Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: Dieter Roller

80 A Comparative Study of Force Prediction Models during Static Bending Stage for 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending

Authors: Mahesh Chudasama, Harit Raval

Abstract:

Conical sections and shells of metal plates manufactured by 3-roller conical bending process are widely used in the industries. The process is completed by first bending the metal plates statically and then dynamic roller bending sequentially. It is required to have an analytical model to get maximum bending force, for optimum design of the machine, for static bending stage. Analytical models assuming various stress conditions are considered and these analytical models are compared considering various parameters and reported in this paper. It is concluded from the study that for higher bottom roller inclination, the shear stress affects greatly to the static bending force whereas for lower bottom roller inclination it can be neglected.

Keywords: roller-bending, static-bending, stress-conditions, analytical-modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
79 Multifunctional Bending and Straightening Machines for Shipbuilding

Authors: V. Yu. Shungin, A. V. Popov

Abstract:

At present, one of the main tasks of Russian shipbuilding yards is implementation of new technologies and replacement of main process equipment. In particular, conventional bending technologies with dies are being replaced with resource-saving methods of rotation (roller) banding. Such rolling bending is performed by multiple rolling of a plat in special bending rollers. Studies, conducted in JSC SSTC, allowed developing a theory of rotation bending, methods for calculation of process parameters, requirements to roller presses and bending accessories. This technology allows replacing old and expensive presses with new cheaper roller ones, having less power consumption and bending force. At first, roller presses were implemented in ship repair, however now they are widely employed at major shipbuilding yards. JSC SSTC develops bending technology and carries out design, manufacturing and delivery of roller presses.

Keywords: bending/straightening machines, rotational bending, ship hull structures, multifunctional bending

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
78 The Effects of Various Curing Compounds on the Mechanical Characteristics of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavements (RCCP)

Authors: Azadeh Askarinejad, Parmida Hayati, Parham Hayati, Reza Parchami

Abstract:

Curing is a very important factor in the ultimate strength and durability of roller compacted concrete pavements (RCCP). Curing involves keeping the concrete is saturated or close to saturation point. Since maintaining concrete moisture has a significant impact on its mechanical properties, permeability and durability, curing is important. The most common procedure for curing of roller compacted concrete is using a white pigmented curing compound. This method is effective, economical and fast. In the present study, different curing compounds were applied on concrete specimens and the results of their effects on the mechanical properties were compared with each other and usual methods of curing in order to select appropriate materials and methods of curing for RCCP construction.

Keywords: curing compounds, roller compacted concrete pavements, mechanical properties, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 498
77 Roller Pump-Induced Tubing Rupture during Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: W. G. Kim, C. H. Jo

Abstract:

We analyzed the effects of variations in the diameter of silicone rubber and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubings on the likelihood of tubing rupture during modeling of accidental arterial line clamping in cardiopulmonary bypass with a roller pump. A closed CPB circuit constructed with a roller pump was tested with both PVC and silicone rubber tubings of 1/2, 3/8, and 1/4 inch internal diameter. Arterial line pressure was monitored, and an occlusive clamp was placed across the tubing distal to the pressure monitor site to model an accidental arterial line occlusion. A CCD camera with 512(H) x 492(V) pixels was installed above the roller pump to measure tubing diameters at pump outlet, where the maximum deformations (distension) of the tubings occurred. Quantitative measurement of the changes of tubing diameters with the change of arterial line pressure was performed using computerized image processing techniques. A visible change of tubing diameter was generally noticeable by around 250 psi of arterial line pressure, which was already very high. By 1500 psi, the PVC tubings showed an increase of diameter of between 5-10 %, while the silicone rubber tubings showed an increase between 20-25 %. Silicone rubber tubings of all sizes showed greater distensibility than PVC tubings of equivalent size. In conclusion, although roller-pump induced tubing rupture remains a theoretical problem during cardiopulmonary bypass in terms of the inherent mechanism of the pump, in reality such an occurrence is impossible in real clinical conditions.

Keywords: roller pump, tubing rupture, cardiopulmonary bypass, arterial line

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
76 Effect of Different Contact Rollers on the Surface Texture during the Belt Grinding Process

Authors: Amine Hamdi, Sidi Mohammed Merghache, Brahim Fernini

Abstract:

During abrasive machining of hard steels by belt grinding, the finished surface texture is influenced by the pressure between the abrasive belt and the workpiece; this pressure is the force applied by the contact roller on the workpiece. Therefore, the contact roller has an important role and has a direct impact on process efficiency. The objective of this article is to study and compare the influence of different contact rollers on the belt ground surface texture. The quality of the surface texture is characterized by eight roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rp, Rv, Rsk, Rku, Rsm, and Rdq) and five parameters of the bearing area curve (Rpk, Rk, Rvk, Mr1, and Mr2). The results of the experimental tests indicate a better surface texture obtained by the PA 6 polyamide roller (hardness 60 Shore D) compared to that obtained with other rollers of the same hardness or of different hardness. Simultaneously, optimum medium pressure between the belt and the workpiece allows chip removal without fracturing the abrasive grains. This generates a good surface texture.

