Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Shilpa Khobragade

21 Rapid, Label-Free, Direct Detection and Quantification of Escherichia coli Bacteria Using Nonlinear Acoustic Aptasensor

Authors: Shilpa Khobragade, Carlos Da Silva Granja, Niklas Sandström, Igor Efimov, Victor P. Ostanin, Wouter van der Wijngaart, David Klenerman, Sourav K. Ghosh

Abstract:

Rapid, label-free and direct detection of pathogenic bacteria is critical for the prevention of disease outbreaks. This paper for the first time attempts to probe the nonlinear acoustic response of quartz crystal resonator (QCR) functionalized with specific DNA aptamers for direct detection and quantification of viable E. coli KCTC 2571 bacteria. DNA aptamers were immobilized through biotin and streptavidin conjugation, onto the gold surface of QCR to capture the target bacteria and the detection was accomplished by shift in amplitude of the peak 3f signal (3 times the drive frequency) upon binding, when driven near fundamental resonance frequency. The developed nonlinear acoustic aptasensor system demonstrated better reliability than conventional resonance frequency shift and energy dissipation monitoring that were recorded simultaneously. This sensing system could directly detect 10⁽⁵⁾ cells/mL target bacteria within 30 min or less and had high specificity towards E. coli KCTC 2571 bacteria as compared to the same concentration of S.typhi bacteria. Aptasensor response was observed for the bacterial suspensions ranging from 10⁽⁵⁾-10⁽⁸⁾ cells/mL. Conclusively, this nonlinear acoustic aptasensor is simple to use, gives real-time output, cost-effective and has the potential for rapid, specific, label-free direction detection of bacteria.

Keywords: acoustic, aptasensor, detection, nonlinear

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20 Design of Doctor’s Appointment Scheduling Application

Authors: Shilpa Sondkar, Maithili Patil, Atharva Potnis

Abstract:

The current health care landscape desires efficiency and patient satisfaction for optimal performance. Medical appointment booking apps have increased the overall efficiency of clinics, hospitals, and e-health marketplaces while simplifying processes. These apps allow patients to connect with doctors online. Not only are mobile doctor appointment apps a reliable and efficient solution, but they are also the future of clinical progression and a distinct new stage in the patient-doctor relationship. Compared to the usual queuing method, the web-based appointment system could significantly increase patients' satisfaction with registration and reduce total waiting time effectively.

Keywords: appointment, patient, scheduling, design and development, Figma

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19 Analysis of Structural Phase Stability of Strontium Sulphide under High Pressure

Authors: Shilpa Kapoor, Namrata Yaduvanshi, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

A Three Body Interaction Potential (TBIP) model is developed to study the high pressure phase transition of SrS having NaCl (B1) structure at room temperature. This model includes the long range Columbic, three body interaction forces, short range overlap forces operative up to next nearest neighbors and zero point energy effects. We have investigated the phase transition with pressure, volume collapse and second order elastic constants and found results well suited with available experimental data.

Keywords: phase transition, second order elastic constants, three body interaction forces, volume collapses

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18 Interaction of Tungsten Tips with Laguerre-Gaussian Beams

Authors: Abhisek Sinha, Debobrata Rajak, Shilpa Rani, Ram Gopal, Vandana Sharma

Abstract:

The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with metallic tips has been studied extensively, and they have proved to be a very good source of ultrashort electron pulses. A study of the interaction of femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser modes with Tungsten tips is presented here. Laser pulses of 35 fs pulse durations were incident on Tungsten tips, and their electron emission rates were studied for LG (l=1, p=0) and Gaussian modes. A change in the order of the interaction for LG beams is reported, and the difference in the order of interaction is attributed to ponderomotive shifts in the energy levels corresponding to the enhanced near-field intensity supported by numerical simulations.

Keywords: femtosecond, Laguerre-Gaussian, OAM, tip

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17 Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of Cerium Mononitride

Authors: Namrata Yaduvanshi, Shilpa Kapoor, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

In the present paper, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition and elastic properties of cerium mononitride. We studied theoretically the structural properties of this compound (CeN) by using the Improved Interaction Potential Model (IIPM) approach. This compound exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from NaCl (B1) to tetragonal (BCT) phase at 37 GPa. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapse obtained from present potential model (IIPM) show a good agreement with available theoretical data.

