Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7686

Search results for: economic load dispatch

7686 Solving Nonconvex Economic Load Dispatch Problem Using Particle Swarm Optimization with Time Varying Acceleration Coefficients

Authors: Alireza Alizadeh, Hossein Ghadimi, Oveis Abedinia, Noradin Ghadimi


A Particle Swarm Optimization with Time Varying Acceleration Coefficients (PSO-TVAC) is proposed to determine optimal economic load dispatch (ELD) problem in this paper. The proposed methodology easily takes care of solving non-convex economic load dispatch problems along with different constraints like transmission losses, dynamic operation constraints and prohibited operating zones. The proposed approach has been implemented on the 3-machines 6-bus, IEEE 5-machines 14-bus, IEEE 6-machines 30-bus systems and 13 thermal units power system. The proposed technique is compared to solve the ELD problem with hybrid approach by using the valve-point effect. The comparison results prove the capability of the proposed method giving significant improvements in the generation cost for the economic load dispatch problem.

Keywords: PSO-TVAC, economic load dispatch, non-convex cost function, prohibited operating zone, transmission losses

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7685 Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Using Quadratic Programming: Application to Algerian Electrical Network

Authors: A. Graa, I. Ziane, F. Benhamida, S. Souag


This paper presents a comparative analysis study of an efficient and reliable quadratic programming (QP) to solve economic load dispatch (ELD) problem with considering transmission losses in a power system. The proposed QP method takes care of different unit and system constraints to find optimal solution. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed QP solution, simulations have been performed using Algerian test system. Results obtained with the QP method have been compared with other existing relevant approaches available in literatures. Experimental results show a proficiency of the QP method over other existing techniques in terms of robustness and its optimal search.

Keywords: economic dispatch, quadratic programming, Algerian network, dynamic load

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7684 Economic Load Dispatch with Valve-Point Loading Effect by Using Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization Technique

Authors: Nur Azzammudin Rahmat, Ismail Musirin, Ahmad Farid Abidin


Economic load dispatch is performed by the utilities in order to determine the best generation level at the most feasible operating cost. In order to guarantee satisfying energy delivery to the consumer, a precise calculation of generation level is required. In order to achieve accurate and practical solution, several considerations such as prohibited operating zones, valve-point effect and ramp-rate limit need to be taken into account. However, these considerations cause the optimization to become complex and difficult to solve. This research focuses on the valve-point effect that causes ripple in the fuel-cost curve. This paper also proposes Differential Evolution Immunized Ant Colony Optimization (DEIANT) in solving economic load dispatch problem with valve-point effect. Comparative studies involving DEIANT, EP and ACO are conducted on IEEE 30-Bus RTS for performance assessments. Results indicate that DEIANT is superior to the other compared methods in terms of calculating lower operating cost and power loss.

Keywords: ant colony optimization (ACO), differential evolution (DE), differential evolution immunized ant colony optimization (DEIANT), economic load dispatch (ELD)

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7683 Multiobjective Economic Dispatch Using Optimal Weighting Method

Authors: Mandeep Kaur, Fatehgarh Sahib


The purpose of economic load dispatch is to allocate the required load demand between the available generation units such that the cost of operation is minimized. It is an optimization problem to find the most economical schedule of the generating units while satisfying load demand and operational constraints. The multiobjective optimization problem in which the engineer’s goal is to maximize or minimize not a single objective function but several objective functions simultaneously. The purpose of multiobjective problems in the mathematical programming framework is to optimize the different objective functions. Many approaches and methods have been proposed in recent years to solve multiobjective optimization problems. Weighting method has been applied to convert multiobjective optimization problems into scalar optimization. MATLAB 7.10 has been used to write the code for the complete algorithm with the help of genetic algorithm (GA). The validity of the proposed method has been demonstrated on a three-unit power system.

