academics and trading sources, related to the issues discussed, we revealed the key actions for content creation and attempted to define the notion of DCS. The major finding of the study presented Key Content Components of DCS and can be considered for implementation in a business retail setting.

Keywords: Digital content strategy, digital marketing strategy, key content components, websites.

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1133 Children’s Literature in Primary School: An Opportunity to Develop Soft Skills

Authors: C. Cruz, A. Breda


Emotions are manifestations of everything that happens around us, influencing, consequently, our actions. People experience emotions continuously when socialize with friends, when facing complex situations, and when at school, among many other situations. Although the influence of emotions in the teaching and learning process is nothing new, its study in the academic field has been more popular in recent years, distinguishing between positive (e.g., enjoyment and curiosity) and negative emotions (e.g., boredom and frustration). There is no doubt that emotions play an important role in the students’ learning process since the development of knowledge involves thoughts, actions, and emotions. Nowadays, one of the most significant changes in acquiring knowledge, accessing information, and communicating is the way we do it through technological and digital resources. Faced with an increasingly frequent use of technological or digital means with different purposes, whether in the acquisition of knowledge or in communicating with others, the emotions involved in these processes change naturally. The speed with which the Internet provides information reduces the excitement for searching for the answer, the gratification of discovering something through our own effort, the patience, the capacity for effort, and resilience. Thus, technological and digital devices are bringing changes to the emotional domain. For this reason and others, it is essential to educate children from an early age to understand that it is not possible to have everything with just one click and to deal with negative emotions. Currently, many curriculum guidelines highlight the importance of the development of so-called soft skills, in which the emotional domain is present, in academic contexts. Within the scope of the Portuguese reality, the “Students’ profile by the end of compulsory schooling” and the “Health education reference” also emphasize the importance of emotions in education. There are several resources to stimulate good emotions in articulation with cognitive development. One of the most predictable and not very used resources in the most diverse areas of knowledge after pre-school education is the literature. Due to its characteristics, in the narrative or in the illustrations, literature provides the reader with a journey full of emotions. On the other hand, literature makes it possible to establish bridges between narrative and different areas of knowledge, reconciling the cognitive and emotional domains. This study results from the presentation session of a children's book, entitled “From the Outside to Inside and from the Inside to Outside”, to children attending the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th years of basic education in the Portuguese education system. In this book, rationale and emotion are in constant dialogue, so in this session, based on excerpts from the book dramatized by the authors, some questions were asked to the children in a large group, with an aim to explore their perception regarding certain emotions or events that trigger them. According to the aim of this study, qualitative, descriptive, and interpretative research was carried out based on participant observation and audio records.

Keywords: Emotions, children’s literature, basic education, soft skills.

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1132 Determination of the Gain in Learning the Free-Fall Motion of Bodies by Applying the Resource of Previous Concepts

Authors: Ricardo Merlo


In this paper, we analyzed the different didactic proposals for teaching about the free fall motion of bodies available online. An important aspect was the interpretation of the direction and sense of the acceleration of gravity and of the falling velocity of a body, which is why we found different applications of the Cartesian reference system used and also different graphical presentations of the velocity as a function of time and of the distance traveled vertically by the body in the period of time that it was dropped from a height h0. In this framework, a survey of previous concepts was applied to a voluntary group of first-year university students of an Engineering degree before and after the development of the class of the subject in question. Then, Hake's index (0.52) was determined, which resulted in an average learning gain from the meaningful use of the reference system and the respective graphs of velocity versus time and height versus time.

Keywords: Didactic gain, free–fall, physics teaching, previous knowledge.

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1131 Integrated Models of Reading Comprehension: Understanding to Impact Teaching: The Teacher’s Central Role

Authors: Sally A. Brown


Over the last 30 years, researchers have developed models or frameworks to provide a more structured understanding of the reading comprehension process. Cognitive information processing models and social cognitive theories both provide frameworks to inform reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an overview of the historical development of reading comprehension theory, (b) review the literature framed by cognitive information processing, social cognitive, and integrated reading comprehension theories, and (c) demonstrate how these frameworks inform instruction. As integrated models of reading can guide the interpretation of various factors related to student learning, an integrated framework designed by the researcher will be presented. Results indicated that features of cognitive processing and social cognitivism theory—represented in the integrated framework—highlight the importance of the role of the teacher. This model can aide teachers in not only improving reading comprehension instruction but in identifying areas of challenge for students.