Keywords: phase transition, volume collapse, elastic constants, three body interaction

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16 Loss in Efficacy of Viscoelastic Ionic Liquid Surfactants under High Salinity during Surfactant Flooding

Authors: Shilpa K. Nandwani, Mousumi Chakraborty, Smita Gupta

Abstract:

When selecting surfactants for surfactant flooding during enhanced oil recovery, the most important criteria is that the surfactant system should reduce the interfacial tension between water and oil to ultralow values. In the present study, a mixture of ionic liquid surfactant and commercially available binding agent sodium tosylate has been used as a surfactant mixture. Presence of wormlike micelles indicates the possibility of achieving ultralow interfacial tension. Surface tension measurements of the mixed surfactant system have been studied. The emulsion size distribution of the mixed surfactant system at varying salinities has been studied. It has been found that at high salinities the viscoelastic surfactant system loses their efficacy and degenerate. Hence the given system may find application in low salinity reservoirs, providing good mobility to the flood during tertiary oil recovery process.

Keywords: ionic liquis, interfacial tension, Na-tosylate, viscoelastic surfactants

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15 Improved Wetting for Improved Solubility and Dissolution of Candesartan Cilexetil

Authors: Shilpa Bhilegaonkar, Ram Gaud

Abstract:

Candesartan cilexetil is a poorly soluble antihypertensive agent with solubility limited bioavailability (15%). To initiate process of solubilisation, it is very much necessary to displace the air at the surface and wet the drug surface with a solvent, with which drug is compatible. Present research adopts the same principle to improve solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil. Solvents used here are surfactant and modified surfactant in different drug: solvent (1:1-1:9) ratio’s for preparation of adsorbates. Adsorbates were then converted into free flowing powders as liquisolid compacts and compressed to form tablets. Liquisolid compacts were evaluated for improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution of candesartan cilexetil. All systems were evaluated for improvement in saturation solubility and dissolution in different medias such as water, 0.1 N HCl, Phosphate buffer pH 6.8 and media given by office of generic drugs along with other physicochemical testing. All systems exhibited a promising advantage in terms of solubility and dissolution without affecting the drug structure as confirmed by IR and XRD. No considerable advantage was seen of increasing solvent ratio with drug.

Keywords: candesartan cilexetil, improved dissolution, solubility, liquisolid

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14 Digital Preservation: Requirement of 21st Century

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Shilpa

Abstract:

Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in educational organizations in India. It considers the broad range of digital objects including e-journals, technical reports, e-records, project documents, scientific data, etc. This paper describes the main objectives, process and technological issues involved in preservation of digital materials. Digital preservation refers to the various methods of keeping digital materials alive for the future. It includes everything from electronic publications on CD-ROM to Online database and collections of experimental data in digital format maintains the ability to display, retrieve and use digital collections in the face of rapidly changing technological and organizational infrastructures elements. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: preservation, digital preservation, digital dark age, conservation, archive, repository, document, information technology, hardware, software, organization, machine readable format

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13 Modelling and Simulation of Single Mode Optical Fiber Directional Coupler for Medical Application

Authors: Shilpa Kulkarni, Sujata Patrikar

Abstract:

A single-mode fiber directional coupler is modeled and simulated for its application in medical field. Various fiber devices based on evanescent field absorption, interferometry, couplers, resonators, tip coated fibers, etc, have been developed so far, suitable for medical application. This work focuses on the possibility of sensing by single mode fiber directional coupler. In the preset work, a fiber directional coupler is modeled to detect the changes taking place in the surrounding medium optoelectronically. In this work, waveguiding characteristics of the fiber are studied in depth. The sensor is modeled and simulated by finding photocurrent, sensitivity and detection limit by varying various parameters of the directional coupler. The device is optimized for the best possible output. It is found that the directional coupler shows measurable photocurrents and good sensitivity with coupling length in micrometers. It is thus a miniature device, hence, suitable for medical applications.