Keywords: economic load dispatch, genetic algorithm, generating units, multiobjective optimization, weighting method

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7682 Optimal Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Using Artificial Immune System

Authors: I. A. Farhat


The dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem is one of the complex, constrained optimization problems that have nonlinear, con-convex and non-smooth objective functions. The purpose of the DED is to determine the optimal economic operation of the committed units while meeting the load demand. Associated to this constrained problem there exist highly nonlinear and non-convex practical constraints to be satisfied. Therefore, classical and derivative-based methods are likely not to converge to an optimal or near optimal solution to such a dynamic and large-scale problem. In this paper, an Artificial Immune System technique (AIS) is implemented and applied to solve the DED problem considering the transmission power losses and the valve-point effects in addition to the other operational constraints. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, two case studies are considered. The results obtained using the AIS are compared to those obtained by other methods reported in the literature and found better.

Keywords: artificial immune system, dynamic economic dispatch, optimal economic operation, large-scale problem

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7681 Load Forecasting Using Neural Network Integrated with Economic Dispatch Problem

Authors: Mariyam Arif, Ye Liu, Israr Ul Haq, Ahsan Ashfaq


High cost of fossil fuels and intensifying installations of alternate energy generation sources are intimidating main challenges in power systems. Making accurate load forecasting an important and challenging task for optimal energy planning and management at both distribution and generation side. There are many techniques to forecast load but each technique comes with its own limitation and requires data to accurately predict the forecast load. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one such technique to efficiently forecast the load. Comparison between two different ranges of input datasets has been applied to dynamic ANN technique using MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox. It has been observed that selection of input data on training of a network has significant effects on forecasted results. Day-wise input data forecasted the load accurately as compared to year-wise input data. The forecasted load is then distributed among the six generators by using the linear programming to get the optimal point of generation. The algorithm is then verified by comparing the results of each generator with their respective generation limits.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, demand-side management, economic dispatch, linear programming, power generation dispatch

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7680 An Efficient Stud Krill Herd Framework for Solving Non-Convex Economic Dispatch Problem

Authors: Bachir Bentouati, Lakhdar Chaib, Saliha Chettih, Gai-Ge Wang


The problem of economic dispatch (ED) is the basic problem of power framework, its main goal is to find the most favorable generation dispatch to generate each unit, reduce the whole power generation cost, and meet all system limitations. A heuristic algorithm, recently developed called Stud Krill Herd (SKH), has been employed in this paper to treat non-convex ED problems. The proposed KH has been modified using Stud selection and crossover (SSC) operator, to enhance the solution quality and avoid local optima. We are demonstrated SKH effects in two case study systems composed of 13-unit and 40-unit test systems to verify its performance and applicability in solving the ED problems. In the above systems, SKH can successfully obtain the best fuel generator and distribute the load requirements for the online generators. The results showed that the use of the proposed SKH method could reduce the total cost of generation and optimize the fulfillment of the load requirements.

Keywords: stud krill herd, economic dispatch, crossover, stud selection, valve-point effect

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7679 Modified Bat Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

Authors: Daljinder Singh, J.S.Dhillon, Balraj Singh


According to no free lunch theorem, a single search technique cannot perform best in all conditions. Optimization method can be attractive choice to solve optimization problem that may have exclusive advantages like robust and reliable performance, global search capability, little information requirement, ease of implementation, parallelism, no requirement of differentiable and continuous objective function. In order to synergize between exploration and exploitation and to further enhance the performance of Bat algorithm, the paper proposed a modified bat algorithm that adds additional search procedure based on bat’s previous experience. The proposed algorithm is used for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. The practical constraint such valve-point loading along with power balance constraints and generator limit are undertaken. To take care of power demand constraint variable elimination method is exploited. The proposed algorithm is tested on various ELD problems. The results obtained show that the proposed algorithm is capable of performing better in majority of ELD problems considered and is at par with existing algorithms for some of problems.

