Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14471

Search results for: grey system

14471 Analyzing the Results of Buildings Energy Audit by Using Grey Set Theory

Authors: Tooraj Karimi, Mohammadreza Sadeghi Moghadam


Grey set theory has the advantage of using fewer data to analyze many factors, and it is therefore more appropriate for system study rather than traditional statistical regression which require massive data, normal distribution in the data and few variant factors. So, in this paper grey clustering and entropy of coefficient vector of grey evaluations are used to analyze energy consumption in buildings of the Oil Ministry in Tehran. In fact, this article intends to analyze the results of energy audit reports and defines most favorable characteristics of system, which is energy consumption of buildings, and most favorable factors affecting these characteristics in order to modify and improve them. According to the results of the model, ‘the real Building Load Coefficient’ has been selected as the most important system characteristic and ‘uncontrolled area of the building’ has been diagnosed as the most favorable factor which has the greatest effect on energy consumption of building. Grey clustering in this study has been used for two purposes: First, all the variables of building relate to energy audit cluster in two main groups of indicators and the number of variables is reduced. Second, grey clustering with variable weights has been used to classify all buildings in three categories named ‘no standard deviation’, ‘low standard deviation’ and ‘non- standard’. Entropy of coefficient vector of Grey evaluations is calculated to investigate greyness of results. It shows that among the 38 buildings surveyed in terms of energy consumption, 3 cases are in standard group, 24 cases are in ‘low standard deviation’ group and 11 buildings are completely non-standard. In addition, clustering greyness of 13 buildings is less than 0.5 and average uncertainly of clustering results is 66%.

Keywords: energy audit, grey set theory, grey incidence matrixes, grey clustering, Iran oil ministry

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14470 A New Model for Production Forecasting in ERP

Authors: S. F. Wong, W. I. Ho, B. Lin, Q. Huang


ERP has been used in many enterprises for management, the accuracy of the production forecasting module is vital to the decision making of the enterprise, and the profit is affected directly. Therefore, enhancing the accuracy of the production forecasting module can also increase the efficiency and profitability. To deal with a lot of data, a suitable, reliable and accurate statistics model is necessary. LSSVM and Grey System are two main models to be studied in this paper, and a case study is used to demonstrate how the combination model is effective to the result of forecasting.

Keywords: ERP, grey system, LSSVM, production forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
14469 Multi-Response Optimization of CNC Milling Parameters Using Taguchi Based Grey Relational Analysis for AA6061 T6 Aluminium Alloy

Authors: Varsha Singh, Kishan Fuse


This paper presents a study of the grey-Taguchi method to optimize CNC milling parameters of AA6061 T6 aluminium alloy. Grey-Taguchi method combines Taguchi method based design of experiments (DOE) with grey relational analysis (GRA). Multi-response optimization of different quality characteristics as surface roughness, material removal rate, cutting forces is done using grey relational analysis (GRA). The milling parameters considered for experiments include cutting speed, feed per tooth, and depth of cut. Each parameter with three levels is selected. A grey relational grade is used to estimate overall quality characteristics performance. The Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array is used for design of experiments. MINITAB 17 software is used for optimization. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to identify most influencing parameter. The experimental results show that grey relational analysis is effective method for optimizing multi-response characteristics. Optimum results are finally validated by performing confirmation test.

Keywords: ANOVA, CNC milling, grey relational analysis, multi-response optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
14468 Life Prediction Method of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Grey Support Vector Machines

Authors: Xiaogang Li, Jieqiong Miao


As for the problem of the grey forecasting model prediction accuracy is low, an improved grey prediction model is put forward. Firstly, use trigonometric function transform the original data sequence in order to improve the smoothness of data , this model called SGM( smoothness of grey prediction model), then combine the improved grey model with support vector machine , and put forward the grey support vector machine model (SGM - SVM).Before the establishment of the model, we use trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation preprocessing data in order to enhance the smoothness of the data and weaken the randomness of the data, then use support vector machine (SVM) to establish a prediction model for pre-processed data and select model parameters using genetic algorithms to obtain the optimum value of the global search. Finally, restore data through the "regressive generate" operation to get forecasting data. In order to prove that the SGM-SVM model is superior to other models, we select the battery life data from calce. The presented model is used to predict life of battery and the predicted result was compared with that of grey model and support vector machines.For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this paper presents root mean square error of this three different models .The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine (SGM-SVM) to predict life is optimal, and the root mean square error is only 3.18%. Keywords: grey forecasting model, trigonometric function, support vector machine, genetic algorithms, root mean square error