Keywords: single mode fiber directional coupler, modeling and simulation of fiber directional coupler sensor, biomolecular sensing, medical sensor device

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12 A Data Mining Approach for Analysing and Predicting the Bank's Asset Liability Management Based on Basel III Norms

Authors: Nidhin Dani Abraham, T. K. Sri Shilpa

Abstract:

Asset liability management is an important aspect in banking business. Moreover, the today’s banking is based on BASEL III which strictly regulates on the counterparty default. This paper focuses on prediction and analysis of counter party default risk, which is a type of risk occurs when the customers fail to repay the amount back to the lender (bank or any financial institutions). This paper proposes an approach to reduce the counterparty risk occurring in the financial institutions using an appropriate data mining technique and thus predicts the occurrence of NPA. It also helps in asset building and restructuring quality. Liability management is very important to carry out banking business. To know and analyze the depth of liability of bank, a suitable technique is required. For that a data mining technique is being used to predict the dormant behaviour of various deposit bank customers. Various models are implemented and the results are analyzed of saving bank deposit customers. All these data are cleaned using data cleansing approach from the bank data warehouse.

Keywords: data mining, asset liability management, BASEL III, banking

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11 Vibration Analysis of a Solar Powered UAV

Authors: Kevin Anderson, Sukhwinder Singh Sandhu, Nouh Anies, Shilpa Ravichandra, Steven Dobbs, Donald Edberg

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of a Finite Element based vibration analysis of a solar powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The purpose of this paper was to quantify the free vibration, forced vibration response due to differing point inputs in order to mimic the vibration induced by actuators (magnet in coil generators) used to aid in the flight of the UAV. A Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) study was performed in order to ascertain pertinent deigns stresses and deflections as well as aerodynamic parameters of the UAV airfoil. The 10 ft span airfoil is modeled using Mylar as the primary material. Results show that the free mode in bending is 4.8 Hz while the first forced bending mode is in the range of 16.2 to 16.7 Hz depending on the location of excitation. The free torsional bending mode is 28.3 Hz, and the first forced torsional mode is in the range of 26.4 to 27.8 Hz, depending on the location of excitation. The FSI results predict the coefficients of aerodynamic drag and lift of 0.0052 and 0.077, respectively, which matches hand-calculations used to validate the Finite Element based results. FSI based maximum von Mises stresses and deflections were found to be 0.282 MPa and 3.4 mm, respectively. Dynamic pressures on the airfoil range of 1.04 to 1.23 kPa corresponding to velocity magnitudes in the range of 22 to 66 m/s.

Keywords: ANSYS, finite element, FSI, UAV, vibrations

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10 Approaches and Implications of Working on Gender Equality under Corporate Social Responsibility: A Case Study of Two Corporate Social Responsibilities in India

Authors: Shilpa Vasavada

Abstract:

One of the 17 SustainableDevelopmentGoals focuses on gender equality. The paper is based on the learning derived from working with two Corporate Social Responsibility cases in India: one, CSR of an International Corporate and the other, CSR of a multi state national level corporate -on their efforts to integrate gender perspective in their agriculture and livestock based rural livelihood programs. The author tries to dissect how ‘gender equality’ is seen by these two CSRs, where the goals are different. The implications of a CSR’sunderstandingon ‘gender equality’ as a goal; versus CSR’s understanding of working 'with women for enhancing quantity or quality of production’ gets reflected in their orientation to staff, resource allocation, strategic level and in processes followed at the rural grassroots level. The paper comes up with examples of changes made at programmatic front when CSR understands and works with the focus on gender equality as a goal. On the other hand, the paper also explores the differential, at times, the negative impact on women and the programmes;- when the goals differ. The paper concludes with recommendations for CSRs to take up at their resource allocation and strategic level if gender equality is the goal- which has direct implication at their grassroots programmatic work. The author argues that if gender equality has to be implemented actually in spirit by a CSR, it requires change in mindset and thus an openness to changes in strategies and resource allocation pattern of the CSR and not simply adding on women in the way intervention has been going on.

Keywords: gender equality, approaches, differential impact, resource allocation

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9 Human Security through Human Rights in the Contemporary World

Authors: Shilpa Bagade Poharkar

Abstract:

The basis for traditional notion of security was the use of force to preserve vital interest which based on either realism or power politics. The modern approach to security extends beyond the traditional notions of security which focus on issues as development and respect for human rights. In global politics, the issue of human security plays a vital role in most of the policy matter. In modern era, the protection of human rights is now recognized as one of the main functions of any legitimate modern state. The research paper will explore the relationship between human rights and security. United Nations is facing major challenges like rampant poverty, refugee outflows, human trafficking, displacement, conflicts, terrorism, intra-inter ethnic conflicts, proliferation of small arms, genocide, piracy, climate change, health issues and so on. The methodology is observed in this paper is doctrinaire which includes analytical and descriptive comparative method. The hypothesis of the paper is the relationship between human rights and a goal of United Nations to attain peace and security. Although previous research has been done in this field but this research paper will try to find out the challenges in the human security through human rights in the contemporary world and will provide measures for it. The study will focus on the following research questions: What are the issues and challenges United Nations facing while advancing human security through human rights? What measures the international community would take for ensuring the protection of human rights while protecting state security and contribute in the attainment of goals of United Nations?

