Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 531

Search results for: fire and explosion

531 Reliability of Eyewitness Statements in Fire and Explosion Investigations

Authors: Jeff Colwell, Benjamin Knox

Abstract:

While fire and explosion incidents are often observed by eyewitnesses, the weight that fire investigators should place on those observations in their investigations is a complex issue. There is no doubt that eyewitness statements can be an important component to an investigation, particularly when other evidence is sparse, as is often the case when damage to the scene is severe. However, it is well known that eyewitness statements can be incorrect for a variety of reasons, including deception. In this paper, we reviewed factors that can have an effect on the complex processes associated with the perception, retention, and retrieval of an event. We then review the accuracy of eyewitness statements from unique criminal and civil incidents, including fire and explosion incidents, in which the accuracy of the statements could be independently evaluated. Finally, the motives for deceptive eyewitness statements are described, along with techniques that fire and explosion investigators can employ, to increase the accuracy of the eyewitness statements that they solicit.

Keywords: fire, explosion, eyewitness, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
530 Fire and Explosion Consequence Modeling Using Fire Dynamic Simulator: A Case Study

Authors: Iftekhar Hassan, Sayedil Morsalin, Easir A Khan

Abstract:

Accidents involving fire occur frequently in recent times and their causes showing a great deal of variety which require intervention methods and risk assessment strategies are unique in each case. On September 4, 2020, a fire and explosion occurred in a confined space caused by a methane gas leak from an underground pipeline in Baitus Salat Jame mosque during Night (Esha) prayer in Narayanganj District, Bangladesh that killed 34 people. In this research, this incident is simulated using Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software to analyze and understand the nature of the accident and associated consequences. FDS is an advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) system of fire-driven fluid flow which solves numerically a large eddy simulation form of the Navier–Stokes’s equations for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal radiation, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. This study focuses on understanding the nature of the fire and consequence evaluation due to thermal radiation caused by vapor cloud explosion. An evacuation modeling was constructed to visualize the effect of evacuation time and fractional effective dose (FED) for different types of agents. The results were presented by 3D animation, sliced pictures and graphical representation to understand fire hazards caused by thermal radiation or smoke due to vapor cloud explosion. This study will help to design and develop appropriate respond strategy for preventing similar accidents.

Keywords: consequence modeling, fire and explosion, fire dynamics simulation (FDS), thermal radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
529 Fault Tree Analysis and Bayesian Network for Fire and Explosion of Crude Oil Tanks: Case Study

Authors: B. Zerouali, M. Kara, B. Hamaidi, H. Mahdjoub, S. Rouabhia

Abstract:

In this paper, a safety analysis for crude oil tanks to prevent undesirable events that may cause catastrophic accidents. The estimation of the probability of damage to industrial systems is carried out through a series of steps, and in accordance with a specific methodology. In this context, this work involves developing an assessment tool and risk analysis at the level of crude oil tanks system, based primarily on identification of various potential causes of crude oil tanks fire and explosion by the use of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), then improved risk modelling by Bayesian Networks (BNs). Bayesian approach in the evaluation of failure and quantification of risks is a dynamic analysis approach. For this reason, have been selected as an analytical tool in this study. Research concludes that the Bayesian networks have a distinct and effective method in the safety analysis because of the flexibility of its structure; it is suitable for a wide variety of accident scenarios.

Keywords: bayesian networks, crude oil tank, fault tree, prediction, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 585
528 Numerical Modelling of Crack Initiation around a Wellbore Due to Explosion

Authors: Meysam Lak, Mohammad Fatehi Marji, Alireza Yarahamdi Bafghi, Abolfazl Abdollahipour

Abstract:

A wellbore is a hole that is drilled to aid in the exploration and recovery of natural resources including oil and gas. Occasionally, in order to increase productivity index and porosity of the wellbore and reservoir, the well stimulation methods have been used. Hydraulic fracturing is one of these methods. Moreover, several explosions at the end of the well can stimulate the reservoir and create fractures around it. In this study, crack initiation in rock around the wellbore has been numerically modeled due to explosion. One, two, three, and four pairs of explosion have been set at the end of the wellbore on its wall. After each stage of the explosion, results have been presented and discussed. Results show that this method can initiate and probably propagate several fractures around the wellbore.

