Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: thermoacoustic refrigerator

57 Experimental Investigation on the Optimal Operating Frequency of a Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue, Channarong Wantha


This paper presents the effects of the mean operating pressure on the optimal operating frequency based on temperature differences across stack ends in a thermoacoustic refrigerator. In addition to the length of the resonance tube, components of the thermoacoustic refrigerator have an influence on the operating frequency due to their acoustic properties, i.e. absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. The interference of waves incurs and distorts the original frequency generated by the driver so that the optimal operating frequency differs from the designs. These acoustic properties are not parameters in the designs and it is very complicated to infer their responses. A prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator is constructed and used to investigate its optimal operating frequency compared to the design at various operating pressures. Helium and air are used as working fluids during the experiments. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency of the prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator using helium is at 6 bar and 490Hz or approximately 20% away from the design frequency. The optimal operating frequency at other mean pressures differs from the design in an unpredictable manner, however, the optimal operating frequency and pressure can be identified by testing.

Keywords: acoustic properties, Carnot’s efficiency, interference of waves, operating pressure, optimal operating frequency, stack performance, standing wave, thermoacoustic refrigerator

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56 A Study of Standing-Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Patcharin Saechan, Isares Dhuchakallaya


Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a cooling device which uses the acoustic waves to produce the cooling effect. The aim of this paper is to explore the experimental and numerical feasibility of a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. The effects of the stack length, position of stack and operating frequency on the cooling performance are carried out. The circular pore stacks are tested under the atmospheric pressure. A low-cost loudspeaker is used as an acoustic driver. The results show that the location of stack installed in resonator tube has a greater effect on the cooling performance than the stack length and operating frequency, respectively. The temperature difference across the ends of the stack can be generated up to 13.7°C, and the temperature of cold-end is dropped down by 5.3°C from the ambient temperature.

Keywords: cooling performance, refrigerator, standing-wave, thermoacoustics

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
55 The Effect of Mean Pressure on the Performance of a Low-Grade Heat-Driven Thermoacoustic Cooler

Authors: Irna Farikhah


Converting low-grade waste heat into useful energy such as sound energy which can then be used to generate acoustic power in a thermoacoustic engine has become an attracting issue for researchers. The generated power in thermoacoustic engine can be used for driving a thermoacoustic cooler when they are installed in a tube. This cooler system can be called as a heat-driven thermoacoustic cooler. In this study, low heating temperature of the engine is discussed. In addition, having high efficiency of the whole cooler is also essential. To design a thermoacoustic cooler having high efficiency with using low-grade waste heat for the engine, the effect of mean pressure is investigated. By increasing the mean pressure, the heating temperature to generate acoustic power can be decreased from 557 °C to 300 °C. Moreover, the efficiency of the engine and cooler regenerators attain 67% and 47% of the upper limit values, respectively and 49% of the acoustical work generated by the engine regenerator is utilized in the cooler regenerator. As a result, the efficiency of the whole cooler becomes 15% of the upper limit value.

Keywords: cooler, mean pressure, performance, thermoacoustic

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
54 A Compact Standing-Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator Driven by a Rotary Drive Mechanism

Authors: Kareem Abdelwahed, Ahmed Salama, Ahmed Rabie, Ahmed Hamdy, Waleed Abdelfattah, Ahmed Abd El-Rahman


Conventional vapor-compression refrigeration systems rely on typical refrigerants, such as CFC, HCFC and ammonia. Despite of their suitable thermodynamic properties and their stability in the atmosphere, their corresponding global warming potential and ozone depletion potential raise concerns about their usage. Thus, the need for new refrigeration systems, which are environment-friendly, inexpensive and simple in construction, has strongly motivated the development of thermoacoustic energy conversion systems. A thermoacoustic refrigerator (TAR) is a device that is mainly consisting of a resonator, a stack and two heat exchangers. Typically, the resonator is a long circular tube, made of copper or steel and filled with Helium as a the working gas, while the stack has short and relatively low thermal conductivity ceramic parallel plates aligned with the direction of the prevailing resonant wave. Typically, the resonator of a standing-wave refrigerator has one end closed and is bounded by the acoustic driver at the other end enabling the propagation of half-wavelength acoustic excitation. The hot and cold heat exchangers are made of copper to allow for efficient heat transfer between the working gas and the external heat source and sink respectively. TARs are interesting because they have no moving parts, unlike conventional refrigerators, and almost no environmental impact exists as they rely on the conversion of acoustic and heat energies. Their fabrication process is rather simpler and sizes span wide variety of length scales. The viscous and thermal interactions between the stack plates, heat exchangers' plates and the working gas significantly affect the flow field within the plates' channels, and the energy flux density at the plates' surfaces, respectively. Here, the design, the manufacture and the testing of a compact refrigeration system that is based on the thermoacoustic energy-conversion technology is reported. A 1-D linear acoustic model is carefully and specifically developed, which is followed by building the hardware and testing procedures. The system consists of two harmonically-oscillating pistons driven by a simple 1-HP rotary drive mechanism operating at a frequency of 42Hz -hereby, replacing typical expensive linear motors and loudspeakers-, and a thermoacoustic stack within which the energy conversion of sound into heat is taken place. Air at ambient conditions is used as the working gas while the amplitude of the driver's displacement reaches 19 mm. The 30-cm-long stack is a simple porous ceramic material having 100 square channels per square inch. During operation, both oscillating-gas pressure and solid-stack temperature are recorded for further analysis. Measurements show a maximum temperature difference of about 27 degrees between the stack hot and cold ends with a Carnot coefficient of performance of 11 and estimated cooling capacity of five Watts, when operating at ambient conditions. A dynamic pressure of 7-kPa-amplitude is recorded, yielding a drive ratio of 7% approximately, and found in a good agreement with theoretical prediction. The system behavior is clearly non-linear and significant non-linear loss mechanisms are evident. This work helps understanding the operation principles of thermoacoustic refrigerators and presents a keystone towards developing commercial thermoacoustic refrigerator units.