Keywords: bat algorithm, economic load dispatch, penalty method, variable elimination method

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7678 Solving the Economic Load Dispatch Problem Using Differential Evolution

Authors: Alaa Sheta


Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) is one of the vital optimization problems in power system planning. Solving the ELD problems mean finding the best mixture of power unit outputs of all members of the power system network such that the total fuel cost is minimized while sustaining operation requirements limits satisfied across the entire dispatch phases. Many optimization techniques were proposed to solve this problem. A famous one is the Quadratic Programming (QP). QP is a very simple and fast method but it still suffer many problem as gradient methods that might trapped at local minimum solutions and cannot handle complex nonlinear functions. Numbers of metaheuristic algorithms were used to solve this problem such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). In this paper, another meta-heuristic search algorithm named Differential Evolution (DE) is used to solve the ELD problem in power systems planning. The practicality of the proposed DE based algorithm is verified for three and six power generator system test cases. The gained results are compared to existing results based on QP, GAs and PSO. The developed results show that differential evolution is superior in obtaining a combination of power loads that fulfill the problem constraints and minimize the total fuel cost. DE found to be fast in converging to the optimal power generation loads and capable of handling the non-linearity of ELD problem. The proposed DE solution is able to minimize the cost of generated power, minimize the total power loss in the transmission and maximize the reliability of the power provided to the customers.

Keywords: economic load dispatch, power systems, optimization, differential evolution

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7677 Electric Load Forecasting Based on Artificial Neural Network for Iraqi Power System

Authors: Afaneen Anwer, Samara M. Kamil


Load Forecast required prediction accuracy based on optimal operation and maintenance. A good accuracy is the basis of economic dispatch, unit commitment, and system reliability. A good load forecasting system fulfilled fast speed, automatic bad data detection, and ability to access the system automatically to get the needed data. In this paper, the formulation of the load forecasting is discussed and the solution is obtained by using artificial neural network method. A MATLAB environment has been used to solve the load forecasting schedule of Iraqi super grid network considering the daily load for three years. The obtained results showed a good accuracy in predicting the forecasted load.

Keywords: load forecasting, neural network, back-propagation algorithm, Iraqi power system

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7676 Non-Convex Multi Objective Economic Dispatch Using Ramp Rate Biogeography Based Optimization

Authors: Susanta Kumar Gachhayat, S. K. Dash


Multi objective non-convex economic dispatch problems of a thermal power plant are of grave concern for deciding the cost of generation and reduction of emission level for diminishing the global warming level for improving green-house effect. This paper deals with ramp rate constraints for achieving better inequality constraints so as to incorporate valve point loading for cost of generation in thermal power plant through ramp rate biogeography based optimization involving mutation and migration. Through 50 out of 100 trials, the cost function and emission objective function were found to have outperformed other classical methods such as lambda iteration method, quadratic programming method and many heuristic methods like particle swarm optimization method, weight improved particle swarm optimization method, constriction factor based particle swarm optimization method, moderate random particle swarm optimization method etc. Ramp rate biogeography based optimization applications prove quite advantageous in solving non convex multi objective economic dispatch problems subjected to nonlinear loads that pollute the source giving rise to third harmonic distortions and other such disturbances.

Keywords: economic load dispatch, ELD, biogeography-based optimization, BBO, ramp rate biogeography-based optimization, RRBBO, valve-point loading, VPL

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7675 Ramp Rate and Constriction Factor Based Dual Objective Economic Load Dispatch Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Himanshu Shekhar Maharana, S. K .Dash


Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) proves to be a vital optimization process in electric power system for allocating generation amongst various units to compute the cost of generation, the cost of emission involving global warming gases like sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide etc. In this dissertation, we emphasize ramp rate constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (RRCPSO) for analyzing various performance objectives, namely cost of generation, cost of emission, and a dual objective function involving both these objectives through the experimental simulated results. A 6-unit 30 bus IEEE test case system has been utilized for simulating the results involving improved weight factor advanced ramp rate limit constraints for optimizing total cost of generation and emission. This method increases the tendency of particles to venture into the solution space to ameliorate their convergence rates. Earlier works through dispersed PSO (DPSO) and constriction factor based PSO (CPSO) give rise to comparatively higher computational time and less good optimal solution at par with current dissertation. This paper deals with ramp rate and constriction factor based well defined ramp rate PSO to compute various objectives namely cost, emission and total objective etc. and compares the result with DPSO and weight improved PSO (WIPSO) techniques illustrating lesser computational time and better optimal solution. 

