Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9734

Search results for: twin tail MAV design

9734 3D Numerical Studies and Design Optimization of a Swallowtail Butterfly with Twin Tail

Authors: Arunkumar Balamurugan, G. Soundharya Lakshmi, V. Thenmozhi, M. Jegannath, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

Aerodynamics of insects is of topical interest in aeronautical industries due to its wide applications on various types of Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). Note that the MAVs are having smaller geometric dimensions operate at significantly lower speeds on the order of 10 m/s and their Reynolds numbers range is approximately 1,50,000 or lower. In this paper, numerical study has been carried out to capture the flow physics of a biological inspired Swallowtail Butterfly with fixed wing having twin tail at a flight speed of 10 m/s. Comprehensive numerical simulations have been carried out on swallow butterfly with twin tail flying at a speed of 10 m/s with uniform upper and lower angles of attack in both lateral and longitudinal position for identifying the best wing orientation with better aerodynamic efficiency. Grid system in the computational domain is selected after a detailed grid refinement exercises. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out with different lateral and longitudinal angles of attack for finding the better aerodynamic efficiency at the same flight speed. The results reveal that lift coefficient significantly increases with marginal changes in the longitudinal angle and vice versa. But in the case of drag coefficient the conventional changes have been noticed, viz., drag increases at high longitudinal angles. We observed that the change of twin tail section has a significant impact on the formation of vortices and aerodynamic efficiency of the MAV’s. We concluded that for every lateral angle there is an exact longitudinal orientation for the existence of an aerodynamically efficient flying condition of any MAV. This numerical study is a pointer towards for the design optimization of Twin tail MAVs with flapping wings.

Keywords: aerodynamics of insects, MAV, swallowtail butterfly, twin tail MAV design

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9733 Effects of X and + Tail-Body Configurations on Hydrodynamic Performance and Stability of An Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Kadri Koçer, Sezer Kefeli

Abstract:

This paper proposes a comparison of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for an underwater vehicle which has two type of tail design, namely X and +tail-body configurations. The effects of these configurations on the underwater vehicle’s hydrodynamic performance and maneuvering characteristic will be investigated comprehensively. Hydrodynamic damping coefficients for modeling the motion of the underwater vehicles will be predicted. Additionally, forces and moments due to control surfaces will be compared using computational fluid dynamics methods. In the aviation, the X tail-body configuration is widely used for high maneuverability requirements. However, in the underwater, the + tail-body configuration is more commonly used than the X tail-body configuration for its stability characteristics. Thus it is important to see the effect and differences of the tail designs in the underwater world. For CFD analysis, the incompressible, three-dimensional, and steady Navier-Stokes equations will be used to simulate the flows. Also, k-ε Realizable turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment will be taken. Numerical results is verified with experimental results for verification. The overall goal of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for X and + tail-body configurations of the underwater vehicle.

Keywords: maneuverability, stability, CFD, tail configuration, hydrodynamic design

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9732 Estimation of the Upper Tail Dependence Coefficient for Insurance Loss Data Using an Empirical Copula-Based Approach

Authors: Adrian O'Hagan, Robert McLoughlin

Abstract:

Considerable focus in the world of insurance risk quantification is placed on modeling loss values from lines of business (LOBs) that possess upper tail dependence. Copulas such as the Joe, Gumbel and Student-t copula may be used for this purpose. The copula structure imparts a desired level of tail dependence on the joint distribution of claims from the different LOBs. Alternatively, practitioners may possess historical or simulated data that already exhibit upper tail dependence, through the impact of catastrophe events such as hurricanes or earthquakes. In these circumstances, it is not desirable to induce additional upper tail dependence when modeling the joint distribution of the loss values from the individual LOBs. Instead, it is of interest to accurately assess the degree of tail dependence already present in the data. The empirical copula and its associated upper tail dependence coefficient are presented in this paper as robust, efficient means of achieving this goal.

