Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 739

Search results for: gaze tracking

739 Retrospective Interview with Amateur Soccer Officials Using Eye Tracker Footage

Authors: Lee Waters, Itay Basevitch, Matthew Timmis


Objectives: Eye tracking technology is a valuable method of assessing individuals gaze behaviour, but it does not unveil why they are engaging in certain practices. To address limitations in sport eye tracking research the present paper aims to investigate the gaze behaviours soccer officials engage in during successful and unsuccessful offside decisions, but also why. Methods: 20 male active amateur qualified (Level 4-7) soccer officials (Mage 22.5 SD 4.61 yrs) with an average experience of 41-50 games wore eye tracking technology during an applied attack versus defence drill. While reviewing the eye tracking footage, retrospective semi-structured interviews were conducted (M=20.4 min; SD=6.2; Range 11.7 – 26.8 min) and once transcribed inductive thematic analysis was performed. Findings and Discussion: To improve the understanding of gaze behaviours and how officials make sense of the environment, during the interview’s key constructs of offside, decision making, obstacles and emotions were summarised as the higher order themes while making offside decisions. Gaze anchoring was highlighted to be a successful technique to allow officials to see all relevant information, whereas the type of offside was emphasised to be a key factor in correct interpretation. Furthermore, specific decision-making training was outlined to be inconsistent and not always applicable. Conclusions: Key constructs have been identified and explained, which can be shared with soccer officials through training regimes. Eye tracking technology has also been shown to be a useful and innovative reflective tool to assist in the understanding of individuals gaze behaviours.

Keywords: eye tracking, gaze behvaiour, decision making, reflection

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738 Regression Model Evaluation on Depth Camera Data for Gaze Estimation

Authors: James Purnama, Riri Fitri Sari


We investigate the machine learning algorithm selection problem in the term of a depth image based eye gaze estimation, with respect to its essential difficulty in reducing the number of required training samples and duration time of training. Statistics based prediction accuracy are increasingly used to assess and evaluate prediction or estimation in gaze estimation. This article evaluates Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and R-Squared statistical analysis to assess machine learning methods on depth camera data for gaze estimation. There are 4 machines learning methods have been evaluated: Random Forest Regression, Regression Tree, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Linear Regression. The experiment results show that the Random Forest Regression has the lowest RMSE and the highest R-Squared, which means that it is the best among other methods.

Keywords: gaze estimation, gaze tracking, eye tracking, kinect, regression model, orange python

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737 Video-Based System for Support of Robot-Enhanced Gait Rehabilitation of Stroke Patients

Authors: Matjaž Divjak, Simon Zelič, Aleš Holobar


We present a dedicated video-based monitoring system for quantification of patient’s attention to visual feedback during robot assisted gait rehabilitation. Two different approaches for eye gaze and head pose tracking are tested and compared. Several metrics for assessment of patient’s attention are also presented. Experimental results with healthy volunteers demonstrate that unobtrusive video-based gaze tracking during the robot-assisted gait rehabilitation is possible and is sufficiently robust for quantification of patient’s attention and assessment of compliance with the rehabilitation therapy.

Keywords: video-based attention monitoring, gaze estimation, stroke rehabilitation, user compliance

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736 Study on Errors in Estimating the 3D Gaze Point for Different Pupil Sizes Using Eye Vergences

Authors: M. Pomianek, M. Piszczek, M. Maciejewski


The binocular eye tracking technology is increasingly being used in industry, entertainment and marketing analysis. In the case of virtual reality, eye tracking systems are already the basis for user interaction with the environment. In such systems, the high accuracy of determining the user's eye fixation point is very important due to the specificity of the virtual reality head-mounted display (HMD). Often, however, there are unknown errors occurring in the used eye tracking technology, as well as those resulting from the positioning of the devices in relation to the user's eyes. However, can the virtual environment itself influence estimation errors? The paper presents mathematical analyses and empirical studies of the determination of the fixation point and errors resulting from the change in the size of the pupil in response to the intensity of the displayed scene. The article contains both static laboratory tests as well as on the real user. Based on the research results, optimization solutions were proposed that would reduce the errors of gaze estimation errors. Studies show that errors in estimating the fixation point of vision can be minimized both by improving the pupil positioning algorithm in the video image and by using more precise methods to calibrate the eye tracking system in three-dimensional space.

