Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 5745

Search results for: energy restriction

75 Monitoring the Production of Large Composite Structures Using Dielectric Tool Embedded Capacitors

Authors: Galatee Levadoux, Trevor Benson, Chris Worrall

Abstract:

With the rise of public awareness on climate change comes an increasing demand for renewable sources of energy. As a result, the wind power sector is striving to manufacture longer, more efficient and reliable wind turbine blades. Currently, one of the leading causes of blade failure in service is improper cure of the resin during manufacture. The infusion process creating the main part of the composite blade structure remains a critical step that is yet to be monitored in real time. This stage consists of a viscous resin being drawn into a mould under vacuum, then undergoing a curing reaction until solidification. Successful infusion assumes the resin fills all the voids and cures completely. Given that the electrical properties of the resin change significantly during its solidification, both the filling of the mould and the curing reaction are susceptible to be followed using dieletrometry. However, industrially available dielectrics sensors are currently too small to monitor the entire surface of a wind turbine blade. The aim of the present research project is to scale up the dielectric sensor technology and develop a device able to monitor the manufacturing process of large composite structures, assessing the conformity of the blade before it even comes out of the mould. An array of flat copper wires acting as electrodes are embedded in a polymer matrix fixed in an infusion mould. A multi-frequency analysis from 1 Hz to 10 kHz is performed during the filling of the mould with an epoxy resin and the hardening of the said resin. By following the variations of the complex admittance Y*, the filling of the mould and curing process are monitored. Results are compared to numerical simulations of the sensor in order to validate a virtual cure-monitoring system. The results obtained by drawing glycerol on top of the copper sensor displayed a linear relation between the wetted length of the sensor and the complex admittance measured. Drawing epoxy resin on top of the sensor and letting it cure at room temperature for 24 hours has provided characteristic curves obtained when conventional interdigitated sensor are used to follow the same reaction. The response from the developed sensor has shown the different stages of the polymerization of the resin, validating the geometry of the prototype. The model created and analysed using COMSOL has shown that the dielectric cure process can be simulated, so long as a sufficient time and temperature dependent material properties can be determined. The model can be used to help design larger sensors suitable for use with full-sized blades. The preliminary results obtained with the sensor prototype indicate that the infusion and curing process of an epoxy resin can be followed with the chosen configuration on a scale of several decimeters. Further work is to be devoted to studying the influence of the sensor geometry and the infusion parameters on the results obtained. Ultimately, the aim is to develop a larger scale sensor able to monitor the flow and cure of large composite panels industrially.

Keywords: wind turbine blades, epoxy, composite manufacture, dieletrometry, resin infusion

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74 Dietary Intakes and Associated Demographic, Behavioural and Other Health-Related Factors in Mexican College Students

Authors: Laura E. Hall, Joel Monárrez-Espino, Luz María Tejada Tayabas

Abstract:

College students are at risk of weight gain and poor dietary habits, and health behaviours established during this period have been shown to track into midlife. They may therefore be an important target group for health promotion strategies, yet there is a lack of literature regarding dietary intakes and associated factors in this group, particularly in middle-income countries such as Mexico. The aim of this exploratory research was to describe and compare reported dietary intakes among nursing and nutrition college students at two public universities in Mexico, and to explore the relationship between demographic, behavioural and other health-related factors and the risk of low diet quality. Mexican college students (n=444) majoring in nutrition or nursing at two urban universities completed questionnaires regarding dietary and health-related behaviours and risks. Dietary intake was assessed via 24-hour recall. Weight, height and abdominal circumference were measured. Descriptive statistics were reported and nutrient intakes were compared between colleges and study tracks using Student’s t tests, odds ratios and Pearson chi square tests. Two dietary quality scores were constructed to explore the relationship between demographic, behavioural and other health-related factors and the diet quality scores using binary logistic regression. Analysis was performed using SPSS statistics, with differences considered statistically significant at p<0.05. The response rate to the survey was 91%. When macronutrients were considered as a percentage of total energy, the majority of students had protein intakes within recommended ranges, however one quarter of students had carbohydrate and fat intakes exceeding recommended levels. Three quarters had fibre intakes that were below recommendations. More than half of the students reported intakes of magnesium, zinc, vitamin A, folate and vitamin E that were below estimated average requirements. Students studying nutrition reported macronutrient and micronutrient intakes that were more compliant with recommendations compared to nursing students, and students studying in central-north Mexico were more compliant than those studying in southeast Mexico. Breakfast skipping (Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) = 5.3; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.2-22.7), risk of anxiety (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.3-4.4), and university location (OR = 1.6; CI = 1.03-2.6) were associated with a greater risk of having a low macronutrient score. Caloric intakes <1800kcal (OR = 5.8; CI = 3.5-9.7), breakfast skipping (OR = 3.7; CI = 1.4-10.3), vigorous exercise ≤1h/week (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.3-5.2), soda consumption >250mls/day (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.2-3.3), unhealthy diet perception (OR = 1.9; CI = 1.2-3.0), and university location (OR = 1.8; CI = 1.1-2.8) were significantly associated with greater odds of having a low micronutrient score. College students studying nursing and nutrition did not report ideal diets, and these students should not be overlooked in public health interventions. Differences in dietary intakes between universities and study tracks were evident, with more favourable profiles evident in nutrition compared to nursing, and North-central compared to Southeast students. Further, demographic, behavioural and other health-related factors were associated with diet quality scores, warranting further research.

Keywords: Diet Quality, college student, nutrient intake, young adult

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73 Nuclear Powered UAV for Surveillances and Aerial Photography

Authors: Rajasekar Elangopandian, Anand Shanmugam

Abstract:

Now-a-days for surveillances unmanned aerial vehicle plays a vital role. Not only for surveillances, aerial photography disaster management and the notice of earth behavior UAV1s envisages meticulously. To reduce the maintenance and fuel nuclear powered Vehicles are greater support. The design consideration is much important for the UAV manufacturing industry and Research and development agency. Eventually design is looking like a pentagon shaped fuselage and black rubber coated paint in order to escape from the enemy radar and other targets. The pentagon shape fuselage has large space to keep the mini nuclear reactor inside and the material is carbon – carbon fiber specially designed by the software called cosmol and hyper mesh 14.2. So the weight consideration will produce the positive result for productivity. The walls of the fuselage are coated with lead and protective shield. A double layer of W/Bi sheet is proposed for radiation protection at the energy range of 70 Kev to 90 Kev. The designed W/bi sheet, only 0.14 mm thick and is 36% light. The properties of the fillers were determined from zeta potential and particle size measurements. The Exposes of the radiation can be attenuated by 3 ways such as minimizing exposure time, Maximizing distance from the radiation source and shielding the whole vehicle. The inside reactor will be switched ON when the UAV starts its cruise. The moderators and the control rods can be inserted by automation technique by newly developed software. The heat generated by the reactor will be used to run the turbine which is fixed inside the UAV called mini turbine with natural rubber composite Shaft radiation shield. Cooling system will be in two mode such as liquid and air cooled. Liquid coolant for the heat regeneration is ordinary water, liquid sodium, helium and the walls are made up of regenerative and radiation protective material. The other components like camera and arms bay will be located at the bottom of the UAV high are specially made products in order to escape from the radiation. They are coated with lead Pb and natural rubber composite material. This technique provides the long rang and endurance for eternal flight mission until we need any changeability of parts or product. This UAV has the special advantage of ` land on String` means it`ll land at electric line to charge the automated electronics. Then the fuel is enriched uranium (< 5% U - 235) contains hundreds of fuel pins. This technique provides eternal duty for surveillances and aerial photography. The landing of the vehicle is ease of operation likewise the takeoff is also easier than any other mechanism which present in nowadays. This UAV gives great immense and immaculate technology for surveillance and target detecting and smashing the target.

Keywords: mini turbine, liquid coolant for the heat regeneration, in order to escape from the radiation, eternal flight mission, it`ll land at electric line

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72 Disposal Behavior of Extreme Poor People Living in Guatemala at the Base of the Pyramid

Authors: Katharina Raab, Ralf Wagner

Abstract:

With the decrease of poverty, the focus on the solid waste challenge shifts away from affluent, mostly Westernized consumers to the base of the pyramid. The relevance of considering the disposal behavior of impoverished people arises from improved welfare, leading to an increase in consumption opportunities and, consequently, of waste production. In combination with the world’s growing population the relevance of the topic increases, because solid waste management has global impacts on consumers’ welfare. The current annual municipal solid waste generation is estimated to 1.9 billion tonnes, 30% remains uncollected. As for the collected 70% is landfilling and dumping, 19% is recycled or recovered, 11% is led to energy recovery facilities. Therefore, aim is to contribute by adding first insights about poor people's disposal behaviors, including the framing of their rationalities, emotions and cognitions. The study provides novel empirical results obtained from qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews near Guatemala City. In the study’s framework consumers have to choose from three options when deciding what to do with their obsolete possessions: Keeping the product: The main reason for this is the respondent´s emotional attachment to a product. Further, there is a willingness to use the same product under a different scope when it loses its functionality–they recycle their belongings in a customized and sustainable way. Permanently disposing of the product: The study reveals two dominant disposal methods: burning in front of their homes and throwing away in the physical environment. Respondents clearly recognized the disadvantages of burning toxic durables, like electronics. Giving a product away as a gift supports the integration of individuals in their peer networks of family and friends. Temporarily disposing of the product: Was not mentioned–to be specific, rent or lend a product to someone else was out of question. Contrasting the background to which extend poor people are aware of the consequences of their disposal decisions and how they feel about and rationalize their actions were quite unexpected. Respondents reported that they are worried about future consequences with impacts they cannot anticipate now–they are aware that their behaviors harm their health and the environment. Additionally, they expressed concern about the impact this disposal behavior would have on others’ well-being and are therefore sensitive to the waste that surrounds them. Concluding, the BoP-framed life and Westernized consumption, both fit in a circular economy pattern, but the nature of how to recycle and dispose separates these two societal groups. Both systems own a solid waste management system, but people living in slum-type districts and rural areas of poor countries are less interested in connecting to the system–they are primarily afraid of the costs. Further, it can be said that a consumer’s perceived effectiveness is distinct from environmental concerns, but contributes to forecasting certain pro-ecological behaviors. Considering the rationales underlying disposal decisions, thoughtfulness is a well-established determinant of disposition behavior. The precipitating events, emotions and decisions associated with the act of disposing of products are important because these decisions can trigger different results for the disposal process.