Keywords: belt grinding, contact roller, pressure, abrasive belt, surface texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
75 Comparison between the Roller-Foam and Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Flexibility of Hamstrings Muscles

Authors: Paolo Ragazzi, Olivier Peillon, Paul Fauris, Mathias Simon, Raul Navarro, Juan Carlos Martin, Oriol Casasayas, Laura Pacheco, Albert Perez-Bellmunt

Abstract:

Introduction: The use of stretching techniques in the sports world is frequent and widely used for its many effects. One of the main benefits is the gain in flexibility, range of motion and facilitation of the sporting performance. Recently the use of Roller-Foam (RF) has spread in sports practice both at elite and recreational level for its benefits being similar to those observed in stretching. The objective of the following study is to compare the results of the Roller-Foam with the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) (one of the stretchings with more evidence) on the hamstring muscles. Study design: The design of the study is a single-blind, randomized controlled trial and the participants are 40 healthy volunteers. Intervention: The subjects are distributed randomly in one of the following groups; stretching (PNF) intervention group: 4 repetitions of PNF stretching (5seconds of contraction, 5 second of relaxation, 20 second stretch), Roller-Foam intervention group: 2 minutes of Roller-Foam was realized on the hamstring muscles. Main outcome measures: hamstring muscles flexibility was assessed at the beginning, during (30’’ of intervention) and the end of the session by using the Modified Sit and Reach test (MSR). Results: The baseline results data given in both groups are comparable to each other. The PNF group obtained an increase in flexibility of 3,1 cm at 30 seconds (first series) and of 5,1 cm at 2 minutes (the last of all series). The RF group obtained a 0,6 cm difference at 30 seconds and 2,4 cm after 2 minutes of application of roller foam. The results were statistically significant when comparing intragroups but not intergroups. Conclusions: Despite the fact that the use of roller foam is spreading in the sports and rehabilitation field, the results of the present study suggest that the gain of flexibility on the hamstrings is greater if PNF type stretches are used instead of RF. These results may be due to the fact that the use of roller foam intervened more in the fascial tissue, while the stretches intervene more in the myotendinous unit. Future studies are needed, increasing the sample number and diversifying the types of stretching.

Keywords: hamstring muscle, stretching, neuromuscular facilitation stretching, roller foam

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
74 Effect of Poly Naphthalene Sulfonate Superplasticizer on Constructibility of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement

Authors: Chamroeun Chhorn, Seong Jae Hong, Yoon-Ho Cho, Hyun Jong Lee, Seung Woo Lee

Abstract:

The use of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement (RCCP) in public and private applications has been increasing steadily in the past few decades due to its cost saving. This eco-concrete pavement shares construction characteristics from asphalt pavement and material characteristics from the conventional concrete pavement. Due to its low binder and water content, the consistency of Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is typically very stiff. Thus, it is crucial to control the consistency of this concrete. Without appropriate consistency, required density may not be achieved in actual construction for RCCP. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect on Poly Naphtalene Sulfonate (PNS) superplasticizer on the consistency of RCC as well as its compactibility in actual construction. From this study, it was found that PNS superplasticizer can effectively reduce the stiffness of an RCC mixture and maintain it for a sufficient amount of time without compromising its strength properties. Moreover, it was observed from field test specimens that the use of this admixture can also improve the compaction efficiency throughout the whole depth of pavement.

Keywords: roller-compacted concrete, consistency, compactibility, poly naphthalene sulfonate superplasticizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
73 Analysis of Roll-Forming for High-Density Wire of Reed

Authors: Yujeong Shin, Seong Jin Cho, Jin Ho Kim

Abstract:

In the textile-weaving machine, the reed is the core component to separate thousands of strands of yarn and to produce the fabric in a continuous high-speed movement. In addition, the reed affects the quality of the fiber. Therefore, the wire forming analysis of the main raw materials of the reed needs to be considered. Roll-forming is a key technology among the manufacturing process of reed wire using textile machine. A simulation of roll-forming line in accordance with the reduction rate is performed using LS-DYNA. The upper roller, fixed roller and reed wire are modeled by finite element. The roller is set to be rigid body and the wire of SUS430 is set to be flexible body. We predict the variation of the cross-sectional shape of the wire depending on the reduction ratio.