Keywords: empirical copula, extreme events, insurance loss reserving, upper tail dependence coefficient

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9731 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, citation, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP

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9730 Tail-Binding Effect of Kinesin-1 Auto Inhibition Using Elastic Network Model

Authors: Hyun Joon Chang, Jae In Kim, Sungsoo Na

Abstract:

Kinesin-1 (hereafter called kinesin) is a molecular motor protein that moves cargos toward the end of microtubules using the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. When kinesin is inactive, its tail autoinhibits the motor chain in order to prevent from reacting with the ATP by cross-linking of the tail domain to the motor domains at two positions. However, the morphological study of kinesin during autoinhibition is yet remained obscured. In this study, we report the effect of the binding site of the tail domain using the normal mode analysis of the elastic network model on kinesin in the tail-free form and tail-bind form. Considering the relationship between the connectivity of conventional network model with respect to the cutoff length and the functionality of the binding site of the tail, we revaluated the network model to observe the key role of the tail domain in its structural aspect. Contingent on the existence of the tail domain, the results suggest the morphological stability of the motor domain. Furthermore, employing the results from normal mode analysis, we have determined the strain energy of the neck linker, an essential portion of the motor domain for ATP hydrolysis. The results of the neck linker also converge to the same indication, i.e. the morphological analysis of the motor domain.

Keywords: elastic network model, Kinesin-1, autoinhibition

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
9729 Variation of Base Width of a Typical Concrete Gravity Dam under Different Seismic Conditions Using Static Seismic Loading

Authors: Prasanna Kumar Khaund, Sukanya Talukdar

Abstract:

A concrete gravity dam is a major hydraulic structure and it is very essential to consider the earthquake forces, to get a proper design base width, so that the entire weight of the dam resists the overturning moment due to earthquake and other forces. The main objective of this study is to obtain the design base width of a dam for different seismic conditions by varying the earthquake coefficients in both vertical and horizontal directions. This shall be done by equating the factor of safety against overturning, factor of safety against sliding and factor of safety against shear friction factor for a dam with their limiting values, under both tail water and no tail water condition. The shape of the Mettur dam in India is considered for the study. The study has been done taking a constant head of water at the reservoir, which is the maximum reservoir water level and a constant height of tail water. Using linear approximation method of Newton Raphson, the obtained equations against different factors of safety under different earthquake conditions are solved using a programme in C++ to get different values of base width of dam for varying earthquake conditions.

Keywords: design base width, horizontal earthquake coefficient, tail water, vertical earthquake coefficient

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9728 Fat-Tail Test of Regulatory DNA Sequences

Authors: Jian-Jun Shu

Abstract:

The statistical properties of CRMs are explored by estimating similar-word set occurrence distribution. It is observed that CRMs tend to have a fat-tail distribution for similar-word set occurrence. Thus, the fat-tail test with two fatness coefficients is proposed to distinguish CRMs from non-CRMs, especially from exons. For the first fatness coefficient, the separation accuracy between CRMs and exons is increased as compared with the existing content-based CRM prediction method – fluffy-tail test. For the second fatness coefficient, the computing time is reduced as compared with fluffy-tail test, making it very suitable for long sequences and large data-base analysis in the post-genome time. Moreover, these indexes may be used to predict the CRMs which have not yet been observed experimentally. This can serve as a valuable filtering process for experiment.

Keywords: statistical approach, transcription factor binding sites, cis-regulatory modules, DNA sequences

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
9727 A Long Tail Study of eWOM Communities

Authors: M. Olmedilla, M. R. Martinez-Torres, S. L. Toral

Abstract:

Electronic Word-Of-Mouth (eWOM) communities represent today an important source of information in which more and more customers base their purchasing decisions. They include thousands of reviews concerning very different products and services posted by many individuals geographically distributed all over the world. Due to their massive audience, eWOM communities can help users to find the product they are looking for even if they are less popular or rare. This is known as the long tail effect, which leads to a larger number of lower-selling niche products. This paper analyzes the long tail effect in a well-known eWOM community and defines a tool for finding niche products unavailable through conventional channels.

Keywords: eWOM, online user reviews, long tail theory, product categorization, social network analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
9726 A Methodology for Characterising the Tail Behaviour of a Distribution

Authors: Serge Provost, Yishan Zang

Abstract:

Following a review of various approaches that are utilized for classifying the tail behavior of a distribution, an easily implementable methodology that relies on an arctangent transformation is presented. The classification criterion is actually based on the difference between two specific quantiles of the transformed distribution. The resulting categories enable one to classify distributional tails as distinctly short, short, nearly medium, medium, extended medium and somewhat long, providing that at least two moments exist. Distributions possessing a single moment are said to be long tailed while those failing to have any finite moments are classified as having an extremely long tail. Several illustrative examples will be presented.