Keywords: crack initiation, explosion, finite difference modelling, well productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
527 Fire Safety Engineering of Wood Dust Layer or Cloud

Authors: Marzena Półka, Bożena Kukfisz

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of dust explosion hazards in the process industries. It includes selected testing method of dust explosibility and presentation two of them according to experimental standards used by Department of Combustion and Fire Theory in The Main School of Fire Service in Warsaw. In the article are presented values of maximum acceptable surface temperature (MAST) of machines operating in the presence of dust cloud and chosen dust layer with thickness of 5 and 12,5mm. The comparative analysis, points to the conclusion that the value of the minimum ignition temperature of the layer (MITL) and the minimum ignition temperature of dust cloud (MTCD) depends on the granularity of the substance. Increasing the thickness of the dust layer reduces minimum ignition temperature of dust layer. Increasing the thickness of dust at the same time extends the flameless combustion and delays the ignition.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, industrial hazards, minimum ignition temperature, wood dust

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
526 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis

Abstract:

Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
525 Prediction of the Heat Transfer Characteristics of Tunnel Concrete

Authors: Seung Cho Yang, Jae Sung Lee, Se Hee Park

Abstract:

This study suggests the analysis method to predict the damages of tunnel concrete caused by fires. The result obtained from the analyses of concrete temperatures at a fire in a tunnel using ABAQUS was compared with the test result. After the reliability of the analysis method was verified, the temperatures of a tunnel at a real fire and those of concrete during the fire were estimated to predict fire damages. The temperatures inside the tunnel were estimated by FDS, a CFD model. It was deduced that the fire performance of tunnel lining and the fire damages of the structure at an actual fire could be estimated by the analysis method.

Keywords: fire resistance, heat transfer, numerical analysis, tunnel fire

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
524 Shooting Gas Cylinders to Prevent Their Explosion in Fire

Authors: Jerzy Ejsmont, Beata Świeczko-Żurek, Grzegorz Ronowski

Abstract:

Gas cylinders in general and particularly cylinders containing acetylene constitute a great potential danger for fire and rescue services involved in salvage operations. Experiments show that gas cylinders with acetylene, oxygen, hydrogen, CNG, LPG or CO2 may blow after short exposition to heat with very destructive effect as fragments of blown cylinder may fly even several hundred meters. In the case of acetylene, the explosion may occur also several hours after the cylinder is cooled down. One of the possible neutralization procedures that in many cases may be used to prevent explosions is shooting dangerous cylinders by rifle bullets. This technique is used to neutralize acetylene cylinders in a few European countries with great success. In Poland research project 'BLOW' was launched in 2014 with the aim to investigate phenomena related to fire influence on industrial and home used cylinders and to evaluate usefulness of the shooting technique. All together over 100 gas cylinders with different gases were experimentally tested at the military blasting grounds and in shelters. During the experiments cylinder temperature and pressure were recorded. In the case of acetylene that is subjected to thermal decomposition also concentration of hydrogen was monitored. Some of the cylinders were allowed to blow and others were shot by snipers. It was observed that shooting hot cylinders has never created more dangerous situations than letting the cylinders to explode spontaneously. In a great majority of cases cylinders that were punctured by bullets released gas in a more or less violent but relatively safe way. The paper presents detailed information about experiments and presents particularities of behavior of cylinders containing different gases. Extensive research was also done in order to select bullets that may be safely and efficiently used to puncture different cylinders. The paper shows also results of those experiments as well as gives practical information related to techniques that should be used during shooting.

Keywords: fire, gas cylinders, neutralization, shooting

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
523 Numerical Study of Fire Propagation in Confined and Open Area

Authors: Hadj Miloua, Abbes Azzi

Abstract:

The objective of the present paper is to understand, predict and modeled the fire behavior in confined and open area in different conditions and diverse fuels such as liquid pool fire and the vegetative materials. The distinctive problems are a ventilated road tunnel used for urban transport, by the characterization installations of ventilation and his influence in the mode of smoke dispersion and the flame shape. A general investigation is relatively traditional, based on the modeling and simulation the scenario of the pool fire interacted with wind ventilation by the use of numerical software fire dynamic simulator FDS ver.5 to simulate the fire in ventilated tunnel. The second simulation by WFDS.5 is Wildland fire which is always occurs in forest and rangeland fire environments and will thus have an impact on people, property and resources.