Keywords: refrigeration system, rotary drive mechanism, standing-wave, thermoacoustic refrigerator

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
53 Experimental Investigation of R600a as a Retrofit for R134a in a Household Refrigerator

Authors: T. O Babarinde, F. A Oyawale, O. S Ohunakin, R. O Ohunakin, R. O Leramo D.S Adelekan


This paper presents an experimental study of R600a, environment-friendly refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP), zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), as a substitute for R134a in domestic refrigerator. A refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, the capillary for this experiment was not varied at anytime during the experiment. 40, 60, 80g, charge of R600a were tested against 100 g of R134a under the designed capillary length of the refrigerator, and the performance using R600a was evaluated and compared with its performance when R134a was used. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for small refrigerator was achieved using both 80g of R600a and 100g of R134a but R134a has earlier pulled down time than using R600a. The average coefficient of performance (COP) obtained using R600a is 17.7% higher than that of R134a while the average power consumption is 42.5 % lower than R134a, which shows that R600a can be used as replacement for R134a in domestic refrigerator without necessarily need to modified the capillary.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, R600a, R134a

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
52 Optimization of Temperature Difference Formula at Thermoacoustic Cryocooler Stack with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: H. Afsari, H. Shokouhmand


When stack is placed in a thermoacoustic resonator in a cryocooler, one extremity of the stack heats up while the other cools down due to the thermoacoustic effect. In the present, with expression a formula by linear theory, will see this temperature difference depends on what factors. The computed temperature difference is compared to the one predicted by the formula. These discrepancies can not be attributed to non-linear effects, rather they exist because of thermal effects. Two correction factors are introduced for close up results among linear theory and computed and use these correction factors to modified linear theory. In fact, this formula, is optimized by GA (Genetic Algorithm). Finally, results are shown at different Mach numbers and stack location in resonator.

Keywords: heat transfer, thermoacoustic cryocooler, stack, resonator, mach number, genetic algorithm

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51 An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Control Algorithm on the Energy Consumption and Temperature Distribution of a Household Refrigerator

Authors: G. Peker, Tolga N. Aynur, E. Tinar


In order to determine the energy consumption level and cooling characteristics of a domestic refrigerator controlled with various cooling system algorithms, a side by side type (SBS) refrigerator was tested in temperature and humidity controlled chamber conditions. Two different control algorithms; so-called drop-in and frequency controlled variable capacity compressor algorithms, were tested on the same refrigerator. Refrigerator cooling characteristics were investigated for both cases and results were compared with each other. The most important comparison parameters between the two algorithms were taken as; temperature distribution, energy consumption, evaporation and condensation temperatures, and refrigerator run times. Standard energy consumption tests were carried out on the same appliance and resulted in almost the same energy consumption levels, with a difference of %1,5. By using these two different control algorithms, the power consumptions character/profile of the refrigerator was found to be similar. By following the associated energy measurement standard, the temperature values of the test packages were measured to be slightly higher for the frequency controlled algorithm compared to the drop-in algorithm. This paper contains the details of this experimental study conducted with different cooling control algorithms and compares the findings based on the same standard conditions.

Keywords: control algorithm, cooling, energy consumption, refrigerator

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
50 Microbiological Assessment of Fish Sausages Coated with Smoked-Edible Film, and Stored in Room and Refrigerator Temperatures

Authors: Henny A. Dien, Roike I. Montolalu, Feny Mentang, Jupni Keno, Reynerd S. Burdam, Siegfried Berhimpon


Fish Sausages became popular nowadays, because of high nutritious and low in cholesterol. However, this food is also highly perishable and often contaminated by pathogen bacteria. Edible film was made from myofibril of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) waste, with addition of liquid smoke 0.8%. The aim of this study were to determine the TPC, total coliform and Escherichia coli in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film, and stored in room temperature (26-29oC), and refrigerator (5-10oC). Results shown that TPC in fish sausages coated with smoked edible film were lower than that of without coated, both for storage in room temperature and in refrigerator. Total coliform in coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 7-120 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged between 7-93 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without liquid smoke were 7-240 MPN/g (1-4 days) in room temperature, and 7-150 MPN/g in refrigerator. Total E. coli of fish sausages coated with smoked edible film and stored in room temperature ranged between 3-4 MPN/g (1-4 days), while stored in refrigerator ranged were 3 MPN/g (1-6 days); while fish sausages coated with edible film without smoked both stored in room temperature and in refrigerator, shown total E. coli 3 MPN/g during 4 days in room temperature, and 6 days in refrigerator. Total E. coli of sausages without coated stored in room temperature ranged between 7-24 MPN/g, and that of stored in refrigerator ranged between 3-4 MPN/g.