Keywords: textile machine, reed, rolling, reduction ratio, wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
72 Design of Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement

Authors: O. Zarrin, M. Ramezan Shirazi

Abstract:

The quality of concrete is usually defined by compressive strength, but flexural strength is the most important characteristic of concrete in a pavement which control the mix design of concrete instead of compressive strength. Therefore, the aggregates which are selected for the pavements are affected by higher flexural strength. Roller Compacting Concrete Pavement (RCCP) is not a new construction method. The other characteristic of this method is no bleeding and less shrinkage due to the lower amount of water. For this purpose, a roller is needed for placing and compacting. The surface of RCCP is not smooth; therefore, the most common use of this pavement is in an industrial zone with slower traffic speed which requires durable and tough pavement. For preparing a smoother surface, it can be achieved by asphalt paver. RCCP decrease the finishing cost because there are no bars, formwork, and the lesser labor need for placing the concrete. In this paper, different aspect of RCCP such as mix design, flexural, compressive strength and focus on the different part of RCCP on detail have been investigated.

Keywords: flexural strength, compressive strength, pavement, asphalt

Procedia PDF Downloads 508
71 Software Engineering Inspired Cost Estimation for Process Modelling

Authors: Felix Baumann, Aleksandar Milutinovic, Dieter Roller

Abstract:

Up to this point business process management projects in general and business process modelling projects in particular could not rely on a practical and scientifically validated method to estimate cost and effort. Especially the model development phase is not covered by a cost estimation method or model. Further phases of business process modelling starting with implementation are covered by initial solutions which are discussed in the literature. This article proposes a method of filling this gap by deriving a cost estimation method from available methods in similar domains namely software development or software engineering. Software development is regarded as closely similar to process modelling as we show. After the proposition of this method different ideas for further analysis and validation of the method are proposed. We derive this method from COCOMO II and Function Point which are established methods of effort estimation in the domain of software development. For this we lay out similarities of the software development rocess and the process of process modelling which is a phase of the Business Process Management life-cycle.

Keywords: COCOMO II, busines process modeling, cost estimation method, BPM COCOMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
70 Design of an Eddy Current Brake System for the Use of Roller Coasters Based on a Human Factors Engineering Approach

Authors: Adam L. Yanagihara, Yong Seok Park

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to converge upon a design of a brake system that could be used for a roller coaster found at an amusement park. It was necessary to find what could be deemed as a “comfortable” deceleration so that passengers do not feel as if they are suddenly jerked and pressed against the restraining harnesses. A human factors engineering approach was taken in order to determine this deceleration. Using a previous study that tested the deceleration of transit vehicles, it was found that a -0.45 G deceleration would be used as a design requirement to build this system around. An adjustable linear eddy current brake using permanent magnets would be the ideal system to use in order to meet this design requirement. Anthropometric data were then used to determine a realistic weight and length of the roller coaster that the brake was being designed for. The weight and length data were then factored into magnetic brake force equations. These equations were used to determine how the brake system and the brake run layout would be designed. A final design for the brake was determined and it was found that a total of 12 brakes would be needed with a maximum braking distance of 53.6 m in order to stop a roller coaster travelling at its top speed and loaded to maximum capacity. This design is derived from theoretical calculations, but is within the realm of feasibility.

Keywords: eddy current brake, engineering design, design synthesis, human factors engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
69 Comparative Study of Compressive Strength of Triangular Polyester Fiber with Fly Ash Roller Compacted Concrete Using Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method

Authors: Pramod Keshav Kolase, Atul K. Desai

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation results of Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) tests conducted on roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP) material containing Class F fly ash of as mineral admixture and triangular polyester fiber as a secondary reinforcement. The each mix design series fly ash content is varied from 0% to 45 % and triangular polyester fiber 0% to 0.75% by volume fraction. In each series and for different ages of curing (i.e. 7, 28 and 90 days) forty-eight cube specimens are cast and tested for compressive strength and UPV. The UPV of fly ash was found to be lower for all mixtures at 7 days in comparison with control mix concrete. But at 28, 56 days and 90 days the UPV were significantly improved for all the mixes. Relationships between compressive strength of RCCP and UPV and Dynamic Elastic Modulus are proposed for all series mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, dynamic elastic modulus, fly ash, fiber, roller compacted concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
68 Experimental Study on the Preparation of Pelletizing of the Panzhihua's Fine Ilmenite Concentrate

Authors: Han Kexi, Lv Xuewei, Song Bing

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the preparation of pelletizing with the Panzhihua ilmenite concentrate to satisfy the requirement of smelting titania slag. The effects of the moisture content, mixing time of raw materials, pressure of pellet, roller rotating speed of roller, drying temperature and time on the pelletizing yield and compressive strength were investigated. The experimental results show that the moister content was controlled at 2.0%~2.5%, mixing time at 20 min, the pressure of the ball forming machine at 13~15 mpa, the pelletizing yield can reach up 85%. When the roller rotating speed is 6~8 r/min while the drying temperature and time respectively is 350 ℃ and 40~60 min, the compressive strength of pelletizing more than 1500 N. The preparation of pelletizing can meet the requirement of smelting titania slag.