Keywords: fire, road tunnel, simulation, vegetation, wildland

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
522 Safety of Built Infrastructure: Single Degree of Freedom Approach to Blast Resistant RC Wall Panels

Authors: Muizz Sanni-Anibire

Abstract:

The 21st century has witnessed growing concerns for the protection of built facilities against natural and man-made disasters. Studies in earthquake resistant buildings, fire, and explosion resistant buildings now dominate the arena. To protect people and facilities from the effects of the explosion, reinforced concrete walls have been designed to be blast resistant. Understanding the performance of these walls is a key step in ensuring the safety of built facilities. Blast walls are mostly designed using simple techniques such as single degree of freedom (SDOF) method, despite the increasing use of multi-degree of freedom techniques such as the finite element method. This study is the first stage of a continuous research into the safety and reliability of blast walls. It presents the SDOF approach applied to the analysis of a concrete wall panel under three representative bomb situations. These are motorcycle 50 kg, car 400kg and also van with the capacity of 1500 kg of TNT explosive.

Keywords: blast wall, safety, protection, explosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
521 Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock

Authors: Guillaume Craveur

Abstract:

This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.

Keywords: fire safety engineering, numerical tools, rolling stock, evacuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
520 An Experimental Study on the Optimum Installation of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detecting in Rack-Type Warehouses

Authors: Ki Ok Choi, Sung Ho Hong, Dong Suck Kim, Don Mook Choi

Abstract:

Rack type warehouses are different from general buildings in the kinds, amount, and arrangement of stored goods, so the fire risk of rack type warehouses is different from those buildings. The fire pattern of rack type warehouses is different in combustion characteristic and storing condition of stored goods. The initial fire burning rate is different in the surface condition of materials, but the running time of fire is closely related with the kinds of stored materials and stored conditions. The stored goods of the warehouse are consisted of diverse combustibles, combustible liquid, and so on. Fire detection time may be delayed because the residents are less than office and commercial buildings. If fire detectors installed in rack type warehouses are inadaptable, the fire of the warehouse may be the great fire because of delaying of fire detection. In this paper, we studied what kinds of fire detectors are optimized in early detecting of rack type warehouse fire by real-scale fire tests. The fire detectors used in the tests are rate of rise type, fixed type, photo electric type, and aspirating type detectors. We considered optimum fire detecting method in rack type warehouses suggested by the response characteristic and comparative analysis of the fire detectors.

Keywords: fire detector, rack, response characteristic, warehouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
519 Internal and External Overpressure Calculation for Vented Gas Explosion by Using a Combined Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

Authors: Jingde Li, Hong Hao

Abstract:

Recent oil and gas accidents have reminded us the severe consequences of gas explosion on structure damage and financial loss. In order to protect the structures and personnel, engineers and researchers have been working on numerous different explosion mitigation methods. Amongst, venting is the most economical approach to mitigate gas explosion overpressure. In this paper, venting is used as the overpressure alleviation method. A theoretical method and a numerical technique are presented to predict the internal and external pressure from vented gas explosion in a large enclosure. Under idealized conditions, a number of experiments are used to calibrate the accuracy of the theoretically calculated data. A good agreement between the theoretical results and experimental data is seen. However, for realistic scenarios, the theoretical method over-estimates internal pressures and is incapable of predicting external pressures. Therefore, a CFD simulation procedure is proposed in this study to estimate both the internal and external overpressure from a large-scale vented explosion. Satisfactory agreement between CFD simulation results and experimental data is achieved.

Keywords: vented gas explosion, internal pressure, external pressure, CFD simulation, FLACS, ANSYS Fluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
518 Prediction of Fire Growth of the Office by Real-Scale Fire Experiment

Authors: Kweon Oh-Sang, Kim Heung-Youl

Abstract:

Estimating the engineering properties of fires is important to be prepared for the complex and various fire risks of large-scale structures such as super-tall buildings, large stadiums, and multi-purpose structures. In this study, a mock-up of a compartment which was 2.4(L) x 3.6 (W) x 2.4 (H) meter in dimensions was fabricated at the 10MW LSC (Large Scale Calorimeter) and combustible office supplies were placed in the compartment for a real-scale fire test. Maximum heat release rate was 4.1 MW and total energy release obtained through the application of t2 fire growth rate was 6705.9 MJ.