Keywords: Grey prediction model, trigonometric functions, support vector machines, genetic algorithms, root mean square error

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14467 Implementation of a Photo-Curable 3D Additive Manufacturing Technology with Grey Capability by Using Piezo Ink-jets

Authors: Ming-Jong Tsai, Y. L. Cheng, Y. L. Kuo, S. Y. Hsiao, J. W. Chen, P. H. Liu, D. H. Chen


The 3D printing is a combination of digital technology, material science, intelligent manufacturing and control of opto-mechatronics systems. It is called the third industrial revolution from the view of the Economist Journal. A color 3D printing machine may provide the necessary support for high value-added industrial and commercial design, architectural design, personal boutique, and 3D artist’s creation. The main goal of this paper is to develop photo-curable color 3D manufacturing technology and system implementation. The key technologies include (1) Photo-curable color 3D additive manufacturing processes development and materials research (2) Piezo type ink-jet head control and Opto-mechatronics integration technique of the photo-curable color 3D laminated manufacturing system. The proposed system is integrated with single Piezo type ink-jet head with two individual channels for two primary UV light curable color resins which can provide for future colorful 3D printing solutions. The main research results are 16 grey levels and grey resolution of 75 dpi.

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, color, photo-curable, Piezo type ink-jet, UV Resin

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14466 Multistage Data Envelopment Analysis Model for Malmquist Productivity Index Using Grey's System Theory to Evaluate Performance of Electric Power Supply Chain in Iran

Authors: Mesbaholdin Salami, Farzad Movahedi Sobhani, Mohammad Sadegh Ghazizadeh


Evaluation of organizational performance is among the most important measures that help organizations and entities continuously improve their efficiency. Organizations can use the existing data and results from the comparison of units under investigation to obtain an estimation of their performance. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is an important index in the evaluation of overall productivity, which considers technological developments and technical efficiency at the same time. This article proposed a model based on the multistage MPI, considering limited data (Grey’s theory). This model can evaluate the performance of units using limited and uncertain data in a multistage process. It was applied by the electricity market manager to Iran’s electric power supply chain (EPSC), which contains uncertain data, to evaluate the performance of its actors. Results from solving the model showed an improvement in the accuracy of future performance of the units under investigation, using the Grey’s system theory. This model can be used in all case studies, in which MPI is used and there are limited or uncertain data.

Keywords: Malmquist Index, Grey's Theory, CCR Model, network data envelopment analysis, Iran electricity power chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
14465 An Image Processing Scheme for Skin Fungal Disease Identification

Authors: A. A. M. A. S. S. Perera, L. A. Ranasinghe, T. K. H. Nimeshika, D. M. Dhanushka Dissanayake, Namalie Walgampaya


Nowadays, skin fungal diseases are mostly found in people of tropical countries like Sri Lanka. A skin fungal disease is a particular kind of illness caused by fungus. These diseases have various dangerous effects on the skin and keep on spreading over time. It becomes important to identify these diseases at their initial stage to control it from spreading. This paper presents an automated skin fungal disease identification system implemented to speed up the diagnosis process by identifying skin fungal infections in digital images. An image of the diseased skin lesion is acquired and a comprehensive computer vision and image processing scheme is used to process the image for the disease identification. This includes colour analysis using RGB and HSV colour models, texture classification using Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Shape Identification and many more. This paper presents the approach and its outcome for identification of four most common skin fungal infections, namely, Tinea Corporis, Sporotrichosis, Malassezia and Onychomycosis. The main intention of this research is to provide an automated skin fungal disease identification system that increase the diagnostic quality, shorten the time-to-diagnosis and improve the efficiency of detection and successful treatment for skin fungal diseases.