Keywords: Solid Waste, base of the pyramid, disposal behavior, poor consumers

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71 Collagen/Hydroxyapatite Compositions Doped with Transitional Metals for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: D. Ficai, A. Ficai, D. Gudovan, I. A. Gudovan, I. Ardelean, R. Trusca, E. Andronescu, V. Mitran, A. Cimpean

Abstract:

In the last years, scientists struggled hardly to mimic bone structures to develop implants and biostructures which present higher biocompatibility and reduced rejection rate. One way to obtain this goal is to use similar materials as that of bone, namely collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials. However, it is very important to tailor both compositions but also the microstructure of the bone that would ensure both the optimal osteointegartion and the mechanical properties required by the application. In this study, new collagen/hydroxyapatites composite materials doped with Cu, Li, Mn, Zn were successfully prepared. The synthesis method is described below: weight the Ca(OH)₂ mass, i.e., 7,3067g, and ZnCl₂ (0.134g), CuSO₄ (0.159g), LiCO₃ (0.133g), MnCl₂.4H₂O (0.1971g), and suspend in 100ml distilled water under magnetic stirring. The solution thus obtained is added a solution of NaH₂PO₄*H2O (8.247g dissolved in 50ml distilled water) under slow dropping of 1 ml/min followed by adjusting the pH to 9.5 with HCl and finally filter and wash until neutral pH. The as-obtained slurry was dried in the oven at 80°C and then calcined at 600°C in order to ensure a proper purification of the final product of organic phases, also inducing a proper sterilization of the mixture before insertion into the collagen matrix. The collagen/hydroxyapatite composite materials are tailored from morphological point of view to optimize their biocompatibility and bio-integration against mechanical properties whereas the addition of the dopants is aimed to improve the biological activity of the samples. The addition of transitional metals can improve the biocompatibility and especially the osteoblasts adhesion (Mn²⁺) or to induce slightly better osteoblast differentiation of the osteoblast, Zn²⁺ being a cofactor for many enzymes including those responsible for cell differentiation. If the amount is too high, the final material can become toxic and lose all of its biocompatibility. In order to achieve a good biocompatibility and not reach the cytotoxic effect, the amount of transitional metals added has to be maintained at low levels (0.5% molar). The amount of transitional metals entering into the elemental cell of HA will be verified using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometric system. This highly sensitive technique is necessary, because, at such low levels of transitional metals, the difference between biocompatible and cytotoxic is a very thin line, thus requiring proper and thorough investigation using a precise technique. In order to determine the structure and morphology of the obtained composite materials, IR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) were used. Acknowledgment: The present work was possible due to the EU-funding grant POSCCE-A2O2.2.1-2013-1, Project No. 638/12.03.2014, code SMIS-CSNR 48652. The financial contribution received from the national project “Biomimetic porous structures obtained by 3D printing developed for bone tissue engineering (BIOGRAFTPRINT), No. 127PED/2017 is also highly acknowledged.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Bone Tissue Engineering, hydroxyapatite, collagen

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70 The Monitor for Neutron Dose in Hadrontherapy Project: Secondary Neutron Measurement in Particle Therapy

Authors: V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, G. Traini, M. Marafini

Abstract:

The particle therapy (PT) is a very modern technique of non invasive radiotherapy mainly devoted to the treatment of tumours untreatable with surgery or conventional radiotherapy, because localised closely to organ at risk (OaR). Nowadays, PT is available in about 55 centres in the word and only the 20\% of them are able to treat with carbon ion beam. However, the efficiency of the ion-beam treatments is so impressive that many new centres are in construction. The interest in this powerful technology lies to the main characteristic of PT: the high irradiation precision and conformity of the dose released to the tumour with the simultaneous preservation of the adjacent healthy tissue. However, the beam interactions with the patient produce a large component of secondary particles whose additional dose has to be taken into account during the definition of the treatment planning. Despite, the largest fraction of the dose is released to the tumour volume, a non-negligible amount is deposed in other body regions, mainly due to the scattering and nuclear interactions of the neutrons within the patient body. One of the main concerns in PT treatments is the possible occurrence of secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN). While SMNs can be developed up to decades after the treatments, their incidence impacts directly life quality of the cancer survivors, in particular in pediatric patients. Dedicated Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) are used to predict the normal tissue toxicity including the risk of late complications induced by the additional dose released by secondary neutrons. However, no precise measurement of secondary neutrons flux is available, as well as their energy and angular distributions: an accurate characterization is needed in order to improve TPS and reduce safety margins. The project MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) is devoted to the construction of a secondary neutron tracker tailored to the characterization of that secondary neutron component. The detector, based on the tracking of the recoil protons produced in double-elastic scattering interactions, is a matrix of thin scintillating fibres, arranged in layer x-y oriented. The final size of the object is 10 x 10 x 20 cm3 (squared 250µm scint. fibres, double cladding). The readout of the fibres is carried out with a dedicated SPAD Array Sensor (SBAM) realised in CMOS technology by FBK (Fondazione Bruno Kessler). The detector is under development as well as the SBAM sensor and it is expected to be fully constructed for the end of the year. MONDO will make data tacking campaigns at the TIFPA Proton Therapy Center of Trento, at the CNAO (Pavia) and at HIT (Heidelberg) with carbon ion in order to characterize the neutron component and predict the additional dose delivered on the patients with much more precision and to drastically reduce the actual safety margins. Preliminary measurements with charged particles beams and MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation will be presented.

Keywords: elastic scattering, secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking detector

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69 Non-Time and Non-Sense: Temporalities of Addiction for Heroin Users in Scotland

Authors: Laura Roe

Abstract:

This study draws on twelve months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted in 2017 with heroin and poly-substance users in Scotland and explores experiences of time and temporality as factors in continuing drug use. The research largely took place over the year in which drug-related deaths in Scotland reached a record high, and were statistically recorded as the highest in Europe. This qualitative research is therefore significant in understanding both evolving patterns of drug use and the experiential lifeworlds of those who use heroin and other substances in high doses. Methodologies included participant observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and unstructured conversations with twenty-two regular participants. The fieldwork was conducted in two needle exchanges, a community recovery group and in the community. The initial aim of the study was to assess evolving patterns of drug preferences in order to explore a clinical and user-reported rise in the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS), which are typically considered to be highly potent, synthetic substances, often available at a low cost. It was found, however, that while most research participants had experimented with NPS with varying intensity, those who used every day regularly consumed heroin, methadone, and alcohol with benzodiazepines such as diazepam or anticonvulsants such as gabapentin. The research found that many participants deliberately pursued the non-fatal effects of overdose, aiming to induce states of dissociation, detachment and uneven consciousness, and did so by both mixing substances and experimenting with novel modes of consumption. Temporality was significant in the decision to consume cocktails of substances, as users described wishing to sever themselves from time; entering into states of ‘non-time’ and insensibility through specific modes of intoxication. Time and temporality similarly impacted other aspects of addicted life. Periods of attempted abstinence witnessed a slowing of time’s passage that was tied to affective states of boredom and melancholy, in addition to a disruptive return of distressing and difficult memories. Abject past memories frequently dominated and disrupted the present, which otherwise could be highly immersive due to the time and energy-consuming nature of seeking drugs while in financial difficulty. There was furthermore a discordance between individual user temporalities and the strict time-based regimes of recovery services and institutional bodies, and the study aims to highlight the impact of such a disjuncture on the efficacy of treatment programs. Many participants had difficulty in adhering to set appointments or temporal frameworks due to their specific temporal situatedness. Overall, exploring increasing tendencies of heroin users in Scotland towards poly-substance use, this study draws on experiences and perceptions of time, analysing how temporality comes to bear on the ways drugs are sought and consumed, and how recovery is imagined and enacted. The study attempts to outline the experiential, intimate and subjective worlds of heroin and poly-substance users while explicating the structural and historical factors that shape them.

Keywords: Addiction, temporality, poly-substance use, timelessness

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68 Wind Tunnel Tests on Ground-Mounted and Roof-Mounted Photovoltaic Array Systems

Authors: Yuan-Lung Lo, Chao-Yang Huang, Rwey-Hua Cherng, Chung-Lin Fu

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Solar energy is one of the replaceable choices to reduce the CO2 emission produced by conventional power plants in the modern society. As an island which is frequently visited by strong typhoons and earthquakes, it is an urgent issue for Taiwan to make an effort in revising the local regulations to strengthen the safety design of photovoltaic systems. Currently, the Taiwanese code for wind resistant design of structures does not have a clear explanation on photovoltaic systems, especially when the systems are arranged in arrayed format. Furthermore, when the arrayed photovoltaic system is mounted on the rooftop, the approaching flow is significantly altered by the building and led to different pressure pattern in the different area of the photovoltaic system. In this study, L-shape arrayed photovoltaic system is mounted on the ground of the wind tunnel and then mounted on the building rooftop. The system is consisted of 60 PV models. Each panel model is equivalent to a full size of 3.0 m in depth and 10.0 m in length. Six pressure taps are installed on the upper surface of the panel model and the other six are on the bottom surface to measure the net pressures. Wind attack angle is varied from 0° to 360° in a 10° interval for the worst concern due to wind direction. The sampling rate of the pressure scanning system is set as high enough to precisely estimate the peak pressure and at least 20 samples are recorded for good ensemble average stability. Each sample is equivalent to 10-minute time length in full scale. All the scale factors, including timescale, length scale, and velocity scale, are properly verified by similarity rules in low wind speed wind tunnel environment. The purpose of L-shape arrayed system is for the understanding the pressure characteristics at the corner area. Extreme value analysis is applied to obtain the design pressure coefficient for each net pressure. The commonly utilized Cook-and-Mayne coefficient, 78%, is set to the target non-exceedance probability for design pressure coefficients under Gumbel distribution. Best linear unbiased estimator method is utilized for the Gumbel parameter identification. Careful time moving averaging method is also concerned in data processing. Results show that when the arrayed photovoltaic system is mounted on the ground, the first row of the panels reveals stronger positive pressure than that mounted on the rooftop. Due to the flow separation occurring at the building edge, the first row of the panels on the rooftop is most in negative pressures; the last row, on the other hand, shows positive pressures because of the flow reattachment. Different areas also have different pressure patterns, which corresponds well to the regulations in ASCE7-16 describing the area division for design values. Several minor observations are found according to parametric studies, such as rooftop edge effect, parapet effect, building aspect effect, row interval effect, and so on. General comments are then made for the proposal of regulation revision in Taiwanese code.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, wind tunnel test, aerodynamic force coefficient, ground-mounted, roof-mounted