Keywords: human rights, human security, peace, security, United Nations

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8 Comparative in silico and in vitro Study of N-(1-Methyl-2-Oxo-2-N-Methyl Anilino-Ethyl) Benzene Sulfonamide and Its Analogues as an Anticancer Agent

Authors: Pamita Awasthi, Kirna, Shilpa Dogra, Manu Vatsal, Ritu Barthwal

Abstract:

Doxorubicin, also known as adriamycin, is an anthracycline class of drug used in cancer chemotherapy. It is used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, acute leukemias, breast cancer, lung cancer, endometrium cancer and ovary cancers. It functions via intercalating DNA and ultimately killing cancer cells. The major side effects of doxorubicin are hair loss, myelosuppression, nausea & vomiting, oesophagitis, diarrhoea, heart damage and liver dysfunction. The minor modifications in the structure of compound exhibit large variation in the biological activity, has prompted us to carry out the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives. Sulfonamide is an important feature with broad spectrum of biological activity such as antiviral, antifungal, diuretics, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer activities. Structure of the synthesized compound N-(1-methyl-2-oxo-2-N-methyl anilino-ethyl)benzene sulfonamide confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR),13C NMR, Mass and FTIR spectroscopic tools to assure the position of all protons and hence stereochemistry of the molecule. Further we have reported the binding potential of synthesized sulfonamide analogues in comparison to doxorubicin drug using Auto Dock 4.2 software. Computational binding energy (B.E.) and inhibitory constant (Ki) has been evaluated for the synthesized compound in comparison of doxorubicin against Poly (dA-dT).Poly (dA-dT) and Poly (dG-dC).Poly (dG-dC) sequences. The in vitro cytotoxic study against human breast cancer cell lines confirms the better anticancer activity of the synthesized compound over currently in use anticancer drug doxorubicin. The IC50 value of the synthesized compound is 7.12 µM where as for doxorubicin is 7.2 µ.

Keywords: Doxorubicin, auto dock, in silco, in vitro

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7 Removal of Pb²⁺ from Waste Water Using Nano Silica Spheres Synthesized on CaCO₃ as a Template: Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies

Authors: Milton Manyangadze, Joseph Govha, T. Bala Narsaiah, Ch. Shilpa Chakra

Abstract:

The availability and access to fresh water is today a serious global challenge. This has been a direct result of factors such as the current rapid industrialization and industrial growth, persistent droughts in some parts of the world, especially in the sub-Saharan Africa as well as population growth. Growth of the chemical processing industry has also seen an increase in the levels of pollutants in our water bodies which include heavy metals among others. Heavy metals are known to be dangerous to both human and aquatic life. As such, they have been linked to several diseases. This is mainly because they are highly toxic. They are also known to be bio accumulative and non-biodegradable. Lead for example, has been linked to a number of health problems which include damage of vital internal body systems like the nervous and reproductive system as well as the kidneys. From this background therefore, the removal of the toxic heavy metal, Pb2+ from waste water was investigated using nano silica hollow spheres (NSHS) as the adsorbent. Synthesis of NSHS was done using a three-stage process in which CaCO3 nanoparticles were initially prepared as a template. This was followed by treatment of the formed oxide particles with NaSiO3 to give a nanocomposite. Finally, the template was destroyed using 2.0M HCl to give NSHS. Characterization of the nanoparticles was done using analytical techniques like XRD, SEM, and TGA. For the adsorption process, both thermodynamic and equilibrium studies were carried out. Thermodynamic studies were carried out and the Gibbs free energy, Enthalpy and Entropy of the adsorption process were determined. The results revealed that the adsorption process was both endothermic and spontaneous. Equilibrium studies were also carried out in which the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were tested. The results showed that the Langmuir model best described the adsorption equilibrium.