Keywords: Circularity Index, Grey Level Run Length Matrix, Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix, Local Binary Pattern, Object detection, Ring Detection, Shape Identification

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14464 A Constructed Wetland as a Reliable Method for Grey Wastewater Treatment in Rwanda

Authors: Hussein Bizimana, Osman Sönmez


Constructed wetlands are current the most widely recognized waste water treatment option, especially in developing countries where they have the potential for improving water quality and creating valuable wildlife habitat in ecosystem with treatment requirement relatively simple for operation and maintenance cost. Lack of grey waste water treatment facilities in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology in Rwanda, causes pollution in the surrounding localities of Rugunga sector, where already a problem of poor sanitation is found. In order to treat grey water produced at Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology, with high BOD concentration, high nutrients concentration and high alkalinity; a Horizontal Sub-surface Flow pilot-scale constructed wetland was designed and can operate in Kigali İnstitute of Science and Technology. The study was carried out in a sedimentation tank of 5.5 m x 1.42 m x 1.2 m deep and a Horizontal Sub-surface constructed wetland of 4.5 m x 2.5 m x 1.42 m deep. The grey waste water flow rate of 2.5 m3/d flew through vegetated wetland and sandy pilot plant. The filter media consisted of 0.6 to 2 mm of coarse sand, 0.00003472 m/s of hydraulic conductivity and cattails (Typha latifolia spp) were used as plants species. The effluent flow rate of the plant is designed to be 1.5 m3/ day and the retention time will be 24 hrs. 72% to 79% of BOD, COD, and TSS removals are estimated to be achieved, while the nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphate) removal is estimated to be in the range of 34% to 53%. Every effluent characteristic will meet exactly the Rwanda Utility Regulatory Agency guidelines primarily because the retention time allowed is enough to make the reduction of contaminants within effluent raw waste water. Treated water reuse system was developed where water will be used in the campus irrigation system again.

Keywords: constructed wetlands, hydraulic conductivity, grey waste water, cattails

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14463 Development of Imprinting and Replica Molding of Soft Mold Curved Surface

Authors: Yung-Jin Weng, Chia-Chi Chang, Chun-Yu Tsai


This paper is focused on the research of imprinting and replica molding of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure mold. In this paper, a magnetic photocuring forming system is first developed and built independently, then the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mode is created; moreover, the magnetic performance of the magnetic curved surface at different heights is tested and recorded, and through experimentation and simulation, the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mold is used in the research of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure imprinting and replica molding. The experimental results show that, under different surface curvatures and voltage control conditions, different quasi-grey scale array microstructures take shape. In addition, this paper conducts research on the imprinting and replica molding of photoresist composite magnetic powder in order to discuss the forming performance of magnetic photoresist, and finally, the experimental result is compared with the simulation to obtain more accurate prediction and results. This research is predicted to provide microstructure component preparation technology with heterogeneity and controllability, and is a kind of valid shaping quasi-grey scale microstructure manufacturing technology method.

Keywords: soft mold, magnetic, microstructure, curved surface

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14462 Greywater Water Reuse in South Africa

Authors: Onyeka Nkwonta, Christopher Iheukwumere


It is a waste to irrigate with great quantities of drinking water when plants thrive on used water containing small bits of compost. Unlike a lot of ecological stopgap measures, greywater reuse is a part of the fundamental solution to many ecological problems and will probably remain essentially unchanged in the distant future. Water is abused and wasted by both the wealthy and the poor. Education about water conservation is also needed. This study gives an outline of the sources of grey water in our home and provides a process of creating awareness on the importance of re-using grey water in our home, in order to achieve the 7th aim of the millennium development goals by 2015, which is ensuring environmental sustainability.

Keywords: tickling filter, education, grey water, environmental sustainability

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14461 Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining Parameters in Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel by Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Othman Mohamed Altheni, Abdurrahman Abusaada


This study presents optimization of multiple performance characteristics [material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra), and overcut (OC)] of hardened AISI D3 tool steel in electrical discharge machining (EDM) using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Machining process parameters selected were pulsed current Ip, pulse-on time Ton, pulse-off time Toff and gap voltage Vg. Based on ANOVA, pulse current is found to be the most significant factor affecting EDM process. Optimized process parameters are simultaneously leading to a higher MRR, lower Ra, and lower OC are then verified through a confirmation experiment. Validation experiment shows an improved MRR, Ra and OC when Taguchi method and grey relational analysis were used

Keywords: edm parameters, grey relational analysis, Taguchi method, ANOVA

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14460 Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Hari Singh, Abhishek Kamboj, Sudhir Kumar


This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, drilling, optimization, step drill, surface roughness, burr height, hole diameter error

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
14459 Effects of Plumage Colour on Measurable Attributes of Indigenous Chickens in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Joseph J. Okoh, Samuel T. Mbap, Tahir Ibrahim, Yusuf P. Mancha