Keywords: arctangent transformation, tail classification, heavy-tailed distributions, distributional moments

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9725 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç

Abstract:

Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
9724 Study and Simulation of a Dynamic System Using Digital Twin

Authors: J.P. Henriques, E. R. Neto, G. Almeida, G. Ribeiro, J.V. Coutinho, A.B. Lugli

Abstract:

Industry 4.0, or the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is transforming the relationship between people and machines. In this scenario, some technologies such as Cloud Computing, Internet of Things, Augmented Reality, Artificial Intelligence, Additive Manufacturing, among others, are making industries and devices increasingly intelligent. One of the most powerful technologies of this new revolution is the Digital Twin, which allows the virtualization of a real system or process. In this context, the present paper addresses the linear and nonlinear dynamic study of a didactic level plant using Digital Twin. In the first part of the work, the level plant is identified at a fixed point of operation, BY using the existing method of least squares means. The linearized model is embedded in a Digital Twin using Automation Studio® from Famous Technologies. Finally, in order to validate the usage of the Digital Twin in the linearized study of the plant, the dynamic response of the real system is compared to the Digital Twin. Furthermore, in order to develop the nonlinear model on a Digital Twin, the didactic level plant is identified by using the method proposed by Hammerstein. Different steps are applied to the plant, and from the Hammerstein algorithm, the nonlinear model is obtained for all operating ranges of the plant. As for the linear approach, the nonlinear model is embedded in the Digital Twin, and the dynamic response is compared to the real system in different points of operation. Finally, yet importantly, from the practical results obtained, one can conclude that the usage of Digital Twin to study the dynamic systems is extremely useful in the industrial environment, taking into account that it is possible to develop and tune controllers BY using the virtual model of the real systems.

Keywords: industry 4.0, digital twin, system identification, linear and nonlinear models

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9723 A Low Phase Noise CMOS LC Oscillator with Tail Current-Shaping

Authors: Amir Mahdavi

Abstract:

In this paper, a circuit topology of voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) which is suitable for ultra-low-phase noise operations is introduced. To do so, a new low phase noise cross-coupled oscillator by using the general topology of cross-coupled oscillator and adding a differential stage for tail current shaping is designed. In addition, a tail current shaping technique to improve phase noise in differential LC VCOs is presented. The tail current becomes large when the oscillator output voltage arrives at the maximum or minimum value and when the sensitivity of the output phase to the noise is the smallest. Also, the tail current becomes small when the phase noise sensitivity is large. The proposed circuit does not use extra power and extra noisy active devices. Furthermore, this topology occupies small area. Simulation results show the improvement in phase noise by 2.5dB under the same conditions and at the carrier frequency of 1 GHz for GSM applications. The power consumption of the proposed circuit is 2.44 mW and the figure of merit (FOM) with -192.2 dBc/Hz is achieved for the new oscillator.

Keywords: LC oscillator, low phase noise, current shaping, diff mode

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9722 Virtualization of Production Using Digital Twin Technology

Authors: Bohuslava Juhasova, Igor Halenar, Martin Juhas

Abstract:

The contribution deals with the current situation in modern manufacturing enterprises, which is affected by digital virtualization of different parts of the production process. The overview part of this article points to the fact, that wide informatization of all areas causes substitution of real elements and relationships between them with their digital, often virtual images, in real practice. Key characteristics of the systems implemented using digital twin technology along with essential conditions for intelligent products deployment were identified across many published studies. The goal was to propose a template for the production system realization using digital twin technology as a supplement to standardized concepts for Industry 4.0. The main resulting idea leads to the statement that the current trend of implementation of the new technologies and ways of communication between industrial facilities erases the boundaries between the real environment and the virtual world.

Keywords: communication, digital twin, Industry 4.0, simulation, virtualization

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9721 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

Authors: Zhao Cai-qi, Ma Jun

Abstract:

Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimate bearing capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. The analysis results indicate that:(1)the initial shear stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete,(2)both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in the construction of a 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls have great potential for future research and applications.

Keywords: twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall, huge statue of Buddha, shear capacity, initial lateral stiffness, overturning moment bearing

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
9720 Public Wi-Fi Security Threat Evil Twin Attack Detection Based on Signal Variant and Hop Count

Authors: Said Abdul Ahad Ahadi, Elyas Baray, Nitin Rakesh, Sudeep Varshney

Abstract:

Wi-Fi is a widely used internet source that is used to provide internet access in many areas such as Stores, Cafes, University campuses, Restaurants and so on. This technology brought more facilities in communication and networking. On the other hand, due to the transmission of data over the air, which makes the network vulnerable, so it becomes prone to various threats such as Evil Twin and etc. The Evil Twin is a kind of adversary which impersonates a legitimate access point (LAP) as it can happen by spoofing the name (SSID) and MAC address (BSSID) of a legitimate access point (LAP). And this attack can cause many threats such as MITM, Service Interruption, Access point service blocking. Various Evil Twin Attack Detection Techniques are proposed, but they require additional hardware, or they require protocol modification. In this paper, we proposed a new technique based on Access Point’s two fingerprints, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and Hop Count, that is hard to copy by an adversary. And we implemented the technique in a system called “ETDetector,” which can detect and prevent the attack.

