Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7079

Search results for: current ripple canceller

7079 Electrolytic Capacitor-Less Transformer-Less AC-DC LED Driver with Current Ripple Canceller

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Li Quan, Shu Wu, Nizam Mohyar, Zachary Nosker, Nobukazu Tsukiji, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors which capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the typical current of 350 mA. We are now making the proposed circuit on a universal board in order to measure the experimental characteristics.

Keywords: LED driver, electrolytic, capacitor-less, AC-DC converter, buck-boost converter, current ripple canceller

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
7078 Single-Inductor Multi-Output Converters with Four-Level Output Voltages

Authors: Yasunori Kobori, Murong Li, Feng Zhao, Shu Wu, Nobukazu Takai, Haruo Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an electrolytic capacitor-less transformer-less AC-DC LED driver with a current ripple canceller. The proposed LED driver includes a diode bridge, a buck-boost converter, a negative feedback controller and a current ripple cancellation circuit. The current ripple canceller works as a bi-directional current converter using a sub-inductor, a sub-capacitor and two switches for controlling current flow. LED voltage is controlled in order to regulate LED current by the negative feedback controller using a current sense resistor. There are two capacitors with capacitance of 5 uF. We describe circuit topologies, operation principles and simulation results for our proposed circuit. In addition, we show the line regulation for input voltage variation from 85V to 130V. The output voltage ripple is 2V and the LED current ripple is 65 mA which is less than 20% of the average of LED current of 350 mA.

Keywords: DC-DC buck converter, four-level output voltage, single inductor multi output (SIMO), switching converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
7077 A Strategy of Direct Power Control for PWM Rectifier Reducing Ripple in Instantaneous Power

Authors: T. Mohammed Chikouche, K. Hartani

Abstract:

In order to solve the instantaneous power ripple and achieve better performance of direct power control (DPC) for a three-phase PWM rectifier, a control method is proposed in this paper. This control method is applied to overcome the instantaneous power ripple, to eliminate line current harmonics and therefore reduce the total harmonic distortion and to improve the power factor. A switching table is based on the analysis on the change of instantaneous active and reactive power, to select the optimum switching state of the three-phase PWM rectifier. The simulation result shows feasibility of this control method.

Keywords: power quality, direct power control, power ripple, switching table, unity power factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
7076 Comparative Analysis of DTC Based Switched Reluctance Motor Drive Using Torque Equation and FEA Models

Authors: P. Srinivas, P. V. N. Prasad

Abstract:

Since torque ripple is the main cause of noise and vibrations, the performance of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) can be improved by minimizing its torque ripple using a novel control technique called Direct Torque Control (DTC). In DTC technique, torque is controlled directly through control of magnitude of the flux and change in speed of the stator flux vector. The flux and torque are maintained within set hysteresis bands. The DTC of SRM is analysed by two methods. In one of the methods, the actual torque is computed by conducting Finite Element Analysis (FEA) on the design specifications of the motor. In the other method, the torque is computed by Simplified Torque Equation. The variation of peak current, average current, torque ripple and speed settling time with Simplified Torque Equation model is compared with FEA based model.

Keywords: direct toque control, simplified torque equation, finite element analysis, torque ripple

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
7075 Ripple Effect Analysis of Government Investment for Research and Development by the Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Hwayeon Song

Abstract:

The long-term purpose of research and development (R&D) programs is to strengthen national competitiveness by developing new knowledge and technologies. Thus, it is important to determine a proper budget for government programs to maintain the vigor of R&D when the total funding is tight due to the national deficit. In this regard, a ripple effect analysis for the budgetary changes in R&D programs is necessary as well as an investigation of the current status. This study proposes a new approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for both tasks. It particularly focuses on R&D programs related to Construction and Transportation (C&T) technology in Korea. First, key factors in C&T technology are explored to draw impact indicators in three areas: economy, society, and science and technology (S&T). Simultaneously, ANN is employed to evaluate the relationship between data variables. From this process, four major components in R&D including research personnel, expenses, management, and equipment are assessed. Then the ripple effect analysis is performed to see the changes in the hypothetical future by modifying current data. Any research findings can offer an alternative strategy about R&D programs as well as a new analysis tool.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, construction and transportation technology, Government Research and Development, Ripple Effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
7074 Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Employing Differential Evolution Algorithm