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67 The Influence of Human Movement on the Formation of Adaptive Architecture

Authors: Rania Raouf Sedky

Abstract:

Adaptive architecture relates to buildings specifically designed to adapt to their residents and their environments. To design a biologically adaptive system, we can observe how living creatures in nature constantly adapt to different external and internal stimuli to be a great inspiration. The issue is not just how to create a system that is capable of change but also how to find the quality of change and determine the incentive to adapt. The research examines the possibilities of transforming spaces using the human body as an active tool. The research also aims to design and build an effective dynamic structural system that can be applied on an architectural scale and integrate them all into the creation of a new adaptive system that allows us to conceive a new way to design, build and experience architecture in a dynamic manner. The main objective was to address the possibility of a reciprocal transformation between the user and the architectural element so that the architecture can adapt to the user, as the user adapts to architecture. The motivation is the desire to deal with the psychological benefits of an environment that can respond and thus empathize with human emotions through its ability to adapt to the user. Adaptive affiliations of kinematic structures have been discussed in architectural research for more than a decade, and these issues have proven their effectiveness in developing kinematic structures, responsive and adaptive, and their contribution to 'smart architecture'. A wide range of strategies have been used in building complex kinetic and robotic systems mechanisms to achieve convertibility and adaptability in engineering and architecture. One of the main contributions of this research is to explore how the physical environment can change its shape to accommodate different spatial displays based on the movement of the user’s body. The main focus is on the relationship between materials, shape, and interactive control systems. The intention is to develop a scenario where the user can move, and the structure interacts without any physical contact. The soft form of shifting language and interaction control technology will provide new possibilities for enriching human-environmental interactions. How can we imagine a space in which to construct and understand its users through physical gestures, visual expressions, and response accordingly? How can we imagine a space whose interaction depends not only on preprogrammed operations but on real-time feedback from its users? The research also raises some important questions for the future. What would be the appropriate structure to show physical interaction with the dynamic world? This study concludes with a strong belief in the future of responsive motor structures. We imagine that they are developing the current structure and that they will radically change the way spaces are tested. These structures have obvious advantages in terms of energy performance and the ability to adapt to the needs of users. The research highlights the interface between remote sensing and a responsive environment to explore the possibility of an interactive architecture that adapts to and responds to user movements. This study ends with a strong belief in the future of responsive motor structures. We envision that it will improve the current structure and that it will bring a fundamental change to the way in which spaces are tested.

Keywords:

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66 Evaluation of the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Modified with Biochars Obtained from Various Biomasses by Pyrolysis Method

Authors: Muhammed Ertugrul Celoglu, Mehmet Yılmaz

Abstract:

Bituminous binders, one of the two main elements that constitute flexible pavement layers, are obtained through refining of petroleum. Depending on the economic growth and population increase, new highways constructed due to constantly increasing transportation demand and maintenance of current roads result in an increase of the amount of required bituminous binders. Economic and environmental problems caused by using fossil-based materials revealed the need for miscellaneous alternative materials and additives to be considered in terms of sustainability in the highway industry. Hot mix asphalts are subjected deteriorations due to resisting rutting, fatigue and moisture damages and deteriorations are closely related to the properties of bitumen and aggregate. By preventing or delaying the possible deteriorations of the pavement without causing an adverse effect on the various performance parameters, additive substances are used to extend the service life of pavements. Alternative substances that can be used as bitumen additives are investigated at an increasing rate each passing day. The desired properties of the additives are affordability, environment-friendliness, harmlessness, and sustainability, which are called the green technology. Biomass, which is one of the largest and renewable energy sources of the world, has the potential to be used as a bitumen additive after it is subjected to various thermochemical methods. The most common way to obtain products of high economic value from biomasses is pyrolysis. The process of thermochemical degradation of organic matter (carbonization) in anaerobic environments and under high temperatures is called pyrolysis. As a result of this degradation, substances in solid, liquid and gas phases are obtained. The liquid substance obtained as a result of pyrolysis is called bio-oil while the solid substance is called biochar. In the conducted study, apricot seed shell, walnut shell, and sawdust were chosen as biomass sources. In the study, three different biomass sources were used in only one size. The materials were sorted by using a sieve No. 50, and the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis process at three different temperatures (400, 500 and 600 degrees), resulting in nine different biochar products. The resulting biochar products were added to the bitumen at three different rates (5%, 10%, and 15%), producing modified bitumen. Penetration, softening point, rotation viscometer and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were conducted on modified binders. Thus the modified bitumen, which was obtained by using additives at 3 different rates obtained from biochar produced at 3 different temperatures of 3 different biomass sources were compared, and the effects of pyrolysis temperature and additive rates were evaluated. As a result of the conducted tests, it was determined that the rheology of the pure bitumen improved significantly as a result of the modification of the bitumen with the biochar. Additionally, with biochar additive, it was determined that the rutting parameter values obtained from softening point, viscometer and DSR tests were increased while the values in terms of penetration and phase angle decreased. It was also observed that the most effective biomass is sawdust while the least effective was ground apricot seed shell.

Keywords: biomass, Rheology, pyrolysis, Biochar

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65 A Study on the Chemical Composition of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids to Evaluate the Perspective of Use in Medical Practice

Authors: A. Bakuridze, Al. Tsertsvadze. L. Ebralidze, I. Matchutadze. D. Berashvili

Abstract:

Peatlands are landscape elements, they are formed over a very long period by physical, chemical, biologic, and geologic processes. In the moderate zone of Caucasus, the Kolkheti lowlands are distinguished by the diversity of relictual plants, a high degree of endemism, orographic, climate, landscape, and other characteristics of high levels of biodiversity. The unique properties of the Kolkheti region lead to the formation of special, so-called, endemic peat peloids. The composition and properties of peloids strongly depend on peat-forming plants. Peat is considered a unique complex of raw materials, which can be used in different fields of the industry: agriculture, metallurgy, energy, biotechnology, chemical industry, health care. They are formed in permanent wetland areas. As a result of decay, higher plants remain in the anaerobic area, with the participation of microorganisms. Peat mass absorbs soil and groundwater. Peloids are predominantly rich with humic substances, which are characterized by high biological activity. Humic acids stimulate enzymatic activity, regenerative processes, and have anti-inflammatory activity. Objects of the research were Kolkheti peat peloids (Ispani, Anaklia, Churia, Chirukhi, Peranga) possessing different formation phases. Due to specific physical and chemical properties of research objects, the aim of the research was to develop analytical methods in order to study the chemical composition of the objects. The research was held using modern instrumental methods of analysis: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Centrifuge, dry oven, Ultraturax, pH meter, fluorescence spectrometer, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), Gas chromatography. Based on the research ration between organic and inorganic substances, the spectrum of micro and macro elements, also the content of minerals was determined. The content of organic nitrogen was determined using the Kjeldahl method. The total composition of amino acids was studied by a spectrophotometric method using standard solutions of glutamic and aspartic acids. Fatty acid was determined using GC (Gas chromatography). Based on the obtained results, we can conclude that the method is valid to identify fatty acids in the research objects. The content of organic substances in the research objects was held using GC-MS. Using modern instrumental methods of analysis, the chemical composition of research objects was studied. Each research object is predominantly reached with a broad spectrum of organic (fatty acids, amino acids, carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds, organic acids and their esters, steroids) and inorganic (micro and macro elements, minerals) substances. Modified methods used in the presented research may be utilized for the evaluation of cosmetological balneological and pharmaceutical means prepared on the base of Kolkheti's Sphagnum Peat Peloids.

Keywords: Chemistry, Natural Resources, Peat, modern analytical methods

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64 Usability Assessment of a Bluetooth-Enabled Resistance Exercise Band among Young Adults

Authors: Lillian M. Seo, Curtis L. Petersen, Ryan J. Halter, David Kotz, John A. Batsis

Abstract:

Background: Resistance-based exercises effectively enhance muscle strength, which is especially important in older populations as it reduces the risk of disability. Our group developed a Bluetooth-enabled handle for resistance exercise bands that wirelessly transmits relative force data through low-energy Bluetooth to a local smartphone or similar device. The system has the potential to measure home-based exercise interventions, allowing health professionals to monitor compliance. Its feasibility has already been demonstrated in both clinical and field-based settings, but it remained unclear whether the system’s usability persisted upon repeated use. The current study sought to assess the usability of this system and its users’ satisfaction with repeated use by deploying the device among younger adults to gather formative information that can ultimately improve the device’s design for older adults. Methods: A usability study was conducted in which 32 participants used the above system. Participants executed 10 repetitions of four commonly performed exercises: bicep flexion, shoulder abduction, elbow extension, and triceps extension. Each completed three exercise sessions, separated by at least 24 hours to minimize muscle fatigue. At its conclusion, subjects completed an adapted version of the usefulness, satisfaction, and ease (USE) questionnaire – assessing the system across four domains: usability, satisfaction, ease of use, and ease of learning. The 20-item questionnaire examined how strongly a participant agrees with positive statements about the device on a seven-point Likert scale, with one representing ‘strongly disagree’ and seven representing ‘strongly agree.’ Participants’ data were aggregated to calculate mean response values for each question and domain, effectively assessing the device’s performance across different facets of the user experience. Summary force data were visualized using a custom web application. Finally, an optional prompt at the end of the questionnaire allowed for written comments and feedback from participants to elicit qualitative indicators of usability. Results: Of the n=32 participants, 13 (41%) were female; their mean age was 32.4 ± 11.8 years, and no participants had a physical impairment. No usability questions received a mean score < 5 of seven. The four domains’ mean scores were: usefulness 5.66 ± 0.35; satisfaction 6.23 ± 0.06; ease of use 6.25 ± 0.43; and ease of learning 6.50 ± 0.19. Representative quotes of the open-ended feedback include: ‘A non-rigid strap-style handle might be useful for some exercises,’ and, ‘Would need different bands for each exercise as they use different muscle groups with different strength levels.’ General impressions were favorable, supporting the expectation that the device would be a useful tool in exercise interventions. Conclusions: A simple usability assessment of a Bluetooth-enabled resistance exercise band supports a consistent and positive user experience among young adults. This study provides adequate formative data, assuring the next steps can be taken to continue testing and development for the target population of older adults.