Keywords: eye tracking, fixation point, pupil size, virtual reality

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735 Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate TEM Validity and Design

Authors: Cao Xi


This paper reports a study which used eye-tracking to examine the cognitive validity of TEM 8(Test for English Majors, Band 8). The study investigated test takers' reading patterns on four -item types using eye-tracking, and interviews. Thirty participants completed 22 items on a computer, with the Tobii X2 Eye Tracker recording their eye movements on screen. Eleven students further participated in a recall interview while viewing video footage of their gaze patterns on the test. The findings will indicate that first, different reading item types will employ different cognitive processes; then different reading patterns for stronger and weaker test takers’on each item types. The implication of this study is to provide recommendations for the use of eye tracking technology in language research.

Keywords: eye tracking, reading patterns, test for english majors, cognitive validity

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734 Applying the Eye Tracking Technique for the Evaluation of Oculomotor System in Patients Survived after Cerebellar Tumors

Authors: Marina Shurupova, Victor Anisimov, Alexander Latanov


Background: The cerebellar lesions inevitably provoke oculomotor impairments in patients of different age. Symptoms of subtentorial tumors, particularly medulloblastomas, include static and dynamic coordination disorders (ataxia, asynergia, imbalance), hypo-muscle tonus, disruption of the cranial nerves, and within the oculomotor system - nystagmus (fine or gross). Subtentorial tumors can also affect the areas of cerebellum that control the oculomotor system. The noninvasive eye-tracking technology allows obtaining multiple oculomotor characteristics such as the number of fixations and their duration, amplitude, latency and velocity of saccades, trajectory and scan path of gaze during the process of the visual field navigation. Eye tracking could be very useful in clinical studies serving as convenient and effective tool for diagnostics. The aim: We studied the dynamics of oculomotor system functioning in patients undergoing remission from cerebellar tumors removal surgeries and following neurocognitive rehabilitation. Methods: 38 children (23 boys, 15 girls, 9-17 years old) that have recovered from the cerebellar tumor-removal surgeries, radiation therapy and chemotherapy and were undergoing course of neurocognitive rehabilitation participated in the study. Two tests were carried out to evaluate oculomotor performance - gaze stability test and counting test. The monocular eye movements were recorded with eye tracker ArringtonResearch (60 Hz). Two experimental sessions with both tests were conducted before and after rehabilitation courses. Results: Within the final session of both tests we observed remarkable improvement in oculomotor performance: 1) in the gaze stability test the spread of gaze positions significantly declined compared to the first session, and 2) the visual path in counting test significantly shortened both compared to the first session. Thus, neurocognitive rehabilitation improved the functioning of the oculomotor system in patients following the cerebellar tumor removal surgeries and subsequent therapy. Conclusions: The experimental data support the effectiveness of the utilization of the eye tracking technique as diagnostic tool in the field of neurooncology.

Keywords: eye tracking, rehabilitation, cerebellar tumors, oculomotor system

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733 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland


Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: area of interest, eye tracking, biometrics, fixation, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, heat map, saccades, time to first fixation

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
732 Applying Tourist Gaze in Structuring of Global Tourism in Solo City

Authors: Eko Nursanty, Joesron Alie Syahbana, Atik Suprapti


Tourist gaze is a set of experiences that experienced by a tourist in attempt to familiarize himself with the certain local tourism site’s condition. It is started from looking for information prior arriving at the location, then during the visit and gaining unique experience with the local inhabitant, and then experiencing the ingenuity of the location, finally to bring impression that keeps on attaching despite leaving from it. This research attempted to grab the message of tourist gaze in the process of structuring which is conducted in the global tourism in the cities in Indonesia, particularly Solo as the study case of the research. The method employed is the field observation of qualitative research. The expected result is to relate the tourist gaze theory with the development of ongoing global tourism.

Keywords: tourist gaze, tourism, city branding, Solo

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731 Usability in E-Commerce Websites: Results of Eye Tracking Evaluations

Authors: Beste Kaysı, Yasemin Topaloğlu


Usability is one of the most important quality attributes for web-based information systems. Specifically, for e-commerce applications, usability becomes more prominent. In this study, we aimed to explore the features that experienced users seek in e-commerce applications. We used eye tracking method in evaluations. Eye movement data are obtained from the eye-tracking method and analyzed based on task completion time, number of fixations, as well as heat map and gaze plot measures. The results of the analysis show that the eye movements of participants' are too static in certain areas and their areas of interest are scattered in many different places. It has been determined that this causes users to fail to complete their transactions. According to the findings, we outlined the issues to improve the usability of e-commerce websites. Then we propose solutions to identify the issues. In this way, it is expected that e-commerce sites will be developed which will make experienced users more satisfied.