Keywords: Explicit instruction, integrated models of reading comprehension, reading comprehension, teacher’s role.

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1130 A Case Study on How Outreach Programmes Form and Develop the Biomedical Engineering Community in Hong Kong

Authors: Sum Lau, Wing Chung Cleo Lau, Wing Yan Chu, Long Ching Ip, Wan Yin Lo, Jo Long Sam Yau, Ka Ho Hui, Sze Yi Mak


Biomedical engineering (BME) is an interdisciplinary subject where knowledge about biology and medicine is applied to novel applications, solving clinical problems. This subject is crucial for cities such as Hong Kong where the burden on the medical system is rising due to reasons like ageing population. Hong Kong, who is actively boosting technological advancements in recent years, sets BME, or biotechnology as a major category, as reflected in the 2018-19 Budget where biotechnology was one of the four pillars for development. Over the years, while resources in terms of money and space have been provided, there has been a lack of talents, expressed by both the academia and industry. While exogenous factors, such as COVID-19, may have hindered talents from outside Hong Kong to come, endogenous factors should also be considered. In particular, since there are already a few local universities offering BME programmes, their curriculum or style of education requires to be reviewed to intensify the network of the BME community and support post-academic career development. It was observed that while undergraduate (UG) studies focus on knowledge teaching with some technical training and postgraduate (PG) programmes concentrate on upstream research, the programmes are generally confined to the academic sector and lack connections to the industry. In light of that, a “Biomedical Innovation and Outreach Programme 2022” (“B.I.O.2022”) was held to connect students and professors from academia with clinicians and engineers from the industry, serving as a comparative approach to conventional education methods (UG and PG programmes from tertiary institutions). Over 100 participants, including undergraduates, postgraduates, secondary school students, researchers, engineers, and clinicians, took part in various outreach events such as conference and site visits, all held from June to July 2022. As a case study, this programme aimed to tackle the aforementioned problems with the theme of “4Cs” (connection, communication, collaboration, and commercialisation). The effectiveness of the programme is investigated by its ability to serve as adult and continuing education, and the effectiveness of causing social change to tackle current societal challenges, with the focus on tackling the lack of talents engaging in BME. In this study, B.I.O. 2022 is found to be able to complement the traditional educational methods, particularly in terms of knowledge exchange between the academia and the industry. With enhanced communications between participants from different career stages, there were students who followed up to visit or even work with the professionals after the programme. Furthermore, connections between the academia and industry could foster the generation of new knowledge, which ultimately pointed to commercialisation, adding value to the BME industry while filling the gap in terms of human resources. With the continuation of events like B.I.O. 2022, it provides a promising starting point for development and relationship strengthening of a BME community in Hong Kong, and shows potential as an alternative way of adult education or learning with societal benefits.

Keywords: Biomedical engineering, adult education, social change, comparative methods, lifelong learning, innovation, professional community.

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1129 Students with Special Educational Needs Camouflaging and Teacher Training of University Teaching Staff: Practical Reflection

Authors: Ana Mercedes Vernia Carrasco


The objective of this work is to reflect through the theoretical framework on the access to the university for the formation of a degree in a teacher of primary education. The University Access Tests in Spain evaluate a series of skills and competencies in writing, which leave aside the sample of another set of skills and tools that this type of test cannot evaluate. In the last years, a very much diversified student body has arrived in the classrooms of the universities. Nowadays, talking about special education means attending to the changes that are being experienced in this area. At present, the educational model focuses on the reinforcement by the educational institutions so that they form the students according to their personal characteristics and that it is not the students that must adapt to the system. A bibliographic review plus some years of experience in training for the future teacher allows us to make an initial assessment about the lack of rigor in the tests of access to the university. In conclusion, we can say that, although we are not a specialist in the type of Special Educational Needs that can manifest the students, therefore, we understand that teacher today needs training and support to develop their teaching with the best quality possible. These teacher and student needs also imply more institutional support.