Keywords: Mobile Health, Exercise, mHealth, bluetooth, Usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
63 Effect of Rapeseed Press Cake on Extrusion System Parameters and Physical Pellet Quality of Fish Feed

Authors: Anna Martin, Raffael Osen

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The demand for fish from aquaculture is constantly growing. Concurrently, due to a shortage of fishmeal caused by extensive overfishing, fishmeal substitution by plant proteins is getting increasingly important for the production of sustainable aquafeed. Several research studies evaluated the impact of plant protein meals, concentrates or isolates on fish health and fish feed quality. However, these protein raw materials often require elaborate and expensive manufacturing and their availability is limited. Rapeseed press cake (RPC) – a side product of de-oiling processes – exhibits a high potential as a plant-based fishmeal alternative in fish feed for carnivorous species due to its availability, low costs and protein content. In order to produce aquafeed with RPC, it is important to systematically assess i) inclusion levels of RPC with similar pellet qualities compared to fishmeal containing formulations and ii) how extrusion parameters can be adjusted to achieve targeted pellet qualities. However, the effect of RPC on extrusion system parameters and pellet quality has only scarcely been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of feed formulation, extruder barrel temperature (90, 100, 110 °C) and screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) on extrusion system parameters and the physical properties of fish feed pellets. A co-rotating pilot-scale twin screw extruder was used to produce five iso-nitrogenous feed formulations: a fish meal based reference formulation including 16 g/100g fishmeal and four formulations in which fishmeal was substituted by RPC to 25, 50, 75 or 100 %. Extrusion system parameters, being product temperature, pressure at the die, specific mechanical energy (SME) and torque, were monitored while samples were taken. After drying, pellets were analyzed regarding to optical appearance, sectional and longitudinal expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density, water stability, durability and specific hardness. In our study, the addition of minor amounts of RPC already had high impact on pellet quality parameters, especially on expansion but only marginally affected extrusion system parameters. Increasing amounts of RPC reduced sectional expansion, sinking velocity, bulk density and specific hardness and increased longitudinal expansion compared to a reference formulation without RPC. Water stability and durability were almost not affected by RPC addition. Moreover, pellets with rapeseed components showed a more coarse structure than pellets containing only fishmeal. When the adjustment of barrel temperature and screw speed was investigated, it could be seen that the increase of extruder barrel temperature led to a slight decrease of SME and die pressure and an increased sectional expansion of the reference pellets but did almost not affect rapeseed containing fish feed pellets. Also changes in screw speed had little effects on the physical properties of pellets however with raised screw speed the SME and the product temperature increased. In summary, a one-to-one substitution of fishmeal with RPC without the adjustment of extrusion process parameters does not result in fish feed of a designated quality. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of raw materials and their behavior under thermal and mechanical stresses as applied during extrusion is required.

Keywords: Fish feed, rapeseed, extrusion, press cake

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
62 Molecular Migration in Polyvinyl Acetate Matrix: Impact of Compatibility, Number of Migrants and Stress on Surface and Internal Microstructure

Authors: O. Squillace, R. L. Thompson

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Migration of small molecules to, and across the surface of polymer matrices is a little-studied problem with important industrial applications. Tackifiers in adhesives, flavors in foods and binding agents in paints all present situations where the function of a product depends on the ability of small molecules to migrate through a polymer matrix to achieve the desired properties such as softness, dispersion of fillers, and to deliver an effect that is felt (or tasted) on a surface. It’s been shown that the chemical and molecular structure, surface free energies, phase behavior, close environment and compatibility of the system, influence the migrants’ motion. When differences in behavior, such as occurrence of segregation to the surface or not, are observed it is then of crucial importance to identify and get a better understanding of the driving forces involved in the process of molecular migration. In this aim, experience is meant to be allied with theory in order to deliver a validated theoretical and computational toolkit to describe and predict these phenomena. The systems that have been chosen for this study aim to address the effect of polarity mismatch between the migrants and the polymer matrix and that of a second migrant over the first one. As a non-polar resin polymer, polyvinyl acetate is used as the material to which more or less polar migrants (sorbitol, carvone, octanoic acid (OA), triacetin) are to be added. Through contact angle measurement a surface excess is seen for sorbitol (polar) mixed with PVAc as the surface energy is lowered compare to the one of pure PVAc. This effect is increased upon the addition of carvon or triacetin (non-polars). Surface micro-structures are also evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Ion beam analysis (Nuclear Reaction Analysis), supplemented by neutron reflectometry can accurately characterize the self-organization of surfactants, oligomers, aromatic molecules in polymer films in order to relate the macroscopic behavior to the length scales that are amenable to simulation. The nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) data for deuterated OA 20% shows the evidence of a surface excess which is enhanced after annealing. The addition of 10% triacetin, as a second migrant, results in the formation of an underlying layer enriched in triacetin below the surface excess of OA. The results show that molecules in polarity mismatch with the matrix tend to segregate to the surface, and this is favored by the addition of a second migrant of the same polarity than the matrix. As studies have been restricted to materials that are model supported films under static conditions in a first step, it is also wished to address the more challenging conditions of materials under controlled stress or strain. To achieve this, a simple rig and PDMS cell have been designed to stretch the material to a defined strain and to probe these mechanical effects by ion beam analysis and atomic force microscopy. This will make a significant step towards exploring the influence of extensional strain on surface segregation, flavor release in cross-linked rubbers.

Keywords: Polymers, Thin Films, surface segregation, molecular migration

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61 Simulation Research of Innovative Ignition System of ASz62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: Piotr Kacejko, Mariusz Duk, Miroslaw Wendeker, Pawel Karpinski

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The research in the field of aircraft internal combustion engines is currently driven by the needs of decreasing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, while fulfilling the level of safety. Currently, reciprocating aircraft engines are found in sports, emergency, agricultural and recreation aviation. Technically, they are most at a pre-war knowledge of the theory of operation, design and manufacturing technology, especially if compared to that high level of development of automotive engines. Typically, these engines are driven by carburetors of a quite primitive construction. At present, due to environmental requirements and dealing with a climate change, it is beneficial to develop aircraft piston engines and adopt the achievements of automotive engineering such as computer-controlled low-pressure injection, electronic ignition control and biofuels. The paper describes simulation research of the innovative power and control systems for the aircraft radial engine of high power. Installing an electronic ignition system in the radial aircraft engine is a fundamental innovative idea of this solution. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. In this framework, this research work focuses on describing a methodology for optimizing the electronically controlled ignition system. This attempt can reduce emissions of toxic compounds as a result of lowered fuel consumption, optimized combustion and engine capability of efficient combustion of ecological fuels. New, redundant elements of the control system can improve the safety of aircraft. Consequently, the required level of safety and better functionality as compared to the today’s plug system can be guaranteed. The simulation research aimed to determine the vulnerability of the values measured (they were planned as the quantities measured by the measurement systems) to determining the optimal ignition angle (the angle of maximum torque at a given operating point). The described results covered: a) research in steady states; b) velocity ranging from 1500 to 2200 rpm (every 100 rpm); c) loading ranging from propeller power to maximum power; d) altitude ranging according to the International Standard Atmosphere from 0 to 8000 m (every 1000 m); e) fuel: automotive gasoline ES95. The three models of different types of ignition coil (different energy discharge) were studied. The analysis aimed at the optimization of the design of the innovative ignition system for an aircraft engine. The optimization involved: a) the optimization of the measurement systems; b) the optimization of actuator systems. The studies enabled the research on the vulnerability of the signals to the control of the ignition timing. Accordingly, the number and type of sensors were determined for the ignition system to achieve its optimal performance. The results confirmed the limited benefits, in terms of fuel consumption. Thus, including spark management in the optimization is mandatory to significantly decrease the fuel consumption. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: radial engine, ignition system, CFD model, piston engine, engine optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
60 Interactions between Sodium Aerosols and Fission Products: A Theoretical Chemistry and Experimental Approach

Authors: Sidi Souvi, Ankita Jadon, Nathalie Girault, Denis Petitprez

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Safety requirements for Generation IV nuclear reactor designs, especially the new generation sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) require a risk-informed approach to model severe accidents (SA) and their consequences in case of outside release. In SFRs, aerosols are produced during a core disruptive accident when primary system sodium is ejected into the containment and burn in contact with the air; producing sodium aerosols. One of the key aspects of safety evaluation is the in-containment sodium aerosol behavior and their interaction with fission products. The study of the effects of sodium fires is essential for safety evaluation as the fire can both thermally damage the containment vessel and cause an overpressurization risk. Besides, during the fire, airborne fission product first dissolved in the primary sodium can be aerosolized or, as it can be the case for fission products, released under the gaseous form. The objective of this work is to study the interactions between sodium aerosols and fission products (Iodine, toxic and volatile, being the primary concern). Sodium fires resulting from an SA would produce aerosols consisting of sodium peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, and bicarbonates. In addition to being toxic (in oxide form), this aerosol will then become radioactive. If such aerosols are leaked into the environment, they can pose a danger to the ecosystem. Depending on the chemical affinity of these chemical forms with fission products, the radiological consequences of an SA leading to containment leak tightness loss will also be affected. This work is split into two phases. Firstly, a method to theoretically understand the kinetics and thermodynamics of the heterogeneous reaction between sodium aerosols and fission products: I2 and HI are proposed. Ab-initio, density functional theory (DFT) calculations using Vienna ab-initio simulation package are carried out to develop an understanding of the surfaces of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) aerosols and hence provide insight on its affinity towards iodine species. A comprehensive study of I2 and HI adsorption, as well as bicarbonate formation on the calculated lowest energy surface of Na2CO3, was performed which provided adsorption energies and description of the optimized configuration of adsorbate on the stable surface. Secondly, the heterogeneous reaction between (I2)g and Na2CO3 aerosols were investigated experimentally. To study this, (I2)g was generated by heating a permeation tube containing solid I2, and, passing it through a reaction chamber containing Na2CO3 aerosol deposit. The concentration of iodine was then measured at the exit of the reaction chamber. Preliminary observations indicate that there is an effective uptake of (I2)g on Na2CO3 surface, as suggested by our theoretical chemistry calculations. This work is the first step in addressing the gaps in knowledge of in-containment and atmospheric source term which are essential aspects of safety evaluation of SFR SA. In particular, this study is aimed to determine and characterize the radiological and chemical source term. These results will then provide useful insights for the developments of new models to be implemented in integrated computer simulation tool to analyze and evaluate SFR safety designs.