Keywords: e-commerce websites, eye tracking method, usability, website evaluations

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730 Analyze and Visualize Eye-Tracking Data

Authors: Aymen Sekhri, Emmanuel Kwabena Frimpong, Bolaji Mubarak Ayeyemi, Aleksi Hirvonen, Matias Hirvonen, Tedros Tesfay Andemichael


Fixation identification, which involves isolating and identifying fixations and saccades in eye-tracking protocols, is an important aspect of eye-movement data processing that can have a big impact on higher-level analyses. However, fixation identification techniques are frequently discussed informally and rarely compared in any meaningful way. With two state-of-the-art algorithms, we will implement fixation detection and analysis in this work. The velocity threshold fixation algorithm is the first algorithm, and it identifies fixation based on a threshold value. For eye movement detection, the second approach is U'n' Eye, a deep neural network algorithm. The goal of this project is to analyze and visualize eye-tracking data from an eye gaze dataset that has been provided. The data was collected in a scenario in which individuals were shown photos and asked whether or not they recognized them. The results of the two-fixation detection approach are contrasted and visualized in this paper.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, eye-tracking, CNN, fixations, saccades

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729 Integrating Eye-Tracking Analysis to Enhance Web Usability Evaluation

Authors: Johanna Renny Octavia, Meliana Nurdin, Ignatius Kevin Kurniawan, Ricca Aksara


It is widely believed that usability evaluation is necessary to evaluate a website design for further improvement. Traditional methods of usability evaluation have given sufficient insights to reveal usability problems of websites. Eye-tracking analysis has been considered as a useful method that adds a powerful dimension to web usability evaluation. It allows web designers and usability researchers to understand exactly what users do and do not see on a web page, thus disclose more information on web usability and provide a more complete insights on a website design. This paper elaborates on moving beyond traditional methods of web usability evaluation by integrating eye-tracking analysis to enhance the evaluation of website design, and presents three case studies to support this approach. In these case studies, eye movement metrics such as gaze plots and fixation-derived metrics, and user performance data such as task completion times and number of errors were recorded as objective measurements that can inform the necessity for website design improvements.

Keywords: design, eye-tracking, usability evaluation, website

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
728 Translation Directionality: An Eye Tracking Study

Authors: Elahe Kamari


Research on translation process has been conducted for more than 20 years, investigating various issues and using different research methodologies. Most recently, researchers have started to use eye tracking to study translation processes. They believed that the observable, measurable data that can be gained from eye tracking are indicators of unobservable cognitive processes happening in the translators’ mind during translation tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate directionality in translation processes through using eye tracking. The following hypotheses were tested: 1) processing the target text requires more cognitive effort than processing the source text, in both directions of translation; 2) L2 translation tasks on the whole require more cognitive effort than L1 tasks; 3) cognitive resources allocated to the processing of the source text is higher in L1 translation than in L2 translation; 4) cognitive resources allocated to the processing of the target text is higher in L2 translation than in L1 translation; and 5) in both directions non-professional translators invest more cognitive effort in translation tasks than do professional translators. The performance of a group of 30 male professional translators was compared with that of a group of 30 male non-professional translators. All the participants translated two comparable texts one into their L1 (Persian) and the other into their L2 (English). The eye tracker measured gaze time, average fixation duration, total task length and pupil dilation. These variables are assumed to measure the cognitive effort allocated to the translation task. The data derived from eye tracking only confirmed the first hypothesis. This hypothesis was confirmed by all the relevant indicators: gaze time, average fixation duration and pupil dilation. The second hypothesis that L2 translation tasks requires allocation of more cognitive resources than L1 translation tasks has not been confirmed by all four indicators. The third hypothesis that source text processing requires more cognitive resources in L1 translation than in L2 translation and the fourth hypothesis that target text processing requires more cognitive effort in L2 translation than L1 translation were not confirmed. It seems that source text processing in L2 translation can be just as demanding as in L1 translation. The final hypothesis that non-professional translators allocate more cognitive resources for the same translation tasks than do the professionals was partially confirmed. One of the indicators, average fixation duration, indicated higher cognitive effort-related values for professionals.