Keywords: characterization, endothermic, equilibrium studies, Freundlich, Langmuir, nanoparticles, thermodynamic studies

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6 Sustainable Milling Process for Tensile Specimens

Authors: Shilpa Kumari, Ramakumar Jayachandran

Abstract:

Machining of aluminium extrusion profiles in the automotive industry has gained much interest in the last decade, particularly due to the higher utilization of aluminum profiles and the weight reduction benefits it brings. Milling is the most common material removal process, where the rotary milling cutter is moved against a workpiece. The physical contact of the milling cutter to the workpiece increases the friction between them, thereby affecting the longevity of the milling tool and also the surface finish of the workpiece. To minimise this issue, the milling process uses cutting fluids or emulsions; however, the use of emulsion in the process has a negative impact on the environment ( such as consumption of water, oils and the used emulsion needs to be treated before disposal) and also on the personal ( may cause respiratory problems, exposure to microbial toxins generated by bacteria in the emulsions on prolonged use) working close to the process. Furthermore, the workpiece also needs to be cleaned after the milling process, which is not adding value to the process, and the cleaning also disperses mist of emulsion in the working environment. Hydro Extrusion is committed to improving the performance of sustainability from its operations, and with the negative impact of using emulsion in the milling process, a new innovative process- Dry Milling was developed to minimise the impact the cutting fluid brings. In this paper, the authors present one application of dry milling in the machining of tensile specimens in the laboratory. Dry milling is an innovative milling process without the use of any cooling/lubrication and has several advantages. Several million tensile tests are carried out in extrusion laboratories worldwide with the wet milling process. The machining of tensile specimens has a significant impact on the reliability of test results. The paper presents the results for different 6xxx alloys with different wall thicknesses of the specimens, which were machined by both dry and wet milling processes. For both different 6xxx alloys and different wall thicknesses, mechanical properties were similar for samples milled using dry and wet milling. Several tensile specimens were prepared using both dry and wet milling to compare the results, and the outcome showed the dry milling process does not affect the reliability of tensile test results.

Keywords: dry milling, tensile testing, wet milling, 6xxx alloy

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5 Exploration of RFID in Healthcare: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Shilpa Balan

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identification, also popularly known as RFID is used to automatically identify and track tags attached to items. This study focuses on the application of RFID in healthcare. The adoption of RFID in healthcare is a crucial technology to patient safety and inventory management. Data from RFID tags are used to identify the locations of patients and inventory in real time. Medical errors are thought to be a prominent cause of loss of life and injury. The major advantage of RFID application in healthcare industry is the reduction of medical errors. The healthcare industry has generated huge amounts of data. By discovering patterns and trends within the data, big data analytics can help improve patient care and lower healthcare costs. The number of increasing research publications leading to innovations in RFID applications shows the importance of this technology. This study explores the current state of research of RFID in healthcare using a text mining approach. No study has been performed yet on examining the current state of RFID research in healthcare using a data mining approach. In this study, related articles were collected on RFID from healthcare journal and news articles. Articles collected were from the year 2000 to 2015. Significant keywords on the topic of focus are identified and analyzed using open source data analytics software such as Rapid Miner. These analytical tools help extract pertinent information from massive volumes of data. It is seen that the main benefits of adopting RFID technology in healthcare include tracking medicines and equipment, upholding patient safety, and security improvement. The real-time tracking features of RFID allows for enhanced supply chain management. By productively using big data, healthcare organizations can gain significant benefits. Big data analytics in healthcare enables improved decisions by extracting insights from large volumes of data.

Keywords: RFID, data mining, data analysis, healthcare

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4 In-House Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy as a Screening Tool in Patients Presenting with Dyspepsia