Keywords: smoke liquid, edible film, coating, sausages

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49 Experimental Study of a Mixture of R290/R600 to Replace R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: T. O. Babarinde


Interest in natural refrigerants, such as hydrocarbons has been renewed in recent years because of the environmental problems associated with synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Due to the depletion of ozone-layer and global warming effects, synthetic refrigerants are being gradually phased out in accordance with the international protocols that aim to protect the environment. In this work, a refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) which consists of commercial propane and butane in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 62 litres. In this experiment, type K thermocouples with their probes were used to measure the temperatures of four major components (evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device) of the refrigeration system. Also the system was instrumented with two pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor for measuring the suction and discharged pressures. Four sets of experiments were carried out using different charges and the charges were measured with a digital charging scale. Thermodynamic properties of the LPG refrigerant were determined. The results obtained showed that the design temperature and pull-down time set by International Standard Organisation (ISO) for refrigerator was achieved using LPG charge of 60g. The system COP increases with 14.6% and the power consumption reduced with 9.8% when compared with R134a. Therefore, LPG can replace R134a in domestic refrigerator.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, R290/R600, R134a

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
48 Experimental Study of Mixture of R290/R600 to Replace R134a in a Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: T. O. Babarinde, B. O. Bolaji, S. O. Ismaila


Interest in natural refrigerants, such as hydrocarbons has been renewed in recent years because of the environmental problems associated with synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydro-chlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. Due to the depletion of ozone-layer and global warming effects, synthetic refrigerants are being gradually phased out in accordance with the international protocols that aim to protect the environment. In this work, a refrigerator designed to work with R134a was used for this experiment, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) which consists of commercial propane and butane in a single evaporator domestic refrigerator with a total volume of 62 litres. In this experiment, type K thermocouples with their probes were used to measure the temperatures of four major components (evaporator, compressor, condenser and expansion device) of the refrigeration system. Also the system was instrumented with two pressure gauges at the inlet and outlet of the compressor for measuring the suction and discharged pressures. The experiments were carried out using 40, 60, 80,100g charges and the charges were measured with a digital charging scale. Thermodynamic properties of the LPG refrigerant were determined. The results obtained showed that using LPG charge of 60g. The system COP increased with 14.6% and the power consumption reduced with 9.8% when compared with R134a. Therefore, LPG can replace R134a in domestic refrigerator.

Keywords: domestic refrigerator, experimental, LPG, R134a

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
47 A Refrigerated Condition for the Storage of Glucose Test Strips at Health Promoting Hospitals: An Implication for Hospitals with Limited Air Conditioners

Authors: Wanutchaya Duanginta, Napaporn Apiratmateekul, Tippawan Sangkaew, Sunaree Wekinhirun, Kunchit Kongros, Wanvisa Treebuphachatsakul


Thailand has a tropical climate with an average outdoor ambient air temperature of over 30°C, which can exceed manufacturer recommendations for the storage of glucose test strips. This study monitored temperature and humidity at actual sites of five sub-district health promoting hospitals (HPH) in Phitsanulok Province for the storage of glucose test strips in refrigerated conditions. Five calibrated data loggers were placed at the actual sites for glucose test strip storage at five HPHs for 8 weeks between April and June. For the stress test, two lot numbers of glucose test strips, each with two glucose meters, were kept in a plastic box with desiccants and placed in a refrigerator with the temperature calibrated to 4°C and at room temperature (RT). Temperature and humidity in the refrigerator and at RT were measured every hour for 30 days. The mean temperature for storing test strips at the five HPHs ranged from 29°C to 33°C, and three of the five HPHs (60%) had a mean temperature above 30°C. The refrigerator temperatures were 3.8 ± 2.0°C (2.0°C to 6.5°C), and relative humidity was 51 ± 2% (42 to 54%). The maximum of blood glucose testing by glucose meters when the test strips were stored in a refrigerator were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from unstressed test strips for both glucose meters using amperometry-GDH-PQQ and amperometry-GDH-FAD principles. Opening the test strip vial daily resulted in higher variation than when refrigerated after a single-use. However, the variations were still within an acceptable range. This study concludes that glucose tested strips can be stored in plastic boxes in a refrigerator if it is well-controlled for temperature and humidity. Storage of glucose-tested strips in the refrigerator during hot and humid weather may be useful for HPHs with limited air conditioners.

Keywords: environmental stressed test, thermal stressed test, quality control, point-of-care testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
46 Bi-Directional Impulse Turbine for Thermo-Acoustic Generator