Keywords: evil twin, LAP, SSID, Wi-Fi security, signal variation, ETAD, kali linux, scapy, python

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9719 Non-Linear Numerical Modeling of the Interaction of Twin Tunnels-Structure

Authors: A. Bayoumi, M. Abdallah, F. Hage Chehade

Abstract:

Structures on the ground surface bear impact from the tunneling-induced settlement, especially when twin tunnels are constructed. The tunneling influence on the structure is considered as a critical issue based on the construction procedure and relative position of tunnels. Lebanon is suffering from a traffic phenomenon caused by the lack of transportation systems. After several traffic counts and geotechnical investigations in Beirut city, efforts aim for the construction of tunneling systems. In this paper, we present a non-linear numerical modeling of the effect of the twin tunnels constructions on the structures located at soil surface for a particular site in Beirut. A parametric study, which concerns the geometric configuration of tunnels, the distance between their centers, the construction order, and the position of the structure, is performed. The tunnel-soil-structure interaction is analyzed by using the non-linear finite element modeling software PLAXIS 2D. The results of the surface settlement and the bending moment of the structure reveal significant influence when the structure is moved away, especially in vertical aligned tunnels.

Keywords: bending moment, elastic modulus, horizontal twin tunnels, soil, structure location, surface settlement, vertical twin tunnels

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9718 Reverse Twin Block with Expansion Screw for Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patient: Case Report

Authors: Alfrina Marwan, Erna Sulistyawati

Abstract:

Class III malocclusion shows both skeletal and dentoalveolar component. Sketal Class III malocclusion can have variants in different region, maxilla or mandibular. Skeletal Class III malocclusion during growth period is considered to treat to prevent its severity in adulthood. Orthopedics treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient can be treated by using reverse twin block with expansion screw to modify the growth pattern. The objective of this case report was to describe the functional correction of skeletal Class III maloclussion using reverse twin block with expansion screw in growing patient. A patient with concave profile came with a chief complaint of aesthetic problems. The cephalometric analysis showed that patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB -50, SNA 75º, Wits appraisal -3 mm) with anterior cross bite and deep bite (overjet -3 mm, overbite 6 mm). In this case report, the patient was treated with reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw. After three months of treatment, the skeletal problems have been corrected (ANB -1°), overjet, overbite and aesthetic were improved. Reverse twin block appliance with expansion screw can be used as orthopedics treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing patient and can improve the aesthetic with great satisfaction which was the main complaint in this patient.

Keywords: maxilla retrognatism, reverse twin block, skeletal class III malocclusion, growing patient

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
9717 An Epsilon Hierarchical Fuzzy Twin Support Vector Regression

Authors: Arindam Chaudhuri

Abstract:

The research presents epsilon- hierarchical fuzzy twin support vector regression (epsilon-HFTSVR) based on epsilon-fuzzy twin support vector regression (epsilon-FTSVR) and epsilon-twin support vector regression (epsilon-TSVR). Epsilon-FTSVR is achieved by incorporating trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to epsilon-TSVR which takes care of uncertainty existing in forecasting problems. Epsilon-FTSVR determines a pair of epsilon-insensitive proximal functions by solving two related quadratic programming problems. The structural risk minimization principle is implemented by introducing regularization term in primal problems of epsilon-FTSVR. This yields dual stable positive definite problems which improves regression performance. Epsilon-FTSVR is then reformulated as epsilon-HFTSVR consisting of a set of hierarchical layers each containing epsilon-FTSVR. Experimental results on both synthetic and real datasets reveal that epsilon-HFTSVR has remarkable generalization performance with minimum training time.

Keywords: regression, epsilon-TSVR, epsilon-FTSVR, epsilon-HFTSVR

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9716 Optimum Flight Altitude

Authors: Ravi Nandu, Anmol Taploo

Abstract:

As per current scenario, commercial aircrafts have been very well functioning with higher efficiency, but there is something that affects it. Every aircraft runs with the combustion produced by mixture of fuel and air. For example: A flight to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata it takes 2h: 30 min and from Kolkata to Mumbai it takes 2h: 45 min. It happens due to head and tail wind. Due to head wind air craft travels faster than its usual velocity and it takes 2h: 30 min to reach to Kolkata, while it takes 2h;45min vis versa. This lag in time is caused due to head wind that increases the drag and reduces the relative velocity of the plane. So in order to reduce this wastage of fuel there is an optimal flight altitude at which the head and tail wind action is reduced compared to the present scenario.