Keywords: Panzhihua fine ilmenite concentrate, pelletizing, pelletizing yield, compressive strength, drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
67 Variation of Quality of Roller-Compacted Concrete Based on Consistency

Authors: C. Chhorn, S. H. Han, S. W. Lee

Abstract:

Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) has been used for decades in many pavement applications due to its economic cost and high construction speed. However, due to the lack of deep researches and experiences, this material has not been widely employed. An RCC mixture with appropriate consistency can induce high compacted density, while high density can induce good aggregate interlock and high strength. Consistency of RCC is mainly known to define its constructability. However, it was not well specified how this property may affect other properties of a constructed RCC pavement (RCCP). This study suggested the possibility of an ideal range of consistency that may provide adequate quality of RCCP. In this research, five sections of RCCP consisted of both 13 mm and 19 mm aggregate sections were investigated. The effects of consistency on compacted depth, strength, international roughness index (IRI), skid resistance are examined. From this study, a new range of consistency is suggested for RCCP application.

Keywords: compacted depth, consistency, international roughness index (IRI), pavement, roller-compacted concrete (RCC), skid resistance, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
66 Overtopping Protection Systems for Overflow Earth Dams

Authors: Omid Pourabdollah, Mohsen Misaghian

Abstract:

Overtopping is known as one the most important reasons for the failure of earth dams. In some cases, it has resulted in heavy damages and losses. Therefore, enhancing the safety of earth dams against overtopping has received much attention in the past four decades. In this paper, at first, the overtopping phenomena and its destructive consequences will be introduced. Then, overtopping failure mechanism of embankments will be described. Finally, different types of protection systems for stabilization of earth dams against overtopping will be presented. These include timber cribs, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, roller compacted concrete, and the precast concrete blocks.

Keywords: embankment dam, overtopping, roller compacted concrete, wedge concrete block

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
65 A Systamatic Review on Experimental, FEM Analysis and Simulation of Metal Spinning Process

Authors: Amol M. Jadhav, Sharad S. Chudhari, S. S. Khedkar

Abstract:

This review presents a through survey of research paper work on the experimental analysis, FEM Analysis & simulation of the metal spinning process. In this literature survey all the papers being taken from Elsevier publication and most of the from journal of material processing technology. In a last two decade or so, metal spinning process gradually used as chip less formation for the production of engineering component in a small to medium batch quantities. The review aims to provide include into the experimentation, FEM analysis of various components, simulation of metal spinning process and act as guide for research working on metal spinning processes. The review of existing work has several gaps in current knowledge of metal spinning processes. The evaluation of experiment is thickness strain, the spinning force, the twisting angle, the surface roughness of the conventional & shear metal spinning process; the evaluation of FEM of metal spinning to path definition with sufficient fine mesh to capture behavior of work piece; The evaluation of feed rate of roller, direction of roller,& type of roller stimulated. The metal spinning process has the more flexible to produce a wider range of product shape & to form more challenge material.

Keywords: metal spinning, FEM analysis, simulation of metal spinning, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
64 Analysis and Control of Camera Type Weft Straightener

Authors: Jae-Yong Lee, Gyu-Hyun Bae, Yun-Soo Chung, Dae-Sub Kim, Jae-Sung Bae

Abstract:

In general, fabric is heat-treated using a stenter machine in order to dry and fix its shape. It is important to shape before the heat treatment because it is difficult to revert back once the fabric is formed. To produce the product of right shape, camera type weft straightener has been applied recently to capture and process fabric images quickly. It is more powerful in determining the final textile quality rather than photo-sensor. Positioning in front of a stenter machine, weft straightener helps to spread fabric evenly and control the angle between warp and weft constantly as right angle by handling skew and bow rollers. To process this tricky procedure, the structural analysis should be carried out in advance, based on which, its control technology can be drawn. A structural analysis is to figure out the specific contact/slippage characteristics between fabric and roller. We already examined the applicability of camera type weft straightener to plain weave fabric and found its possibility and the specific working condition of machine and rollers. In this research, we aimed to explore another applicability of camera type weft straightener. Namely, we tried to figure out camera type weft straightener can be used for fabrics. To find out the optimum condition, we increased the number of rollers. The analysis is done by ANSYS software using Finite Element Analysis method. The control function is demonstrated by experiment. In conclusion, the structural analysis of weft straightener is done to identify a specific characteristic between roller and fabrics. The control of skew and bow roller is done to decrease the error of the angle between warp and weft. Finally, it is proved that camera type straightener can also be used for the special fabrics.