Authors: A. I. Dovgjallo, A. B. Tsapkova, A. A. Shimanov


The paper is devoted to one of engine types with external heating – a thermoacoustic engine. In thermoacoustic engine heat energy is converted to an acoustic energy. Further, acoustic energy of oscillating gas flow must be converted to mechanical energy and this energy in turn must be converted to electric energy. The most widely used way of transforming acoustic energy to electric one is application of linear generator or usual generator with crank mechanism. In both cases, the piston is used. Main disadvantages of piston use are friction losses, lubrication problems and working fluid pollution which cause decrease of engine power and ecological efficiency. Using of a bidirectional impulse turbine as an energy converter is suggested. The distinctive feature of this kind of turbine is that the shock wave of oscillating gas flow passing through the turbine is reflected and passes through the turbine again in the opposite direction. The direction of turbine rotation does not change in the process. Different types of bidirectional impulse turbines for thermoacoustic engines are analyzed. The Wells turbine is the simplest and least efficient of them. A radial impulse turbine has more complicated design and is more efficient than the Wells turbine. The most appropriate type of impulse turbine was chosen. This type is an axial impulse turbine, which has a simpler design than that of a radial turbine and similar efficiency. The peculiarities of the method of an impulse turbine calculating are discussed. They include changes in gas pressure and velocity as functions of time during the generation of gas oscillating flow shock waves in a thermoacoustic system. In thermoacoustic system pressure constantly changes by a certain law due to acoustic waves generation. Peak values of pressure are amplitude which determines acoustic power. Gas, flowing in thermoacoustic system, periodically changes its direction and its mean velocity is equal to zero but its peak values can be used for bi-directional turbine rotation. In contrast with feed turbine, described turbine operates on un-steady oscillating flows with direction changes which significantly influence the algorithm of its calculation. Calculated power output is 150 W with frequency 12000 r/min and pressure amplitude 1,7 kPa. Then, 3-d modeling and numerical research of impulse turbine was carried out. As a result of numerical modeling, main parameters of the working fluid in turbine were received. On the base of theoretical and numerical data model of impulse turbine was made on 3D printer. Experimental unit was designed for numerical modeling results verification. Acoustic speaker was used as acoustic wave generator. Analysis if the acquired data shows that use of the bi-directional impulse turbine is advisable. By its characteristics as a converter, it is comparable with linear electric generators. But its lifetime cycle will be higher and engine itself will be smaller due to turbine rotation motion.

Keywords: acoustic power, bi-directional pulse turbine, linear alternator, thermoacoustic generator

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45 Sustainable Refrigerated Transport Engineering

Authors: A. A, F. Belmir, A. El Bouari, Y. Abboud


This article presents a study of the thermal performance of a new solar mobile refrigeration prototype for the preservation of perishable foods. The simulation of the refrigeration cycle and the calculation of the thermal balances made it possible to estimate its consumption and to evaluate the capacity of each photovoltaic component necessary for the production of energy. The study provides a description of the refrigerator construction and operation, including an energy balance analysis of the refrigerator performance under typical loads. The photovoltaic system requirements are also detailed.

Keywords: composite, material, photovoltaic, refrigeration, thermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
44 Experimental Analysis of the Plate-on-Tube Evaporator on a Domestic Refrigerator’s Performance

Authors: Mert Tosun, Tuğba Tosun


The evaporator is the utmost important component in the refrigeration system, since it enables the refrigerant to draw heat from the desired environment, i.e. the refrigerated space. Studies are being conducted on this component which generally affects the performance of the system, where energy efficient products are important. This study was designed to enhance the effectiveness of the evaporator in the refrigeration cycle of a domestic refrigerator by adjusting the capillary tube length, refrigerant amount, and the evaporator pipe diameter to reduce energy consumption. The experiments were conducted under identical thermal and ambient conditions. Experiment data were analysed using the Design of Experiment (DOE) technique which is a six-sigma method to determine effects of parameters. As a result, it has been determined that the most important parameters affecting the evaporator performance among the selected parameters are found to be the refrigerant amount and pipe diameter. It has been determined that the minimum energy consumption is 6-mm pipe diameter and 16-g refrigerant. It has also been noted that the overall consumption of the experiment sample decreased by 16.6% with respect to the reference system, which has 7-mm pipe diameter and 18-g refrigerant.

Keywords: heat exchanger, refrigerator, design of experiment, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
43 Automated Multisensory Data Collection System for Continuous Monitoring of Refrigerating Appliances Recycling Plants

Authors: Georgii Emelianov, Mikhail Polikarpov, Fabian Hübner, Jochen Deuse, Jochen Schiemann


Recycling refrigerating appliances plays a major role in protecting the Earth's atmosphere from ozone depletion and emissions of greenhouse gases. The performance of refrigerator recycling plants in terms of material retention is the subject of strict environmental certifications and is reviewed periodically through specialized audits. The continuous collection of Refrigerator data required for the input-output analysis is still mostly manual, error-prone, and not digitalized. In this paper, we propose an automated data collection system for recycling plants in order to deduce expected material contents in individual end-of-life refrigerating appliances. The system utilizes laser scanner measurements and optical data to extract attributes of individual refrigerators by applying transfer learning with pre-trained vision models and optical character recognition. Based on Recognized features, the system automatically provides material categories and target values of contained material masses, especially foaming and cooling agents. The presented data collection system paves the way for continuous performance monitoring and efficient control of refrigerator recycling plants.

Keywords: automation, data collection, performance monitoring, recycling, refrigerators

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
42 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Air Distribution System of Larder Type Refrigerator