Keywords: fire growth, fire experiment, t2 curve, large scale calorimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
517 A Small-Scale Study of Fire Whirls and Investigation of the Effects of Near-Ground Height on the Behavior of Fire Whirls

Authors: M. Arabghahestani, A. Darwish Ahmad, N. K. Akafuah

Abstract:

In this work, small-scale experiments of fire whirl were conducted to study the spinning fire phenomenon and to gain comprehensive understandings of fire tornadoes and the factors that affect their behavior. High speed imaging was used to track the flames at both temporal and spatial scales. This allowed us to better understand the role of the near-ground height in creating a boundary layer flow profile that, in turn contributes to formation of vortices around the fire, and consequent fire whirls. Based on the results obtained from these observations, we were able to spot the differences in the fuel burning rate of the fire itself as a function of a newly defined specific non-dimensional near-ground height. Based on our observations, there is a cutoff non-dimensional height, beyond which a normal fire can be turned into a fire whirl. Additionally, the results showed that the fire burning rate decreases by moving the fire to a height higher than the ground level. These effects were justified by the interactions between vortices formed by, the back pressure and the boundary layer velocity profile, and the vortices generated by the fire itself.

Keywords: boundary layer profile, fire whirls, near-ground height, vortex interactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
516 Forest Fire Risk Mapping Using Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS-Based Application: A Case Study in Hua Sai District, Thailand

Authors: Narissara Nuthammachot, Dimitris Stratoulias

Abstract:

Fire is one of the main causes of environmental and ecosystem change. Therefore, it is a challenging task for fire risk assessment fire potential mapping. The study area is Hua Sai district, Nakorn Sri Thammarat province, which covers in a part of peat swamp forest areas. 55 fire points in peat swamp areas were reported from 2012 to 2016. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographic Information System (GIS) methods were selected for this study. The risk fire area map was arranged on these factors; elevation, slope, aspect, precipitation, distance from the river, distance from town, and land use. The results showed that the predicted fire risk areas are found to be in appreciable reliability with past fire events. The fire risk map can be used for the planning and management of fire areas in the future.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, fire risk assessment, geographic information system, peat swamp forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
515 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: concrete, fire, spalling, temperature, compressive strength, density

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
514 Emissivity Analysis of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Fire

Authors: Christian Gaigl, Martin Mensinger

Abstract:

Once a fire resistance rating is necessary, it has to be proofed that the load bearing behavior of a steel construction under the exposure of fire still fits the static demands. High costs of passive fire protection, which satisfies the requirements, frequently result in a concrete solution. To optimize these expenses, one method is to determine the critical temperature according to the Eurocode DIN EN 1993-1-2. For this purpose, positive effects of hot-dip galvanized surface layers on the temperature development of steel members in the accidental situation of fire exposure has been investigated. The test results show a significant better heating behavior of hot-dip galvanized steel components compared to normal steel specimen. This leads in many cases to a R30 (30 minutes of ISO-fire) fire protection requirement of unprotected steel members and therefore to an economic added value.

Keywords: fire resistance, hot-dip galvanizing, steel constructions, R30 requirement, emissivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
513 Effect of Fire Exposure on the Ultimate Strength of Loaded Columns

Authors: Hatem Hamdy Ghieth

Abstract:

In the recent time many fires happened in many skeleton buildings. The fire may be continues for a long time. This fire may cause a collapse of the building. This collapse may be happened due to the time of exposure to fire as well as the rate of the loading to the carrying elements. In this research a laboratory study for reinforced concrete columns under effect of fire with temperature reaches (650 ْ C) on the behavior of columns which loaded with axial load and with exposing to fire temperature only from all sides of columns. the main parameters of this study are level of load applying to the column, and the temperature applied to the fire, this temperatures was 500oC and 650oc. Nine concrete columns with dimensions 20x20x100 cms were casted one of these columns was tested to determine the ultimate load while the least were fired according to the experimental schedule.