The influence of plumage colour on measurable attributes of 6176 adult indigenous chickens of mixed-sex from four states of the North Central Zone of Nigeria namely; Nasarawa, Niger, Benue, Kogi and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja were assessed. The overall average body weight of the chickens was 1.95 ± 0.03kg. The body weights of black, white, black/white, brown, black/brown, grey and mottled chicken however were 1.87 ± 0.04, 1.94 ± 0.04, 1.95 ± 0.03, 1.93 ± 0.03, 2.01 ± 0.04, 1.96 ± 0.04 and 1.94±0.14kg respectively. Only body length did not vary by plumage colour. The others; body weight and width, shank, comb and breast length, breast height (p < 0.001), beak and wing lengths (p < 0.001) varied significantly. Generally, no colour was outrightly superior to others in all body measurements. However, body weight and breast height were both highest in black/brown chickens which also had the second highest breast length. Body width, shank, beak, comb and wing lengths were highest in grey chickens but lowest in those with white colour and combinations. Egg quality was on the other hand mostly lowest in grey chickens. In selection for genetic improvement in body measurements, black/brown and grey chickens should be favoured. However, in view of the known negative relationship between body weight and egg attributes, selection in favour of grey plumage may result in chickens of poor egg attributes. Therefore, grey chickens should be selected against egg quality.

Keywords: body weight, indigenous chicken, measurements, plumage colour

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14458 Parametric Optimization of Electric Discharge Machining Process Using Taguchi's Method and Grey Relation Analysis

Authors: Pushpendra S. Bharti


Process yield of electric discharge machining (EDM) is directly related to optimal combination(s) of process parameters. Optimization of process parameters of EDM is a multi-objective optimization problem owing to the contradictory behavior of performance measures. This paper employs Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) method as a multi-objective optimization technique for the optimal selection of process parameters combination. In GRA, multi-response optimization is converted into optimization of a single response grey relation grade which ultimately gives the optimal combination of process parameters. Experiments were carried out on die-sinking EDM by taking D2 steel as work piece and copper as electrode material. Taguchi's orthogonal array L36 was used for the design of experiments. On the experimental values, GRA was employed for the parametric optimization. A significant improvement has been observed and reported in the process yield by taking the parametric combination(s) obtained through GRA.

Keywords: electric discharge machining, grey relation analysis, material removal rate, optimization

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14457 Effect of Recycled Grey Water on Bacterial Concrete

Authors: T. Deepa, S. R. Inchara, S. V. Venkatesh, Seema Tharannum


Concrete is the most widely used structural material. It is made using locally available materials. However, Concrete has low tensile strength and may crack in the early days with exothermic hydration. Bacillus subtilis bacteria that form endospores is the biological agent considered in this study for Biomineralization or MICP (Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation) Technique and to address the increased Construction water demand, Recycled Grey Water which is obtained from STP of PES University, opted in place of Potable water. In this work, M30 grade conventional concrete is designed using OPC 53 grade cement, Manufactured Sand, Natural coarse aggregates, and Potable water. Conventional Concrete (CC), Bacterial Concrete with Potable water (BS), and Recycled Grey Water concrete (RGW) are the three different concrete specimens casted. Experimental studies such as the strength test and the surface hardness test are conducted on Conventional and Bacterial concrete samples after 7, 28, and 56 days of curing. Concrete cubes are subjected to a temperature of 50° C to investigate the effect of higher temperature. Cracked cube specimens are observed for Self-healing - as well as microstructure analysis with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD).Noticeable Calcium salt deposition is observed on the surface of BS and RGW cracked specimen. Surface hardness and EDAX test gave promising result on the advantage of using spore-forming bacteria in concrete. This is followed by the strength gain in Compression and Flexure. Results also indicate that Recycled Grey Water can be a substitute for Normal water in concrete.

Keywords: bacillus subtilis, bacterial concrete, recycled grey water, self-healing, surface hardness of concrete

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14456 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin


Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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14455 Greyscale: A Tree-Based Taxonomy for Grey Literature Published by Fisheries Agencies

Authors: Tatiana Tunon, Gottfried Pestal


Government agencies responsible for the management of fisheries resources publish many types of grey literature, and these materials are increasingly accessible to the public on agency websites. However, scope and quality vary considerably, and end-users need meta-data about the report series when deciding whether to use the information (e.g. apply the methods, include the results in a systematic review), or when prioritizing materials for archiving (e.g. library holdings, reference databases). A proposed taxonomy for these report series was developed based on a review of 41 report series from 6 government agencies in 4 countries (Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, and United States). Each report series was categorized according to multiple criteria describing peer-review process, content, and purpose. A robust classification tree was then fitted to these descriptions, and the resulting taxonomic groups were used to compare agency output from 4 countries using reports available in their online repositories.

