Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: uplink

12 Uplink Throughput Prediction in Cellular Mobile Networks

Authors: Engin Eyceyurt, Josko Zec


The current and future cellular mobile communication networks generate enormous amounts of data. Networks have become extremely complex with extensive space of parameters, features and counters. These networks are unmanageable with legacy methods and an enhanced design and optimization approach is necessary that is increasingly reliant on machine learning. This paper proposes that machine learning as a viable approach for uplink throughput prediction. LTE radio metric, such as Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP), Reference Signal Received Quality (RSRQ), and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are used to train models to estimate expected uplink throughput. The prediction accuracy with high determination coefficient of 91.2% is obtained from measurements collected with a simple smartphone application.

Keywords: drive test, LTE, machine learning, uplink throughput prediction

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11 Coordinated Interference Canceling Algorithm for Uplink Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output Systems

Authors: Messaoud Eljamai, Sami Hidouri


Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is an emerging technology for new cellular networks such as 5G systems. Its principle is to use many antennas per cell in order to maximize the network's spectral efficiency. Inter-cellular interference remains a fundamental problem. The use of massive MIMO will not derogate from the rule. It improves performances only when the number of antennas is significantly greater than the number of users. This, considerably, limits the networks spectral efficiency. In this paper, a coordinated detector for an uplink massive MIMO system is proposed in order to mitigate the inter-cellular interference. The proposed scheme combines the coordinated multipoint technique with an interference-cancelling algorithm. It requires the serving cell to send their received symbols, after processing, decision and error detection, to the interfered cells via a backhaul link. Each interfered cell is capable of eliminating intercellular interferences by generating and subtracting the user’s contribution from the received signal. The resulting signal is more reliable than the original received signal. This allows the uplink massive MIMO system to improve their performances dramatically. Simulation results show that the proposed detector improves system spectral efficiency compared to classical linear detectors.

Keywords: massive MIMO, COMP, interference canceling algorithm, spectral efficiency

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10 Resource Allocation Scheme For IEEE802.16 Networks

Authors: Elmabruk Laias


IEEE Standard 802.16 provides QoS (Quality of Service) for the applications such as Voice over IP, video streaming and high bandwidth file transfer. With the ability of broadband wireless access of an IEEE 802.16 system, a WiMAX TDD frame contains one downlink subframe and one uplink subframe. The capacity allocated to each subframe is a system parameter that should be determined based on the expected traffic conditions. a proper resource allocation scheme for packet transmissions is imperatively needed. In this paper, we present a new resource allocation scheme, called additional bandwidth yielding (ABY), to improve transmission efficiency of an IEEE 802.16-based network. Our proposed scheme can be adopted along with the existing scheduling algorithms and the multi-priority scheme without any change. The experimental results show that by using our ABY, the packet queuing delay could be significantly improved, especially for the service flows of higher-priority classes.

Keywords: IEEE 802.16, WiMAX, OFDMA, resource allocation, uplink-downlink mapping

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9 Spatial Correlation of Channel State Information in Real Long Range Measurement

Authors: Ahmed Abdelghany, Bernard Uguen, Christophe Moy, Dominique Lemur


The Internet of Things (IoT) is developed to ensure monitoring and connectivity within different applications. Thus, it is critical to study the channel propagation characteristics in Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN), especially Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). In this paper, an in-depth investigation of the reciprocity between the uplink and downlink Channel State Information (CSI) is done by performing an outdoor measurement campaign in the area of Campus Beaulieu in Rennes. At each different location, the CSI reciprocity is quantified using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) which shows a very high linear correlation between the uplink and downlink CSI. This reciprocity feature could be utilized for the physical layer security between the node and the gateway. On the other hand, most of the CSI shapes from different locations are highly uncorrelated from each other. Hence, it can be anticipated that this could achieve significant localization gain by utilizing the frequency hopping in the LoRa systems by getting access to a wider band.