Authors: Avani Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jaykanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of gall bladder dysfunction in patients with dyspepsia using In-House fatty meal cholescintigraphy. Materials & Methods: This study is a prospective cohort study. 59 healthy volunteers with no dyspeptic complaints and negative ultrasound and endoscopy were recruited in study. 61 patients having complaint of dyspepsia for duration of more than 6 months were included. All of them underwent 99mTc-Mebrofenin fatty meal cholescintigraphy following a standard protocol. Dynamic acquisitions were acquired for 120 minutes with an In-House fatty meal being given at 45th minute. Gall bladder emptying kinetics was determined with gall bladder ejection fractions (GBEF) calculated at 30minutes, 45minutes and at 60 minutes (30min, 45min & 60 min). Standardization of fatty meal was done for volunteers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used assess the diagnostic accuracy of 3 time points (30min, 45min & 60 min) used for measuring gall bladder emptying. On the basis of cut off derived from volunteers, the patients were assessed for gall bladder dysfunction. Results: In volunteers, the GBEF at 30 min was 74.42±8.26 % (mean ±SD), at 45 min was 82.61 ± 6.5 % and at 60 min was 89.37±4.48%, compared to patients where at 30min it was 33.73±22.87%, at 45 min it was 43.03±26.97% and at 60 min it was 51.85±29.60%. The lower limit of GBEF in volunteers at 30 min was 60%, 45 min was 69% and at 60 min was 81%. ROC analysis showed that area under curve was largest for 30 min GBEF (0.952; 95% CI = 0.914-0.989) and that all the 3 measures were statistically significant (p < 0.005). Majority of the volunteers had 74% of gall bladder emptying by 30 minutes; hence it was taken as an optimum cutoff time to assess gall bladder contraction. > 60% GBEF at 30 min post fatty meal was considered as normal and < 60% GBEF as indicative of gall bladder dysfunction. In patients, various causes for dyspepsia were identified: GB dysfunction (63.93%), Peptic ulcer (8.19 %), Gastroesophageal reflux disease (8.19%), Gastritis (4.91%). In 18.03% of cases GB dysfunction coexisted with other gastrointestinal conditions. The diagnosis of functional dyspepsia was made in 14.75% of cases. Conclusions: Gall bladder dysfunction contributes significantly to the causation of dyspepsia. It could coexist with various other gastrointestinal diseases. Fatty meal was well tolerated and devoid of any side effects. Many patients who are labeled as functional dyspeptics could actually have gall bladder dysfunction. Hence as an adjunct to ultrasound and endoscopy, fatty meal cholescintigraphy can also be used as a screening modality in characterization of dyspepsia.

Keywords: in-house fatty meal, choescintigraphy, dyspepsia, gall bladder ejection fraction, functional dyspepsia

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3 Assessment of the Effect of Orally Administered Itopride on Gall Bladder Ejection Fraction by a Fatty Meal Cholescintigraphy in Patients with Diabetes

Authors: Avani Jain, Hasmukh Jain, S. Shelley, M. Indirani, Shilpa Kalal, Jayakanth Amalachandran

Abstract:

Aim of the Study: To assess the effect of orally administered Itopride on gall bladder ejection fraction by fatty meal cholescintigraphy in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients (20 males, 10 females, mean age 46+10 yrs) with history of diabetes mellitus (mean duration 4.8+4.1 yrs, fasting blood glucose level 130+35 mg/dl and 2-hours post-prandial blood glucose level 196+76 mg/dl) and found to have gall bladder dysfunction on fatty-meal stimulated cholescintigraphy were selected for this study. These patients underwent a repeat cholescintigraphy similar to baseline study, with 50 mg of Itopride orally along with fatty meal. Pre- and post-Itopride GBEF were then compared to assess the effect of Itopride on gall bladder contraction. Results: Out of these 30 patients, 2 had dyskinetic, 4 had akinetic, 22 had moderately hypokinetic and the remaining 2 had hypokinetic gall bladder function in the baseline study with > 60% GBEF being taken as the normal value. Mean percentage of GBEF in the baseline study was 32%+13% and the mean percentage of GBEF in the post-Itopride study was 57%+17% with change in mean percentage of GBEF being 24%+21%. GBEF of the “baseline study” was significantly lower as compared to GBEF in the “post-Itopride study” (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diabetic patients with biliary-type pain often tend to have impaired gallbladder function. Cholescintigraphy with fatty meal-stimulation is a simple, cheap and useful investigation for assessment of gallbladder dysfunction in these patients, before any structural changes occur within the lumen or wall of the gall bladder. Improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction after oral administration of a single dose of Itopride, a newer prokinetic drug with fewer side effects, as assessed by cholescintigraphy, provides enough evidence of future therapeutic response. Administration of Itopride, in therapeutic dosage, therefore may be expected to cause significant improvement in gallbladder ejection fraction and hence prolong stone formation within the gall bladder and also prevent the associated long term complications. Hence, based on scintigraphic evidence, Itopride may be recommended, by clinicians, for management of symptomatic diabetic patients having gallbladder dysfunction.