Keywords: columns, fire duration, concrete strength, level of loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
512 Accidental Compartment Fire Dynamics: Experiment, Computational Fluid Dynamics Weakness and Expert Interview Analysis

Authors: Timothy Onyenobi

Abstract:

Accidental fires and its dynamic as it relates to building compartmentation and the impact of the compartment morphology, is still an on-going area of study; especially with the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling methods. With better knowledge on this subject come better solution recommendations by fire engineers. Interviews were carried out for this study where it was identified that the response perspectives to accidental fire were different with the fire engineer providing qualitative data which is based on “what is expected in real fires” and the fire fighters provided information on “what actually obtains in real fires”. This further led to a study and analysis of two real and comprehensively instrumented fire experiments: the Open Plan Office Project by National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) USA (to study time to flashover) and the TF2000 project by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) UK (to test for conformity with Building Regulation requirements). The findings from the analysis of the experiments revealed the relative yet critical weakness of fire prediction using a CFD model (usually used by fire engineers) as well as explained the differences in response perspectives of the fire engineers and firefighters from the interview analysis.

Keywords: CFD, compartment fire, experiment, fire fighters, fire engineers

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
511 Adding Protelium Gas Sensor for Smartphone to Reduce Explosion in Indonesia

Authors: Alfi Al Fahreizy

Abstract:

By using LPG (Liquid Protelium Gas), it is very difficult to detect gas leak. Consequently, there is so many incident of gas leak that makes explosion which is occurred in many regions of Indonesia. In this paper, the researcher tries to overcome with it by adding gas sensor for LPG in a smartphone. The aim is to choose the best sensor and how to use it . The methode is to choose sensor by selecting from sensor data sheet qualitatively by giving grade from 1 to 5. Flow chart is shown to make best steps notification that possible to implemented in smartphone.

Keywords: energy conversion, gas leak, smartphone, explosion, LPG

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
510 Canada Deuterium Uranium Updated Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Canadian Nuclear Plants

Authors: Hossam Shalabi, George Hadjisophocleous

Abstract:

The Canadian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) use some portions of NUREG/CR-6850 in carrying out Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). An assessment for the applicability of NUREG/CR-6850 to CANDU reactors was performed and a CANDU Fire PRA was introduced. There are 19 operating CANDU reactors in Canada at five sites (Bruce A, Bruce B, Darlington, Pickering and Point Lepreau). A fire load density survey was done for all Fire Safe Shutdown Analysis (FSSA) fire zones in all CANDU sites in Canada. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 557 proposes that a fire load survey must be conducted by either the weighing method or the inventory method or a combination of both. The combination method results in the most accurate values for fire loads. An updated CANDU Fire PRA model is demonstrated in this paper that includes the fuel survey in all Canadian CANDU stations. A qualitative screening step for the CANDU fire PRA is illustrated in this paper to include any fire events that can damage any part of the emergency power supply in addition to FSSA cables.

Keywords: fire safety, CANDU, nuclear, fuel densities, FDS, qualitative analysis, fire probabilistic risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
509 Optimizing Fire Suppression Time In Buildings By Forming A Fire Feedback Loop

Authors: Zhdanova A.O, Volkov R.S, Kuznetsov G.V, Strizhak P.A.

Abstract:

Fires in different types of facilities are a serious problem worldwide.It is still an unaccomplished science and technology objective to establish the minimum number and type of sensors in automatic systems of compartment fire suppression which would turn the fire-extinguishing agent spraying on and off in real time depending on the state of the fire, minimize the amount of agent applied, delay time in fire suppression and system response, as well as the time of combustion suppression. Based on the results of experimental studies, the conclusion was made that it is reasonable to use a gas analysis system and heat sensors (in the event of their prior activation) to determine the effectiveness of fire suppression (fire-extinguishing composition interacts with the fire). Thus, the concentration of CO in the interaction of the firefighting liquid with the fire increases to 0.7–1.2%, which indicates a slowdown in the flame combustion, and heat sensors stop responding at a gas medium temperature below 80 ºC, which shows a gradual decrease in the heat release from the fire. The evidence from this study suggests that the information received from the video recording equipment (video camera) should be used in real time as an additional parameter confirming fire suppression. Research was supported by Russian Science Foundation (project No 21-19-00009, https://rscf.ru/en/project/21-19-00009/).