Keywords: iodine adsorption, sodium aerosols, sodium cooled reactor, DFT calculations, sodium carbonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
59 Upon Poly(2-Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate-Co-3, 9-Divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-Tetraoxaspiro (5.5) Undecane) as Polymer Matrix Ensuring Intramolecular Strategies for Further Coupling Applications

Authors: Loredana E. Nita, Aurica P. Chiriac, Elena Stoleru, Alina Diaconu, Vera Balan, Mihai Asandulesa, Elena Butnaru, Nita Tudorachi, Iordana Neamtu, Liliana Mititelu-Tartau

Abstract:

The interest for studying ‘smart’ materials is entirely justified and in this context were realized investigations on poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane), which is a macromolecular compound with sensibility at pH and temperature, gel formation capacity, binding properties, amphilicity, good oxidative and thermal stability. Physico-chemical characteristics in terms of the molecular weight, temperature-sensitive abilities and thermal stability, as well rheological, dielectric and spectroscopic properties were evaluated in correlation with further coupling capabilities. Differential scanning calorimetry investigation indicated Tg at 36.6 °C and a melting point at Tm=72.8°C, for the studied copolymer, and up to 200oC two exothermic processes (at 99.7°C and 148.8°C) were registered with losing weight of about 4 %, respective 19.27%, which indicate just processes of thermal decomposition (and not phenomena of thermal transition) owing to scission of the functional groups and breakage of the macromolecular chains. At the same time, the rheological studies (rotational tests) confirmed the non-Newtonian shear-thinning fluid behavior of the copolymer solution. The dielectric properties of the copolymer have been evaluated in order to investigate the relaxation processes and two relaxation processes under Tg value were registered and attributed to localized motions of polar groups from side chain macromolecules, or parts of them, without disturbing the main chains. According to literature and confirmed as well by our investigations, β-relaxation is assigned with the rotation of the ester side group and the γ-relaxation corresponds to the rotation of hydroxy- methyl side groups. The fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the copolymer structure, the spiroacetal moiety getting an axial conformation, more stable, with lower energy, able for specific interactions with molecules from environment, phenomena underlined by different shapes of the emission spectra of the copolymer. Also, the copolymer was used as template for indomethacin incorporation as model drug, and the biocompatible character of the complex was confirmed. The release behavior of the bioactive compound was dependent by the copolymer matrix composition, the increasing of 3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane comonomer amount attenuating the drug release. At the same time, the in vivo studies did not show significant differences of leucocyte formula elements, GOT, GPT and LDH levels, nor immune parameters (OC, PC, and BC) between control mice group and groups treated just with copolymer samples, with or without drug, data attesting the biocompatibility of the polymer samples. The investigation of the physico-chemical characteristics of poly(2-hydrxyethyl methacrylate-co-3, 9-divinyl-2, 4, 8, 10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) in terms of temperature-sensitive abilities, rheological and dielectrical properties, are bringing useful information for further specific use of this polymeric compound.

Keywords: Smart Materials, bioapplications, dielectric and spectroscopic properties, dual sensitivity at pH and temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
58 Kinetic Rate Comparison of Methane Catalytic Combustion of Palladium Catalysts Impregnated onto ɤ-Alumina and Bio-Char

Authors: Usman D. Hamza, Noor S. Nasri, Eric C. A. Tatt, Jibril Mohammed, Husna M. Zain

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Climate change has becoming a global environmental issue that may trigger irreversible changes in the environment with catastrophic consequences for human, animals and plants on our planet. Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the greenhouse gases (GHG) and as the main factor that significantly contributes to the global warming. Mainly carbon dioxide be produced and released to atmosphere by thermal industrial and power generation sectors. Methane is dominant component of natural gas releases significant of thermal heat, and the gaseous pollutants when homogeneous thermal combustion takes place at high temperature. Heterogeneous catalytic Combustion (HCC) principle is promising technologies towards environmental friendly energy production should be developed to ensure higher yields with lower pollutants gaseous emissions and perform complete combustion oxidation at moderate temperature condition as comparing to homogeneous high thermal combustion. Hence the principle has become a very interesting alternative total oxidation for the treatment of pollutants gaseous emission especially NOX product formation. Noble metals are dispersed on a support-porous HCC such as γ- Al2O3, TiO2 and ThO2 to increase thermal stability of catalyst and to increase to effectiveness of catalytic combustion. Support-porous HCC material to be selected based on factors of the surface area, porosity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, reactivity with reactants or products, chemical stability, catalytic activity, and catalyst life. γ- Al2O3 with high catalytic activity and can last longer life of catalyst, is commonly used as the support for Pd catalyst at low temperatures. Sustainable and renewable support-material of bio-mass char was derived from agro-industrial waste material and used to compare with those the conventional support-porous material. The abundant of biomass wastes generated in palm oil industries is one potential source to convert the wastes into sustainable material as replacement of support material for catalysts. Objective of this study was to compare the kinetic rate of reaction the combustion of methane on Palladium (Pd) based catalyst with Al2O3 support and bio-char (Bc) support derived from shell kernel. The 2wt% Pd was prepared using incipient wetness impregnation method and the HCC performance was accomplished using tubular quartz reactor with gas mixture ratio of 3% methane and 97% air. Material characterization was determined using TGA, SEM, and BET surface area. The methane porous-HCC conversion was carried out by online gas analyzer connected to the reactor that performed porous-HCC. BET surface area for prepared 2 wt% Pd/Bc is smaller than prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 due to its low porosity between particles. The order of catalyst activity based on kinetic rate on reaction of catalysts in low temperature is prepared 2wt% Pd/Bc > calcined 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 > prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 > calcined 2wt% Pd/Bc. Hence the usage of agro-industrial bio-mass waste material can enhance the sustainability principle.

Keywords: Environmental, catalytic-combustion, support-bio-char material, sustainable and renewable material

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
57 An Integrated Lightweight Naïve Bayes Based Webpage Classification Service for Smartphone Browsers

Authors: Mayank Gupta, Siba Prasad Samal, Vasu Kakkirala

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The internet world and its priorities have changed considerably in the last decade. Browsing on smart phones has increased manifold and is set to explode much more. Users spent considerable time browsing different websites, that gives a great deal of insight into user’s preferences. Instead of plain information classifying different aspects of browsing like Bookmarks, History, and Download Manager into useful categories would improve and enhance the user’s experience. Most of the classification solutions are server side that involves maintaining server and other heavy resources. It has security constraints and maybe misses on contextual data during classification. On device, classification solves many such problems, but the challenge is to achieve accuracy on classification with resource constraints. This on device classification can be much more useful in personalization, reducing dependency on cloud connectivity and better privacy/security. This approach provides more relevant results as compared to current standalone solutions because it uses content rendered by browser which is customized by the content provider based on user’s profile. This paper proposes a Naive Bayes based lightweight classification engine targeted for a resource constraint devices. Our solution integrates with Web Browser that in turn triggers classification algorithm. Whenever a user browses a webpage, this solution extracts DOM Tree data from the browser’s rendering engine. This DOM data is a dynamic, contextual and secure data that can’t be replicated. This proposal extracts different features of the webpage that runs on an algorithm to classify into multiple categories. Naive Bayes based engine is chosen in this solution for its inherent advantages in using limited resources compared to other classification algorithms like Support Vector Machine, Neural Networks, etc. Naive Bayes classification requires small memory footprint and less computation suitable for smartphone environment. This solution has a feature to partition the model into multiple chunks that in turn will facilitate less usage of memory instead of loading a complete model. Classification of the webpages done through integrated engine is faster, more relevant and energy efficient than other standalone on device solution. This classification engine has been tested on Samsung Z3 Tizen hardware. The Engine is integrated into Tizen Browser that uses Chromium Rendering Engine. For this solution, extensive dataset is sourced from dmoztools.net and cleaned. This cleaned dataset has 227.5K webpages which are divided into 8 generic categories ('education', 'games', 'health', 'entertainment', 'news', 'shopping', 'sports', 'travel'). Our browser integrated solution has resulted in 15% less memory usage (due to partition method) and 24% less power consumption in comparison with standalone solution. This solution considered 70% of the dataset for training the data model and the rest 30% dataset for testing. An average accuracy of ~96.3% is achieved across the above mentioned 8 categories. This engine can be further extended for suggesting Dynamic tags and using the classification for differential uses cases to enhance browsing experience.