Keywords: classification tree, fisheries, government, grey literature

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14454 Multi-Response Optimization of EDM for Ti-6Al-4V Using Taguchi-Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Ritesh Joshi, Kishan Fuse, Gopal Zinzala, Nishit Nirmal


Ti-6Al-4V is a titanium alloy having high strength, low weight and corrosion resistant which is a required characteristic for a material to be used in aerospace industry. Titanium, being a hard alloy is difficult to the machine via conventional methods, so it is a call to use non-conventional processes. In present work, the effects on Ti-6Al-4V by drilling a hole of Ø 6 mm using copper (99%) electrode in Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) process is analyzed. Effect of various input parameters like peak current, pulse-on time and pulse-off time on output parameters viz material removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR) is studied. Multi-objective optimization technique Grey relational analysis is used for process optimization. Experiments are designed using an L9 orthogonal array. ANOVA is used for finding most contributing parameter followed by confirmation tests for validating the results. Improvement of 7.45% in gray relational grade is observed.

Keywords: ANOVA, electric discharge machining, grey relational analysis, Ti-6Al-4V

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14453 Zero Energy Buildings in Hot-Humid Tropical Climates: Boundaries of the Energy Optimization Grey Zone

Authors: Nakul V. Naphade, Sandra G. L. Persiani, Yew Wah Wong, Pramod S. Kamath, Avinash H. Anantharam, Hui Ling Aw, Yann Grynberg


Achieving zero-energy targets in existing buildings is known to be a difficult task requiring important cuts in the building energy consumption, which in many cases clash with the functional necessities of the building wherever the on-site energy generation is unable to match the overall energy consumption. Between the building’s consumption optimization limit and the energy, target stretches a case-specific optimization grey zone, which requires tailored intervention and enhanced user’s commitment. In the view of the future adoption of more stringent energy-efficiency targets in the context of hot-humid tropical climates, this study aims to define the energy optimization grey zone by assessing the energy-efficiency limit in the state-of-the-art typical mid- and high-rise full AC office buildings, through the integration of currently available technologies. Energy models of two code-compliant generic office-building typologies were developed as a baseline, a 20-storey ‘high-rise’ and a 7-storey ‘mid-rise’. Design iterations carried out on the energy models with advanced market ready technologies in lighting, envelope, plug load management and ACMV systems and controls, lead to a representative energy model of the current maximum technical potential. The simulations showed that ZEB targets could be achieved in fully AC buildings under an average of seven floors only by compromising on energy-intense facilities (as full AC, unlimited power-supply, standard user behaviour, etc.). This paper argues that drastic changes must be made in tropical buildings to span the energy optimization grey zone and achieve zero energy. Fully air-conditioned areas must be rethought, while smart technologies must be integrated with an aggressive involvement and motivation of the users to synchronize with the new system’s energy savings goal.

Keywords: energy simulation, office building, tropical climate, zero energy buildings

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14452 Study on Optimal Control Strategy of PM2.5 in Wuhan, China

Authors: Qiuling Xie, Shanliang Zhu, Zongdi Sun


In this paper, we analyzed the correlation relationship among PM2.5 from other five Air Quality Indices (AQIs) based on the grey relational degree, and built a multivariate nonlinear regression equation model of PM2.5 and the five monitoring indexes. For the optimal control problem of PM2.5, we took the partial large Cauchy distribution of membership equation as satisfaction function. We established a nonlinear programming model with the goal of maximum performance to price ratio. And the optimal control scheme is given.

Keywords: grey relational degree, multiple linear regression, membership function, nonlinear programming

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14451 Microbial Bioagent Triggered Biochemical Response in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Inducing Resistance against Grey Blight Disease and Yield Enhancement

Authors: Popy Bora, L. C. Bora, A. Bhattacharya, Sehnaz S. Ahmed


Microbial bioagents, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, and Trichoderma viride were assessed for their ability to suppress grey blight caused by Pestalotiopsis theae, a major disease of tea crop in Assam. The expression of defense-related phytochemicals due to the application of these bioagents was also evaluated. The individual bioagents, as well as their combinations, were screened for their bioefficacy against P. theae in vitro using nutrient agar (NA) as basal medium. The treatment comprising a combination of the three bioagents, P. fluorescens, B. subtilis, and T. viride showed significantly the highest inhibition against the pathogen. Bioformulation of effective bioagent combinations was further evaluated under field condition, where significantly highest reduction of grey blight (90.30%), as well as the highest increase in the green leaf yield (10.52q/ha), was recorded due to application of the bioformulation containing the three bioagents. The application of the three bioformulation also recorded an enhanced level of caffeine (4.15%) and polyphenols (22.87%). A significant increase in the enzymatic activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase were recorded in the plants treated with the microbial bioformulation of the three bioagents. The present investigation indicates the role of microbial agents in suppressing disease, inducing plant defense response, as well as improving the quality of tea.

