Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: E.javanmard

11 Employing Bayesian Artificial Neural Network for Evaluation of Cold Rolling Force

Authors: P. Kooche Baghy, S. Eskandari, E.javanmard


Neural network has been used as a predictive means of cold rolling force in this dissertation. Thus, imposed average force on rollers as a mere input and five pertaining parameters to its as a outputs are regarded. According to our study, feed-forward multilayer perceptron network has been selected. Besides, Bayesian algorithm based on the feed-forward back propagation method has been selected due to noisy data. Further, 470 out of 585 all tests were used for network learning and others (115 tests) were considered as assessment criteria. Eventually, by 30 times running the MATLAB software, mean error was obtained 3.84 percent as a criteria of network learning. As a consequence, this the mentioned error on par with other approaches such as numerical and empirical methods is acceptable admittedly.

Keywords: artificial neural network, Bayesian, cold rolling, force evaluation

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10 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75 based on seed numbers) were used to investigate forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25-grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total AYL values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest LER, SPI and MAI were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: forage, grass pea, intercropping, LER, monetary advantage

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9 Survey of Corrosion and Scaling of Urban Drinking Water Supply Reservoirs (Case Study: Ilam City)

Authors: Ehsan Derikvand, Hamid Kaykha, Rooholah Mansoori Yekta, Taleb Javanmard, Mohsen Mehdi Zadeh


Corrosion and scaling are one of the most complicated and costly problems of drinking water supply. Corrosion has adverse effect on general health and public acceptance of water source and drinking water supply costs. The present study aimed to determine the potentials of corrosion and scaling of potable water supply reservoirs of Ilam city in June 2013 and August 2014 by Langelier Index (LI) and Reynar. The results of experiments and calculations show that the mean index of LSI in the first and second sampling stages is 0.34, 0.2, respectively and the mean index RSI in the first and second stages of sampling is 7.15 and 7.22, respectively. Based on LSI index of reservoirs water in the first phase, none of stations are corrosive and only one station in the second sampling phase has corrosive tendency. According to RSI index, there is no corrosive tendency in two phases. Based on the results, the water of drinking water reservoirs in Ilam city has no corrosion tendency and the analyses and results of Langelier Index (LI) and Ryznar are in relatively good condition.

Keywords: corrosion, scaling, water reservoirs, langelier and ryznar indices, Ilam city

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8 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, M. Javanmard Dakheli, A. Bostan


In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, pomegranate peel, solvent extraction‎

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7 Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Storage Temperatures on Quality of Shelled Raw Walnuts

Authors: M. Javanmard


This study was aimed at analyzing the effects of packaging (MAP) and preservation conditions on the packaged fresh walnut kernel quality. The central composite plan was used for evaluating the effect of oxygen (0–10%), carbon dioxide (0-10%), and temperature (4-26 °C) on qualitative characteristics of walnut kernels. Also, the response level technique was used to find the optimal conditions for interactive effects of factors, as well as estimating the best conditions of process using least amount of testing. Measured qualitative parameters were: peroxide index, color, decreased weight, mould and yeast counting test, and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the defined model for peroxide index, color, weight loss, and sensory evaluation is significant (p < 0.001), so that increase of temperature causes the peroxide value, color variation, and weight loss to increase and it reduces the overall acceptability of walnut kernels. An increase in oxygen percentage caused the color variation level and peroxide value to increase and resulted in lower overall acceptability of the walnuts. An increase in CO2 percentage caused the peroxide value to decrease, but did not significantly affect other indices (p ≥ 0.05). Mould and yeast were not found in any samples. Optimal packaging conditions to achieve maximum quality of walnuts include: 1.46% oxygen, 10% carbon dioxide, and temperature of 4 °C.

Keywords: shelled walnut, MAP, quality, storage temperature

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6 Oil Extraction from Microalgae Dunalliela sp. by Polar and Non-Polar Solvents

Authors: A. Zonouzi, M. Auli, M. Javanmard Dakheli, M. A. Hejazi


Microalgae are tiny photosynthetic plants. Nowadays, microalgae are being used as nutrient-dense foods and sources of fine chemicals. They have significant amounts of lipid, carotenoids, vitamins, protein, minerals, chlorophyll, and pigments. Oil extraction from algae is a hotly debated topic currently because introducing an efficient method could decrease the process cost. This can determine the sustainability of algae-based foods. Scientific research works show that solvent extraction using chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture is one of the efficient methods for oil extraction from algal cells, but both methanol and chloroform are toxic solvents, and therefore, the extracted oil will not be suitable for food application. In this paper, the effect of two food grade solvents (hexane and hexane/ isopropanol) on oil extraction yield from microalgae Dunaliella sp. was investigated and the results were compared with chloroform/methanol (2:1) extraction yield. It was observed that the oil extraction yield using hexane, hexane/isopropanol (3:2) and chloroform/methanol (2:1) mixture were 5.4, 13.93, and 17.5 (% w/w, dry basis), respectively. The fatty acid profile derived from GC illustrated that the palmitic (36.62%), oleic (18.62%), and stearic acids (19.08%) form the main portion of fatty acid composition of microalgae Dunalliela sp. oil. It was concluded that, the addition of isopropanol as polar solvent could increase the extraction yield significantly. Isopropanol solves cell wall phospholipids and enhances the release of intercellular lipids, which improves accessing of hexane to fatty acids.