Keywords: economic load dispatch (ELD), constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (CPSO), dispersed particle swarm optimization (DPSO), weight improved particle swarm optimization (WIPSO), ramp rate and constriction factor based particle swarm optimization (RRCPSO)

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7674 Secured Power flow Algorithm Including Economic Dispatch with GSDF Matrix Using LabVIEW

Authors: Slimane Souag, Amel Graa, Farid Benhamida


In this paper we present a new method for solving the secured power flow problem by the economic dispatch using DC power flow method and Generation Shift Distribution Factor (GSDF), in this work we create a graphical interface in LabVIEW as a virtual instrument. Hence the dc power flow reduces the power flow problem to a set of linear equations, which make the iterative calculation very fast and the GSFD matrix present the effects of single and multiple generator MW change on the transmission line. The effectiveness of the method developed is identified through its application to an IEEE-14 bus test system. The calculation results show excellent performance of the proposed method, in regard to computation time and quality of results.

Keywords: electrical power system security, economic dispatch, sensitivity matrix, labview

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7673 Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Non-Convex Economic Power Dispatch Problem

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, T. Guesmi


This study presents a modified version of the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm by including a local search technique for solving the non-convex economic power dispatch problem. The local search step is incorporated at the end of each iteration. Total system losses, valve-point loading effects and prohibited operating zones have been incorporated in the problem formulation. Thus, the problem becomes highly nonlinear and with discontinuous objective function. The proposed technique is validated using an IEEE benchmark system with ten thermal units. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed optimization algorithm has better convergence characteristics in comparison with the original ABC algorithm.

Keywords: economic power dispatch, artificial bee colony, valve-point loading effects, prohibited operating zones

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7672 Impact of Wind Energy on Cost and Balancing Reserves

Authors: Anil Khanal, Ali Osareh, Gary Lebby


Wind energy offers a significant advantage such as no fuel costs and no emissions from generation. However, wind energy sources are variable and non-dispatchable. The utility grid is able to accommodate the variability of wind in smaller proportion along with the daily load. However, at high penetration levels, the variability can severely impact the utility reserve requirements and the cost associated with it. In this paper, the impact of wind energy is evaluated in detail in formulating the total utility cost. The objective is to minimize the overall cost of generation while ensuring the proper management of the load. Overall cost includes the curtailment cost, reserve cost and the reliability cost as well as any other penalty imposed by the regulatory authority. Different levels of wind penetrations are explored and the cost impacts are evaluated. As the penetration level increases significantly, the reliability becomes a critical question to be answered. Here, we increase the penetration from the wind yet keep the reliability factor within the acceptable limit provided by NERC. This paper uses an economic dispatch (ED) model to incorporate wind generation into the power grid. Power system costs are analyzed at various wind penetration levels using Linear Programming. The goal of this study shows how the increases in wind generation will affect power system economics.

Keywords: wind power generation, wind power penetration, cost analysis, economic dispatch (ED) model

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7671 An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for Combined Economic and Environmental Power Dispatch Including Valve Point Loading Effects

Authors: Badr M. Alshammari, T. Guesmi


In recent years, the combined economic and emission power dispatch is one of the main problems of electrical power system. It aims to schedule the power generation of generators in order to minimize cost production and emission of harmful gases caused by fossil-fueled thermal units such as CO, CO2, NOx, and SO2. To solve this complicated multi-objective problem, an improved version of the particle swarm optimization technique that includes non-dominated sorting concept has been proposed. Valve point loading effects and system losses have been considered. The three-unit and ten-unit benchmark systems have been used to show the effectiveness of the suggested optimization technique for solving this kind of nonconvex problem. The simulation results have been compared with those obtained using genetic algorithm based method. Comparison results show that the proposed approach can provide a higher quality solution with better performance.