Keywords: Teacher training, special educational needs, music education.

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1128 Lifeworld Research of Teacher Leadership through Educational Interactions with Students in a Classroom: Three Levels

Authors: Vilma Zydziunaite, Vaida Jurgile


The concept of teacher leadership refers to professional actors (employees and leaders) who can exercise control over or influence their work and its environment. The particular interest of the current research is gaining an understanding of how teachers experience leadership through educational interactions with students in a classroom. The aim of the research is to identify how teachers experience leadership in their everyday professional life through educational interactions with students in a classroom. Research questions are focused on essences of teacher leadership what are experienced by school teachers. The lifeworld research was performed in the study. 24 teachers participated in qualitative research. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and analysed by using phenomenological analysis. Findings highlight aspects of teacher leadership through educational interactions with students in a classroom through the contribution to learning and teaching, authenticity, influence, empowerment, respect, equality, acknowledgement, resentment.

Keywords: Classroom, educational interaction, lifeworld research, teacher leadership.

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1127 Differences and Similarities between Concepts of Good, Great, and Leading Teacher

Authors: Vilma Zydziunaite, Vaida Jurgile, Roman Balandiuk


Good, great, and leading teachers are expected to be the role models for students, society, professional community. Their role model includes expertise, trustworthiness, originality, facilitating, cooperation and communication. Teachers demonstrate their professional passion through their professionalism and professional attitudes. Usually, we call them teacher(s) leaders by integrating three notions such as good, great, and leading in a one-teacher leader. Here are described essences of three concepts: ‘good teacher,’ ‘great teacher,’ ‘and teacher leader’ as they are inseparable in teaching practices, teacher’s professional life, and educational interactions with students, fellow teachers, school administration, students’ families and school communities.

Keywords: Great teacher, good teacher, leading teacher, school, student.

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1126 Assessing Secondary School Curricula in the Light of Developing Quality of Life Standards of High School Students

Authors: O. Ali Alghtani, Y. Abdul-Ekhalq Ali, A. Abdul-Ekhalq Ali, A. Al Sadiq Abdul Majeed, N. Attian Al-Mohammadi, O. Mozel Alharbi, S. Mohamed Ismail, O. Ibrahim Asiri


This study assessed the curricula of secondary schools given requirements to enhance the quality of life of students. The components of quality of life were described to build a list of standards and indicators. A questionnaire assessing the dimensions of mental (cognitive and emotional), physical, digital, and social health, and environmental awareness was prepared. A descriptive-analytical approach was used on a sample of 258 teachers and educational supervisors in Tabuk. The results indicated shortcomings in the secondary school curricula regarding developing standards and indicators of components of quality of life. Results also indicated that secondary school curricula incorporated few practices to improve student’s quality of life. No significant differences were found regarding the core subject, job, gender, and years of experience.

Keywords: Assessing curricula, teacher practices, quality of life, Secondary School.

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1125 Education in Technology for Sustainable Development Applied to School Gardens

Authors: Sara Blanc, José V. Benlloch-Dualde, Laura Grindei, Ana C. Torres, Angélica Monteiro


This paper presents a study that leads an experience by introducing digital learning applied to a case study focused on primary and secondary school garden-based education. The approach represents an example for interaction among different education and research agents at different countries and levels, such as universities, public and private researches and schools, to get involved in the implementation of education for sustainable development that will make students become more sensible to natural environment, more responsible for their consumption, more aware about waste reduction and recycling, more conscious of the sustainable use of natural resources and, at the same time, more ‘digitally competent’. The experience was designed attending to the European digital education context and OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) directives in transversal skills education. The paper presents the methodology carried out in the study as well as outcomes obtained from the experience.

Keywords: School gardens, primary education, secondary education, science technology and innovation in education, digital learning, sustainable development goals, university, knowledge transference.