Keywords: Mobile Computing, Chromium, naive Bayes, lightweight engine, Tizen, web browser, webpage classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
56 Estimated Heat Production, Blood Parameters and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number of Nellore Bulls with High and Low Residual Feed Intake

Authors: Welder A. Baldassini, Jon J. Ramsey, Marcos R. Chiaratti, Amália S. Chaves, Renata H. Branco, Sarah F. M. Bonilha, Dante P. D. Lanna

Abstract:

With increased production costs there is a need for animals that are more efficient in terms of meat production. In this context, the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) on physiological processes in liver, muscle and adipose tissues may account for inter-animal variation in energy expenditures and heat production. The purpose this study was to investigate if the amounts of mtDNA in liver, muscle and adipose tissue (subcutaneous and visceral depots) of Nellore bulls are associated with residual feed intake (RFI) and estimated heat production (EHP). Eighteen animals were individually fed in a feedlot for 90 days. RFI values were obtained by regression of dry matter intake (DMI) in relation to average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight (BW). The animals were classified into low (more efficient) and high (less efficient) RFI groups. The bulls were then randomly distributed in individual pens where they were given excess feed twice daily to result in 5 to 10% orts for 90 d with diet containing 15% crude protein and 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM. The heart rate (HR) of bulls was monitored for 4 consecutive days and used for calculation of EHP. Electrodes were fitted to bulls with stretch belts (POLAR RS400; Kempele, Finland). To calculate oxygen pulse (O2P), oxygen consumption was obtained using a facemask connected to the gas analyzer (EXHALYZER, ECOMedics, Zurich, Switzerland) and HR were simultaneously measured for 15 minutes period. Daily oxygen (O2) consumption was calculated by multiplying the volume of O2 per beat by total daily beats. EHP was calculated multiplying O2P by the average HR obtained during the 4 days, assuming 4.89 kcal/L of O2 to measure daily EHP that was expressed in kilocalories/day/kilogram metabolic BW (kcal/day/kg BW0.75). Blood samples were collected between days 45 and 90th after the beginning of the trial period in order to measure the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit. The bulls were slaughtered in an experimental slaughter house in accordance with current guidelines. Immediately after slaughter, a section of liver, a portion of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle, plus a portion of subcutaneous fat (surrounding LT muscle) and portions of visceral fat (kidney, pelvis and inguinal fat) were collected. Samples of liver, muscle and adipose tissues were used to quantify mtDNA copy number per cell. The number of mtDNA copies was determined by normalization of mtDNA amount against a single copy nuclear gene (B2M). Mean of EHP, hemoglobin and hematocrit of high and low RFI bulls were compared using two-sample t-tests. Additionally, the one-way ANOVA was used to compare mtDNA quantification considering the mains effects of RFI groups. We found lower EHP (83.047 vs. 97.590 kcal/day/kgBW0.75; P < 0.10), hemoglobin concentration (13.533 vs. 15.108 g/dL; P < 0.10) and hematocrit percentage (39.3 vs. 43.6 %; P < 0.05) in low compared to high RFI bulls, respectively, which may be useful traits to identify efficient animals. However, no differences were observed between the mtDNA content in liver, muscle and adipose tissue of Nellore bulls with high and low RFI.

Keywords: Bioenergetics, Mitochondria, Feed Efficiency, Bos indicus

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
55 Health Risk Assessment from Potable Water Containing Tritium and Heavy Metals

Authors: Alla A. Oudalova, Olga A. Momot, Boris I. Synzynys

Abstract:

Obninsk is situated in the Kaluga region 100 km southwest of Moscow on the left bank of the Protva River. Several enterprises utilizing nuclear energy are operating in the town. A special attention in the region where radiation-hazardous facilities are located has traditionally been paid to radioactive gas and aerosol releases into the atmosphere; liquid waste discharges into the Protva river and groundwater pollution. Municipal intakes involve 34 wells arranged 15 km apart in a sequence north-south along the foot of the left slope of the Protva river valley. Northern and southern water intakes are upstream and downstream of the town, respectively. They belong to river valley intakes with mixed feeding, i.e. precipitation infiltration is responsible for a smaller part of groundwater, and a greater amount is being formed by overflowing from Protva. Water intakes are maintained by the Protva river runoff, the volume of which depends on the precipitation fallen out and watershed area. Groundwater contamination with tritium was first detected in a sanitary-protective zone of the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SRC-IPPE) by Roshydromet researchers when realizing the “Program of radiological monitoring in the territory of nuclear industry enterprises”. A comprehensive survey of the SRC-IPPE’s industrial site and adjacent territories has revealed that research nuclear reactors and accelerators where tritium targets are applied as well as radioactive waste storages could be considered as potential sources of technogenic tritium. All the above sources are located within the sanitary controlled area of intakes. Tritium activity in water of springs and wells near the SRC-IPPE is about 17.4 – 3200 Bq/l. The observed values of tritium activity are below the intervention levels (7600 Bq/l for inorganic compounds and 3300 Bq/l for organically bound tritium). The risk has being assessed to estimate possible effect of considered tritium concentrations on human health. Data on tritium concentrations in pipe-line drinking water were used for calculations. The activity of 3H amounted to 10.6 Bq/l and corresponded to the risk of such water consumption of ~ 3·10-7 year-1. The risk value given in magnitude is close to the individual annual death risk for population living near a NPP – 1.6·10-8 year-1 and at the same time corresponds to the level of tolerable risk (10-6) and falls within “risk optimization”, i.e. in the sphere for planning the economically sound measures on exposure risk reduction. To estimate the chemical risk, physical and chemical analysis was made of waters from all springs and wells near the SRC-IPPE. Chemical risk from groundwater contamination was estimated according to the EPA US guidance. The risk of carcinogenic diseases at a drinking water consumption amounts to 5·10-5. According to the classification accepted the health risk in case of spring water consumption is inadmissible. The compared assessments of risk associated with tritium exposure, on the one hand, and the dangerous chemical (e.g. heavy metals) contamination of Obninsk drinking water, on the other hand, have confirmed that just these chemical pollutants are responsible for health risk.

Keywords: health risk, heavy metal, radiation-hazardous facilities, water intakes, tritium

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
54 Calculation of Pressure-Varying Langmuir and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller Isotherm Adsorption Parameters

Authors: Trevor C. Brown, David J. Miron

Abstract:

Gas-solid physical adsorption methods are central to the characterization and optimization of the effective surface area, pore size and porosity for applications such as heterogeneous catalysis, and gas separation and storage. Properties such as adsorption uptake, capacity, equilibrium constants and Gibbs free energy are dependent on the composition and structure of both the gas and the adsorbent. However, challenges remain, in accurately calculating these properties from experimental data. Gas adsorption experiments involve measuring the amounts of gas adsorbed over a range of pressures under isothermal conditions. Various constant-parameter models, such as Langmuir and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theories are used to provide information on adsorbate and adsorbent properties from the isotherm data. These models typically do not provide accurate interpretations across the full range of pressures and temperatures. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm is a simple approximation for modelling equilibrium adsorption data and has been effective in estimating surface areas and catalytic rate laws, particularly for high surface area solids. The Langmuir isotherm assumes the systematic filling of identical adsorption sites to a monolayer coverage. The BET model is based on the Langmuir isotherm and allows for the formation of multiple layers. These additional layers do not interact with the first layer and the energetics are equal to the adsorbate as a bulk liquid. This BET method is widely used to measure the specific surface area of materials. Both Langmuir and BET models assume that the affinity of the gas for all adsorption sites are identical and so the calculated adsorbent uptake at the monolayer and equilibrium constant are independent of coverage and pressure. Accurate representations of adsorption data have been achieved by extending the Langmuir and BET models to include pressure-varying uptake capacities and equilibrium constants. These parameters are determined using a novel regression technique called flexible least squares for time-varying linear regression. For isothermal adsorption the adsorption parameters are assumed to vary slowly and smoothly with increasing pressure. The flexible least squares for pressure-varying linear regression (FLS-PVLR) approach assumes two distinct types of discrepancy terms, dynamic and measurement for all parameters in the linear equation used to simulate the data. Dynamic terms account for pressure variation in successive parameter vectors, and measurement terms account for differences between observed and theoretically predicted outcomes via linear regression. The resultant pressure-varying parameters are optimized by minimizing both dynamic and measurement residual squared errors. Validation of this methodology has been achieved by simulating adsorption data for n-butane and isobutane on activated carbon at 298 K, 323 K and 348 K and for nitrogen on mesoporous alumina at 77 K with pressure-varying Langmuir and BET adsorption parameters (equilibrium constants and uptake capacities). This modeling provides information on the adsorbent (accessible surface area and micropore volume), adsorbate (molecular areas and volumes) and thermodynamic (Gibbs free energies) variations of the adsorption sites.

Keywords: Langmuir adsorption isotherm, BET adsorption isotherm, pressure-varying adsorption parameters, adsorbate and adsorbent properties and energetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
53 Tunable Graphene Metasurface Modeling Using the Method of Moment Combined with Generalised Equivalent Circuit

Authors: Taoufik Aguili, Imen Soltani, Takoua Soltani

Abstract:

Metamaterials crossover classic physical boundaries and gives rise to new phenomena and applications in the domain of beam steering and shaping. Where electromagnetic near and far field manipulations were achieved in an accurate manner. In this sense, 3D imaging is one of the beneficiaries and in particular Denis Gabor’s invention: holography. But, the major difficulty here is the lack of a suitable recording medium. So some enhancements were essential, where the 2D version of bulk metamaterials have been introduced the so-called metasurface. This new class of interfaces simplifies the problem of recording medium with the capability of tuning the phase, amplitude, and polarization at a given frequency. In order to achieve an intelligible wavefront control, the electromagnetic properties of the metasurface should be optimized by means of solving Maxwell’s equations. In this context, integral methods are emerging as an important method to study electromagnetic from microwave to optical frequencies. The method of moment presents an accurate solution to reduce the problem of dimensions by writing its boundary conditions in the form of integral equations. But solving this kind of equations tends to be more complicated and time-consuming as the structural complexity increases. Here, the use of equivalent circuit’s method exhibits the most scalable experience to develop an integral method formulation. In fact, for allaying the resolution of Maxwell’s equations, the method of Generalised Equivalent Circuit was proposed to convey the resolution from the domain of integral equations to the domain of equivalent circuits. In point of fact, this technique consists in creating an electric image of the studied structure using discontinuity plan paradigm and taken into account its environment. So that, the electromagnetic state of the discontinuity plan is described by generalised test functions which are modelled by virtual sources not storing energy. The environmental effects are included by the use of an impedance or admittance operator. Here, we propose a tunable metasurface composed of graphene-based elements which combine the advantages of reflectarrays concept and graphene as a pillar constituent element at Terahertz frequencies. The metasurface’s building block consists of a thin gold film, a dielectric spacer SiO₂ and graphene patch antenna. Our electromagnetic analysis is based on the method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit (MoM-GEC). We begin by restricting our attention to study the effects of varying graphene’s chemical potential on the unit cell input impedance. So, it was found that the variation of complex conductivity of graphene allows controlling the phase and amplitude of the reflection coefficient at each element of the array. From the results obtained here, we were able to determine that the phase modulation is realized by adjusting graphene’s complex conductivity. This modulation is a viable solution compared to tunning the phase by varying the antenna length because it offers a full 2π reflection phase control.