Keywords: enzymatic activity, grey blight, microbial bioagents, Pestalotiopsis theae, phytochemicals, plant defense, tea

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14450 Implementation and Use of Person-Centered Care in Europe: A Literature Review

Authors: Kristina Rosengren, Petra Brannefors, Eric Carlstrom


Background: Implementation and use of person-centered care (PCC) is increasing worldwide, and why the current study intends to increase knowledge regarding how PCC is used in different European countries. Purpose: To describe the extent of person-centred care in 23 European countries in relation to use specific countries healthcare system (Beveridge, Bismarck, Mixed/OOP). Methods: The study was conducted by literature review inspired by Spice, both scientific empirical studies (Cinahl, Medline, Scopus) as well as grey literature (Google) were used. Totally 1194 documents were included divided into Cinahl n=139, Medline n=245, Scopus n=493 and Google n=317. Data were analysed with descriptive (percentage, range) regarding content and scope of PCC/country according to content and scope of PCC in each country, grouped into the healthcare system (Beveridge, Bismarck, Mixed/OOP) and geographic placement. Results: PCC were most common in UK (England, Scotland, Wales, North Ireland), n=481, 40.3%, Sweden (n=231, 19.3%), The Netherlands (n=80, 6.7%), Ireland (n=79, 6.6%) and Norway (n=61, 5.1%); and less common in Poland (0.6%), Hungary (0.5%), Greece (0.4%), Latvia (0.4%) and Serbia (0%). Beveridge healthcare system (12/23=0.5217, 52.2%) show 85 percent of documents with advantage of scientific literature valued 2.92 (n=999, 0.55-4.07), compare to advantage of grey literature in Bismarck (10/23=0.4347, 43.5%) with 15 percentage valued 2.35 (n=190, 0-3.27) followed by Mixed/OOP (1/23=4%) with 0.4 valued 2.25. Conclusions: Seven out of 10 countries with Beveridge health system used PCC compare to less-used PCC in countries with the Bismarck system. Research, as well as national regulations regarding PCC, are important tools to motivate the advantage of PCC in clinical practice. Moreover, implementation of PCC needs a systematic approach, from national (politicians), regional (guideline) and local (specific healthcare settings) levels visualized by decision-making as law, mission, policies, and routines in clinical practice to establish a well-integrated phenomenon in Europe.

Keywords: Beveridge, Bismarck, Europe, evidence-based, literature review, person-centered care

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14449 Important Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Quality Control Circles

Authors: Sogol Zarafshan


The present study aimed to identify important factors affecting the effectiveness of quality control circles in a hospital, as well as rank them using a combination of fuzzy VIKOR and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). The study population consisted of five academic members and five experts in the field of nursing working in a hospital, who were selected using a purposive sampling method. Also, a sample of 107 nurses was selected through a simple random sampling method using their employee codes and the random-number table. The required data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which consisted of 12 factors. The validity of this questionnaire was confirmed through giving the opinions of experts and academic members who participated in the present study, as well as performing confirmatory factor analysis. Its reliability also was verified (α=0.796). The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and LISREL 8.8, as well as VIKOR–GRA and IPA methods. The results of ranking the factors affecting the effectiveness of quality control circles showed that the highest and lowest ranks were related to ‘Managers’ and supervisors’ support’ and ‘Group leadership’. Also, the highest hospital performance was for factors such as ‘Clear goals and objectives’ and ‘Group cohesiveness and homogeneity’, and the lowest for ‘Reward system’ and ‘Feedback system’, respectively. The results showed that although ‘Training the members’, ‘Using the right tools’ and ‘Reward system’ were factors that were of great importance, the organization’s performance for these factors was poor. Therefore, these factors should be paid more attention by the studied hospital managers and should be improved as soon as possible.