Keywords: camera type weft straightener, structure analysis, control, skew and bow roller

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
63 Long-Term Durability of Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement

Authors: Jun Hee Lee, Young Kyu Kim, Seong Jae Hong, Chamroeun Chhorn, Seung Woo Lee

Abstract:

Roller-compacted concrete pavement (RCCP), an environmental friendly pavement of which load carry capacity benefitted from both hydration and aggregate interlock from roller compacting, demonstrated a superb structural performance for a relatively small amount of water and cement content. Even though an excellent structural performance can be secured, it is required to investigate roller-compacted concrete (RCC) under environmental loading and its long-term durability under critical conditions. In order to secure long-term durability, an appropriate internal air-void structure is required for this concrete. In this study, a method for improving the long-term durability of RCCP is suggested by analyzing the internal air-void structure and corresponding durability of RCC. The method of improving the long-term durability involves measurements of air content, air voids, and air-spacing factors in RCC that experiences changes in terms of type of air-entraining agent and its usage amount. This test is conducted according to the testing criteria in ASTM C 457, 672, and KS F 2456. It was found that the freezing-thawing and scaling resistances of RCC without any chemical admixture was quite low. Interestingly, an improvement of freezing-thawing and scaling resistances was observed for RCC with appropriate the air entraining (AE) agent content; Relative dynamic elastic modulus was found to be more than 80% for those mixtures. In RCC with AE agent mixtures, large amount of air was distributed within a range of 2% to 3%, and an air void spacing factor ranging between 200 and 300 μm (close to 250 μm, recommended by PCA) was secured. The long-term durability of RCC has a direct relationship with air-void spacing factor, and thus it can only be secured by ensuring the air void spacing factor through the inclusion of the AE in the mixture.

Keywords: durability, RCCP, air spacing factor, surface scaling resistance test, freezing and thawing resistance test

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
62 Comparative Study of Static and Dynamic Bending Forces during 3-Roller Cone Frustum Bending Process

Authors: Mahesh K. Chudasama, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

3-roller conical bending process is widely used in the industries for manufacturing of conical sections and shells. It involves static as well dynamic bending stages. Analytical models for prediction of bending force during static as well as dynamic bending stage are available in the literature. In this paper, bending forces required for static bending stage and dynamic bending stages have been compared using the analytical models. It is concluded that force required for dynamic bending is very less as compared to the bending force required during the static bending stage.

Keywords: analytical modeling, cone frustum, dynamic bending, static bending

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
61 Roller Compacting Concrete “RCC” in Dams

Authors: Orod Zarrin, Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi

Abstract:

Rehabilitation of dam components such as foundations, buttresses, spillways and overtopping protection require a wide range of construction and design methodologies. Geotechnical Engineering considerations play an important role in the design and construction of foundations of new dams. Much investigation is required to assess and evaluate the existing dams. The application of roller compacting concrete (RCC) has been accepted as a new method for constructing new dams or rehabilitating old ones. In the past 40 years there have been so many changes in the usage of RCC and now it is one of most satisfactory solutions of water and hydropower resource throughout the world. The considerations of rehabilitation and construction of dams might differ due to upstream reservoir and its influence on penetrating and dewatering of downstream, operations requirements and plant layout. One of the advantages of RCC is its rapid placement which allows the dam to be operated quickly. Unlike ordinary concrete it is a drier mix, and stiffs enough for compacting by vibratory rollers. This paper evaluates some different aspects of RCC and focuses on its preparation progress.

Keywords: spillway, vibrating consistency, fly ash, water tightness, foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
60 Pavement Quality Evaluation Using Intelligent Compaction Technology: Overview of Some Case Studies in Oklahoma

Authors: Sagar Ghos, Andrew E. Elaryan, Syed Ashik Ali, Musharraf Zaman, Mohammed Ashiqur Rahman

Abstract:

Achieving desired density during construction is an important indicator of pavement quality. Insufficient compaction often compromises pavement performance and service life. Intelligent compaction (IC) is an emerging technology for monitoring compaction quality during the construction of asphalt pavements. This paper aims to provide an overview of findings from four case studies in Oklahoma involving the compaction quality of asphalt pavements, namely SE 44th St project (Project 1) and EOC Turnpike project (Project 2), Highway 92 project (Project 3), and 108th Avenue project (Project 4). For this purpose, an IC technology, the intelligent compaction analyzer (ICA), developed at the University of Oklahoma, was used to evaluate compaction quality. Collected data include GPS locations, roller vibrations, roller speed, the direction of movement, and temperature of the asphalt mat. The collected data were analyzed using a widely used software, VETA. The average densities for Projects 1, 2, 3 and 4, were found as 89.8%, 91.50%, 90.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The maximum densities were found as 94.6%, 95.8%, 95.9%, and 89.7% for Projects 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. It was observed that the ICA estimated densities correlated well with the field core densities. The ICA results indicated that at least 90% of the asphalt mats were subjected to at least two roller passes. However, the number of passes required to achieve the desired density (94% to 97%) differed from project to project depending on the underlying layer. The results of these case studies show both opportunities and challenges in using IC for monitoring compaction quality during construction in real-time.

Keywords: asphalt pavement construction, density, intelligent compaction, intelligent compaction analyzer, intelligent compaction measure value

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
59 Investigation of Mechanical Properties and Wear Behavior of Hot Roller Grades

Authors: Majid Mokhtari, Masoud Bahrami Alamdarlo, Babak Nazari, Hossein Zakerinya, Mehdi Salehi

Abstract:

In this study, microstructure, macro, and microhardness of phases for three grades of cast iron rolls with modified chemical composition using a light microscope (OM) and electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The grades were chosen from Chodan Sazan Manufacturing Co. (CSROLL) productions for finishing stands of hot strip mills. The percentage of residual austenite was determined with a ferrite scope magnetic device. Thermal susceptibility testing was also measured. The results show the best oxidation resistance at high temperatures is graphitic high chromium white cast iron alloy. In order to evaluate the final properties of these grades in rolling lines, the results of the Pin on Disk abrasion test showed the superiority of the abrasive behavior of the white chromium graphite cast iron alloy grade sample at the same hardness compared to conventional alloy grades and the enhanced grades.

Keywords: hot roller, wear, behavior, microstructure

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58 Manufacturing of Twist-Free Surfaces by Magnetism Aided Machining Technologies

Authors: Zs. Kovács, Zs. J. Viharos, J. Kodácsy

Abstract:

As a well-known conventional finishing process, the grinding is commonly used to manufacture seal mating surfaces and bearing surfaces, but is also creates twisted surfaces. The machined surfaces by turning or grinding usually have twist structure on the surfaces, which can convey lubricants such as conveyor screw. To avoid this phenomenon, have to use special techniques or machines, for example start-stop turning, tangential turning, ultrasonic protection or special toll geometries. All of these solutions have high cost and difficult usability. In this paper, we describe a system and summarize the results of the experimental research carried out mainly in the field of Magnetic Abrasive Polishing (MAP) and Magnetic Roller Burnishing (MRB). These technologies are simple and also green while able to produce twist-free surfaces. During the tests, C45 normalized steel was used as workpiece material which was machined by simple and Wiper geometrical turning inserts in a CNC turning lathe. After the turning, the MAP and MRB technologies can be used directly to reduce the twist of surfaces. The evaluation was completed by advanced measuring and IT equipment.

Keywords: magnetism, finishing, polishing, roller burnishing, twist-free

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
57 Prediction Fluid Properties of Iranian Oil Field with Using of Radial Based Neural Network

Authors: Abdolreza Memari

Abstract:

In this article in order to estimate the viscosity of crude oil,a numerical method has been used. We use this method to measure the crude oil's viscosity for 3 states: Saturated oil's viscosity, viscosity above the bubble point and viscosity under the saturation pressure. Then the crude oil's viscosity is estimated by using KHAN model and roller ball method. After that using these data that include efficient conditions in measuring viscosity, the estimated viscosity by the presented method, a radial based neural method, is taught. This network is a kind of two layered artificial neural network that its stimulation function of hidden layer is Gaussian function and teaching algorithms are used to teach them. After teaching radial based neural network, results of experimental method and artificial intelligence are compared all together. Teaching this network, we are able to estimate crude oil's viscosity without using KHAN model and experimental conditions and under any other condition with acceptable accuracy. Results show that radial neural network has high capability of estimating crude oil saving in time and cost is another advantage of this investigation.