Keywords: power dispatch, valve point loading effects, multiobjective optimization, Pareto solutions

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7670 Performance Analysis of MATLAB Solvers in the Case of a Quadratic Programming Generation Scheduling Optimization Problem

Authors: Dávid Csercsik, Péter Kádár


In the case of the proposed method, the problem is parallelized by considering multiple possible mode of operation profiles, which determine the range in which the generators operate in each period. For each of these profiles, the optimization is carried out independently, and the best resulting dispatch is chosen. For each such profile, the resulting problem is a quadratic programming (QP) problem with a potentially negative definite Q quadratic term, and constraints depending on the actual operation profile. In this paper we analyze the performance of available MATLAB optimization methods and solvers for the corresponding QP.

Keywords: optimization, MATLAB, quadratic programming, economic dispatch

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7669 Comparative Performance of Artificial Bee Colony Based Algorithms for Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment

Authors: P. K. Singhal, R. Naresh, V. Sharma


This paper presents the three optimization models, namely New Binary Artificial Bee Colony (NBABC) algorithm, NBABC with Local Search (NBABC-LS), and NBABC with Genetic Crossover (NBABC-GC) for solving the Wind-Thermal Unit Commitment (WTUC) problem. The uncertain nature of the wind power is incorporated using the Weibull probability density function, which is used to calculate the overestimation and underestimation costs associated with the wind power fluctuation. The NBABC algorithm utilizes a mechanism based on the dissimilarity measure between binary strings for generating the binary solutions in WTUC problem. In NBABC algorithm, an intelligent scout bee phase is proposed that replaces the abandoned solution with the global best solution. The local search operator exploits the neighboring region of the current solutions, whereas the integration of genetic crossover with the NBABC algorithm increases the diversity in the search space and thus avoids the problem of local trappings encountered with the NBABC algorithm. These models are then used to decide the units on/off status, whereas the lambda iteration method is used to dispatch the hourly load demand among the committed units. The effectiveness of the proposed models is validated on an IEEE 10-unit thermal system combined with a wind farm over the planning period of 24 hours.

Keywords: artificial bee colony algorithm, economic dispatch, unit commitment, wind power

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7668 Hybrid Genetic Approach for Solving Economic Dispatch Problems with Valve-Point Effect

Authors: Mohamed I. Mahrous, Mohamed G. Ashmawy


Hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA) is proposed in this paper to determine the economic scheduling of electric power generation over a fixed time period under various system and operational constraints. The proposed technique can outperform conventional genetic algorithms (CGAs) in the sense that HGA make it possible to improve both the quality of the solution and reduce the computing expenses. In contrast, any carefully designed GA is only able to balance the exploration and the exploitation of the search effort, which means that an increase in the accuracy of a solution can only occure at the sacrifice of convergent speed, and vice visa. It is unlikely that both of them can be improved simultaneously. The proposed hybrid scheme is developed in such a way that a simple GA is acting as a base level search, which makes a quick decision to direct the search towards the optimal region, and a local search method (pattern search technique) is next employed to do the fine tuning. The aim of the strategy is to achieve the cost reduction within a reasonable computing time. The effectiveness of the proposed hybrid technique is verified on two real public electricity supply systems with 13 and 40 generator units respectively. The simulation results obtained with the HGA for the two real systems are very encouraging with regard to the computational expenses and the cost reduction of power generation.