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1124 Emotions Triggered by Children’s Literature Images

Authors: A. Breda, C. Cruz


The role of images/illustrations in communicating meanings and triggering emotions assumes an increasingly relevant role in contemporary texts, regardless of the age group for which they are intended or the nature of the texts that host them. It is no coincidence that children's books are full of illustrations and that the image/text ratio decreases as the age group grows. The vast majority of children's books can be considered as multimodal texts containing text and images/illustrations, interacting with each other, to provide the young reader with a broader and more creative understanding of the book's narrative. This interaction is very diverse, ranging from images/illustrations that are not essential for understanding the storytelling to those that contribute significantly to the meaning of the story. Usually, these books are also read by adults, namely by parents, educators, and teachers who act as mediators between the book and the children, explaining aspects that are or seem to be too complex for the child's context. It should be noted that there are books labeled as children's books, that are clearly intended for both children and adults. In this work, following a qualitative and interpretative methodology based on written productions, participant observation, and field notes, we will describe the perceptions of future teachers of the 1st cycle of basic education, attending a master’s degree at a Portuguese university, about the role of the image in literary and non-literary texts, namely in mathematical texts, and how these can constitute precious resources for emotional regulation and for the design of creative didactic situations. The analysis of the collected data allowed us to obtain evidence regarding the evolution of the participants' perception regarding the crucial role of images in children's literature, not only as an emotional regulator for young readers but also as a creative source for the design of meaningful didactical situations, crossing other scientific areas, other than the mother tongue, namely mathematics.

Keywords: Children’s literature, emotions, multimodal texts, soft skills.

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1123 Examining Foreign Student Visual Perceptions of Online Marketing Tools at a Hungarian University

Authors: Anita Kéri


Higher education marketing has been a widely researched field in recent years. Due to the increasing competition among higher education institutions worldwide, it has become crucial to target foreign students with effective marketing tools. Online marketing tools became central to attracting, retaining, and satisfying the needs of foreign students. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to reveal how the online marketing tools of a Hungarian university are perceived visually by its first-year foreign students, with special emphasis on the university webpage content. Eye-camera tracking and retrospective think aloud interviews were used to measure visual perceptions. Results show that freshmen students remember those online marketing content more that have familiar content on them. Pictures of real-life students and their experiences attract students’ attention more, and they also remember information on these webpage elements more, compared to designs with stock photos. This research uses eye camera tracking in the field of higher education marketing, thereby providing insight into the perception of online higher education marketing for foreign students.

Keywords: Higher education, marketing, eye-camera, visual perception.

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1122 Delineating Students’ Speaking Anxieties and Assessment Gaps in Online Speech Performances

Authors: Mary Jane B. Suarez


Speech anxiety is innumerable in any traditional communication classes especially for ESL students. The speech anxiety intensifies when communication skills assessments have taken its toll in an online mode of learning due to the perils of the COVID-19 virus. Teachers and students have experienced vast ambiguity on how to realize a still effective way to teach and learn various speaking skills amidst the pandemic. This mixed method study determined the factors that affected the public speaking skills of students in online performances, delineated the assessment gaps in assessing speaking skills in an online setup, and recommended ways to address students’ speech anxieties. Using convergent parallel design, quantitative data were gathered by examining the desired learning competencies of the English course including a review of the teacher’s class record to analyze how students’ performances reflected a significantly high level of anxiety in online speech delivery. Focus group discussion was also conducted for qualitative data describing students’ public speaking anxiety and assessment gaps. Results showed a significantly high level of students’ speech anxiety affected by time constraints, use of technology, lack of audience response, being conscious of making mistakes, and the use of English as a second language. The study presented recommendations to redesign curricular assessments of English teachers and to have a robust diagnosis of students’ speaking anxiety to better cater to the needs of learners in attempt to bridge any gaps in cultivating public speaking skills of students as educational institutions segue from the pandemic to the post-pandemic milieu.

Keywords: Blended learning, communication skills assessment, online speech delivery, public speaking anxiety, speech anxiety.