Keywords: fatty acid profile‎, microalgae‎, oil extraction‎, polar solvent‎

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5 The Comparison of the Effect of Mindfulness-Based Relaxation Training and Trans Cranial Electrical Stimulation and Their Combination on Decreasing Physiological Distress in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Gholam Hossein Javanmard, Roghayeh Mohammadi Garegozlo


The present study was a randomized three-group double-blind clinical trial with repeated measures designs which aimed to determine the pure effect and combined effect of mindfulness based-relaxation (MBR) technique and Transcranial Electrical Simulation (tCES) on psychological distress decreasing of patients with type-2 diabetes. The sample of the study consisted of 30 patients with type-2 diabetes who were selected from the Diabetes Association of Bonab city in Iran. The participants were matched and then randomly assigned to the three groups of 10 subjects (MBR, CES, MBR+CES). The subjects received interventions related to their group in 10 individual sessions. Pre-test, post-test, and one-month follow-up were conducted using DASS-42. Analysis of variance with repeated measures showed a significant change in psychological distress. Multivariate covariance analysis and the paired interpersonal comparative test of Ben Foruni indicated that both interventions of MBR and CES have a similar effect on psychological distress decreasing in the post-test and follow-up phase. But, the combined therapy of MBR+CES was more efficient, and it had a more stable effect. However, all three interventions, especially combined intervention of MBR+CES, as efficient and stable treatment, are suggested for improving the psychological status of diabetic patients.

Keywords: mindfulness based-relaxation, transcranial electrical simulation, type 2 diabetes, psychological distress

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4 Rheology and Structural Arrest of Dense Dairy Suspensions: A Soft Matter Approach

Authors: Marjan Javanmard


The rheological properties of dairy products critically depend on the underlying organisation of proteins at multiple length scales. When heated and acidified, milk proteins form particle gel that is viscoelastic, solvent rich, ‘soft’ material. In this work recent developments on the rheology of soft particles suspensions were used to interpret and potentially define the properties of dairy gel structures. It is discovered that at volume fractions below random close packing (RCP), the Maron-Pierce-Quemada (MPQ) model accurately predicts the viscosity of the dairy gel suspensions without fitting parameters; the MPQ model has been shown previously to provide reasonable predictions of the viscosity of hard sphere suspensions from the volume fraction, solvent viscosity and RCP. This surprising finding demonstrates that up to RCP, the dairy gel system behaves as a hard sphere suspension and that the structural aggregates behave as discrete particulates akin to what is observed for microgel suspensions. At effective phase volumes well above RCP, the system is a soft solid. In this region, it is discovered that the storage modulus of the sheared AMG scales with the storage modulus of the set gel. The storage modulus in this regime is reasonably well described as a function of effective phase volume by the Evans and Lips model. Findings of this work has potential to aid in rational design and control of dairy food structure-properties.

Keywords: dairy suspensions, rheology-structure, Maron-Pierce-Quemada Model, Evans and Lips Model

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3 Effects of Ethylene Scavengering Packaging on the Shelf Life of Edible Mushroom

Authors: Majid Javanmard


Edible mushrooms are those agricultural products which contain high quantity of protein and can have special role in human diet. So search for methods to increase their shelf life is important. One of these strategies can be use of active packaging for absorb the ethylene which has been studied in present study. In this study, initially, production of impregnating zeolite with potassium permanganate has been studied with zeolite clinoptiolite available in iran. After that, these ethylene scavengers were placed in the package of edible mushrooms and then transferred to the refrigerator with temperature 4c for a period of 20 days. Each 5 days, several experiments accomplished on edible mushrooms such as weight loss, moisture content, color, texture, bacterial experiments and sensory evaluation. After production of impregnating zeolite with potassium permanganate (with a concentration of %2.5, %5, %7.5, %10 and %12.5) by zeolite type clinoptiolite (with mesh 35 and 60), samples have been analyzed with gas chromatography and titration with sodium oxalate. The results showed that zeolite by concentration of %5, %7.5 and %10 potassium permanganate and mesh 60 have a higher efficiency. Results from the experiments on edible mushrooms proved that impregnated zeolite with potassium permanganate have a meaningful influence in prevent the weight loss, decrease of moisture content and L-value, increase of a-value and overall color change (ΔE) and decrease of firmness texture of mushrooms. In addition, these absorbents can influence on decrease microbial load (mesophilic bacteria) rather than control. Generally, concluded that the impregnated zeolite with 10% permanganate potassium has a high efficiency on increase the shelf life of fresh edible mushrooms.