Keywords: Quality control circles, Fuzzy VIKOR, Grey Relational Analysis, Importance–Performance Analysis

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14448 The Survey Research and Evaluation of Green Residential Building Based on the Improved Group Analytical Hierarchy Process Method in Yinchuan

Authors: Yun-na Wu, Zhen Wang


Due to the economic downturn and the deterioration of the living environment, the development of residential buildings as high energy consuming building is gradually changing from “extensive” to green building in China. So, the evaluation system of green building is continuously improved, but the current evaluation work has the following problems: (1) There are differences in the cost of the actual investment and the purchasing power of residents, also construction target of green residential building is single and lacks multi-objective performance development. (2) Green building evaluation lacks regional characteristics and cannot reflect the different regional residents demand. (3) In the process of determining the criteria weight, the experts’ judgment matrix is difficult to meet the requirement of consistency. Therefore, to solve those problems, questionnaires which are about the green residential building for Ningxia area are distributed, and the results of questionnaires can feedback the purchasing power of residents and the acceptance of the green building cost. Secondly, combined with the geographical features of Ningxia minority areas, the evaluation criteria system of green residential building is constructed. Finally, using the improved group AHP method and the grey clustering method, the criteria weight is determined, and a real case is evaluated, which is located in Xing Qing district, Ningxia. A conclusion can be obtained that the professional evaluation for this project and good social recognition is basically the same.

Keywords: evaluation, green residential building, grey clustering method, group AHP

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14447 Wear Behavior of Grey Cast Iron Coated with Al2O3-13TiO2 and Ni20Cr Using Detonation Spray Process

Authors: Harjot Singh Gill, Neelkanth Grover, Jwala Parshad Singla


The main aim of this research work is to present the effect of coating on two different grades of grey cast iron using detonation spray method. Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed using detonation gun onto GI250 and GIHC substrates and the results as well as coating surface morphology of the coating is studied by XRD and SEM/EDAX analysis. The wear resistance of Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 has been investigated on pin-on-disc tribometer using ASTM G99 standards. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (µ) were calculated under three normal load of 30N, 40N, 50N at constant sliding velocity of 1m/s. Worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM/EDAX. The results show significant resistance to wear with Al2O3-13TiO2 coating as compared to Ni20Cr and bare substrates. SEM/EDAX analysis and cumulative wear loss bar charts clearly explain the wear behavior of coated as well as bare sample of GI250 and GIHC.

Keywords: detonation spray, grey cast iron, wear rate, coefficient of friction

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14446 Policy and System Research for Health of Ageing Population

Authors: Sehrish Ather


Introduction: To improve organizational achievements through the production of new knowledge, health policy and system research is the basic requirement. An aging population is always the source of the increased burden of chronic diseases, disabilities, mental illnesses, and other co-morbidities; therefore the provision of quality health care services to every group of the population should be achieved by making strong policy and system research for the betterment of health care system. Unfortunately, the whole world is lacking policies and system research for providing health care to their elderly population. Materials and Methods: A literature review of published studies on aging diseases was done, ranging from the year 2011-2018. Geriatric, population, health policy, system, and research were the key terms used for the search. Databases searched were Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Ovid, and Research Gate. Grey literature was searched from various websites, including IHME, Library of the University of Lahore, World Health Organization (Ageing and Life Course), and Personal communication with Neuro-physicians. After careful reviewing published and un-published information, it was decided to carry on with commentary. Results and discussion: Most of the published studies have highlighted the need to advocate the funders of health policy and stakeholders of healthcare system research, and it was detected as a major issue, research on policy and healthcare system to provide health care to 'geriatric population' was found as highly neglected area. Conclusion: It is concluded that physicians are more involved with the policy and system research regarding any type of diseases, but scientists and researchers of basic and social science are less likely to be involved in methods used for health policy and system research due to lack of funding and resources. Therefore ageing diseases should be considered as a priority, and comprehensive policy and system research should be initiated for diseases of the geriatric population.

Keywords: geriatric population, health care system, health policy, system research

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14445 Secure Message Transmission Using Meaningful Shares

Authors: Ajish Sreedharan


Visual cryptography encodes a secret image into shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are exerted onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. In the Secret Message Transmission through Meaningful Shares a secret message to be transmitted is converted to grey scale image. Then (2,2) visual cryptographic shares are generated from this converted gray scale image. The shares are encrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. Two separate color images which are of the same size of the shares, taken as cover image of the respective shares to hide the shares into them. The encrypted shares which are covered by meaningful images so that a potential eavesdropper wont know there is a message to be read. The meaningful shares are transmitted through two different transmission medium. During decoding shares are fetched from received meaningful images and decrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. The shares are combined to regenerate the grey scale image from where the secret message is obtained.