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1121 Assessing Students’ Attitudinal Response towards the Use of Virtual Reality in a Mandatory English Class at a Women’s University in Japan

Authors: Felix David


The use of virtual reality (VR) technology is still in its infancy. This is especially true in a Japanese educational context with very little to no exposition of VR technology inside classrooms. Technology is growing and changing rapidly in America, but Japan seems to be lagging behind in integrating VR into its curriculum. The aim of this research was to expose 111 students from Hiroshima Jogakuin University (HJU) to seven classes that involved VR content and assess students’ attitudinal responses toward this new technology. The students are all female, and they are taking the “Kiso Eigo/基礎英語” or Foundation English course, which is mandatory for all first- and second-year students. Two surveys were given, one before the treatment and a second survey after the treatment, which in this case means the seven VR classes. These surveys first established that the technical environment could accommodate VR activities in terms of internet connection, VR headsets, and the quality of the smartphone’s screen. Based on the attitudinal responses gathered in this research, VR is perceived by students as “fun,” useful to “learn about the world,” as well as being useful to “learn about English.” This research validates VR as a worthy educational tool and it should therefore continue being an integral part of the mandatory English course curriculum at HJU.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, smartphone, English Learning, curriculum.

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1120 Needs of Omani Children in First Grade during Their Transition from Kindergarten to Primary School: An Ethnographic Study

Authors: Zainab Algharibi, Julie McAdam, Catherine Fagan


The purpose of this paper is to shed light on how Omani children in the first grade experience their needs during their transition to primary school. Theoretically, the paper was built on two perspectives: Dewey's concept of continuity of experience and the boundary objects introduced by Vygotsky (CHAT). The methodology of the study is based on the crucial role of children’s agency which is a very important activity as an educational tool to enhance the child’s participation in the learning process and develop their ability to face various issues in their life. Thus, the data were obtained from 45 children in grade one from four different primary schools using drawing and visual narrative activities, in addition to researcher observations during the start of the first weeks of the academic year for the first grade. As the study dealt with children, all of the necessary ethical laws were followed. This paper is considered original since it seeks to deal with the issue of children's transition from kindergarten to primary school not only in Oman, but in the Arab region. Therefore, it is expected to fill an important gap in this field and present a proposal that will be a door for researchers to enter this research field later. The analysis of drawing and visual narrative was performed according to the social semiotics approach in two phases. The first is to read out the surface message “denotation,” while the second is to go in-depth via the symbolism obtained from children while they talked and drew letters and signs. This stage is known as “signified”; a video was recorded of each child talking about their drawing and expressing themself. Then, the data were organised and classified according to a cross-data network. Regarding the researcher observation analyses, the collected data were analysed according to the "grounded theory". It is based on comparing the recent data collected from observations with data previously encoded by other methods in which children were drawing alongside the visual narrative in the current study, in order to identify the similarities and differences, and also to clarify the meaning of the accessed categories and to identify sub-categories of them with a description of possible links between them. This is a kind of triangulation in data collection. The study came up with a set of findings, the most vital being that the children's greatest interest goes to their social and psychological needs, such as friends, their teacher, and playing. Also, their biggest fears are a new place, a new teacher, and not having friends, while they showed less concern for their need for educational knowledge and skills.

Keywords: Children’s academic needs, children’s social needs, children transition, primary school.

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1119 Measuring Principal and Teacher Cultural Competency: A Needs Assessment of Three Proximate PreK-5 Schools

Authors: Teresa Caswell


Throughout the United States and within a myriad of demographic contexts, students of color experience the results of systemic inequities as an academic outcome. These disparities continue despite the increased resources provided to students and ongoing instruction-focused professional learning received by teachers. We postulated that lower levels of educator cultural competency are an underlying factor of why resource and instructional interventions are less effective than desired. Before implementing any type of intervention, however, cultural competency needed to be confirmed as a factor in schools demonstrating academic disparities between racial subgroups. A needs assessment was designed to measure levels of individual beliefs, including cultural competency, in both principals and teachers at three neighboring schools verified to have academic disparities. The resulting mixed method study utilized the Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Development (OTAID) model to measure cultural competency quantitatively, through self-identity inventory survey items, with teachers and qualitatively, through one-on-one interviews, with each school’s principal. A joint display was utilized to see combined data within and across school contexts. Each school was confirmed to have misalignments between principal and teacher levels of cultural competency beliefs while also indicating that a number of participants in the self-identity inventory survey may have intentionally skipped items referencing the term oppression. Additional use of the OTAID model and self-identity inventory in future research and across contexts is needed to determine transferability and dependability as cultural competency measures.