Keywords: IoT, LPWAN, LoRa, effective signal power, onsite measurement

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8 A Neurosymbolic Learning Method for Uplink LTE-A Channel Estimation

Authors: Lassaad Smirani


In this paper we propose a Neurosymbolic Learning System (NLS) as a channel estimator for Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) uplink. The proposed system main idea based on Neural Network has modules capable of performing bidirectional information transfer between symbolic module and connectionist module. We demonstrate various strengths of the NLS especially the ability to integrate theoretical knowledge (rules) and experiential knowledge (examples), and to make an initial knowledge base (rules) converted into a connectionist network. Also to use empirical knowledge witch by learning will have the ability to revise the theoretical knowledge and acquire new one and explain it, and finally the ability to improve the performance of symbolic or connectionist systems. Compared with conventional SC-FDMA channel estimation systems, The performance of NLS in terms of complexity and quality is confirmed by theoretical analysis and simulation and shows that this system can make the channel estimation accuracy improved and bit error rate decreased.

Keywords: channel estimation, SC-FDMA, neural network, hybrid system, BER, LTE-A

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7 Performance of VSAT MC-CDMA System Using LDPC and Turbo Codes over Multipath Channel

Authors: Hassan El Ghazi, Mohammed El Jourmi, Tayeb Sadiki, Esmail Ahouzi


The purpose of this paper is to model and analyze a geostationary satellite communication system based on VSAT network and Multicarrier CDMA system scheme which presents a combination of multicarrier modulation scheme and CDMA concepts. In this study the channel coding strategies (Turbo codes and LDPC codes) are adopted to achieve good performance due to iterative decoding. The envisaged system is examined for a transmission over Multipath channel with use of Ku band in the uplink case. The simulation results are obtained for each different case. The performance of the system is given in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio (Eb/N0). The performance results of designed system shown that the communication system coded with LDPC codes can achieve better error rate performance compared to VSAT MC-CDMA system coded with Turbo codes.

Keywords: satellite communication, VSAT Network, MC-CDMA, LDPC codes, turbo codes, uplink

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6 Design of Multiband Microstrip Antenna Using Stepped Cut Method for WLAN/WiMAX and C/Ku-Band Applications

Authors: Ahmed Boutejdar, Bishoy I. Halim, Soumia El Hani, Larbi Bellarbi, Amal Afyf


In this paper, a planar monopole antenna for multi band applications is proposed. The antenna structure operates at three operating frequencies at 3.7, 6.2, and 13.5 GHz which cover different communication frequency ranges. The antenna consists of a quasi-modified rectangular radiating patch with a partial ground plane and two parasitic elements (open-loop-ring resonators) to serve as coupling-bridges. A stepped cut at lower corners of the radiating patch and the partial ground plane are used, to achieve the multiband features. The proposed antenna is manufactured on the FR4 substrate and is simulated and optimized using High Frequency Simulation System (HFSS). The antenna topology possesses an area of 30.5 x 30 x 1.6 mm3. The measured results demonstrate that the candidate antenna has impedance bandwidths for 10 dB return loss and operates from 3.80 – 3.90 GHz, 4.10 – 5.20 GHz, 11.2 – 11.5 GHz and from 12.5 – 14.0 GHz, which meet the requirements of the wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), C- (Uplink) and Ku- (Uplink) band applications. Acceptable agreement is obtained between measurement and simulation results. Experimental results show that the antenna is successfully simulated and measured, and the tri-band antenna can be achieved by adjusting the lengths of the three elements and it gives good gains across all the operation bands.

Keywords: planar monopole antenna, FR4 substrate, HFSS, WLAN, WiMAX, C and Ku

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5 Mitigation of Interference in Satellite Communications Systems via a Cross-Layer Coding Technique