Keywords: Graphene, method of moment combined with generalised equivalent circuit, reconfigurable metasurface, reflectarray, terahertz domain

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52 Analyzing the Heat Transfer Mechanism in a Tube Bundle Air-PCM Heat Exchanger: An Empirical Study

Authors: Denis Bruneau, Alain Sommier, Maria De Los Angeles Ortega, Patrick Sebastian, Jean-Pierre Nadeau, Saed Raji

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Phase change materials (PCM) present attractive features that made them a passive solution for thermal comfort assessment in buildings during summer time. They show a large storage capacity per volume unit in comparison with other structural materials like bricks or concrete. If their use is matched with the peak load periods, they can contribute to the reduction of the primary energy consumption related to cooling applications. Despite these promising characteristics, they present some drawbacks. Commercial PCMs, as paraffines, offer a low thermal conductivity affecting the overall performance of the system. In some cases, the material can be enhanced, adding other elements that improve the conductivity, but in general, a design of the unit that optimizes the thermal performance is sought. The material selection is the departing point during the designing stage, and it does not leave plenty of room for optimization. The PCM melting point depends highly on the atmospheric characteristics of the building location. The selection must relay within the maximum, and the minimum temperature reached during the day. The geometry of the PCM container and the geometrical distribution of these containers are designing parameters, as well. They significantly affect the heat transfer, and therefore its phenomena must be studied exhaustively. During its lifetime, an air-PCM unit in a building must cool down the place during daytime, while the melting of the PCM occurs. At night, the PCM must be regenerated to be ready for next uses. When the system is not in service, a minimal amount of thermal exchanges is desired. The aforementioned functions result in the presence of sensible and latent heat storage and release. Hence different types of mechanisms drive the heat transfer phenomena. An experimental test was designed to study the heat transfer phenomena occurring in a circular tube bundle air-PCM exchanger. An in-line arrangement was selected as the geometrical distribution of the containers. With the aim of visual identification, the containers material and a section of the test bench were transparent. Some instruments were placed on the bench for measuring temperature and velocity. The PCM properties were also available through differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) tests. An evolution of the temperature during both cycles, melting and solidification were obtained. The results showed some phenomena at a local level (tubes) and on an overall level (exchanger). Conduction and convection appeared as the main heat transfer mechanisms. From these results, two approaches to analyze the heat transfer were followed. The first approach described the phenomena in a single tube as a series of thermal resistances, where a pure conduction controlled heat transfer was assumed in the PCM. For the second approach, the temperature measurements were used to find some significant dimensionless numbers and parameters as Stefan, Fourier and Rayleigh numbers, and the melting fraction. These approaches allowed us to identify the heat transfer phenomena during both cycles. The presence of natural convection during melting might have been stated from the influence of the Rayleigh number on the correlations obtained.

Keywords: Convection, Phase Change Materials, conduction, air-PCM exchangers

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51 Electrochemical Activity of NiCo-GDC Cermet Anode for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operated in Methane

Authors: Kamolvara Sirisuksakulchai, Soamwadee Chaianansutcharit, Kazunori Sato

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Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have been considered as one of the most efficient large unit power generators for household and industrial applications. The efficiency of an electronic cell depends mainly on the electrochemical reactions in the anode. The development of anode materials has been intensely studied to achieve higher kinetic rates of redox reactions and lower internal resistance. Recent studies have introduced an efficient cermet (ceramic-metallic) material for its ability in fuel oxidation and oxide conduction. This could expand the reactive site, also known as the triple-phase boundary (TPB), thus increasing the overall performance. In this study, a bimetallic catalyst Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was combined with Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ (GDC) to be used as a cermet anode (NiCo-GDC) for an anode-supported type SOFC. The synthesis of Ni₀.₇₅Co₀.₂₅Oₓ was carried out by ball milling NiO and Co3O4 powders in ethanol and calcined at 1000 °C. The Gd₀.₁Ce₀.₉O₁.₉₅ was prepared by a urea co-precipitation method. Precursors of Gd(NO₃)₃·6H₂O and Ce(NO₃)₃·6H₂O were dissolved in distilled water with the addition of urea and were heated subsequently. The heated mixture product was filtered and rinsed thoroughly, then dried and calcined at 800 °C and 1500 °C, respectively. The two powders were combined followed by pelletization and sintering at 1100 °C to form an anode support layer. The fabrications of an electrolyte layer and cathode layer were conducted. The electrochemical performance in H₂ was measured from 800 °C to 600 °C while for CH₄ was from 750 °C to 600 °C. The maximum power density at 750 °C in H₂ was 13% higher than in CH₄. The difference in performance was due to higher polarization resistances confirmed by the impedance spectra. According to the standard enthalpy, the dissociation energy of C-H bonds in CH₄ is slightly higher than the H-H bond H₂. The dissociation of CH₄ could be the cause of resistance within the anode material. The results from lower temperatures showed a descending trend of power density in relevance to the increased polarization resistance. This was due to lowering conductivity when the temperature decreases. The long-term stability was measured at 750 °C in CH₄ monitoring at 12-hour intervals. The maximum power density tends to increase gradually with time while the resistances were maintained. This suggests the enhanced stability from charge transfer activities in doped ceria due to the transition of Ce⁴⁺ ↔ Ce³⁺ at low oxygen partial pressure and high-temperature atmosphere. However, the power density started to drop after 60 h, and the cell potential also dropped from 0.3249 V to 0.2850 V. These phenomena was confirmed by a shifted impedance spectra indicating a higher ohmic resistance. The observation by FESEM and EDX-mapping suggests the degradation due to mass transport of ions in the electrolyte while the anode microstructure was still maintained. In summary, the electrochemical test and stability test for 60 h was achieved by NiCo-GDC cermet anode. Coke deposition was not detected after operation in CH₄, hence this confirms the superior properties of the bimetallic cermet anode over typical Ni-GDC.

Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, methane oxidation, bimetallic catalyst, ceria-based SOFCs

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50 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Siloxane Matrix

Authors: Tinatin Kuchukhidze, Natia Jalagonia

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Polymer electrolytes (PE) play an important part in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells. To achieve optimal performance, the PE must maintain a high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability at both high and low relative humidity. The polymer electrolyte also needs to have excellent chemical stability for long and robustness. According to the prevailing theory, ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes is facilitated by the large-scale segmental motion of the polymer backbone, and primarily occurs in the amorphous regions of the polymer electrolyte. Crystallinity restricts polymer backbone segmental motion and significantly reduces conductivity. Consequently, polymer electrolytes with high conductivity at room temperature have been sought through polymers which have highly flexible backbones and have largely amorphous morphology. The interest in polymer electrolytes was increased also by potential applications of solid polymer electrolytes in high energy density solid state batteries, gas sensors and electrochromic windows. Conductivity of 10-3 S/cm is commonly regarded as a necessary minimum value for practical applications in batteries. At present, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based systems are most thoroughly investigated, reaching room temperature conductivities of 10-7 S/cm in some cross-linked salt in polymer systems based on amorphous PEO-polypropylene oxide copolymers.. It is widely accepted that amorphous polymers with low glass transition temperatures Tg and a high segmental mobility are important prerequisites for high ionic conductivities. Another necessary condition for high ionic conductivity is a high salt solubility in the polymer, which is most often achieved by donors such as ether oxygen or imide groups on the main chain or on the side groups of the PE. It is well established also that lithium ion coordination takes place predominantly in the amorphous domain, and that the segmental mobility of the polymer is an important factor in determining the ionic mobility. Great attention was pointed to PEO-based amorphous electrolyte obtained by synthesis of comb-like polymers, by attaching short ethylene oxide unit sequences to an existing amorphous polymer backbone. The aim of presented work is to obtain of solid polymer electrolyte membranes using PMHS as a matrix. For this purpose the hydrosilylation reactions of α,ω-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methyl¬hydrosiloxane with allyl triethylene-glycol mo¬nomethyl ether and vinyltriethoxysilane at 1:28:7 ratio of initial com¬pounds in the presence of Karstedt’s catalyst, platinum hydrochloric acid (0.1 M solution in THF) and platinum on the carbon catalyst in 50% solution of anhydrous toluene have been studied. The synthesized olygomers are vitreous liquid products, which are well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp ≈ 0.05 - 0.06. The synthesized olygomers were analysed with FTIR, 1H, 13C, 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized polysiloxanes were investigated with wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography, and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate (triflate) or lithium bis¬(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)¬imide polymer systems solid polymer electrolyte membranes have been obtained. The dependence of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and salt concentration was investigated and the activation energies of conductivity for all obtained compounds are calculated

Keywords: Synthesis, Electrolyte, Membrane, PMHS

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49 Functional Traits and Agroecosystem Multifunctionality in Summer Cover Crop Mixtures and Monocultures