Keywords: translation processes, eye tracking, cognitive resources, directionality

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727 The Art of Looking (Back): The Female Gaze in Portrait de la Jeune Fille en Feu and Little Women

Authors: Louisa Browne Kirk


In recent press interviews to promote Portrait de la jeune fille en feu (2019, translated to Portrait of a Lady on Fire in English), director and screenwriter Céline Sciamma and actors Adèle Haenel and Noémie Merlant repeatedly state that they understand the film as (if not uniquely, then unusually) produced via and supportive of ‘the female gaze’. Such a way of seeing stands in opposition to ‘the male gaze’, first theorised by Laura Mulvey as the way in which the female figure is a bearer, not maker, of meaning, a silent signifier through and against whom the male creator/viewer produces his fantasies and obsessions. What, then, is the female gaze? How does a woman produce meaning in and through film? Portrait de la jeune fille en feu and another very recent film, Little Women (2019, directed by Greta Gerwig), are unlikely companion films that understand the female gaze to be the act of one woman looking at another woman, a looking that is mediated through the production of art. In Sciamma’s film this looking is sexual and mediated through painting and in Gerwig’s film looking is familial and mediated through writing. In the schema of these films, art, love, looking and meaning are produced through collaboration. The painted and the painter, the written and the writer, are no longer rendered as subject and object but as dual creators, both always seeing and seen. The gaze of the cinematic woman, mediated through shared artistic practice, is ‘the desire-that-gives’.

Keywords: female gaze, Gerwig, Sciamma, shared artistic practice

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726 Out of the Shadows: Constructing a Female Gaze in Neo-Noir: Exegesis and Screenplay, The Lonely Drive

Authors: Jade Bitomsky


We all consume films on a daily basis. Yet, we frequently fail to recognize that these narratives shape our social, political, cultural, and economic values and attitudes. Narratives influence our perception; specifically, for this research, our perception of women within the genre of film noir. This creative research project examines to what extent film noir has perpetuated the male gaze and how noir’s representation of women has scripted female gender identity through perpetuated performative acts of femininity. Evolving from this research will be a deconstruction and (re)presentation of the femininity in noir. It will go beyond reiterated examinations, which developed awareness of Hollywood’s oppressive cinematic structures, to subvert the usual phallic diegesis and construct a female gaze in neo-noir screenplay, The Lonely Drive.

Keywords: femme fatale, film noir (classic), male gaze, neo-noir (contemporary), scopophilia

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725 Justyna Skrzyńska, Zdzisław Kobos, Zbigniew Wochyński

Authors: Vahid Bairami Rad


Due to the tremendous progress in computer technology in the last decades, the capabilities of computers increased enormously and working with a computer became a normal activity for nearly everybody. With all the possibilities a computer can offer, humans and their interaction with computers are now a limiting factor. This gave rise to a lot of research in the field of HCI (human computer interaction) aiming to make interaction easier, more intuitive, and more efficient. To research eye gaze based interfaces it is necessary to understand both sides of the interaction–the human eye and the eye tracker. The first section gives an overview on the anatomy of the eye. The second section accuracy and calibration issue. The subsequent section presents data from a user study where eye movements have been recorded while watching a video and while surfing the Internet. Statistics on the eye movement during these tasks for several individuals provide typical values and ranges for fixation times and saccade lengths and are the foundation for discussions in later chapters. The data also reveal typical limitations of eye trackers.

Keywords: human computer interaction, gaze tracking, calibration, eye movement

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724 Adaptive Online Object Tracking via Positive and Negative Models Matching

Authors: Shaomei Li, Yawen Wang, Chao Gao


To improve tracking drift which often occurs in adaptive tracking, an algorithm based on the fusion of tracking and detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly, object tracking is posed as a binary classification problem and is modeled by partial least squares (PLS) analysis. Secondly, tracking object frame by frame via particle filtering. Thirdly, validating the tracking reliability based on both positive and negative models matching. Finally, relocating the object based on SIFT features matching and voting when drift occurs. Object appearance model is updated at the same time. The algorithm cannot only sense tracking drift but also relocate the object whenever needed. Experimental results demonstrate that this algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms on many challenging sequences.