Authors: Mario A. Blanco, Nicholas Burkhardt


An important problem in satellite communication systems which operate in the Ka and EHF frequency bands consists of the overall degradation in link performance of mobile terminals due to various types of degradations in the link/channel, such as fading, blockage of the link to the satellite (especially in urban environments), intentional as well as other types of interference, etc. In this paper, we focus primarily on the interference problem, and we develop a very efficient and cost-effective solution based on the use of fountain codes. We first introduce a satellite communications (SATCOM) terminal uplink interference channel model that is classically used against communication systems that use spread-spectrum waveforms. We then consider the use of fountain codes, with focus on Raptor codes, as our main mitigation technique to combat the degradation in link/receiver performance due to the interference signal. The performance of the receiver is obtained in terms of average probability of bit and message error rate as a function of bit energy-to-noise density ratio, Eb/N0, and other parameters of interest, via a combination of analysis and computer simulations, and we show that the use of fountain codes is extremely effective in overcoming the effects of intentional interference on the performance of the receiver and associated communication links. We then show this technique can be extended to mitigate other types of SATCOM channel degradations, such as those caused by channel fading, shadowing, and hard-blockage of the uplink signal.

Keywords: SATCOM, interference mitigation, fountain codes, turbo codes, cross-layer

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4 Assessment of Cytogenetic Damage as a Function of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiations Exposure Measured by Electric Field Strength: A Gender Based Study

Authors: Ramanpreet, Gursatej Gandhi


Background: Dependence on electromagnetic radiations involved in communication and information technologies has incredibly increased in the personal and professional world. Among the numerous radiations, sources are fixed site transmitters, mobile phone base stations, and power lines beside indoor devices like cordless phones, WiFi, Bluetooth, TV, radio, microwave ovens, etc. Rather there is the continuous emittance of radiofrequency radiations (RFR) even to those not using the devices from mobile phone base stations. The consistent and widespread usage of wireless devices has build-up electromagnetic fields everywhere. In fact, the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has insidiously become a part of the environment and like any contaminant may pose to be health-hazardous requiring assessment. Materials and Methods: In the present study, cytogenetic damage was assessed using the Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) assay as a function of radiation exposure after Institutional Ethics Committee clearance of the study and written voluntary informed consent from the participants. On a pre-designed questionnaire, general information lifestyle patterns (diet, physical activity, smoking, drinking, use of mobile phones, internet, Wi-Fi usage, etc.) genetic, reproductive (pedigrees) and medical histories were recorded. For this, 24 hour-personal exposimeter measurements (PEM) were recorded for unrelated 60 healthy adults (40 cases residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations since their installation and 20 controls residing in areas with no base stations). The personal exposimeter collects information from all the sources generating EMF (TETRA, GSM, UMTS, DECT, and WLAN) as total RF-EMF uplink and downlink. Findings: The cases (n=40; 23-90 years) and the controls (n=20; 19-65 years) matched for alcohol drinking, smoking habits, and mobile and cordless phone usage. The PEM in cases (149.28 ± 8.98 mV/m) revealed significantly higher (p=0.000) electric field strength compared to the recorded value (80.40 ± 0.30 mV/m) in controls. The GSM 900 uplink (p=0.000), GSM 1800 downlink (p=0.000),UMTS (both uplink; p=0.013 and downlink; p=0.001) and DECT (p=0.000) electric field strength were significantly elevated in the cases as compared to controls. The electric field strength in the cases was significantly from GSM1800 (52.26 ± 4.49mV/m) followed by GSM900 (45.69 ± 4.98mV/m), UMTS (25.03 ± 3.33mV/m), DECT (18.02 ± 2.14mV/m) and was least from WLAN (8.26 ± 2.35mV/m). The higher significantly (p=0.000) increased exposure to the cases was from GSM (97.96 ± 6.97mV/m) in comparison to UMTS, DECT, and WLAN. The frequencies of micronuclei (1.86X, p=0.007), nuclear buds (2.95X, p=0.002) and cell death parameter (condensed chromatin cells) were significantly (1.75X, p=0.007) elevated in cases compared to that in controls probably as a function of radiofrequency radiation exposure. Conclusion: In the absence of other exposure(s), any cytogenetic damage if unrepaired is a cause of concern as it can cause malignancy. Larger sample size with the clinical assessment will prove more insightful of such an effect.