Keywords: genetic algorithms, economic dispatch, pattern search

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7667 A New Optimization Algorithm for Operation of a Microgrid

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Rohala Moghimi


The main advantages of microgrids are high energy efficiency through the application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), high quality and reliability of the delivered electric energy and environmental and economic advantages. This study presents an energy management system (EMS) to optimize the operation of the microgrid (MG). In this paper an Adaptive Modified Firefly Algorithm (AMFA) is presented for optimal operation of a typical MG with renewable energy sources (RESs) accompanied by a back-up Micro-Turbine/Fuel Cell/Battery hybrid power source to level the power mismatch or to store the energy surplus when it’s needed. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear constraint problem to minimize the total operating cost. The management of Energy storage system (ESS), economic load dispatch and operation optimization of distributed generation (DG) are simplified into a single-object optimization problem in the EMS. The proposed algorithm is tested on a typical grid-connected MG including WT/PV/Micro Turbine/Fuel Cell and Energy Storage Devices (ESDs) then its superior performance is compared with those from other evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Fuzzy Self Adaptive PSO (FSAPSO), Chaotic Particle PSO (CPSO), Adaptive Modified PSO (AMPSO), and Firefly Algorithm (FA).

Keywords: microgrid, operation management, optimization, firefly algorithm (AMFA)

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7666 Consumer Load Profile Determination with Entropy-Based K-Means Algorithm

Authors: Ioannis P. Panapakidis, Marios N. Moschakis


With the continuous increment of smart meter installations across the globe, the need for processing of the load data is evident. Clustering-based load profiling is built upon the utilization of unsupervised machine learning tools for the purpose of formulating the typical load curves or load profiles. The most commonly used algorithm in the load profiling literature is the K-means. While the algorithm has been successfully tested in a variety of applications, its drawback is the strong dependence in the initialization phase. This paper proposes a novel modified form of the K-means that addresses the aforementioned problem. Simulation results indicate the superiority of the proposed algorithm compared to the K-means.

Keywords: clustering, load profiling, load modeling, machine learning, energy efficiency and quality

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7665 Electricity Load Modeling: An Application to Italian Market

Authors: Giovanni Masala, Stefania Marica


Forecasting electricity load plays a crucial role regards decision making and planning for economical purposes. Besides, in the light of the recent privatization and deregulation of the power industry, the forecasting of future electricity load turned out to be a very challenging problem. Empirical data about electricity load highlights a clear seasonal behavior (higher load during the winter season), which is partly due to climatic effects. We also emphasize the presence of load periodicity at a weekly basis (electricity load is usually lower on weekends or holidays) and at daily basis (electricity load is clearly influenced by the hour). Finally, a long-term trend may depend on the general economic situation (for example, industrial production affects electricity load). All these features must be captured by the model. The purpose of this paper is then to build an hourly electricity load model. The deterministic component of the model requires non-linear regression and Fourier series while we will investigate the stochastic component through econometrical tools. The calibration of the parameters’ model will be performed by using data coming from the Italian market in a 6 year period (2007- 2012). Then, we will perform a Monte Carlo simulation in order to compare the simulated data respect to the real data (both in-sample and out-of-sample inspection). The reliability of the model will be deduced thanks to standard tests which highlight a good fitting of the simulated values.

Keywords: ARMA-GARCH process, electricity load, fitting tests, Fourier series, Monte Carlo simulation, non-linear regression

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7664 Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch under Various Contingency Conditions Using Whale Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Khaled Ben Oualid Medani, Samir Sayah


The Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch (ORPD) problem has been solved and analysed usually in the normal conditions. However, network collapses appear in contingency conditions. In this paper, ORPD under several contingencies is presented using the proposed method WOA. To ensure viability of the power system in contingency conditions, several critical cases are simulated in order to prevent and prepare the power system to face such situations. The results obtained are carried out in IEEE 30 bus test system for the solution of ORPD problem in which control of bus voltages, tap position of transformers and reactive power sources are involved. Moreover, another method, namely, Particle Swarm Optimization with Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient (PSO-TVAC) has been compared with the proposed technique. Simulation results indicate that the proposed WOA gives remarkable solution in terms of effectiveness in case of outages.