Keywords: object tracking, tracking drift, partial least squares analysis, positive and negative models matching

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723 Gaze Patterns of Skilled and Unskilled Sight Readers Focusing on the Cognitive Processes Involved in Reading Key and Time Signatures

Authors: J. F. Viljoen, Catherine Foxcroft


Expert sight readers rely on their ability to recognize patterns in scores, their inner hearing and prediction skills in order to perform complex sight reading exercises. They also have the ability to observe deviations from expected patterns in musical scores. This increases the “Eye-hand span” (reading ahead of the point of playing) in order to process the elements in the score. The study aims to investigate the gaze patterns of expert and non-expert sight readers focusing on key and time signatures. 20 musicians were tasked with playing 12 sight reading examples composed for one hand and five examples composed for two hands to be performed on a piano keyboard. These examples were composed in different keys and time signatures and included accidentals and changes of time signature to test this theory. Results showed that the experts fixate more and for longer on key and time signatures as well as deviations in examples for two hands than the non-expert group. The inverse was true for the examples for one hand, where expert sight readers showed fewer and shorter fixations on key and time signatures as well as deviations. This seems to suggest that experts focus more on the key and time signatures as well as deviations in complex scores to facilitate sight reading. The examples written for one appeared to be too easy for the expert sight readers, compromising gaze patterns.

Keywords: cognition, eye tracking, musical notation, sight reading

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722 The Effects of Billboard Content and Visible Distance on Driver Behavior

Authors: Arsalan Hassan Pour, Mansoureh Jeihani, Samira Ahangari


Distracted driving has been one of the most integral concerns surrounding our daily use of vehicles since the invention of the automobile. While much attention has been recently given to cell phones related distraction, commercial billboards along roads are also candidates for drivers' visual and cognitive distractions, as they may take drivers’ eyes from the road and their minds off the driving task to see, perceive and think about the billboard’s content. Using a driving simulator and a head-mounted eye-tracking system, speed change, acceleration, deceleration, throttle response, collision, lane changing, and offset from the center of the lane data along with gaze fixation duration and frequency data were collected in this study. Some 92 participants from a fairly diverse sociodemographic background drove on a simulated freeway in Baltimore, Maryland area and were exposed to three different billboards to investigate the effects of billboards on drivers’ behavior. Participants glanced at the billboards several times with different frequencies, the maximum of which occurred on the billboard with the highest cognitive load. About 74% of the participants didn’t look at billboards for more than two seconds at each glance except for the billboard with a short visible area. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find the variations in driving behavior when they are invisible, readable, and post billboards area. The results show a slight difference in speed, throttle, brake, steering velocity, and lane changing, among different areas. Brake force and deviation from the center of the lane increased in the readable area in comparison with the visible area, and speed increased right after each billboard. The results indicated that billboards have a significant effect on driving performance and visual attention based on their content and visibility status. Generalized linear model (GLM) analysis showed no connection between participants’ age and driving experience with gaze duration. However, the visible distance of the billboard, gender, and billboard content had a significant effect on gaze duration.

Keywords: ANOVA, billboards, distracted driving, drivers' behavior, driving simulator, eye-Tracking system, GLM

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721 Research on the Aesthetic Characteristics of Calligraphy Art Under The Cross-Cultural Background Based on Eye Tracking

Authors: Liu Yang


Calligraphy has a unique aesthetic value in Chinese traditional culture. Calligraphy reflects the physical beauty and the dynamic beauty of things through the structure of writing and the order of strokes to standardize the style of writing. In recent years, Chinese researchers have carried out research on the appreciation of calligraphy works from the perspective of psychology, such as how Chinese people appreciate the beauty of stippled lines, the beauty of virtual and real, and the beauty of the composition. However, there is currently no domestic research on how foreigners appreciate Chinese calligraphy. People's appreciation of calligraphy is mainly in the form of visual perception, and psychologists have been working on the use of eye trackers to record eye tracking data to explore the relationship between eye tracking and psychological activities. The purpose of this experimental study is to use eye tracking recorders to analyze the eye gaze trajectories of college students with different cultural backgrounds when they appreciate the same calligraphy work to reveal the differences in cognitive processing with different cultural backgrounds. It was found that Chinese students perceived calligraphy as words when viewing calligraphy works, so they first noticed fonts with easily recognizable glyphs, and the overall viewed time was short. Foreign students perceived calligraphy works as graphics, and they first noticed novel and abstract fonts, and the overall viewing time is longer. The understanding of calligraphy content has a certain influence on the appreciation of calligraphy works by foreign students. It is shown that when foreign students who understand the content of calligraphy works. The eye tracking path is more consistent with the calligraphy writing path, and it helps to develop associations with calligraphy works to better understand the connotation of calligraphy works. This result helps us understand the impact of cultural background differences on calligraphy appreciation and helps us to take more effective strategies to help foreign audiences understand Chinese calligraphy art.