Authors: T. Vamsee Kiran, A. Gopi

Abstract:

The undesired torque and flux ripple may occur in conventional direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. DTC can improve the system performance at low speeds by continuously tuning the regulator by adjusting the Kp, Ki values. In this differential evolution (DE) is proposed to adjust the parameters (Kp, Ki) of the speed controller in order to minimize torque ripple, flux ripple, and stator current distortion.The DE based PI controller has resulted is maintaining a constant speed of the motor irrespective of the load torque fluctuations.

Keywords: differential evolution, direct torque control, PI controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
7073 Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Employing Teaching Learning Based Optimization

Authors: Anam Gopi

Abstract:

The undesired torque and flux ripple may occur in conventional direct torque control (DTC) induction motor drive. DTC can improve the system performance at low speeds by continuously tuning the regulator by adjusting the Kp, Ki values. In this Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) is proposed to adjust the parameters (Kp, Ki) of the speed controller in order to minimize torque ripple, flux ripple, and stator current distortion. The TLBO based PI controller has resulted is maintaining a constant speed of the motor irrespective of the load torque fluctuations.

Keywords: teaching learning based optimization, direct torque control, PI controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
7072 Modeling Electrical Properties of Hetero-Junction-Graphene/Pentacene and Gold/Pentacene

Authors: V. K. Lamba, Abhinandan Bharti

Abstract:

We investigate the electronic transport properties across the graphene/ pentacene and gold/pentacene interface. Further, we studied the effect of ripples/bends in pentacene using NEGF-DFT approach. Current transport across the pentacene/graphene interface is found to be remarkably different from transport across pentacene/Gold interfaces. We found that current across these interfaces could be accurately modeled by a combination of thermionic and Poole–Frenkel emission. Further, the degree of bend or degrees of the curve formed during ripple formation strongly change the optimized geometric structures, charge distributions, energy bands, and DOS. The misorientation and hybridization of carbon orbitals are associated with a variation in bond lengths and carrier densities, and are the causes of the dramatic changes in the electronic structure during ripple formation. The electrical conductivity decreases with increase in curvature during ripple formation or due to bending of pentacene molecule and a decrease in conductivity is directly proportional to the increase in curvature angle and given by quadratic relation.

Keywords: hetero-junction, grapheme, NEGF-DFT, pentacene, gold/pentacene

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
7071 Design and Performance Evaluation of Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SynRM)

Authors: Hadi Aghazadeh, Mohammadreza Naeimi, Seyed Ebrahim Afjei, Alireza Siadatan

Abstract:

Torque ripple, maximum torque and high efficiency are important issues in synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM). This paper presents a view on design of a high efficiency, low torque ripple and high torque density SynRM. To achieve this goal SynRM parameters is calculated (such as insulation ratios in the d-and q-axes and the rotor slot pitch), while the torque ripple can be minimized by determining the best rotor slot pitch in the d-axis. The presented analytical-finite element method (FEM) approach gives the optimum distribution of air gap and iron portion for the maximizing torque density with minimum torque ripple.

Keywords: torque ripple, efficiency, insulation ratio, FEM, synchronous reluctance machine (SynRM), induction motor (IM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
7070 SISSLE in Consensus-Based Ripple: Some Improvements in Speed, Security, Last Mile Connectivity and Ease of Use

Authors: Mayank Mundhra, Chester Rebeiro

Abstract:

Cryptocurrencies are rapidly finding wide application in areas such as Real Time Gross Settlements and Payments Systems. Ripple is a cryptocurrency that has gained prominence with banks and payment providers. It solves the Byzantine General’s Problem with its Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm (RPCA), where each server maintains a list of servers, called Unique Node List (UNL) that represents the network for the server, and will not collectively defraud it. The server believes that the network has come to a consensus when members of the UNL come to a consensus on a transaction. In this paper we improve Ripple to achieve better speed, security, last mile connectivity and ease of use. We implement guidelines and automated systems for building and maintaining UNLs for resilience, robustness, improved security, and efficient information propagation. We enhance the system so as to ensure that each server receives information from across the whole network rather than just from the UNL members. We also introduce the paradigm of UNL overlap as a function of information propagation and the trust a server assigns to its own UNL. Our design not only reduces vulnerabilities such as eclipse attacks, but also makes it easier to identify malicious behaviour and entities attempting to fraudulently Double Spend or stall the system. We provide experimental evidence of the benefits of our approach over the current Ripple scheme. We observe ≥ 4.97x and 98.22x in speedup and success rate for information propagation respectively, and ≥ 3.16x and 51.70x in speedup and success rate in consensus.

Keywords: Ripple, Kelips, unique node list, consensus, information propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
7069 Novel Stator Structure Switching Flux Permanent Magnet Motor

Authors: Mengjie Shen, Jianhua Wu, Chun Gan, Lifeng Zhang, Qingguo Sun

Abstract:

Switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor has doubly salient structure which lead to high torque ripple, and also has cogging torque as a permanent magnet motor. Torque ripple and cogging torque have impact on the motor performance. A novel stator structure SFPM motor is presented in this paper. A triangular shape silicon steel sheet is put in the stator slot to reduce the torque ripple, which will not deteriorate the cogging torque. The simulation of proposed motor is analyzed using 2-D finite element method (FEM) based on Ansoft and Simplorer software, and the result show a good performance of the proposed SFPM motor.

Keywords: switching flux permanent magnet (SFPM) motor, torque ripple, Ansoft, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
7068 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan

Abstract:

Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, harmonics, ripple factor, HVDC generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
7067 Three-Level Converters Back-To-Back DC Bus Control for Torque Ripple Reduction of Induction Motor

Authors: T. Abdelkrim, K. Benamrane, B. Bezza, Aeh Benkhelifa, A. Borni

Abstract:

This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected three-level converters in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of three-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, three-level NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

Keywords: back-to-back connection, feedback control, neutral-point balance, three-level converter, torque ripple

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
7066 Effects of Two Cross Focused Intense Laser Beams On THz Generation in Rippled Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

Terahertz (THz) generation has been investigated by beating two cosh-Gaussian laser beams of the same amplitude but different wavenumbers and frequencies through rippled collisionless plasma. The ponderomotive force is operative which is induced due to the intensity gradient of the laser beam over the cross-section area of the wavefront. The electrons evacuate towards a low-intensity regime, which modifies the dielectric function of the medium and results in cross focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beams. The evolution of spot size of laser beams has been studied by solving nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with variational technique. The laser beams impart oscillations to electrons which are enhanced with ripple density. The nonlinear oscillatory motion of electrons gives rise to a nonlinear current density driving THz radiation. It has been observed that the periodicity of the ripple density helps to enhance the THz radiation.

Keywords: rippled collisionless plasma, cosh-gaussian laser beam, ponderomotive force, variational technique, nonlinear current density

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
7065 A Study on Improvement of the Torque Ripple and Demagnetization Characteristics of a PMSM

Authors: Yong Min You

Abstract:

The study on the torque ripple of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) has been rapidly progressed, which effects on the noise and vibration of the electric vehicle. There are several ways to reduce torque ripple, which are the increase in the number of slots and poles, the notch of the rotor and stator teeth, and the skew of the rotor and stator. However, the conventional methods have the disadvantage in terms of material cost and productivity. The demagnetization characteristic of PMSMs must be attained for electric vehicle application. Due to rare earth supply issue, the demand for Dy-free permanent magnet has been increasing, which can be applied to PMSMs for the electric vehicle. Dy-free permanent magnet has lower the coercivity; the demagnetization characteristic has become more significant. To improve the torque ripple as well as the demagnetization characteristics, which are significant parameters for electric vehicle application, an unequal air-gap model is proposed for a PMSM. A shape optimization is performed to optimize the design variables of an unequal air-gap model. Optimal design variables are the shape of an unequal air-gap and the angle between V-shape magnets. An optimization process is performed by Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), Kriging Method, and Genetic Algorithm (GA). Finite element analysis (FEA) is also utilized to analyze the torque and demagnetization characteristics. The torque ripple and the demagnetization temperature of the initial model of 45kW PMSM with unequal air-gap are 10 % and 146.8 degrees, respectively, which are reaching a critical level for electric vehicle application. Therefore, the unequal air-gap model is proposed, and then an optimization process is conducted. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 7.7 %. In addition, the demagnetization temperature of the optimized model was also increased by 1.8 % while maintaining the efficiency. From these results, a shape optimized unequal air-gap PMSM has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and demagnetization temperature for the electric vehicle.