Keywords: compartment fires, fire suppression, continuous control of fire behavior, feedback systems

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508 A Study for the Effect of Fire Initiated Location on Evacuation Success Rate

Authors: Jin A Ryu, Hee Sun Kim

Abstract:

As the number of fire accidents is gradually raising, many studies have been reported on evacuation. Previous studies have mostly focused on evaluating the safety of evacuation and the risk of fire in particular buildings. However, studies on effects of various parameters on evacuation have not been nearly done. Therefore, this paper aims at observing evacuation time under the effect of fire initiated location. In this study, evacuation simulations are performed on a 5-floor building located in Seoul, South Korea using the commercial program, Fire Dynamics Simulator with Evacuation (FDS+EVAC). Only the fourth and fifth floors are modeled with an assumption that fire starts in a room located on the fourth floor. The parameter for evacuation simulations is location of fire initiation to observe the evacuation time and safety. Results show that the location of fire initiation is closer to exit, the more time is taken to evacuate. The case having the nearest location of fire initiation to exit has the lowest ratio of successful occupants to the total occupants. In addition, for safety evaluation, the evacuation time calculated from computer simulation model is compared with the tolerable evacuation time according to code in Japan. As a result, all cases are completed within the tolerable evacuation time. This study allows predicting evacuation time under various conditions of fire and can be used to evaluate evacuation appropriateness and fire safety of building.

Keywords: fire simulation, evacuation simulation, temperature, evacuation safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
507 The Trend of Injuries in Building Fire in Tehran from 2002 to 2012

Authors: Mohammadreza Ashouri, Majid Bayatian

Abstract:

Analysis of fire data is a way for the implementation of any plan to improve the level of safety in cities. Such an analysis is able to reveal signs of changes in a given period and can be used as a measure of safety. The information of about 66,341 fires (from 2002 to 2012) released by Tehran Safety Services and Fire-Fighting Organization and data on the population and the number of households provided by Tehran Municipality and the Statistical Yearbook of Iran were extracted. Using the data, the fire changes, the rate of injuries, and mortality rate were determined and analyzed. The rate of injuries and mortality rate of fires per one million population of Tehran were 59.58% and 86.12%, respectively. During the study period, the number of fires and fire stations increased by 104.38% and 102.63%, respectively. Most fires (9.21%) happened in the 4th District of Tehran. The results showed that the recorded fire data have not been systematically planned for fire prevention since one of the ways to reduce injuries caused by fires is to develop a systematic plan for necessary actions in emergency situations. To determine a reliable source for fire prevention, the stages, definitions of working processes and the cause and effect chains should be considered. Therefore, a comprehensive statistical system should be developed for reported and recorded fire data.

Keywords: fire statistics, fire analysis, accident prevention, Tehran

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506 A Study on the Failure Modes of Steel Moment Frame in Post-Earthquake Fire Using Coupled Mechanical-Thermal Analysis

Authors: Ehsan Asgari, Meisam Afazeli, Nezhla Attarchian

Abstract:

Post-earthquake fire is considered as a major threat in seismic areas. After an earthquake, fire is possible in structures. In this research, the effect of post-earthquake fire on steel moment frames with and without fireproofing coating is investigated. For this purpose, finite element method is employed. For the verification of finite element results, the results of an experimental study carried out by previous researchers are used, and the predicted FE results are compared with the test results, and good agreement is observed. After ensuring the accuracy of the predictions of finite element models, the effect of post-earthquake fire on the frames is investigated taking into account the parameters including the presence or absence of fire protection, frame design assumptions, earthquake type and different fire scenario. Ordinary fire and post-earthquake fire effect on the frames is also studied. The plastic hinges induced by earthquake in the structure are determined in the beam to the column connection and in panel zone. These areas should be accurately considered when providing fireproofing coatings. The results of the study show that the occurrence of fire beside corner columns is the most damaging scenario that results in progressive collapse of structure. It was also concluded that the behavior of structure in fire after a strong ground motion is significantly different from that in a normal fire.