Authors: Etienne Herrick

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As an economically and ecologically feasible method for farmers to introduce greater diversity into their crop rotations, cover cropping presents a valuable opportunity for improving the sustainability of food production. Planted in-between cash crop growing seasons, cover crops serve to enhance agroecosystem functioning, rather than being destined for sale or consumption. In fact, cover crops may hold the capacity to deliver multiple ecosystem functions or services simultaneously (multifunctionality). Building upon this line of research will not only benefit society at present, but also support its continued survival through its potential for restoring depleted soils and reducing the need for energy-intensive and harmful external inputs like fertilizers and pesticides. This study utilizes a trait-based approach to explore the influence of inter- and intra-specific interactions in summer cover crop mixtures and monocultures on functional trait expression and ecosystem services. Functional traits that enhance ecosystem services related to agricultural production include height, specific leaf area (SLA), root, shoot ratio, leaf C and N concentrations, and flowering phenology. Ecosystem services include biomass production, weed suppression, reduced N leaching, N recycling, and support of pollinators. Employing a trait-based approach may allow for the elucidation of mechanistic links between plant structure and resulting ecosystem service delivery. While relationships between some functional traits and the delivery of particular ecosystem services may be readily apparent through existing ecological knowledge (e.g. height positively correlating with weed suppression), this study will begin to quantify those relationships so as to gain further understanding of whether and how measurable variation in functional trait expression across cover crop mixtures and monocultures can serve as a reliable predictor of variation in the types and abundances of ecosystem services delivered. Six cover crop species, including legume, grass, and broadleaf functional types, were selected for growth in six mixtures and their component monocultures based upon the principle of trait complementarity. The tricultures (three-way mixtures) are comprised of a legume, grass, and broadleaf species, and include cowpea/sudex/buckwheat, sunnhemp/sudex/buckwheat, and chickling vetch/oat/buckwheat combinations; the dicultures contain the same legume and grass combinations as above, without the buckwheat broadleaf. By combining species with expectedly complimentary traits (for example, legumes are N suppliers and grasses are N acquirers, creating a nutrient cycling loop) the cover crop mixtures may elicit a broader range of ecosystem services than that provided by a monoculture, though trade-offs could exist. Collecting functional trait data will enable the investigation of the types of interactions driving these ecosystem service outcomes. It also allows for generalizability across a broader range of species than just those selected for this study, which may aid in informing further research efforts exploring species and ecosystem functioning, as well as on-farm management decisions.

Keywords: Multifunctionality, Agroecology, Cover Crops, functional traits, trait complementarity

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48 Simple Finite-Element Procedure for Modeling Crack Propagation in Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck under Repetitive Moving Truck Wheel Loads

Authors: Rajwanlop Kumpoopong, Sukit Yindeesuk, Pornchai Silarom

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Modeling cracks in concrete is complicated by its strain-softening behavior which requires the use of sophisticated energy criteria of fracture mechanics to assure stable and convergent solutions in the finite-element (FE) analysis particularly for relatively large structures. However, for small-scale structures such as beams and slabs, a simpler approach relies on retaining some shear stiffness in the cracking plane has been adopted in literature to model the strain-softening behavior of concrete under monotonically increased loading. According to the shear retaining approach, each element is assumed to be an isotropic material prior to cracking of concrete. Once an element is cracked, the isotropic element is replaced with an orthotropic element in which the new orthotropic stiffness matrix is formulated with respect to the crack orientation. The shear transfer factor of 0.5 is used in parallel to the crack plane. The shear retaining approach is adopted in this research to model cracks in RC bridge deck with some modifications to take into account the effect of repetitive moving truck wheel loads as they cause fatigue cracking of concrete. First modification is the introduction of fatigue tests of concrete and reinforcing steel and the Palmgren-Miner linear criterion of cumulative damage in the conventional FE analysis. For a certain loading, the number of cycles to failure of each concrete or RC element can be calculated from the fatigue or S-N curves of concrete and reinforcing steel. The elements with the minimum number of cycles to failure are the failed elements. For the elements that do not fail, the damage is accumulated according to Palmgren-Miner linear criterion of cumulative damage. The stiffness of the failed element is modified and the procedure is repeated until the deck slab fails. The total number of load cycles to failure of the deck slab can then be obtained from which the S-N curve of the deck slab can be simulated. Second modification is the modification in shear transfer factor. Moving loading causes continuous rubbing of crack interfaces which greatly reduces shear transfer mechanism. It is therefore conservatively assumed in this study that the analysis is conducted with shear transfer factor of zero for the case of moving loading. A customized FE program has been developed using the MATLAB software to accomodate such modifications. The developed procedure has been validated with the fatigue test of the 1/6.6-scale AASHTO bridge deck under the applications of both fixed-point repetitive loading and moving loading presented in the literature. Results are in good agreement both experimental vs. simulated S-N curves and observed vs. simulated crack patterns. Significant contribution of the developed procedure is a series of S-N relations which can now be simulated at any desired levels of cracking in addition to the experimentally derived S-N relation at the failure of the deck slab. This permits the systematic investigation of crack propagation or deterioration of RC bridge deck which is appeared to be useful information for highway agencies to prolong the life of their bridge decks.

Keywords: Fatigue, cracking, Reinforced Concrete, deterioration, bridge deck, finite-element, moving truck

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47 Sustainable Crop Production: Greenhouse Gas Management in Farm Value Chain

Authors: Aswathaman Vijayan, Manish Jha, Ullas Theertha

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Climate change and Global warming have become an issue for both developed and developing countries and perhaps the biggest threat to the environment. We at ITC Limited believe that a company’s performance must be measured by its Triple Bottom Line contribution to building economic, social and environmental capital. This Triple Bottom Line strategy focuses on - Embedding sustainability in business practices, Investing in social development and Adopting a low carbon growth path with a cleaner environment approach. The Agri Business Division - ILTD operates in the tobacco crop growing regions of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka province of India. The Agri value chain of the company comprises of two distinct phases: First phase is Agricultural operations undertaken by ITC trained farmers and the second phase is Industrial operations which include marketing and processing of the agricultural produce. This research work covers the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) management strategy of ITC in the Agricultural operations undertaken by the farmers. The agriculture sector adds considerably to global GHG emissions through the use of carbon-based energies, use of fertilizers and other farming operations such as ploughing. In order to minimize the impact of farming operations on the environment, ITC has a taken a big leap in implementing system and process in reducing the GHG impact in farm value chain by partnering with the farming community. The company has undertaken a unique three-pronged approach for GHG management at the farm value chain: 1) GHG inventory at farm value chain: Different sources of GHG emission in the farm value chain were identified and quantified for the baseline year, as per the IPCC guidelines for greenhouse gas inventories. The major sources of emission identified are - emission due to nitrogenous fertilizer application during seedling production and main-field; emission due to diesel usage for farm machinery; emission due to fuel consumption and due to burning of crop residues. 2) Identification and implementation of technologies to reduce GHG emission: Various methodologies and technologies were identified for each GHG emission source and implemented at farm level. The identified methodologies are – reducing the consumption of chemical fertilizer usage at the farm through site-specific nutrient recommendation; Usage of sharp shovel for land preparation to reduce diesel consumption; implementation of energy conservation technologies to reduce fuel requirement and avoiding burning of crop residue by incorporation in the main field. These identified methodologies were implemented at farm level, and the GHG emission was quantified to understand the reduction in GHG emission. 3) Social and farm forestry for CO2 sequestration: In addition, the company encouraged social and farm forestry in the waste lands to convert it into green cover. The plantations are carried out with fast growing trees viz., Eucalyptus, Casuarina, and Subabul at the rate of 10,000 Ha of land per year. The above approach minimized considerable amount of GHG emission at the farm value chain benefiting farmers, community, and environment at a whole. In addition, the CO₂ stock created by social and farm forestry program has made the farm value chain to become environment-friendly.

Keywords: Greenhouse gas, CO2 sequestration, farm value chain, ITC limited

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46 Backward-Facing Step Measurements at Different Reynolds Numbers Using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry

Authors: Maria Amelia V. C. Araujo, Billy J. Araujo, Brian Greenwood

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The flow over a backward-facing step is characterized by the presence of flow separation, recirculation and reattachment, for a simple geometry. This type of fluid behaviour takes place in many practical engineering applications, hence the reason for being investigated. Historically, fluid flows over a backward-facing step have been examined in many experiments using a variety of measuring techniques such as laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), hot-wire anemometry, particle image velocimetry or hot-film sensors. However, some of these techniques cannot conveniently be used in separated flows or are too complicated and expensive. In this work, the applicability of the acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV) technique is investigated to such type of flows, at various Reynolds numbers corresponding to different flow regimes. The use of this measuring technique in separated flows is very difficult to find in literature. Besides, most of the situations where the Reynolds number effect is evaluated in separated flows are in numerical modelling. The ADV technique has the advantage in providing nearly non-invasive measurements, which is important in resolving turbulence. The ADV Nortek Vectrino+ was used to characterize the flow, in a recirculating laboratory flume, at various Reynolds Numbers (Reh = 3738, 5452, 7908 and 17388) based on the step height (h), in order to capture different flow regimes, and the results compared to those obtained using other measuring techniques. To compare results with other researchers, the step height, expansion ratio and the positions upstream and downstream the step were reproduced. The post-processing of the AVD records was performed using a customized numerical code, which implements several filtering techniques. Subsequently, the Vectrino noise level was evaluated by computing the power spectral density for the stream-wise horizontal velocity component. The normalized mean stream-wise velocity profiles, skin-friction coefficients and reattachment lengths were obtained for each Reh. Turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds shear stresses and normal Reynolds stresses were determined for Reh = 7908. An uncertainty analysis was carried out, for the measured variables, using the moving block bootstrap technique. Low noise levels were obtained after implementing the post-processing techniques, showing their effectiveness. Besides, the errors obtained in the uncertainty analysis were relatively low, in general. For Reh = 7908, the normalized mean stream-wise velocity and turbulence profiles were compared directly with those acquired by other researchers using the LDV technique and a good agreement was found. The ADV technique proved to be able to characterize the flow properly over a backward-facing step, although additional caution should be taken for measurements very close to the bottom. The ADV measurements showed reliable results regarding: a) the stream-wise velocity profiles; b) the turbulent shear stress; c) the reattachment length; d) the identification of the transition from transitional to turbulent flows. Despite being a relatively inexpensive technique, acoustic Doppler velocimetry can be used with confidence in separated flows and thus very useful for numerical model validation. However, it is very important to perform adequate post-processing of the acquired data, to obtain low noise levels, thus decreasing the uncertainty.

Keywords: ADV, experimental data, multiple Reynolds number, post-processing

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