Keywords: Chinese calligraphy, eye-tracking, cross-cultural, cultural communication

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720 Object Tracking in Motion Blurred Images with Adaptive Mean Shift and Wavelet Feature

Authors: Iman Iraei, Mina Sharifi


A method for object tracking in motion blurred images is proposed in this article. This paper shows that object tracking could be improved with this approach. We use mean shift algorithm to track different objects as a main tracker. But, the problem is that mean shift could not track the selected object accurately in blurred scenes. So, for better tracking result, and increasing the accuracy of tracking, wavelet transform is used. We use a feature named as blur extent, which could help us to get better results in tracking. For calculating of this feature, we should use Harr wavelet. We can look at this matter from two different angles which lead to determine whether an image is blurred or not and to what extent an image is blur. In fact, this feature left an impact on the covariance matrix of mean shift algorithm and cause to better performance of tracking. This method has been concentrated mostly on motion blur parameter. transform. The results reveal the ability of our method in order to reach more accurately tracking.

Keywords: mean shift, object tracking, blur extent, wavelet transform, motion blur

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719 Human Tracking across Heterogeneous Systems Based on Mobile Agent Technologies

Authors: Tappei Yotsumoto, Atsushi Nomura, Kozo Tanigawa, Kenichi Takahashi, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara


In a human tracking system, expanding a monitoring range of one system is complicating the management of devices and increasing its cost. Therefore, we propose a method to realize a wide-range human tracking by connecting small systems. In this paper, we examined an agent deploy method and information contents across the heterogeneous human tracking systems. By implementing the proposed method, we can construct a human tracking system across heterogeneous systems, and the system can track a target continuously between systems.

Keywords: human tracking system, mobile agent, monitoring, heterogeneous systems

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718 Third Eye: A Hybrid Portrayal of Visuospatial Attention through Eye Tracking Research and Modular Arithmetic

Authors: Shareefa Abdullah Al-Maqtari, Ruzaika Omar Basaree, Rafeah Legino


A pictorial representation of hybrid forms in science-art collaboration has become a crucial issue in the course of exploring a new painting technique development. This is straight related to the reception of an invisible-recognition phenomenology. In hybrid pictorial representation of invisible-recognition phenomenology, the challenging issue is how to depict the pictorial features of indescribable objects from its mental source, modality and transparency. This paper proposes the hybrid technique of painting Demonstrate, Resemble, and Synthesize (DRS) through a combination of the hybrid aspect-recognition representation of understanding picture, demonstrative mod, the number theory, pattern in the modular arithmetic system, and the coherence theory of visual attention in the dynamic scenes representation. Multi-methods digital gaze data analyses, pattern-modular table operation design, and rotation parameter were used for the visualization. In the scientific processes, Eye-trackingvideo-sections based was conducted using Tobii T60 remote eye tracking hardware and TobiiStudioTM analysis software to collect and analyze the eye movements of ten participants when watching the video clip, Alexander Paulikevitch’s performance’s ‘Tajwal’. Results: we found that correlation of fixation count in section one was positively and moderately correlated with section two Person’s (r=.10, p < .05, 2-tailed) as well as in fixation duration Person’s (r=.10, p < .05, 2-tailed). However, a paired-samples t-test indicates that scores were significantly higher for the section one (M = 2.2, SD = .6) than for the section two (M = 1.93, SD = .6) t(9) = 2.44, p < .05, d = 0.87. In the visual process, the exported data of gaze number N was resembled the hybrid forms of visuospatial attention using the table-mod-analyses operation. The explored hybrid guideline was simply applicable, and it could be as alternative approach to the sustainability of contemporary visual arts.

Keywords: science-art collaboration, hybrid forms, pictorial representation, visuospatial attention, modular arithmetic

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717 A Framework for Improving Trade Contractors’ Productivity Tracking Methods

Authors: Sophia Hayes, Kenny L. Liang, Sahil Sharma, Austin Shema, Mahmoud Bader, Mohamed Elbarkouky


Despite being one of the most significant economic contributors of the country, Canada’s construction industry is lagging behind other sectors when it comes to labor productivity improvements. The construction industry is very collaborative as a general contractor, will hire trade contractors to perform most of a project’s work; meaning low productivity from one contractor can have a domino effect on the shared success of a project. To address this issue and encourage trade contractors to improve their productivity tracking methods, an investigative study was done on the productivity views and tracking methods of various trade contractors. Additionally, an in-depth review was done on four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry: cost codes, benchmarking, the job productivity measurement (JPM) standard, and WorkFace Planning (WFP). The four tracking methods were used as a baseline in comparing the trade contractors’ responses, determining gaps within their current tracking methods, and for making improvement recommendations. 15 interviews were conducted with different trades to analyze how contractors value productivity. The results of these analyses indicated that there seem to be gaps within the construction industry when it comes to an understanding of the purpose and value in productivity tracking. The trade contractors also shared their current productivity tracking systems; which were then compared to the four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry. Gaps were identified in their various tracking methods and using a framework; recommendations were made based on the type of trade on how to improve how they track productivity.