Keywords: Cultural competency, identity development, mixed method analysis, needs assessment.

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1118 Analysis of Initial Entry-Level Technology Course Impacts on STEM Major Selection

Authors: Ethan Shafer, Timothy Graziano, Jay Fisher


This research seeks to answer whether first-year courses at institutions of higher learning can impact STEM major selection. Unlike many universities, an entry-level technology course (often referred to as CS0) is required for all United States Military Academy (USMA) students–regardless of major–in their first year of attendance. Students at the Academy choose their major at the end of their first year of studies. Through student responses to a multi-semester survey, this paper identifies a number of factors that potentially influence STEM major selection. Student demographic data, pre-existing exposure and access to technology, perceptions of STEM subjects, and initial desire for a STEM major are captured before and after taking a CS0 course. An analysis of factors that contribute to student perception of STEM and major selection are presented. This work provides recommendations and suggestions for institutions currently providing or looking to provide CS0-like courses to their students.

Keywords: STEM major, STEM, pedagogy, digital literacy.

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1117 Triangle Issues of Sustainability at the University Level within a Vision of Knowledge Economy and Society

Authors: Ashiquer Rahman


The paper focuses on the importance of the knowledge economy and society, emphasizing the significance of the triangle issues (Innovation, Sustainability, and Higher Education) for building a sustainable campus at the university level and preparing students to face the upcoming sustainability challenges in the competitive and sustainable world. Within a framework of the knowledge economy and society, the paper discusses the significance of sustainable campus, triangle issues and potential action plan for the university level. It makes mention of the emergence of a knowledge-based economy and society as well as the necessity of combining innovation, sustainability, and education to create a sustainable campus at the university level. The paper outlines nine significant issues or challenges related to a sustainable campus that have been emphasized, and cross-linked with each other. Optimistically, it will be a milestone in higher education, a pathway to meet the imminent sustainable challenges of the completive world and be able to manage the knowledge economy and societal system

Keywords: Triangle issues, sustainable campus, higher education, knowledge economy, knowledge society.

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1116 Primary Level Teachers’ Response to Gender Representation in Textbook Contents

Authors: Pragya Paneru


This paper explores altogether 10 primary teachers’ views on gender representation in primary level textbooks. Data were collected from the teachers who taught in private schools in the Kailali and Kathmandu districts. This research uses a semi-structured interview method to obtain information regarding teachers’ attitudes toward gender representations in textbook contents. The interview data were analysed by using critical skills of qualitative research. The findings revealed that most of the teachers were unaware and regarded gender issues as insignificant to discuss in primary-level classes. Most of them responded to the questions personally and claimed that there were no gender issues in their classrooms. Some of the teachers connected gender issues with contexts other than textbook representations such as school discrimination in the distribution of salary among male and female teachers, school practices of awarding girls rather than boys as the most disciplined students, following girls’ first rule in the assembly marching, encouraging only girls in the stage shows, and involving students in gender-specific activities such as decorating works for girls and physical tasks for boys. The interview also revealed teachers’ covert gendered attitudes in their remarks. Nevertheless, most of the teachers accepted that gender-biased contents have an impact on learners and this problem can be solved with more gender-centred research in the education field, discussions, and training to increase awareness regarding gender issues. Agreeing with the suggestion of teachers, this paper recommends proper training and awareness regarding how to confront gender issues in textbooks.

Keywords: Content analysis, gender equality, school education, critical awareness.

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1115 The Functions of the Student Voice and Student-Centered Teaching Practices in Classroom-Based Music Education

Authors: Sofia Douklia


The present context paper aims to present the important role of ‘student voice’ and the music teacher in the classroom, which contributes to more student-centered music education. The aim is to focus on the functions of the student voice through the music spectrum, which has been born in the music classroom, and the teacher’s methodologies and techniques used in the music classroom. The music curriculum, the principles of student-centered music education, and the role of students and teachers as music ambassadors have been considered the major music parameters of student voice. The student- voice is a worth-mentioning aspect of a student-centered education, and all teachers should consider and promote its existence in their classroom.