Keywords: optimal reactive power dispatch, power system analysis, real power loss minimization, contingency condition, metaheuristic technique, whale optimization algorithm

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7663 Load Management Using Multiple Sequential Load Shaping Techniques

Authors: Amira M. Attia, Karim H. Youssef, Nabil H. Abbasi


Demand Side Management (DSM) is an essential characteristic of current and future smart grid systems. As one of DSM functions, load management aims to control customers’ total electric consumption and utility’s load factor by using various load shaping techniques. However, applying load shaping techniques such as load shifting, peak clipping, or strategic conservation individually does not provide the desired level of improvement for load factor increment and/or customer’s bill reduction. In this paper, two load shaping techniques will be simulated as constrained optimization problems. The purpose is to reflect the application of combined load shifting and strategic conservation model together at the same time, and the application of combined load shifting and peak clipping model as well. The problem will be formulated and solved by using disciplined convex programming (CVX) based MATLAB® R2013b. Simulation results will be evaluated and compared for studying the most impactful multi-techniques model in improving load curve.

Keywords: convex programing, demand side management, load shaping, multiple, building energy optimization

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7662 A Review of Kinematics and Joint Load Forces in Total Knee Replacements Influencing Surgical Outcomes

Authors: Samira K. Al-Nasser, Siamak Noroozi, Roya Haratian, Adrian Harvey


A total knee replacement (TKR) is a surgical procedure necessary when there is severe pain and/or loss of function in the knee. Surgeons balance the load in the knee and the surrounding soft tissue by feeling the tension at different ranges of motion. This method can be unreliable and lead to early failure of the joint. The ideal kinematics and load distribution have been debated significantly based on previous biomechanical studies surrounding both TKRs and normal knees. Intraoperative sensors like VERASENSE and eLibra have provided a method for the quantification of the load indicating a balanced knee. A review of the literature written about intraoperative sensors and tension/stability of the knee was done. Studies currently debate the quantification of the load in medial and lateral compartments specifically. However, most research reported that following a TKR the medial compartment was loaded more heavily than the lateral compartment. In several cases, these results were shown to increase the success of the surgery because they mimic the normal kinematics of the knee. In conclusion, most research agrees that an intercompartmental load differential of between 10 and 20 pounds, where the medial load was higher than the lateral, and an absolute load of less than 70 pounds was ideal. However, further intraoperative sensor development could help improve the accuracy and understanding of the load distribution on the surgical outcomes in a TKR. A reduction in early revision surgeries for TKRs would provide an improved quality of life for patients and reduce the economic burden placed on both the National Health Service (NHS) and the patient.

Keywords: intraoperative sensors, joint load forces, kinematics, load balancing, and total knee replacement

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7661 Two Day Ahead Short Term Load Forecasting Neural Network Based

Authors: Firas M. Tuaimah


This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network based approach for short-term load forecasting and exactly for two days ahead. Two seasons have been discussed for Iraqi power system, namely summer and winter; the hourly load demand is the most important input variables for ANN based load forecasting. The recorded daily load profile with a lead time of 1-48 hours for July and December of the year 2012 was obtained from the operation and control center that belongs to the Ministry of Iraqi electricity. The results of the comparison show that the neural network gives a good prediction for the load forecasting and for two days ahead.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, artificial neural networks, back propagation learning, hourly load demand

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7660 The Effect of Excess Workload on Lecturers in Higher Institution and Its Relation with Instructional Technology a Case Study of North-West Nigeria