Keywords: labor productivity, productivity tracking methods, trade contractors, construction

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716 Ray’s Use of the Liminal Space and the Female Gaze: A Reading of Oscillating Moralities in ‘Charulata’ and ‘Bimala’

Authors: Rajlekha Sil


This paper aims to investigate Ray’s portrayal of liminality and the female gaze in ‘Charulata’ (1964) and ‘Ghare Baire’ (1984), both of which primarily articulates the stories of two women (Charu and Bimala respectively), entangled within the cobwebs of their seething, unfulfilled sexuality, amidst a newly-globalised urban culture, punctuated with political turmoils and ideological conflicts. Their tempestuous interactions with the societal space, both tangible and intangible, that surrounds them, and the men in their lives makes them dwell in a liminal space, filled with an ambiguous sense of virtue. In Ray’s films, this sexual ambivalence is characterised by the liminality between the scenic and extrascenic spaces, which, in turn, defines the female gaze as the director’s lenses paint a picture of the new wave of socio-political and socio-cultural movements in early twentieth-century Bengal. Brinda Bose’s essay on ‘Modernity, Globality, Sexuality, and the City: A Reading of Indian Cinema’, analyses the ‘necessary’ process of urbanisation as a marker of ‘moral degeneracy of the nation easily analogous with female sexual transgression/ promiscuity with the nation personified as a woman, by using the concept of the liminal space, a site of both empowerment through transgression and containment through regulation.’ My paper, however, would focus on the liminal space propagated by Ray through his contrasting depiction of scenic and extrascenic spaces to satiate the equivocal voices in Charu and Bimala, along with their way of ‘gazing’ into an equally disheveled society - a gaze that helps them transcend the barriers of politics and urbanization into a state of universal uniformity, symmetrical with their sexual immorality. The first section of the paper would explore Ray’s usage of these theatrical spaces through his character sketches, shots and dialogues, while the second section of the paper would delve into the ‘female gaze’ on a newly revolutionised society.

Keywords: satyajit ray, space, gaze, female sexuality, charulata, ghare baire

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715 Online Pose Estimation and Tracking Approach with Siamese Region Proposal Network

Authors: Cheng Fang, Lingwei Quan, Cunyue Lu


Human pose estimation and tracking are to accurately identify and locate the positions of human joints in the video. It is a computer vision task which is of great significance for human motion recognition, behavior understanding and scene analysis. There has been remarkable progress on human pose estimation in recent years. However, more researches are needed for human pose tracking especially for online tracking. In this paper, a framework, called PoseSRPN, is proposed for online single-person pose estimation and tracking. We use Siamese network attaching a pose estimation branch to incorporate Single-person Pose Tracking (SPT) and Visual Object Tracking (VOT) into one framework. The pose estimation branch has a simple network structure that replaces the complex upsampling and convolution network structure with deconvolution. By augmenting the loss of fully convolutional Siamese network with the pose estimation task, pose estimation and tracking can be trained in one stage. Once trained, PoseSRPN only relies on a single bounding box initialization and producing human joints location. The experimental results show that while maintaining the good accuracy of pose estimation on COCO and PoseTrack datasets, the proposed method achieves a speed of 59 frame/s, which is superior to other pose tracking frameworks.

Keywords: computer vision, pose estimation, pose tracking, Siamese network

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714 The Tracking and Hedging Performances of Gold ETF Relative to Some Other Instruments in the UK

Authors: Abimbola Adedeji, Ahmad Shauqi Zubir


This paper examines the profitability and risk between investing in gold exchange traded funds (ETFs) and gold mutual funds compares to gold prices. The main focus in determining whether there are similarities or differences between those financial products is the tracking error. The importance of understanding the similarities or differences between the gold ETFs, gold mutual funds and gold prices is derived from the fact that gold ETFs and gold mutual funds are used as substitutions for investors who are looking to profit from gold prices although they are short in capital. 10 hypotheses were tested. There are 3 types of tracking error used. Tracking error 1 and 3 gives results that differentiate between types of ETFs and mutual funds, hence yielding the answers in answering the hypotheses that were developed. However, tracking error 2 failed to give the answer that could shed light on the questions raised in this study. All of the results in tracking error 2 technique only telling us that the difference between the ups and downs of the financial instruments are similar, statistically to the physical gold prices movement.