Keywords: permanent magnet synchronous motor, optimal design, finite element method, torque ripple

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
7064 A Phenomenological Expression for Self-Attractive Energy of Singlelayer Graphene Sheets

Authors: Bingjie Wu, C. Q. Ru

Abstract:

The present work studies several reasonably expected candidate integral forms for self-attractive potential energy of a free monolayer graphene sheet. The admissibility of a specific integral form for ripple formation is verified, while all others most of the candidate integral forms are rejected based on the non-existence of stable periodic ripples. Based on the selected integral form of self-attractive potential energy, some mechanical behavior, including ripple formation and buckling, of a free monolayer grapheme sheet are discussed in details

Keywords: graphene, monolayer, ripples, van der Waals energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
7063 High Speed Response Single-Inductor Dual-Output DC-DC Converter with Hysteretic Control

Authors: Y. Kobori, S. Tanaka, N. Tsukiji, N. Takai, H. Kobayashi

Abstract:

This paper proposes two kinds of new single-inductor dual-output (SIDO) DC-DC switching converters with ripple-based hysteretic control. First SIDO converters of type 1 utilize the triangular signal generated by the CR-circuit connected across the inductor. This triangular signal is used for generating the PWM signal instead of the saw-tooth signal used in the conventional converters. Second SIDO converters of type 2 utilize the triangular signal generated by the CR-circuit connected across the voltage error amplifier. This paper describes circuit topologies, Operation principles, simulation results and experimental results of the proposed SIDO converters. In simulation results of both type of SIDO converters, static output voltage ripples are less than 5mVpp and over/under shoots of the dynamic load regulations for the output current step are less than +/- 10mV. In experimental results of single output converter of type 2, static output voltage ripples are about 20mVpp. Output ripples of SIDO type 1 converter are about 80mVpp.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, switching converter, SIDO converter, hysteretic control, ripple-based control

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
7062 Analysis of Brushless DC Motor with Trapezoidal Back EMF Using Matlab

Authors: Taha Ahmed Husain

Abstract:

The dynamic characteristics such as speed and torque as well as voltages and currents of pwm brushless DC motor inverter are analyzed with a MATLAB model. The contribution of external load torque and friction torque is monitored. The switching function technique is adopted for the current control of the embedded three phase inverter that drives the brushless DC motor.In switching functions the power conversions circuits can be modeled according to their functions rather than circuit topologies. Therefore, it can achieve simplification of the overall power conversion functions. The trapezoidal type (back emf) is used in the model as ithas lower switching loss compared with sinusoidal type (back emf). Results show reliable time analysis for speed, torque, phase and line voltages and currents and the effect of current commutation is clearly observed.

Keywords: BLDC motor, brushless dc motors, pwm inverter, DC motor control, trapezoidal back emf, ripple torque in brushless DC motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
7061 Analysis and Comparison of Asymmetric H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Topologies

Authors: Manel Hammami, Gabriele Grandi

Abstract:

In recent years, multilevel inverters have become more attractive for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems, due to their known advantages over conventional H-bridge pulse width-modulated (PWM) inverters. They offer improved output waveforms, smaller filter size, lower total harmonic distortion (THD), higher output voltages and others. The most common multilevel converter topologies, presented in literature, are the neutral-point-clamped (NPC), flying capacitor (FC) and Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) converters. In both NPC and FC configurations, the number of components drastically increases with the number of levels what leads to complexity of the control strategy, high volume, and cost. Whereas, increasing the number of levels in case of the cascaded H-bridge configuration is a flexible solution. However, it needs isolated power sources for each stage, and it can be applied to PV systems only in case of PV sub-fields. In order to improve the ratio between the number of output voltage levels and the number of components, several hybrids and asymmetric topologies of multilevel inverters have been proposed in the literature such as the FC asymmetric H-bridge (FCAH) and the NPC asymmetric H-bridge (NPCAH) topologies. Another asymmetric multilevel inverter configuration that could have interesting applications is the cascaded asymmetric H-bridge (CAH), which is based on a modular half-bridge (two switches and one capacitor, also called level doubling network, LDN) cascaded to a full H-bridge in order to double the output voltage level. This solution has the same number of switches as the above mentioned AH configurations (i.e., six), and just one capacitor (as the FCAH). CAH is becoming popular, due to its simple, modular and reliable structure, and it can be considered as a retrofit which can be added in series to an existing H-Bridge configuration in order to double the output voltage levels. In this paper, an original and effective method for the analysis of the DC-link voltage ripple is given for single-phase asymmetric H-bridge multilevel inverters based on level doubling network (LDN). Different possible configurations of the asymmetric H-Bridge multilevel inverters have been considered and the analysis of input voltage and current are analytically determined and numerically verified by Matlab/Simulink for the case of cascaded asymmetric H-bridge multilevel inverters. A comparison between FCAH and the CAH configurations is done on the basis of the analysis of the DC and voltage ripple for the DC source (i.e., the PV system). The peak-to-peak DC and voltage ripple amplitudes are analytically calculated over the fundamental period as a function of the modulation index. On the basis of the maximum peak-to-peak values of low frequency and switching ripple voltage components, the DC capacitors can be designed. Reference is made to unity output power factor, as in case of most of the grid-connected PV generation systems. Simulation results will be presented in the full paper in order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed developments in all the operating conditions.

Keywords: asymmetric inverters, dc-link voltage, level doubling network, single-phase multilevel inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
7060 Comparative Study between Direct Torque Control and Sliding Mode Control of Sensorless Induction Machine

Authors: Fouad Berrabah, Saad Salah, Zaamouche Fares

Abstract:

In this paper, the Direct Torque Control (DTC) Control and the Sliding Mode Control for induction motor are presented and compared. The performance of the two control schemes is evaluated in terms of torque and current ripple, and transient response to variations of the torque , speed and robustness, trajectory tracking. In order to identify the more suitable solution for any application, both techniques are analyzed mathematically and simulation results are compared which advantages and drawbacks are discussed.

Keywords: induction motor, DTC- MRAS control, sliding mode control, robustness, trajectory tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 482
7059 Compensation of Cable Attenuation in Step Current Generators to Enable the Convolution Method for Calibration of Current Transducers

Authors: P. Treyer, M. Kujda, H. Urs

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to digitally compensate for the apparent discharge time constant of the coaxial cable so that the current step response is flat and can be used to calibrate current transducers using the convolution method. For proper use of convolution, the step response record length is required to be at least the same as the waveform duration to be evaluated. The current step generator based on the cable discharge is compared to the Blumlein generator. Moreover, the influence of each component of the system on the performance of the step is described, which allows building the appropriate measurement set-up. In the end, the calibration of current viewing resistors dedicated to high current impulse is computed.

Keywords: Blumlein generator, cable attenuation, convolution, current step generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
7058 Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Direct Torque Control Based ANFIS Controller for Electric Vehicle

Authors: Marulasiddappa H. B., Pushparajesh Viswanathan

Abstract:

Day by day, the uses of internal combustion engines (ICE) are deteriorating because of pollution and less fuel availability. In the present scenario, the electric vehicle (EV) plays a major role in the place of an ICE vehicle. The performance of EVs can be improved by the proper selection of electric motors. Initially, EV preferred induction motors for traction purposes, but due to complexity in controlling induction motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is replacing induction motor in EV due to its advantages. Direct torque control (DTC) is one of the known techniques for PMSM drive in EV to control the torque and speed. However, the presence of torque ripple is the main drawback of this technique. Many control strategies are followed to reduce the torque ripples in PMSM. In this paper, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller technique is proposed to reduce torque ripples and settling time. Here the performance parameters like torque, speed and settling time are compared between conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller with ANFIS controller.