Keywords: active packaging, ethylene scavenger, zeolite clinoptiolite, permanganate potassium, shelf life

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2 Effects of Drought Stress on Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Cultivars during Post-Flowering Growth Stage

Authors: Fariborz Shekari, Abdollah Javanmard, Amin Abbasi


A pot experiment conducted to evaluate the response of two red bean cultivars, Sayad and Derakhshan, to water deficit stress during post-flowering growth stage and recovery potential of plants after stress. Treatments were included regular irrigation or control, water deficit during flowering stage, water deficit during pod formation and water deficit during pod filling period. Results showed that plant height had positive effects on yield of cultivars so that, the tall cultivar, ‘Sayad’, had higher yields. Stress application during flowering stage showed the highest negative impact on plant height and subsequently yield. The longest and the higher number of pods as well as the greatest number of seeds in pods were recorded in control treatment in ‘Sayad’. Stress application during pod formation resulted in the minimum amount of all studied traits in both cultivars. Stress encountered during seed filling period had the least effect on number and length of pods and seed/pod. However, 100 seeds weight significantly decreased. The highest amount for 100 seeds weight was record in control plants in ‘Derakhshan’. Under all treatments, ‘Sayad’ had higher biologic and seed yield compared to ‘Derakhshan’. The least amount of yield was recorded during stress application in pod formation and flowering period for ‘Sayad’ and ‘Derakhshan’ respectively. Harvest index of ‘Sayad’ was more affect by stress application. Data related to photosynthetic rate showed that during stress application, ‘Derakhshan’ owned rapid decline in photosynthesis. Beyond stress alleviation and onset of irrigation, recovery potential of ‘Sayad’ was higher than ‘Derakhshan’ and this cultivar was able to rapidly restore the photosynthesis rate of stress faced plants near control ones. In total, stress had lower impacts on photosynthetic rate of ‘Sayad’ cultivar.

Keywords: common bean, water stress, yield, yield components, photosynthetic rate

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1 Effect of Whey Protein-Rice Bran Oil Incorporated Zataria multiflora Extract Edible Coating on Chemical, Physical and Microbial Quality of Chicken Egg

Authors: Majid Javanmard


In this study, the effects of coating with whey protein concentrate (7.5% w/v) alone and/or in combination with rice bran oil (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 g in 100 ml coating solution) and Zataria multiflora extract (1 and 2 μL in 100 ml coating solution) on the quality attributes and egg shelf life were carefully observed and analyzed. Weight loss, Haugh index, yolk index, pH, air cell depth, shell strength and the impact of this coating on the microbial load of the eggs surface were studied at the end of each week (during the 4 weeks of storage in a room environment temperature and humidity). After 4 weeks of storage, it was observed that the weight loss in all of the treated eggs with whey protein concentrate and 0.2 gr of rice bran oil (experimental group) was significantly lower than that of the control group(P < 0/05). With regard to Haugh index and yolk index, egg shelf life increased about 4 weeks compared with the control samples. Haugh Index changes revealed that the coated samples remained at grade A after 3 weeks of storage, while the control samples were relegated from grade AA to B after one week. Haugh and yolk Indices in all coated eggs were more than those of the control group. In the coated groups, Haugh and yolk indices of the coated samples with whey protein concentrate and 0.2 g rice bran oil and with whey protein concentrate and 0.2g of rice bran oil and 1 micro liter of Zataria multiflora extract were more than those of the other coated eggs and the control group eggs. PH values of the control group were higher than those of the coated groups during the storage of the eggs. The shell strength of the coated group was more than that of the control group (uncoated) and in coated samples, whey protein concentrate and 0.2 gr of rice bran oil coated samples had high shell strength. In the other treatments, no significant differences were observed. The depth of the air cell of the coated groups was determined to be less than that of the control group during the storage period. The minimum inhibitory concentration was 1 μL of Zataria multiflora extract. The results showed that 1 μL concentration of Zataria multiflora extract reduces the microbial load of the egg shell surface to 87% and 2 μL reduced total bacterial load to zero. In sensory evaluation, from evaluator point of view, the coated eggs had more overall acceptance than the uncoated group (control), and in the treatment group coated eggs, those containing a low percentage of rice bran oil had higher overall acceptability. In conclusion, coating as a practical and cost effective method can maintain the quality parameters of eggs and lead to durability of supply conditions in addition to the product marketability.

Keywords: edible coating, chicken egg, whey protein concentrate, rice bran oil, Zataria multiflora extract, shelf life

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