Keywords: gold etf, gold mutual funds, tracking error

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713 Vénus Noire: A (Post)Colonial Gaze

Authors: Hania Pasandi


Over his first three films, Abdellatif Kechiche established himself as one of the most celebrated directors at work in twenty-first-century French cinema. While his first three movies, La Faute à Voltaire (2000), L’Esquive (2003), and La Graine et le mulet (2007) tell stories about individuals of the Maghrebi origin or descent struggling to find their place in the contemporary French Republic, his 2010’s movie, Vénus noire (2010) recounts the true story of the so-called ‘Hottentot Venus’, Saartjie Baartman, who became famous after her stage appearances in London and Paris in the early eighteenth century. The movie shows the complex ways in which gender and ethnicity can combine in exclusionary discourse. This paper studies gender and racial identities, the irony of science theorisation about ethnicities through the male colonial gaze on a heavily exhibited woman. This paper explores how Vénus Noire engages the spectator’s own corporeal awareness of violence and calls attention to the othering practices of (post)colonial times.

Keywords: gender, (post)colonial gaze, other, violence

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712 UAV Based Visual Object Tracking

Authors: Vaibhav Dalmia, Manoj Phirke, Renith G


With the wide adoption of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) in various industries by the government as well as private corporations for solving computer vision tasks it’s necessary that their potential is analyzed completely. Recent advances in Deep Learning have also left us with a plethora of algorithms to solve different computer vision tasks. This study provides a comprehensive survey on solving the Visual Object Tracking problem and explains the tradeoffs involved in building a real-time yet reasonably accurate object tracking system for UAVs by looking at existing methods and evaluating them on the aerial datasets. Finally, the best trackers suitable for UAV-based applications are provided.

Keywords: deep learning, drones, single object tracking, visual object tracking, UAVs

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711 A Multimodal Measurement Approach Using Narratives and Eye Tracking to Investigate Visual Behaviour in Perceiving Naturalistic and Urban Environments

Authors: Khizar Z. Choudhrya, Richard Coles, Salman Qureshi, Robert Ashford, Salim Khan, Rabia R. Mir


Abstract: The majority of existing landscape research has been derived by conducting heuristic evaluations, without having empirical insight of real participant visual response. In this research, a modern multimodal measurement approach (using narratives and eye tracking) was applied to investigate visual behaviour in perceiving naturalistic and urban environments. This research is unique in exploring gaze behaviour on environmental images possessing different levels of saliency. Eye behaviour is predominantly attracted by salient locations. The concept of methodology of this research on naturalistic and urban environments is drawn from the approaches in market research. Borrowing methodologies from market research that examine visual responses and qualities provided a critical and hitherto unexplored approach. This research has been conducted by using mixed methodological quantitative and qualitative approaches. On the whole, the results of this research corroborated existing landscape research findings, but they also identified potential refinements. The research contributes both methodologically and empirically to human-environment interaction (HEI). This study focused on initial impressions of environmental images with the help of eye tracking. Taking under consideration the importance of the image, this study explored the factors that influence initial fixations in relation to expectations and preferences. In terms of key findings of this research it is noticed that each participant has his own unique navigation style while surfing through different elements of landscape images. This individual navigation style is given the name of ‘visual signature’. This study adds the necessary clarity that would complete the picture and bring an insight for future landscape researchers.

Keywords: human-environment interaction (HEI), multimodal measurement, narratives, eye tracking

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710 Development of Intelligent Smart Multi Tracking Agent System to Support of Logistics Safety

Authors: Umarov Jamshid, Ju-Su Kim, Hak-Jun Lee, Man-Kyo Han, Ryum-Duck Oh


Recently, it becomes convenient to identify the location information of cargos by using GPS and wireless communication technologies. The development of IoT technologies and tracking system allows us to confirm site situation on an ad hoc basis in all the industries and social environments. Moreover, it allows us to apply IT technologies to a manageable extent. However, there have been many limitations for using the system due to the difficulty of identifying location information in real time and also due to the simple features. To globalize the logistics related tracking system, it is required to conduct a study to resolve the aforementioned problem. On that account, this paper designed and developed the IoT and RTLS based intelligent multi tracking agent system for more secure, accurate and reliable transportation in relation to logistics.

Keywords: GPS, tracking agent system, IoT, RTLS, Logistics

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