Authors: Funda Erdem Şahnali, Ş. Özgür Atayılmaz, Tolga N. Aynur


Almost all of the domestic refrigerators operate on the principle of the vapor compression refrigeration cycle and removal of heat from the refrigerator cabinets is done via one of the two methods: natural convection or forced convection. In this study, airflow and temperature distributions inside a 375L no-frost type larder cabinet, in which cooling is provided by forced convection, are evaluated both experimentally and numerically. Airflow rate, compressor capacity and temperature distribution in the cooling chamber are known to be some of the most important factors that affect the cooling performance and energy consumption of a refrigerator. The objective of this study is to evaluate the original temperature distribution in the larder cabinet, and investigate for better temperature distribution solutions throughout the refrigerator domain via system optimizations that could provide uniform temperature distribution. The flow visualization and airflow velocity measurements inside the original refrigerator are performed via Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV). In addition, airflow and temperature distributions are investigated numerically with Ansys Fluent. In order to study the heat transfer inside the aforementioned refrigerator, forced convection theories covering the following cases are applied: closed rectangular cavity representing heat transfer inside the refrigerating compartment. The cavity volume has been represented with finite volume elements and is solved computationally with appropriate momentum and energy equations (Navier-Stokes equations). The 3D model is analyzed as transient, with k-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupling for turbulent flow situation. The results obtained with the 3D numerical simulations are in quite good agreement with the experimental airflow measurements using the SPIV technique. After Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of the baseline case, the effects of three parameters: compressor capacity, fan rotational speed and type of shelf (glass or wire) are studied on the energy consumption; pull down time, temperature distributions in the cabinet. For each case, energy consumption based on experimental results is calculated. After the analysis, the main effective parameters for temperature distribution inside a cabin and energy consumption based on CFD simulation are determined and simulation results are supplied for Design of Experiments (DOE) as input data for optimization. The best configuration with minimum energy consumption that provides minimum temperature difference between the shelves inside the cabinet is determined.

Keywords: air distribution, CFD, DOE, energy consumption, experimental, larder cabinet, refrigeration, uniform temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
41 Mathematical Modeling of Skin Condensers for Domestic Refrigerator

Authors: Nitin Ghule, S. G. Taji


A mathematical model of hot-wall condensers used in refrigerators is presented. The model predicts the heat transfer characteristics of condenser and the effects of various design and operating parameters on condenser tube length and capacity. A finite element approach was used to model the condenser. The condenser tube is divided into elemental units, with each element consisting of adhesive tape, refrigerant tube and outer metal sheet. The heat transfer characteristics of each section are then analyzed by considering the heat transfer through the tube wall, tape and the outer sheet. Variations in inner heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are considered depending on temperature, fluid phase, type of flow and orientation of tube. Variation in outer heat transfer coefficient is also taken into account. Various materials were analysed for the tube, tape and outer sheet.

Keywords: condenser, domestic refrigerator, heat transfer, mathematical model

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40 The Numerical Model of the Onset of Acoustic Oscillation in Pulse Tube Engine

Authors: Alexander I. Dovgyallo, Evgeniy A. Zinoviev, Svetlana O. Nekrasova


The most of works applied for the pulse tube converters contain the workflow description implemented through the use of mathematical models on stationary modes. However, the study of the thermoacoustic systems unsteady behavior in the start, stop, and acoustic load changes modes is in the particular interest. The aim of the present study was to develop a mathematical thermal excitation model of acoustic oscillations in pulse tube engine (PTE) as a small-scale scheme of pulse tube engine operating at atmospheric air. Unlike some previous works this standing wave configuration is a fully closed system. The improvements over previous mathematical models are the following: the model allows specifying any values of porosity for regenerator, takes into account the piston weight and the friction in the cylinder and piston unit, and determines the operating frequency. The numerical method is based on the relation equations between the pressure and volume velocity variables at the ends of each element of PTE which is recorded through the appropriate transformation matrix. A solution demonstrates that the PTE operation frequency is the complex value, and it depends on the piston mass and the dynamic friction due to its movement in the cylinder. On the basis of the determined frequency thermoacoustically induced heat transport and generation of acoustic power equations were solved for channel with temperature gradient on its ends. The results of numerical simulation demonstrate the features of the initialization process of oscillation and show that that generated acoustic power more than power on the steady mode in a factor of 3…4. But doesn`t mean the possibility of its further continuous utilizing due to its existence only in transient mode which lasts only for a 30-40 sec. The experiments were carried out on small-scale PTE. The results shows that the value of acoustic power is in the range of 0.7..1.05 W for the defined frequency range f = 13..18 Hz and pressure amplitudes 11..12 kPa. These experimental data are satisfactorily correlated with the numerical modeling results. The mathematical model can be straightforwardly applied for the thermoacoustic devices with variable temperatures of thermal reservoirs and variable transduction loads which are expected to occur in practical implementations of portable thermoacoustic engines.

Keywords: nonlinear processes, pulse tube engine, thermal excitation, standing wave

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39 Impinging Acoustics Induced Combustion: An Alternative Technique to Prevent Thermoacoustic Instabilities

Authors: Sayantan Saha, Sambit Supriya Dash, Vinayak Malhotra


Efficient propulsive systems development is an area of major interest and concern in aerospace industry. Combustion forms the most reliable and basic form of propulsion for ground and space applications. The generation of large amount of energy from a small volume relates mostly to the flaming combustion. This study deals with instabilities associated with flaming combustion. Combustion is always accompanied by acoustics be it external or internal. Chemical propulsion oriented rockets and space systems are well known to encounter acoustic instabilities. Acoustic brings in changes in inter-energy conversion and alter the reaction rates. The modified heat fluxes, owing to wall temperature, reaction rates, and non-linear heat transfer are observed. The thermoacoustic instabilities significantly result in reduced combustion efficiency leading to uncontrolled liquid rocket engine performance, serious hazards to systems, assisted testing facilities, enormous loss of resources and every year a substantial amount of money is spent to prevent them. Present work attempts to fundamentally understand the mechanisms governing the thermoacoustic combustion in liquid rocket engine using a simplified experimental setup comprising a butane cylinder and an impinging acoustic source. Rocket engine produces sound pressure level in excess of 153 Db. The RL-10 engine generates noise of 180 Db at its base. Systematic studies are carried out for varying fuel flow rates, acoustic levels and observations are made on the flames. The work is expected to yield a good physical insight into the development of acoustic devices that when coupled with the present propulsive devices could effectively enhance combustion efficiency leading to better and safer missions. The results would be utilized to develop impinging acoustic devices that impinge sound on the combustion chambers leading to stable combustion thus, improving specific fuel consumption, specific impulse, reducing emissions, enhanced performance and fire safety. The results can be effectively applied to terrestrial and space application.