Keywords: post earthquake fire, moment frame, finite element simulation, coupled temperature-displacement analysis, fire scenario

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
505 The Fire Performance of Exposed Timber Panels

Authors: Bernice V. Y. Wong, Kong Fah Tee

Abstract:

Cross-laminated timber is increasingly being used in the construction of high-rise buildings due to its simple manufacturing system. In term of fire resistance, cross-laminated timber panels are promoted as having excellent fire resistance, comparable to that of non-combustible materials and to heavy timber construction, due to the ability of thick wood assemblies to char slowly at a predictable rate while maintaining most of their strength during the fire exposure. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of cross-laminated timber and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Charring rates for cross-laminated timber panels of those obtained experimentally were compared with those provided by Eurocode simplified calculation methods.

Keywords: timber structure, cross-laminated timber, charring rate, timber fire resistance

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504 Effects of Flame Retardant Nano Bio-Filler on the Fire Behaviour of Thin Film Intumescent Coatings

Authors: Ming Chian Yew, Ming Kun Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Tan Ching Ng, Rajkumar Durairaj, Jing Han Beh

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the fire protection performance, char formation and heat release characteristics of the thin film intumescent coatings that incorporate waste eggshell (ES) as a nano bio-filler. In this study, the Bunsen burner and the fire propagation (BS 476: Part 6) tests of coatings were measured. Experiments on the samples were also tested to evaluate their fire behavior using a cone calorimeter according to ISO 5660-1 specifications. On exposure, the samples B, C and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fire propagation indexes of the samples were less than 12. Samples B and D showed a significant reduction in total heat rate (B=11.6 MJ/m² and D=12.0 MJ/m²) and uniform char structures with the addition of 3.30 wt.% and 2.75 wt.% ES nano bio-filler, respectively. As a result, ES nano bio-filler composition good to slow down the fire expanding and demonstrate better fire protection due to its positive synergistic effect with flame retardant ingredients on physical and chemical reactions in fire protection.

Keywords: cone calorimeter, eggshell, fire protection, heat release rate, intumescent coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
503 Coarse Grid Computational Fluid Dynamics Fire Simulations

Authors: Wolfram Jahn, Jose Manuel Munita

Abstract:

While computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of fire scenarios are commonly used in the design of buildings, less attention has been given to the use of CFD simulations as an operational tool for the fire services. The reason of this lack of attention lies mainly in the fact that CFD simulations typically take large periods of time to complete, and their results would thus not be available in time to be of use during an emergency. Firefighters often face uncertain conditions when entering a building to attack a fire. They would greatly benefit from a technology based on predictive fire simulations, able to assist their decision-making process. The principal constraint to faster CFD simulations is the fine grid necessary to solve accurately the physical processes that govern a fire. This paper explores the possibility of overcoming this constraint and using coarse grid CFD simulations for fire scenarios, and proposes a methodology to use the simulation results in a meaningful way that can be used by the fire fighters during an emergency. Data from real scale compartment fire tests were used to compare CFD fire models with different grid arrangements, and empirical correlations were obtained to interpolate data points into the grids. The results show that the strongly predominant effect of the heat release rate of the fire on the fluid dynamics allows for the use of coarse grids with relatively low overall impact of simulation results. Simulations with an acceptable level of accuracy could be run in real time, thus making them useful as a forecasting tool for emergency response purposes.

Keywords: CFD, fire simulations, emergency response, forecast

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502 Effect of Relative Humidity on Corrosion Behavior of SN-0.7Cu Solder under Polyvinyl Chloride Fire Smoke Atmosphere

Authors: Qian Li, Shouxiang Lu

Abstract:

With the rapid increase in electric power use, wire and cable fire occur more and more frequent. The fire smoke has a corrosive effect on the solders, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the effect of environment relative humidity on corrosion behavior of Sn-0.7Cu solder has been researched under 140 g·m⁻³ polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire smoke atmosphere. The mass loss of Sn-0.7Cu solder increased with the relative humidity. Furthermore, the microstructures and corrosion mechanism were analyzed by using SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result shows that Sn₂₁Cl₁₆(OH)₁₄O₆ is the main corrosion products and the corrosion process is an electrochemical reaction. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.

Keywords: corrosion, fire smoke, relative humidity, Sn-0.7Cu solder

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