Keywords: Student’s voice, student-centered education, music ambassadors, music teachers.

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1114 Japanese Language Learning Strategies Based on Gender by Japanese Learners in North Sulawesi Indonesia

Authors: Sherly Ferro Lensun


Strategies influence the language abilities of both male and female learners in the learning process. Therefore, learning strategies are one of the critical factors for improving language learning and are essential as part of the initial learning effort. In general, language learning strategies differ between boys and girls. Therefore, this research aims to obtain a model that investigates the relationship between the selection of learning strategies, their frequency of use, and the learner's gender. In addition, we found differences in strategy use and their impact on language ability between males and females. 137 students participated and completed the questionnaire. There were 48 males (35%) and 90 females (65.7%). It was clear that most of the Japanese learners were women. Findings show that most Japanese learners in North Sulawesi used cognitive and social strategies and methods of involving others in learning Japanese.

Keywords: Learning strategies, Japanese Language, Gender by Japanese Learners, North sulawesi.

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1113 Student Perceptions of Defense Acquisition University Courses: An Explanatory Data Collection Approach

Authors: Melissa C. LaDuke


The overarching purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the current format of online delivery for Defense Acquisition University (DAU) courses and Air Force Acquisition (AFA) personnel participation. AFA personnel (hereafter named “student”) were particularly of interest, as they have been mandated to take anywhere from 3 to 30 online courses to earn various DAU specialization certifications. Participants in this qualitative case study were AFA personnel who pursued DAU certifications in science and technology management, program/contract management, and other related fields. Air Force personnel were interviewed about their experiences with online courses. The data gathered were analyzed and grouped into 12 major themes. The themes tied into the theoretical framework and addressed either teacher-centered or student-centered educational practices within DAU. Based on the results of the data analysis, various factors contributed to student perceptions of DAU courses to include the online course construct and relevance to their job. The analysis also found students want to learn the information presented but would like to be able to apply the information learned in meaningful ways.

Keywords: Educational theory, computer-based training, interview, student perceptions, online course design, teacher positionality.

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1112 Investigating the Impact of Augmented and Virtual Reality on Learning in a Multivariable Calculus Classroom

Authors: Burcu Karabina, Lynn Long, Amanda Garcia


Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applications were offered as supplemental learning experiences to a second-year multivariable calculus class. A framework of research-informed best practices was used to guide selection and application of AR and VR learning technologies. Student feedback indicated that both AR and VR enhanced learning, both would be of value to future students, and learning may be most enhanced when AR and VR are used as complementary learning tools. The simpler technology, AR, was generally preferred, but for specific topics, students felt that the more immersive VR learning experience was especially beneficial. Immersion in the virtual learning environment minimized distractions, allowed students to feel more connected to their learning, and enhanced their ability to visualize and interact with 3D objects. Resolution of identified accessibility concerns could improve students’ overall experience with VR. Future research will explore ways to optimize the complementary effects of the two technologies. Application of research-informed framework of best practices was modelled throughout the study. Results and key resources informed revision and refinement of the framework.

Keywords: Accessibility, augmented reality, best practices, pedagogy, virtual reality.

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1111 Skills Development: The Active Learning Model of a French Computer Science Institute

Authors: N. Paparisteidi, D. Rodamitou


This article focuses on the skills development and path planning of students studying computer science at EPITECH: French private institute of higher education. We examine students’ points of view and experience in a blended learning model based on a skills development curriculum. The study is based on the collection of four main categories of data: semi-participant observation, distribution of questionnaires, interviews, and analysis of internal school databases. The findings seem to indicate that a skills-based program on active learning enables students to develop their learning strategies as well as their personal skills and to actively engage in the creation of their career path and contribute to providing additional information to curricula planners and decision-makers about learning design in higher education.

Keywords: Active learning, blended learning, higher education, skills development.