Keywords: combustion instability, fire safety, improved performance, liquid rocket engines, thermoacoustics

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38 Heat Exchanger Optimization of a Domestic Refrigerator with Separate Cooling Circuits

Authors: Tugba Tosun, Mert Tosun


Cooling system performance and energy consumption in the bypass two-circuit cycle have been studied experimentally to find optimum evaporator type and geometry, capillary tube diameter and capillary length. Two types of evaporators, such as wire on the tube and finned tube evaporators were used for the experiments in the fresh food compartment. As capillary tube inner diameter and total length; 0.66 mm and 0.8mm, and 3000 mm and 3500 mm were selected as parameters, respectively. Experiments were performed at the 25⁰C ambient temperature while the average temperature of the fresh food compartment is kept at 5⁰C and the highest package temperature of the freezer compartment is kept at -18⁰C, which are defined in IEC 62552 European standard. The Design of Experiments (DOE) technique which is six sigma method has been used to indicate of effective parameters in the bypass two-circuit cycle. The experimental results revealed that the most effective parameter of the system is the evaporator type. Finned tube evaporator with 12 tube passes was found as the best option for the bypass two-circuit refrigeration cycle among the 8 different opportunities. The optimum cooling performance and the lowest energy consumption were provided with 0.66 mm capillary tube inner diameter and 3500 mm capillary tube length.

Keywords: capillary tube, energy consumption, heat exchanger, refrigerator, separate cooling circuits

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37 A Novel Marketable Dried Mixture for High-Quality Sweet Wine Production in Domestic Refrigerator Using Tubular Cellulose

Authors: Ganatsios Vassilios, Terpou Antonia, Maria Kanellaki, Bekatorou Argyro, Athanasios Koutinas


In this study, a new fermentation technology is proposed with potential application in home wine-making. Delignified cellulosic material was used to preserve Tubular Cellulose (TC), an effective fermentation support material in high osmotic pressure, low temperature, and alcohol concentration. The psychrotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 was immobilized on TC to preserve a novel home wine making biocatalyst (HWB) and the entrapment was examined by SEM. Various concentrations of HWB was added in high-density grape must and the mixture was dried immediately. The dried mixture was stored for various time intervals and its fermentation examined after addition of potable water. The percentage of added water was also examined to succeed high alcohol and residual sugar concentration. The effect of low temperature (1-10 oC) on fermentation kinetics was studied revealing the ability of HBW on low-temperature sweet wine making. Sweet wines SPME GC-MS analysis revealed the promotion effect of TC on volatile by-products formation in comparison with free cells. Kinetics results and aromatic profile of final product encouraged the efforts of high-quality sweet wine making in domestic refrigerator and potential marketable opportunities are also assessed and discussed.

Keywords: tubular cellulose, sweet wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1, residual sugar concentration

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36 Design Optimization and Thermoacoustic Analysis of Pulse Tube Cryocooler Components

Authors: K. Aravinth, C. T. Vignesh


The usage of pulse tube cryocoolers is significantly increased mainly due to the advantage of the absence of moving parts. The underlying idea of this project is to optimize the design of pulse tube, regenerator, a resonator in cryocooler and analyzing the thermo-acoustic oscillations with respect to the design parameters. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model with time-dependent validation is done to predict its performance. The continuity, momentum, and energy equations are solved for various porous media regions. The effect of changing the geometries and orientation will be validated and investigated in performance. The pressure, temperature and velocity fields in the regenerator and pulse tube are evaluated. This optimized design performance results will be compared with the existing pulse tube cryocooler design. The sinusoidal behavior of cryocooler in acoustic streaming patterns in pulse tube cryocooler will also be evaluated.

Keywords: acoustics, cryogenics, design, optimization

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35 Development of Monitoring Blood Bank Center Based PIC Microcontroller Using CAN Communication

Authors: Kaiwan S. Ismael, Ergun Ercelebi, Majeed Nader


This paper describes the design and implementation of a hardware setup for online monitoring of 24 refrigerators inside blood bank center using the microcontroller and CAN bus for communications between each node. Due to the security of locations in the blood bank hall and difficulty of monitoring of each refrigerator separately, this work proposes a solution to monitor all the blood bank refrigerators in one location. CAN-bus system is used because it has many applications and advantages, especially for this system due to easy in use, low cost, providing a reduction in wiring, fast to repair and easily expanding the project without a problem.