Keywords: viscosity, Iranian crude oil, radial based, neural network, roller ball method, KHAN model

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
56 Mechanical and Durability Characteristics of Roller Compacted Geopolymer Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate

Authors: Syfur Rahman, Mohammad J. Khattak

Abstract:

Every year a huge quantity of recycling concrete aggregate (RCA) is generated in the United States of America. Utilization of RCA can solve the storage problem, prevent environmental pollution, and reduce the construction cost. However, due to the overall low strength and durability characteristics of RCA, its usages are limited to a certain area like a landfill, low strength base material, replacement of a few percentages of virgin aggregates in Portland cement concrete, etc. This study focuses on the improvement of the strength and durability characteristics of RCA by introducing the concept of roller-compacted geopolymer concrete. In this research, developed roller-compacted geopolymer concrete (RCGPC) and roller-compacted cement concrete (RCC) mixtures containing 100% recycled concrete aggregate were evaluated and compared. Several selected RCGPC mixtures were investigated to find out the effect of mixture variables, including sodium hydroxide (NaOH) molar concentration, sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃), to sodium hydroxide (NaOH) ratio on the strength, stiffness and durability characteristics of the developed RCGPC. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na₂SiO₃) were mixed in different ratios to synthesize the alkali activator. American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) recommended RCC gradation was used with a maximum nominal aggregate size of 19 mm with a 4% fine particle passing 0.075 mm sieve. The mixtures were made using NaOH molar concentration of 8M and 10M along with, Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 0 and 1 by mass and 15% class F fly ash. Optimum alkali content and moisture content were determined for each RCGPC and RCC mixtures, respectively, using modified proctor test. Compressive strength, semi-circular bending beam strength, and dynamic modulus test were conducted to evaluate the mechanistic characteristics of both mixtures. To determine the optimum curing conditions for RCGPC, effects of different curing temperature and curing duration on compressive strength were also studied. Sulphate attack and freeze-thaw tests were also carried out to assess the durability properties of the developed mixtures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used for morphology and microstructure analysis. From the optimum moisture content results, it was found that RCGPC has high alkali content, which was mainly due to the high absorption capacity of RCA. It was found that the mixtures with Na₂SiO₃ to NaOH ratio of 1 yielded about 60% higher compressive strength than the ratio of 0. Further, the mixtures using 10M NaOH concentrations and alkali ratio of 1 produced about 28 MPa of compressive strength, which was around 33% higher than 8M NaOH mixtures. Similar results were obtained for elastic and dynamic modulus of the mixtures. On the other hand, the semi-circular bending beam strength remained the same for both 8 and 10 molar NaOH geopolymer mixtures. Formation of new geopolymeric compounds and chemical bonds in the newly formed novel RCGPC mixtures were also discovered using XRD analysis. The results of mechanical and durability testing further revealed that RCGPC performed similarly to that of RCC mixtures. Based on the results of mechanical and durability testing, the developed RCGPC mixtures using 100% recycled concrete could be used as a cost-effective solution for the construction of pavement structures.

Keywords: roller compacted concrete, geopolymer concrete, recycled concrete aggregate, concrete pavement, fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
55 Failure Analysis of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon Steel Wire During Drawing Operation: A Metallurgical Investigation

Authors: Souvik Das, Sandip Bhattacharya, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Manashi Adhikary

Abstract:

Wires breakages during cold drawing are a complex phenomenon; wire breakages may be induced by improper wire-rod quality, inappropriate heat-treated microstructure, and/or lubrication breakdown on the wire surface. A comprehensive metallurgical investigation of failed/broken wire samples is therefore essential for understanding the origin of failure. Frequent breakage of wires during drawing is a matter of serious concern to the wire drawers as it erodes their already slim margins through reduced productivity and loss in yield. The present paper highlights the failure investigation of wires of Low Relaxation Prestressed High Carbon grade during cold drawing due to entrapment of hard constituents detached from the roller entry guide during rolling operations. The hardness measurement of this entrapped location indicates 54.9 Rockwell Hardness as against the rest portion 33.4 Rockwell Hardness. The microstructure chemical analysis and X-ray mapping analysis data of the entrapment location confirmed complex chromium carbide originated from D2-steel used in entry guide during the rolling process. Since the harder entrapped phase could not be deformed in the same manner as the parent phase, the failure of the wire rod occurs during hot rolling.