Keywords: drag, head wind, tail wind, aircraft

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
9715 Effect of Twin Cavities on the Axially Loaded Pile in Clay

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

Presence of cavities in soil predictably induces ground deformation and changes in soil stress, which might influence adjacent existing pile foundations, though the effect of twin cavities on a nearby pile needs to be understood. This research is an attempt to identify the behaviour of piles subjected to axial load and embedded in cavitied clayey soil. A series of finite element modelling were conducted to investigate the performance of piled foundation located in such soils. The validity of the numerical simulation was evaluated by comparing it with available field test and alternative analytical model. The study involved many parameters such as twin cavities size, depth, spacing between cavities, and eccentricity of cavities from the pile axis on the pile performance subjected to axial load. The study involved many cases; in each case, a critical value has been found in which cavities’ presence has shown minimum impact on the behaviour of pile. Load-displacement relationships of the affecting parameters on the pile behaviour were presented to provide helpful information for designing piled foundation situated near twin underground cavities. It was concluded that the presence of the cavities within the soil mass reduces the ultimate capacity of pile. This reduction differs according to the size and location of the cavity.

Keywords: axial load, clay, finite element, pile, twin cavities, ultimate capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
9714 Developing a Maturity Model of Digital Twin Application for Infrastructure Asset Management

Authors: Qingqing Feng, S. Thomas Ng, Frank J. Xu, Jiduo Xing

Abstract:

Faced with unprecedented challenges including aging assets, lack of maintenance budget, overtaxed and inefficient usage, and outcry for better service quality from the society, today’s infrastructure systems has become the main focus of many metropolises to pursue sustainable urban development and improve resilience. Digital twin, being one of the most innovative enabling technologies nowadays, may open up new ways for tackling various infrastructure asset management (IAM) problems. Digital twin application for IAM, as its name indicated, represents an evolving digital model of intended infrastructure that possesses functions including real-time monitoring; what-if events simulation; and scheduling, maintenance, and management optimization based on technologies like IoT, big data and AI. Up to now, there are already vast quantities of global initiatives of digital twin applications like 'Virtual Singapore' and 'Digital Built Britain'. With digital twin technology permeating the IAM field progressively, it is necessary to consider the maturity of the application and how those institutional or industrial digital twin application processes will evolve in future. In order to deal with the gap of lacking such kind of benchmark, a draft maturity model is developed for digital twin application in the IAM field. Firstly, an overview of current smart cities maturity models is given, based on which the draft Maturity Model of Digital Twin Application for Infrastructure Asset Management (MM-DTIAM) is developed for multi-stakeholders to evaluate and derive informed decision. The process of development follows a systematic approach with four major procedures, namely scoping, designing, populating and testing. Through in-depth literature review, interview and focus group meeting, the key domain areas are populated, defined and iteratively tuned. Finally, the case study of several digital twin projects is conducted for self-verification. The findings of the research reveal that: (i) the developed maturity model outlines five maturing levels leading to an optimised digital twin application from the aspects of strategic intent, data, technology, governance, and stakeholders’ engagement; (ii) based on the case study, levels 1 to 3 are already partially implemented in some initiatives while level 4 is on the way; and (iii) more practices are still needed to refine the draft to be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive in key domain areas.

Keywords: digital twin, infrastructure asset management, maturity model, smart city

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9713 Melt Conditioned-Twin Roll Casting of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Sanjeev Das

Abstract:

In the present investigation, magnesium strips were produced by twin roll casting (TRC) and melt conditioned twin roll casting (MC-TRC) processes. The microstructures showed uniform fine equiaxed grain morphology in the case of MC-TRC cast samples. In the case of TRC samples elongated grains with centerline segregation was observed. Further investigation showed both the process has different solidification mechanism. Tensile tests were performed at 250–400ºC for both TRC and MCTRC samples. At 250ºC, MC-TRC sample showed significant improvement in strength and ductility. However, at higher temperatures the tensile properties were almost comparable, despite of TRC samples having larger grains compared to MC-TRC samples. It was observed that homogenized MC-TRC samples were easily hot stamped compared to TRC samples.