Keywords: control area network (CAN), monitoring blood bank center, PIC microcontroller, MPLAB IDE

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34 Thermal Conductivity and Diffusivity of Alternative Refrigerants as Retrofit for Freon 12

Authors: Mutalubi Aremu Akintunde, John Isa


The negative impact on the atmosphere, of chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants (CFC) radical changes and measures were put in place to replace them. This has led to search for alternative refrigerants over the past decades. This paper presents thermal conductivity, diffusivity and performance of two alternative refrigerants as replacement to R12, which has been a versatile refrigerant which had turned the refrigeration industries around for decades, but one of the offensive refrigerants. The new refrigerants were coded RA1 (50%R600a/50%R134a;) and RA2 (70%R600a/30%R134a). The diffusivities for RA1 and RA2 were estimated to be, 2.76384 X 10-8 m2/s and 2.74386 X 10-8 m2/s respectively, while that of R12 under the same experimental condition is 2.43772 X 10-8 m2/s. The performances of the two refrigerants in a refrigerator initially designed for R12, were very close to that of R12. Other thermodynamic parameters showed that R12 can be replaced with both RA1 and RA2.

Keywords: alternative refrigerants, conductivity, diffusivity, performance, refrigerants

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33 Case Studies in Three Domains of Learning: Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor

Authors: Zeinabsadat Haghshenas


Bloom’s Taxonomy has been changed during the years. The idea of this writing is about the revision that has happened in both facts and terms. It also contains case studies of using cognitive Bloom’s taxonomy in teaching geometric solids to the secondary school students, affective objectives in a creative workshop for adults and psychomotor objectives in fixing a malfunctioned refrigerator lamp. There is also pointed to the important role of classification objectives in adult education as a way to prevent memory loss.

Keywords: adult education, affective domain, cognitive domain, memory loss, psychomotor domain

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32 Energy Efficient Refrigerator

Authors: Jagannath Koravadi, Archith Gupta


In a world with constantly growing energy prices, and growing concerns about the global climate changes caused by increased energy consumption, it is becoming more and more essential to save energy wherever possible. Refrigeration systems are one of the major and bulk energy consuming systems now-a-days in industrial sectors, residential sectors and household environment. Refrigeration systems with considerable cooling requirements consume a large amount of electricity and thereby contribute greatly to the running costs. Therefore, a great deal of attention is being paid towards improvement of the performance of the refrigeration systems in this regard throughout the world. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) of a refrigeration system is used for determining the system's overall efficiency. The operating cost to the consumer and the overall environmental impact of a refrigeration system in turn depends on the COP or efficiency of the system. The COP of a refrigeration system should therefore be as high as possible. Slight modifications in the technical elements of the modern refrigeration systems have the potential to reduce the energy consumption, and improvements in simple operational practices with minimal expenses can have beneficial impact on COP of the system. Thus, the challenge is to determine the changes that can be made in a refrigeration system in order to improve its performance, reduce operating costs and power requirement, improve environmental outcomes, and achieve a higher COP. The opportunity here, and a better solution to this challenge, will be to incorporate modifications in conventional refrigeration systems for saving energy. Energy efficiency, in addition to improvement of COP, can deliver a range of savings such as reduced operation and maintenance costs, improved system reliability, improved safety, increased productivity, better matching of refrigeration load and equipment capacity, reduced resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, better working environment, and reduced energy costs. The present work aims at fabricating a working model of a refrigerator that will provide for effective heat recovery from superheated refrigerant with the help of an efficient de-superheater. The temperature of the refrigerant and water in the de-super heater at different intervals of time are measured to determine the quantity of waste heat recovered. It is found that the COP of the system improves by about 6% with the de-superheater and the power input to the compressor decreases by 4 % and also the refrigeration capacity increases by 4%.

Keywords: coefficiency of performance, de-superheater, refrigerant, refrigeration capacity, heat recovery

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31 An Assembly Line Designing Study for a Refrigeration Industry

Authors: Emin Gundogar, Burak Erkayman, Aysegul Yilmaz, Nusret Sazak


When considering current competition conditions on the world, satisfying customer demands on time has become an important factor that enables the firms take a step further. Therefore, production process must be completed faster to take the competitive advantage. A balanced assembly line is the one of most important factors affecting the speed of production lines. The aim of this study is to build an assembly line to balance the assembly line and to simulate it for different scenarios through a refrigerator factory. The times of the operations is analyzed and grouped by the priorities. First, a Kilbridge & Wester heuristics is put to the model then a simulation approach is implemented to the model and the differences are observed.

Keywords: assembly line design, assembly line balancing, simulation modelling, refrigeration industry

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30 Effects of Global Validity of Predictive Cues upon L2 Discourse Comprehension: Evidence from Self-paced Reading