Keywords: LRPC, D2-steel, chromium carbide, roller guide

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
54 Effect of Electric Arc Furnace Coarse Slag Aggregate And Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag on Mechanical and Durability Properties of Roller Compacted Concrete Pavement

Authors: Amiya Kumar Thakur, Dinesh Ganvir, Prem Pal Bansal

Abstract:

Industrial by product utilization has been encouraged due to environment and economic factors. Since electric arc furnace slag aggregate is a by-product of steel industry and its storage is a major concern hence it can be used as a replacement of natural aggregate as its physical and mechanical property are comparable or better than the natural aggregates. The present study investigates the effect of partial and full replacement of natural coarse aggregate with coarse EAF slag aggregate and partial replacement of cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on the mechanical and durability properties of roller compacted concrete pavement (RCCP).The replacement level of EAF slag aggregate were at five levels (i.e. 0% ,25% ,50%,75% & 100%) and of GGBFS was (0 % & 30%).The EAF slag aggregate was stabilized by exposing to outdoor condition for several years and the volumetric expansion test using steam exposure device was done to check volume stability. Soil compaction method was used for mix proportioning of RCCP. The fresh properties of RCCP investigated were fresh density and modified vebe test was done to measure the consistency of concrete. For investigating the mechanical properties various tests were done at 7 and 28 days (i.e. Compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexure strength modulus of elasticity) and also non-destructive testing was done at 28 days (i.e. Ultra pulse velocity test (UPV) & rebound hammer test). The durability test done at 28 days were water absorption, skid resistance & abrasion resistance. The results showed that with the increase in slag aggregate percentage there was an increase in the fresh density of concrete and also slight increase in the vebe time but with the 30 % GGBFS replacement the vebe time decreased and the fresh density was comparable to 0% GGBFS mix. The compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexure strength & modulus of elasticity increased with the increase in slag aggregate percentage in concrete when compared to control mix. But with the 30 % GGBFS replacement there was slight decrease in mechanical properties when compared to 100 % cement concrete. In UPV test and rebound hammer test all the mixes showed excellent quality of concrete. With the increase in slag aggregate percentage in concrete there was an increase in water absorption, skid resistance and abrasion resistance but with the 30 % GGBFS percentage the skid resistance, water absorption and abrasion resistance decreased when compared to 100 % cement concrete. From the study it was found that the mix containing 30 % GGBFS with different percentages of EAF slag aggregate were having comparable results for all the mechanical and durability property when compared to 100 % cement mixes. Hence 30 % GGBFS can be used as cement replacement with 100 % EAF slag aggregate as natural coarse aggregate replacement.

Keywords: durability properties, electric arc furnace slag aggregate, GGBFS, mechanical properties, roller compacted concrete pavement, soil compaction method

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53 Optimization of the Transfer Molding Process by Implementation of Online Monitoring Techniques for Electronic Packages

Authors: Burcu Kaya, Jan-Martin Kaiser, Karl-Friedrich Becker, Tanja Braun, Klaus-Dieter Lang

Abstract:

Quality of the molded packages is strongly influenced by the process parameters of the transfer molding. To achieve a better package quality and a stable transfer molding process, it is necessary to understand the influence of the process parameters on the package quality. This work aims to comprehend the relationship between the process parameters, and to identify the optimum process parameters for the transfer molding process in order to achieve less voids and wire sweep. To achieve this, a DoE is executed for process optimization and a regression analysis is carried out. A systematic approach is represented to generate models which enable an estimation of the number of voids and wire sweep. Validation experiments are conducted to verify the model and the results are presented.

Keywords: dielectric analysis, electronic packages, epoxy molding compounds, transfer molding process

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
52 GPU-Accelerated Triangle Mesh Simplification Using Parallel Vertex Removal

Authors: Thomas Odaker, Dieter Kranzlmueller, Jens Volkert

Abstract:

We present an approach to triangle mesh simplification designed to be executed on the GPU. We use a quadric error metric to calculate an error value for each vertex of the mesh and order all vertices based on this value. This step is followed by the parallel removal of a number of vertices with the lowest calculated error values. To allow for the parallel removal of multiple vertices we use a set of per-vertex boundaries that prevent mesh foldovers even when simplification operations are performed on neighbouring vertices. We execute multiple iterations of the calculation of the vertex errors, ordering of the error values and removal of vertices until either a desired number of vertices remains in the mesh or a minimum error value is reached. This parallel approach is used to speed up the simplification process while maintaining mesh topology and avoiding foldovers at every step of the simplification.

Keywords: computer graphics, half edge collapse, mesh simplification, precomputed simplification, topology preserving

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
51 Analysis for Shear Spinning of Tubes with Hard-To-Work Materials

Authors: Sukhwinder Singh Jolly

Abstract:

Metal spinning is one such process in which the stresses are localized to a small area and the material is made to flow or move over the mandrel with the help of spinning tool. Spinning of tubular products can be performed by two techniques, forward spinning and backward spinning. Many researchers have studied the process both experimentally and analytically. An effort has been made to apply the process to the spinning of thin wall, highly precision, small bore long tube in hard-to-work materials such as titanium.

Keywords: metal spinning, hard-to-work materials, roller diameter, power consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 313