Keywords: MC-TRC, magnesium alloy, solidification, nucleation

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9712 A Digital Twin Approach for Sustainable Territories Planning: A Case Study on District Heating

Authors: Ahmed Amrani, Oussama Allali, Amira Ben Hamida, Felix Defrance, Stephanie Mormland, Eva Pineau, Thomas Lacroix

Abstract:

The energy planning process is a very complex task that involves several stakeholders and requires the consideration of several local and global factors and constraints. In order to optimize and simplify this process, we propose a tool-based iterative approach applied to district heating planning. We build our tool with the collaboration of a French territory using actual district data and implementing the European incentives. We set up an iterative process including data visualization and analysis, identification and extraction of information related to the area concerned by the operation, design of sustainable planning scenarios leveraging local renewable and recoverable energy sources, and finally, the evaluation of scenarios. The last step is performed by a dynamic digital twin replica of the city. Territory’s energy experts confirm that the tool provides them with valuable support towards sustainable energy planning.

Keywords: climate change, data management, decision support, digital twin, district heating, energy planning, renewables, smart city

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9711 Financial Regulation and the Twin Peaks Model in a Developing and Developed Country Contexts: An Institutional Theory Perspective

Authors: Pumela Msweli, Dexter L. Ryneveldt

Abstract:

This paper seeks to shed light on institutional logics and institutionalization processes that influence the successful implementation of financial sector regulations. We use the neo-institutional theory lens to interrogate how the newly promulgated Financial Sector Regulations Act (FSRA) provides for the institutionalisation of the Twin Peaks Model. With the enactment of FSRA, previous financial regulatory institutions were dismantled, and new financial regulators established. In point, the Financial Services Conduct Authority (FSCA) replaced the Financial Services Board (FSB), and accordingly, the Prudential Authority (PA) was established. FSRA is layered with complexities that make it mandatory to co-exist, cooperate, and collaborate with other institutions to fulfill FSRA’s overall financial stability objective. We use content analysis of the financial regulations that established the Twin Peaks Models (TPM) in South Africa and in the Netherlands, to map out the three-stage institutionalization processes: (1) habitualisation, (2) objectification and (3) sedimentation. This allowed for a comparison of how South Africa, as a developing country and Netherlands as a developed country, have institutionalized the Twin Peak model. We provide valuable insights into how differences in the institutional and societal logics of the developing and developed contexts shape the institutionalization of financial regulations.

Keywords: financial industry, financial regulation, financial stability, institutionalisation, habitualization, objectification, sedimentation, twin peaks model

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9710 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Single and Twin Offshore Rubble Mound Breakwaters under Regular and Random Waves

Authors: M. Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Z. Al-Zaqah

Abstract:

This paper investigates the interaction of single and twin offshore rubble mound breakwaters with regular and random water waves through physical modeling to assess their reflection, transmission and energy dissipation characteristics. Various combinations of wave heights and wave periods were utilized in a series of experiments, along with three different water depths. The single and twin permeable breakwater models were both constructed with one layer of rubbles. Both models had the same total volume; however, the single breakwater was of trapezoidal type while the twin breakwaters were of triangular type. Physical modeling experiments were carried out in the wave flume of the coastal engineering laboratory of Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Measurements of the six wave probes which were fixed in the two-dimensional wave flume were collected and used to determine the generated incident wave heights, as well as the reflected and transmitted wave heights resulting from the wave-breakwater interaction. The possible factors affecting the wave attenuation efficiency of the breakwater models are the relative water depth (d/L), wave steepness (H/L), relative wave height ((h-d)/Hi), relative height of the breakwater (h/d), and relative clear spacing between the twin breakwaters (S/h). The results indicated that the single and double breakwaters show different responds to the change in their relative height as well as the relative wave height which demonstrates that the effect of the relative water depth on wave reflection, transmission, and energy dissipation is highly influenced by the change in the relative breakwater height, the relative wave height and the relative breakwater spacing. In general, within the range of the relative water depth tested in this study, and under both regular and random waves, it is found that the single breakwater allows for lower wave transmission and shows higher energy dissipation effect than both of the tested twin breakwaters, and hence has the best overall performance.