Keywords: visual cryptography, wavelet transform, meaningful shares, grey scale image

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14444 Parallel Gripper Modelling and Design Optimization Using Multi-Objective Grey Wolf Optimizer

Authors: Golak Bihari Mahanta, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, B. B. V. L. Deepak, Amruta Rout, Gunji Balamurali


Robots are widely used in the manufacturing industry for rapid production with higher accuracy and precision. With the help of End-of-Arm Tools (EOATs), robots are interacting with the environment. Robotic grippers are such EOATs which help to grasp the object in an automation system for improving the efficiency. As the robotic gripper directly influence the quality of the product due to the contact between the gripper surface and the object to be grasped, it is necessary to design and optimize the gripper mechanism configuration. In this study, geometric and kinematic modeling of the parallel gripper is proposed. Grey wolf optimizer algorithm is introduced for solving the proposed multiobjective gripper optimization problem. Two objective functions developed from the geometric and kinematic modeling along with several nonlinear constraints of the proposed gripper mechanism is used to optimize the design variables of the systems. Finally, the proposed methodology compared with a previously proposed method such as Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithm, NSGA II, MODE and it was seen that the proposed method is more efficient compared to the earlier proposed methodology.

Keywords: gripper optimization, metaheuristics, , teaching learning based algorithm, multi-objective optimization, optimal gripper design

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14443 Sky Farming: The Alternative Concept of Green Building Using Vertical Landscape Model in Urban Area as an Effort to Achieve Sustainable Development

Authors: Nadiah Yola Putri, Nesia Putri Sharfina, Traviata Prakarti


This paper is a literature review presented descriptively to review the concept of green building to face the challenge of sustainable development and food in urban areas. In this paper, researchers initiated the concept of green building with sky farming method. Sky farming use vertical landscape system in order to realizing food self-sufficient green city. Sky farming relying on plantings and irrigation system efficiency in the building which is adopted the principles of green building. Planting system is done by applying hydroponic plants with Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) using energy source of solar cell and grey water from the processing of waste treatment plant. The application of sky farming in urban areas can be a recommendation for the design of environmental-friendly construction. In order to keep the land and distance efficiency, this system is a futuristic idea that would be the connector of human civilization in the future.

Keywords: green building, urban area, sky farming, vertical landscape

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14442 Distribution and Population Status of Canis spp. Threats and Conservation in Lehri Nature Park, Salt Range, District Jhelum

Authors: Muhammad Saad, AzherBaig, Anwar Maqsood, Muhammad Waseem


The grey wolf has been ranked endangered and Asiatic jackal as near threatened in Pakistan. Scientific data on population and threats to these species are not available in Pakistan, which is required for their proper management and conservation. The present study was conducted to collect data on distribution range, population status and threats to both of these Canis species in Lehri Nature Park. The data were collected using direct observations and indirect signs in the field. The population of grey wolf and Asiatic jackal were scattered into pocket of the study area and its surroundings. The current population of grey wolf was estimated 06 individuals and that of Asiatic jackal 28 individuals in the study area. The present study showed that grey wolf and Asiatic jackal were distributed in the northern and southern part of the study area having dense vegetation cover of tress and shrub between the altitudes of 330 m and 515 m. The research finding revealed that the scrub forest is the most preferred habitat of both the species but due to anthropogenic pressure the scrub forest is under severe threat. The dominant trees species were Acacia modesta, Zizyphus nummularia, and Prosopis juliflora and shrubs species of Dodonea-viscosa, Calotropis procera and Adhatoda vasica. Urial is one of the natural prey species: their population is low due to a number of reasons and therefore the maximum dependence of the wolves was on the livestock of the local and nomadic shepherds. The main prey species in the livestock was goats and sheep. The interviews were conducted with the eye witnesses of wolf attacks including livestock being killed by 5-6 numbers of wolves in different hamlets in the study area. The killing rate of the livestock by the wolves was greater when the nomadic shepherds were present in the area and decreased when they left the area. Presence of nomadic shepherds and killing rate has relation with the shifting of the wolves from the study area. It is further concluded that the population of the grey wolf and Asiatic jackal has decreased over time due to less availability of the natural prey species and habitat destruction.

Keywords: wildlife ecology, population conservation, rehabilitation, conservation

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