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1110 Knowledge Acquisition and Client Organisations: Case Study of a Student as Producer

Authors: Barry Ardley, Abi Hunt, Nick Taylor


As a theoretical and practical framework this study uses the student as producer approach to learning in higher education, as adopted by the Lincoln International Business School, University of Lincoln, UK. Student as producer positions learners as skilled and capable agents, able to participate as partners with tutors in live research projects. To illuminate the nature of this approach to learning and to highlight its critical issues, the authors report on two guided student consultancy projects. These were set up with the assistance of two local organisations in the city of Lincoln UK. Using the student as producer model to deliver the projects enabled learners to acquire and develop a range of key skills and knowledge, not easily accessible in more traditional educational settings. This paper presents a systematic case study analysis of the eight organising principles of the student as producer model, as adopted by university tutors. The experience of tutors implementing student as producer suggests that the model can be widely applied to benefit not only the learning and teaching experiences of higher education students, and staff, but additionally, a university’s research programme and its community partners.

Keywords: Experiential learning, consultancy clients, student as producer.

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1109 Nurturing National Progress: The Crucial Role of Philosophy and Education in the Post-Pandemic Era

Authors: Aldrin R. Logdat


Philosophy offers a systematic approach to reflective, logical, and innovative thinking, which involves a thorough investigation of various concepts. On the other hand, national development encompasses a country’s ability to embrace its unique identity and take charge of its future. Education, meanwhile, provides individuals with enlightening experiences and specialized training in different fields. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how philosophy and education can serve as catalysts for national progress. Given the Philippines' diverse socio-cultural, religious, ethnic, and political backgrounds, this study seeks to answer two crucial questions: Can the country achieve development despite its differences? If that is the case, what are the critical elements propelling this advancement? By means of historical interpretation and philosophical analysis, this article posits that philosophy and education are essential components in driving the country's progress in the era following the pandemic.

Keywords: Philosophy, national progress, educational discourse, pandemic.

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1108 Information Construction of Higher Education in Teaching Practice

Authors: Yang Meng, James L. Patnao


With the rapid development of information technology and the impact of the epidemic environment, the traditional teaching model can no longer meet the requirements of the development of the times. The development of teaching mechanisms is the inevitable trend of the future development of higher education. We must further promote the informatization of higher education in teaching practice, let modern information technology penetrate and practice in classroom teaching, and provide promising opportunities for the high-quality development of higher education. This article, mainly through the distribution of questionnaires to teachers of colleges and universities, aims to understand the degree of informatization in the teaching of colleges and universities. And on the basis of domestic and foreign scholars' research on higher education informatization, it analyzes the existing problems, and finds the optimal solution based on the needs of education and teaching development. According to the survey results, most college teachers will use information technology in teaching practice, but the information technology teaching tools used by teachers are relatively simple, and most of them use only slides. In addition, backward informatization infrastructure and less informatization training are the main challenges facing the current teaching informatization construction. If colleges and universities can make good use of information technology and multimedia technology and combine it with traditional teaching, it will definitely promote the development of college education and further promote the modernization and informatization of higher education.

Keywords: Higher education, teaching practice, informatization construction, e-education.

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1107 Start Talking in an e-Learning Environment: Building and Sustaining Communities of Practice

Authors: Melissa C. LaDuke


The purpose of this targeted analysis was to identify the use of online communities of practice (CoP) within e-learning environments as a method to build social interaction and student-centered educational experiences. A literature review was conducted to survey and collect scholarly thoughts concerning CoPs from a variety of sources. Data collected included best practices, ties to educational theories, and examples of online CoPs. Social interaction has been identified as a critical piece of the learning infrastructure, specifically for adult learners. CoPs are an effective way to help students connect to each other and the material of interest. The use of CoPs falls in line with many educational theories, including situated learning theory, social constructivism, connectivism, adult learning theory, and motivation. New literacies such as social media and gamification can help increase social interaction in online environments and provide methods to host CoPs. Steps to build and sustain a CoP were discussed in addition to CoP considerations and best practices.

Keywords: Community of practice, knowledge sharing, social interaction, online course design, new literacies.

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