Keywords: Buccal micronucleus cytome assay, cytogenetic damage, electric field strength, personal exposimeter

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3 The Design and Analysis of a Novel Type High Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna System for the Satellite Communication

Authors: Shahid M. Ali, Zakiullah


An individual feed, smooth and smart, completely new shaped, dual band microstrip patch antenna has been proposed in this manuscript. Right here three triangular shape slots are usually presented in the 3 edges on the patch and along with a small feed line has utilized another edge on the patch to find out the dual band. The antenna carries a condensed framework wherever patch is around about 8.5mm by means of 7.96mm by means of 1.905mm leading to excellent bandwidths covering 13. 15 GHz to 13. 72 GHz in addition to 16.04 GHz to 16.58GHz. The return loss(RL) decrease in -19. 00dB and will be attained in the first resonant frequency at 13. 61 GHz and -28.69dB is at second resonance frequency at 16.33GHz. The stable average peak gain that may be observed along the operating band in lower and higher frequency is actually three. 53dB in addition to 5.562dB correspondingly. The radiation designs usually are omni directional along with moderate gain within equally most of these functioning bands. Accomplishment is proven within double frequencies at 13.62GHz since downlink in addition to 16.33GHz since uplink. This kind of low and simple configuration of the proposed antenna shows simplest fabrication and make it ensure that it is adaptable for your application within instant in satellite and as well as for the wireless communication system.

Keywords: dual band, microstrip patch antenna, HFSS, Ku band, satellite

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2 Channel Estimation Using Deep Learning for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces-Assisted Millimeter Wave Systems

Authors: Ting Gao, Mingyue He


Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) are expected to be an important part of next-generation wireless communication networks due to their potential to reduce the hardware cost and energy consumption of millimeter Wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology. However, owing to the lack of signal processing abilities of the RIS, the perfect channel state information (CSI) in RIS-assisted communication systems is difficult to acquire. In this paper, the uplink channel estimation for mmWave systems with a hybrid active/passive RIS architecture is studied. Specifically, a deep learning-based estimation scheme is proposed to estimate the channel between the RIS and the user. In particular, the sparse structure of the mmWave channel is exploited to formulate the channel estimation as a sparse reconstruction problem. To this end, the proposed approach is derived to obtain the distribution of non-zero entries in a sparse channel. After that, the channel is reconstructed by utilizing the least-squares (LS) algorithm and compressed sensing (CS) theory. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed channel estimation scheme is superior to existing solutions even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments.

Keywords: channel estimation, reconfigurable intelligent surface, wireless communication, deep learning

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1 Relation of Optimal Pilot Offsets in the Shifted Constellation-Based Method for the Detection of Pilot Contamination Attacks

Authors: Dimitriya A. Mihaylova, Zlatka V. Valkova-Jarvis, Georgi L. Iliev


One possible approach for maintaining the security of communication systems relies on Physical Layer Security mechanisms. However, in wireless time division duplex systems, where uplink and downlink channels are reciprocal, the channel estimate procedure is exposed to attacks known as pilot contamination, with the aim of having an enhanced data signal sent to the malicious user. The Shifted 2-N-PSK method involves two random legitimate pilots in the training phase, each of which belongs to a constellation, shifted from the original N-PSK symbols by certain degrees. In this paper, legitimate pilots’ offset values and their influence on the detection capabilities of the Shifted 2-N-PSK method are investigated. As the implementation of the technique depends on the relation between the shift angles rather than their specific values, the optimal interconnection between the two legitimate constellations is investigated. The results show that no regularity exists in the relation between the pilot contamination attacks (PCA) detection probability and the choice of offset values. Therefore, an adversary who aims to obtain the exact offset values can only employ a brute-force attack but the large number of possible combinations for the shifted constellations makes such a type of attack difficult to successfully mount. For this reason, the number of optimal shift value pairs is also studied for both 100% and 98% probabilities of detecting pilot contamination attacks. Although the Shifted 2-N-PSK method has been broadly studied in different signal-to-noise ratio scenarios, in multi-cell systems the interference from the signals in other cells should be also taken into account. Therefore, the inter-cell interference impact on the performance of the method is investigated by means of a large number of simulations. The results show that the detection probability of the Shifted 2-N-PSK decreases inversely to the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio.

Keywords: channel estimation, inter-cell interference, pilot contamination attacks, wireless communications

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