Keywords: itopride, gall bladder ejection fraction, fatty meal, cholescintigraphy, diabetes

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2 Pulmonary Complications of Dengue Infection

Authors: Shilpa Avarebeel

Abstract:

Background: India is one of the seven identified countries in South-East Asia region, regularly reporting dengue infection and may soon transform into a major niche for dengue epidemics. Objective: To study the clinical profile of dengue in our setting with special reference to respiratory complication. Study design: Descriptive and exploratory study, for one year in 2014. All patients confirmed as dengue infection were followed and their clinical profile, along with outcome was determined. Study proforma was designed based on the objective of the study and it was pretested and used after modification. Data was analyzed using statistical software SPSS-Version 16. Data were expressed as mean ±S .D for parametric variables and actual frequencies or percentage for non-parametric data. Comparison between groups was done using students’ t-test for independent groups, Chie square test, one-way ANOVA test, Karl Pearson’s correlation test. Statistical significance is taken at P < 0.05. Results: Study included 134 dengue positive cases. 81% had dengue fever, 18% had dengue hemorrhagic fever, and one had dengue shock syndrome. Most of the cases reported were during the month of June. Maximum number of cases was in the age group of 26-35 years. Average duration of hospital stay was less than seven days. Fever and myalgia was present in all the 134 patients, 16 had bleeding manifestation. 38 had respiratory symptoms, 24 had breathlessness, and 14 had breathlessness and dry cough. On clinical examination of patients with respiratory symptoms, all twenty-eight had hypoxia features, twenty-four had signs of pleural effusion, and four had ARDS features. Chest x-ray confirmed the same. Among the patients with respiratory symptoms, the mean platelet count was 26,537 c/cmm. There was no statistical significant difference in the platelet count in those with ARDS and other dengue complications. Average four units of platelets were transfused to all those who had ARDS in view of bleeding tendency. Mechanical ventilator support was provided for ARDS patients. Those with pleural effusion and pulmonary oedema were given NIV (non-invasive ventilation) support along with supportive care. However, steroids were given to patients with ARDS and 10 patients with signs of respiratory distress. 100%. Mortality was seen in patients with ARDS. Conclusion: Dengue has to be checked for those presenting with fever and breathlessness. Supportive treatments remain the cornerstone of treatment. Platelet transfusion has to be given only by clinical judgment. Steroids have no role except in early ARDS, which is controversial. Early NIV support helps in speedy recovery of dengue patients with respiratory distress.

Keywords: adult respiratory distress syndrome, dengue fever, non-invasive ventilation, pulmonary complication

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1 Inertial Spreading of Drop on Porous Surfaces

Authors: Shilpa Sahoo, Michel Louge, Anthony Reeves, Olivier Desjardins, Susan Daniel, Sadik Omowunmi

Abstract:

The microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) was exploited to study the imbibition of water into a network of hydrophilic cylindrical capillaries on time and length scales long enough to observe details hitherto inaccessible under Earth gravity. When a drop touches a porous medium, it spreads as if laid on a composite surface. The surface first behaves as a hydrophobic material, as liquid must penetrate pores filled with air. When contact is established, some of the liquid is drawn into pores by a capillarity that is resisted by viscous forces growing with length of the imbibed region. This process always begins with an inertial regime that is complicated by possible contact pinning. To study imbibition on Earth, time and distance must be shrunk to mitigate gravity-induced distortion. These small scales make it impossible to observe the inertial and pinning processes in detail. Instead, in the International Space Station (ISS), astronaut Luca Parmitano slowly extruded water spheres until they touched any of nine capillary plates. The 12mm diameter droplets were large enough for high-speed GX1050C video cameras on top and side to visualize details near individual capillaries, and long enough to observe dynamics of the entire imbibition process. To investigate the role of contact pinning, a text matrix was produced which consisted nine kinds of porous capillary plates made of gold-coated brass treated with Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAM) that fixed advancing and receding contact angles to known values. In the ISS, long-term microgravity allowed unambiguous observations of the role of contact line pinning during the inertial phase of imbibition. The high-speed videos of spreading and imbibition on the porous plates were analyzed using computer vision software to calculate the radius of the droplet contact patch with the plate and height of the droplet vs time. These observations are compared with numerical simulations and with data that we obtained at the ESA ZARM free-fall tower in Bremen with a unique mechanism producing relatively large water spheres and similarity in the results were observed. The data obtained from the ISS can be used as a benchmark for further numerical simulations in the field.

Keywords: droplet imbibition, hydrophilic surface, inertial phase, porous medium

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