Authors: Shitu Sani


The paper is advanced on the historical background of the effects of excess work load on lecturers in higher institutions of learning which will assess the socio-economic and psychological disposition of lecturers in the realm of quality production. The paper further discusses the significant roles played by excess work load in general transformation of higher education, which will give the management and stake holders input for successful development of higher education. Even though all forms of work and organizational procedures are potential source of stress and stressors. In higher institution of leaning, lecturers perform many responsibilities such as lecturing, carrying out research and engaging in community services. If these multiple roles could not be handle property it would have result in stress which may have negative impact on job performance, and it’s relation with instructional technology. A sample 191 lecturers were randomly selected from the higher institutions in the northern west zone in Nigerian using two instruments i.e. work load stress management question and job performance Approval, data were collected on lecturers of socio-economic and physiological stress and job performances. Findings of the study shows that lecture experienced excess work load in academic activities. Lecturer’s job performance was negatively influences by socio-economic and psychological work stress. Among the recommendation made were the need for organizing regular induction courses for lecturers on stress, and enhance interpersonal relations among the lecturers as well as provision of electronic public address system to reduce the stress.

Keywords: effect, excess, lecturers, workload

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7659 Optimal Scheduling of Load and Operational Strategy of a Load Aggregator to Maximize Profit with PEVs

Authors: Md. Shafiullah, Ali T. Al-Awami


This project proposes optimal scheduling of imported power of a load aggregator with the utilization of EVs to maximize its profit. As with the increase of renewable energy resources, electricity price in competitive market becomes more uncertain and, on the other hand, with the penetration of renewable distributed generators in the distribution network the predicted load of a load aggregator also becomes uncertain in real time. Though there is uncertainties in both load and price, the use of EVs storage capacity can make the operation of load aggregator flexible. LA submits its offer to day-ahead market based on predicted loads and optimized use of its EVs to maximize its profit, as well as in real time operation it uses its energy storage capacity in such a way that it can maximize its profit. In this project, load aggregators profit maximization algorithm is formulated and the optimization problem is solved with the help of CVX. As in real time operation the forecasted loads differ from actual load, the mismatches are settled in real time balancing market. Simulation results compare the profit of a load aggregator with a hypothetical group of 1000 EVs and without EVs.

Keywords: CVX, electricity market, load aggregator, load and price uncertainties, profit maximization, real time balancing operation

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7658 A Statistical Approach to Rationalise the Number of Working Load Test for Quality Control of Pile Installation in Singapore Jurong Formation

Authors: Nuo Xu, Kok Hun Goh, Jeyatharan Kumarasamy


Pile load testing is significant during foundation construction due to its traditional role of design validation and routine quality control of the piling works. In order to verify whether piles can take loadings at specified settlements, piles will have to undergo working load test where the test load should normally up to 150% of the working load of a pile. Selection or sampling of piles for the working load test is done subject to the number specified in Singapore National Annex to Eurocode 7 SS EN 1997-1:2010. This paper presents an innovative way to rationalize the number of pile load test by adopting statistical analysis approach and looking at the coefficient of variance of pile elastic modulus using a case study at Singapore Tuas depot. Results are very promising and have shown that it is possible to reduce the number of working load test without influencing the reliability and confidence on the pile quality. Moving forward, it is suggested that more load test data from other geological formations to be examined to compare with the findings from this paper.

Keywords: elastic modulus of pile under soil interaction, jurong formation, kentledge test, pile load test

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7657 How Do Crisis Affect Economic Policy?

Authors: Eva Kotlánová


After recession that began in 2007 in the United States and subsequently spilled over the Europe we could expect recovery of economic growth. According to the last estimation of economic progress of European countries, this recovery is not strong enough. Among others, it will depend on economic policy, where and in which way, the economic indicators will proceed. Economic theories postulate that the economic subjects prefer stably, continual economic policy without repeated and strong fluctuations. This policy is perceived as support of economic growth. Mostly in crises period, when the government must cope with consequences of recession, the economic policy becomes unpredictable for many subjects and economic policy uncertainty grows, which have negative influence on economic growth. The aim of this paper is to use panel regression to prove or disprove this hypothesis on the example of five largest European economies in the period 2008–2012.

Keywords: economic crises in Europe, economic policy, uncertainty, panel analysis regression

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