Authors: Binger Lu


It remains unclear whether second language (L2) speakers could use discourse context cues to predict upcoming information as native speakers do during online comprehension. Some researchers propose that L2 learners may have a reduced ability to generate predictions during discourse processing. At the same time, there is evidence that discourse-level cues are weighed more heavily in L2 processing than in L1. Previous studies showed that L1 prediction is sensitive to the global validity of predictive cues. The current study aims to explore whether and to what extent L2 learners can dynamically and strategically adjust their prediction in accord with the global validity of predictive cues in L2 discourse comprehension as native speakers do. In a self-paced reading experiment, Chinese native speakers (N=128), C-E bilinguals (N=128), and English native speakers (N=128) read high-predictable (e.g., Jimmy felt thirsty after running. He wanted to get some water from the refrigerator.) and low-predictable (e.g., Jimmy felt sick this morning. He wanted to get some water from the refrigerator.) discourses in two-sentence frames. The global validity of predictive cues was manipulated by varying the ratio of predictable (e.g., Bill stood at the door. He opened it with the key.) and unpredictable fillers (e.g., Bill stood at the door. He opened it with the card.), such that across conditions, the predictability of the final word of the fillers ranged from 100% to 0%. The dependent variable was reading time on the critical region (the target word and the following word), analyzed with linear mixed-effects models in R. C-E bilinguals showed reliable prediction across all validity conditions (β = -35.6 ms, SE = 7.74, t = -4.601, p< .001), and Chinese native speakers showed significant effect (β = -93.5 ms, SE = 7.82, t = -11.956, p< .001) in two of the four validity conditions (namely, the High-validity and MedLow conditions, where fillers ended with predictable words in 100% and 25% cases respectively), whereas English native speakers didn’t predict at all (β = -2.78 ms, SE = 7.60, t = -.365, p = .715). There was neither main effect (χ^²(3) = .256, p = .968) nor interaction (Predictability: Background: Validity, χ^²(3) = 1.229, p = .746; Predictability: Validity, χ^²(3) = 2.520, p = .472; Background: Validity, χ^²(3) = 1.281, p = .734) of Validity with speaker groups. The results suggest that prediction occurs in L2 discourse processing but to a much less extent in L1, witha significant effect in some conditions of L1 Chinese and anull effect in L1 English processing, consistent with the view that L2 speakers are more sensitive to discourse cues compared with L1 speakers. Additionally, the pattern of L1 and L2 predictive processing was not affected by the global validity of predictive cues. C-E bilinguals’ predictive processing could be partly transferred from their L1, as prior research showed that discourse information played a more significant role in L1 Chinese processing.

Keywords: bilingualism, discourse processing, global validity, prediction, self-paced reading

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29 Computerized Scoring System: A Stethoscope to Understand Consumer's Emotion through His or Her Feedback

Authors: Chen Yang, Jun Hu, Ping Li, Lili Xue


Most companies pay careful attention to consumer feedback collection, so it is popular to find the ‘feedback’ button of all kinds of mobile apps. Yet it is much more changeling to analyze these feedback texts and to catch the true feelings of a consumer regarding either a problem or a complimentary of consumers who hands out the feedback. Especially to the Chinese content, it is possible that; in one context the Chinese feedback expresses positive feedback, but in the other context, the same Chinese feedback may be a negative one. For example, in Chinese, the feedback 'operating with loudness' works well with both refrigerator and stereo system. Apparently, this feedback towards a refrigerator shows negative feedback; however, the same feedback is positive towards a stereo system. By introducing Bradley, M. and Lang, P.'s Affective Norms for English Text (ANET) theory and Bucci W.’s Referential Activity (RA) theory, we, usability researchers at Pingan, are able to decipher the feedback and to find the hidden feelings behind the content. We subtract 2 disciplines ‘valence’ and ‘dominance’ out of 3 of ANET and 2 disciplines ‘concreteness’ and ‘specificity’ out of 4 of RA to organize our own rating system with a scale of 1 to 5 points. This rating system enables us to judge the feelings/emotion behind each feedback, and it works well with both single word/phrase and a whole paragraph. The result of the rating reflects the strength of the feeling/emotion of the consumer when he/she is typing the feedback. In our daily work, we first require a consumer to answer the net promoter score (NPS) before writing the feedback, so we can determine the feedback is positive or negative. Secondly, we code the feedback content according to company problematic list, which contains 200 problematic items. In this way, we are able to collect the data that how many feedbacks left by the consumer belong to one typical problem. Thirdly, we rate each feedback based on the rating system mentioned above to illustrate the strength of the feeling/emotion when our consumer writes the feedback. In this way, we actually obtain two kinds of data 1) the portion, which means how many feedbacks are ascribed into one problematic item and 2) the severity, how strong the negative feeling/emotion is when the consumer is writing this feedback. By crossing these two, and introducing the portion into X-axis and severity into Y-axis, we are able to find which typical problem gets the high score in both portion and severity. The higher the score of a problem has, the more urgent a problem is supposed to be solved as it means more people write stronger negative feelings in feedbacks regarding this problem. Moreover, by introducing hidden Markov model to program our rating system, we are able to computerize the scoring system and are able to process thousands of feedback in a short period of time, which is efficient and accurate enough for the industrial purpose.

Keywords: computerized scoring system, feeling/emotion of consumer feedback, referential activity, text mining

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28 Analysis of Thermal Damping in Si Based Torsional Micromirrors

Authors: R. Resmi, M. R. Baiju


The thermal damping of a dynamic vibrating micromirror is an important factor affecting the design of MEMS based actuator systems. In the development process of new micromirror systems, assessing the extent of energy loss due to thermal damping accurately and predicting the performance of the system is very essential. In this paper, the depth of the thermal penetration layer at different eigenfrequencies and the temperature variation distributions surrounding a vibrating micromirror is analyzed. The thermal penetration depth corresponds to the thermal boundary layer in which energy is lost which is a measure of the thermal damping is found out. The energy is mainly dissipated in the thermal boundary layer and thickness of the layer is an important parameter. The detailed thermoacoustics is used to model the air domain surrounding the micromirror. The thickness of the boundary layer, temperature variations and thermal power dissipation are analyzed for a Si based torsional mode micromirror. It is found that thermal penetration depth decreases with eigenfrequency and hence operating the micromirror at higher frequencies is essential for reducing thermal damping. The temperature variations and thermal power dissipations at different eigenfrequencies are also analyzed. Both frequency-response and eigenfrequency analyses are done using COMSOL Multiphysics software.

Keywords: Eigen frequency analysis, micromirrors, thermal damping, thermoacoustic interactions

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