Keywords: random waves, regular waves, relative water depth, relative wave height, single breakwater, twin breakwater, wave steepness

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9709 Autonomous Flight Performance Improvement of Load-Carrying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Active Morphing

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed, Murat Aydin, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Mustafa Soylak

Abstract:

In this paper, it is aimed to improve autonomous flight performance of a load-carrying (payload: 3 kg and total: 6kg) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through active wing and horizontal tail active morphing and also integrated autopilot system parameters (i.e. P, I, D gains) and UAV parameters (i.e. extension ratios of wing and horizontal tail during flight) design. For this purpose, a loadcarrying UAV (i.e. ZANKA-II) is manufactured in Erciyes University, College of Aviation, Model Aircraft Laboratory is benefited. Optimum values of UAV parameters and autopilot parameters are obtained using a stochastic optimization method. Using this approach autonomous flight performance of UAV is substantially improved and also in some adverse weather conditions an opportunity for safe flight is satisfied. Active morphing and integrated design approach gives confidence, high performance and easy-utility request of UAV users.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles, morphing, autopilots, autonomous performance

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9708 A Descriptive Study on Comparison of Maternal and Perinatal Outcome of Twin Pregnancies Conceived Spontaneously and by Assisted Conception Methods

Authors: Aishvarya Gupta, Keerthana Anand, Sasirekha Rengaraj, Latha Chathurvedula

Abstract:

Introduction: Advances in assisted reproductive technology and increase in the proportion of infertile couples have both contributed to the steep increase in the incidence of twin pregnancies in past decades. Maternal and perinatal complications are higher in twins than in singleton pregnancies. Studies comparing the maternal and perinatal outcomes of ART twin pregnancies versus spontaneously conceived twin pregnancies report heterogeneous results making it unclear whether the complications are due to twin gestation per se or because of assisted reproductive techniques. The present study aims to compare both maternal and perinatal outcomes in twin pregnancies which are spontaneously conceived and after assisted conception methods, so that targeted steps can be undertaken in order to improve maternal and perinatal outcome of twins. Objectives: To study perinatal and maternal outcome in twin pregnancies conceived spontaneously as well as with assisted methods and compare the outcomes between the two groups. Setting: Women delivering at JIPMER (tertiary care institute), Pondicherry. Population: 380 women with twin pregnancies who delivered in JIPMER between June 2015 and March 2017 were included in the study. Methods: The study population was divided into two cohorts – one conceived by spontaneous conception and other by assisted reproductive methods. Association of various maternal and perinatal outcomes with the method of conception was assessed using chi square test or Student's t test as appropriate. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to assess the independent association of assisted conception with maternal outcomes after adjusting for age, parity and BMI. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to assess the independent association of assisted conception with perinatal outcomes after adjusting for age, parity, BMI, chorionicity, gestational age at delivery and presence of hypertension or gestational diabetes in the mother. A p value of < 0.05 was considered as significant. Result: There was increased proportion of women with GDM (21% v/s 4.29%) and premature rupture of membranes (35% v/s 22.85%) in the assisted conception group and more anemic women in the spontaneous group (71.27% v/s 55.1%). However assisted conception per se increased the incidence of GDM among twin gestations (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.34 – 8.61) and did not influence any of the other maternal outcomes. Among the perinatal outcomes, assisted conception per se increased the risk of having very preterm (<32 weeks) neonates (OR 3.013, 95% CI 1.432 – 6.337). The mean birth weight did not significantly differ between the two groups (p = 0.429). Though there were higher proportion of babies admitted to NICU in the assisted conception group (48.48% v/s 36.43%), assisted conception per se did not increase the risk of admission to NICU (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.76 – 1.98). There was no significant difference in perinatal mortality rates between the two groups (p = 0.829). Conclusion: Assisted conception per se increases the risk of developing GDM in women with twin gestation and increases the risk of delivering very preterm babies. Hence measures should be taken to ensure appropriate screening methods for GDM and suitable neonatal care in such pregnancies.

Keywords: assisted conception, maternal outcomes, perinatal outcomes, twin gestation

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9707 Fatigue Analysis and Life Estimation of the Helicopter Horizontal Tail under Cyclic Loading by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Defne Uz

Abstract:

Horizontal Tail of helicopter is exposed to repeated oscillatory loading generated by aerodynamic and inertial loads, and bending moments depending on operating conditions and maneuvers of the helicopter. In order to ensure that maximum stress levels do not exceed certain fatigue limit of the material and to prevent damage, a numerical analysis approach can be utilized through the Finite Element Method. Therefore, in this paper, fatigue analysis of the Horizontal Tail model is studied numerically to predict high-cycle and low-cycle fatigue life related to defined loading. The analysis estimates the stress field at stress concentration regions such as around fastener holes where the maximum principal stresses are considered for each load case. Critical element identification of the main load carrying structural components of the model with rivet holes is performed as a post-process since critical regions with high-stress values are used as an input for fatigue life calculation. Once the maximum stress is obtained at the critical element and the related mean and alternating components, it is compared with the endurance limit by applying Soderberg approach. The constant life straight line provides the limit for several combinations of mean and alternating stresses. The life calculation based on S-N (Stress-Number of Cycles) curve is also applied with fully reversed loading to determine the number of cycles corresponds to the oscillatory stress with zero means. The results determine the appropriateness of the design of the model for its fatigue strength and the number of cycles that the model can withstand for the calculated stress. The effect of correctly determining the critical rivet holes is investigated by analyzing stresses at different structural parts in the model. In the case of low life prediction, alternative design solutions are developed, and flight hours can be estimated for the fatigue safe operation of the model.

Keywords: fatigue analysis, finite element method, helicopter horizontal tail, life prediction, stress concentration

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9706 Dynamic Interaction between Two Neighboring Tunnels in a Layered Half-Space

Authors: Chao He, Shunhua Zhou, Peijun Guo

Abstract:

The vast majority of existing underground railway lines consist of twin tunnels. In this paper, the dynamic interaction between two neighboring tunnels in a layered half-space is investigated by an analytical model. The two tunnels are modelled as cylindrical thin shells, while the soil in the form of a layered half-space with two cylindrical cavities is simulated by the elastic continuum theory. The transfer matrix method is first used to derive the relationship between the plane wave vectors in arbitrary layers and the source layer. Thereafter, the wave translation and transformation are introduced to determine the plane and cylindrical wave vectors in the source layer. The solution for the dynamic interaction between twin tunnels in a layered half-space is obtained by means of the compatibility of displacements and equilibrium of stresses on the two tunnel–soil interfaces. By coupling the proposed model with a fully track model, the train-induced vibrations from twin tunnels in a multi-layered half-space are investigated. The numerical results demonstrate that the existence of a neighboring tunnel has a significant effect on ground vibrations.

Keywords: underground railway, twin tunnels, wave translation and transformation, transfer matrix method

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9705 Impact of Twin Therapeutic Approaches on Certain Biophysiological Parameters among Breast Cancer Patients after Breast Surgery at Selected Hospital

Authors: Selvia Arokiya Mary

Abstract:

Introduction: Worldwide, breast cancer comprises 10.4% of all cancer incidence among women. In 2004, breast cancer caused 519,000 deaths worldwide (7% of cancer deaths; almost 1% of all deaths). Many women who undergo breast surgery suffer from ill-defined pain syndromes. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: A study to assess the effectiveness of twin therapeutic approaches on certain bio-physiological parameters in breast cancer patients after breast surgery at selected hospital, Chennai. Objectives: This study is to 1. assess the level of certain biophysiological parameters in women after mastectomy. 2. assess the effectiveness of twin therapeutic approaches on certain biophysiological parameters in women after mastectomy. 3. correlate the practice of twin therapeutic approaches with certain biophysiological parameters. 4. associate the selected demographic variables with certain biophysiological parameters in women after mastectomy Research Design and Method: Pre experimental research design was used. Fifty women were selected by using convenient sampling technique at government general hospital, Chennai. Results: The Level of pain shows, in the study group 49(98%) of them had moderate in the pre test and after the intervention all of them had mild pain in the post test. In relation to level of shoulder function before the intervention shows that in the study group 49(98%) of them had movement towards gravity and after intervention 24 (48%) of them had movement against gravity maximum resistance. There was a significant reduction in pain and shoulder stiffness level at a ‘P’ level of < 0.001. There was a negative correlation between the pranayama practice and the level of pain, there was a positive correlation between the arm exercise practice and the level of shoulder function. There was no significant association between demographic and clinical variables with the level of pain and shoulder function in the study. Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in level of pain and shoulder function among women following breast surgery who receive pranayama & arm exercise programme. The pranayama had effect in terms of reduction of pain, arm exercise programme had effect in prevention of arm stiffness among post operative women following breast surgery. Thus the stated hypothesis was accepted. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings of the present study there was Advancing age related to increasing risk of breast cancer, level of pain also the type of surgery was associated with level of pain and shoulder function, There fore it is to be concluded that the study participants may get benefited by practice of pranayama and arm exercise program.

Keywords: biophysiological parameters breast surgery, lumpectomy , mastectomy, radical mastectomy, twin therapeutic approach, pranayama, arm exercise

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