Keywords: direct torque control, electric vehicle, torque ripple, PMSM

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
7057 A Study on Improvement of the Electromagnetic Vibration of a Polygon Mirror Scanner Motor

Authors: Yongmin You

Abstract:

Electric machines for office automation device such as printer and scanner have been required the low noise and vibration performance. Many researches about the low noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor have been also progressed. The noise and vibration of polygon mirror scanner motor can be classified by aerodynamic, structural and electromagnetic. Electromagnetic noise and vibration can be occurred by high cogging torque and nonsinusoidal back EMF. To improve the cogging torque and back EMF characteristic, we apply unequal air-gap. To analyze characteristic of a polygon mirror scanner motor, two dimensional finite element method is used. To minimize the cogging torque of a polygon mirror motor, Kriging based on latin hypercube sampling (LHS) is utilized. Compared to the initial model, the torque ripple of the optimized unequal air-gap model was reduced by 23.4 % while maintaining the back EMF and average torque. To verify the optimal design results, the experiment was performed. We measured the vibration in motors at 23,600 rpm which is the rated velocity. The radial and axial gravitational acceleration of the optimal model were declined more than seven times and three times, respectively. From these results, a shape optimized unequal polygon mirror scanner motor has shown the usefulness of an improvement in the torque ripple and electromagnetic vibration characteristic.

Keywords: polygon mirror scanner motor, optimal design, finite element method, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
7056 Optimization of a Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machine Using Laminated Segmented Rotor

Authors: Seyedmilad Kazemisangdehi, Seyedmehdi Kazemisangdehi

Abstract:

Flux switching permanent magnet machines are considered for wide range of applications because of their outstanding merits including high torque/power densities, high efficiency, simple and robust rotor structure. Therefore, several topologies have been proposed like the PM exited flux switching machine, hybrid excited flux switching type, and so on. Recently, a novel laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine was introduced. It features flux barriers on rotor structure to enhance the performances of machine including torque ripple reduction and also torque and efficiency improvements at the same time. This is while, the design of barriers was not optimized by the authors. Therefore, in this paper three coefficients regarding the position of the barriers are considered for optimization. The effect of each coefficient on the performance of this machine is investigated by finite element method and finally an optimized design of flux barriers based on these three coefficients is proposed from different points of view including electromagnetic torque maximization and cogging torque/torque ripple minimization. At optimum design from maximum developed torque aspect, this machine generates 0.65 Nm torque higher than that of the not-optimized design with an almost 0.4 % improvement in efficiency.

Keywords: finite element analysis, FSPM, laminated segmented rotor flux switching permanent magnet machine, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
7055 Robust Processing of Antenna Array Signals under Local Scattering Environments

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao

Abstract:

An adaptive array beamformer is designed for automatically preserving the desired signals while cancelling interference and noise. Providing robustness against model mismatches and tracking possible environment changes calls for robust adaptive beamforming techniques. The design criterion yields the well-known generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) beamformer. In practice, the knowledge of the desired steering vector can be imprecise, which often occurs due to estimation errors in the DOA of the desired signal or imperfect array calibration. In these situations, the SOI is considered as interference, and the performance of the GSC beamformer is known to degrade. This undesired behavior results in a reduction of the array output signal-to-interference plus-noise-ratio (SINR). Therefore, it is worth developing robust techniques to deal with the problem due to local scattering environments. As to the implementation of adaptive beamforming, the required computational complexity is enormous when the array beamformer is equipped with massive antenna array sensors. To alleviate this difficulty, a generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) with partially adaptivity for less adaptive degrees of freedom and faster adaptive response has been proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, it has been shown that the conventional GSC-based adaptive beamformers are usually very sensitive to the mismatch problems due to local scattering situations. In this paper, we present an effective GSC-based beamformer against the mismatch problems mentioned above. The proposed GSC-based array beamformer adaptively estimates the actual direction of the desired signal by using the presumed steering vector and the received array data snapshots. We utilize the predefined steering vector and a presumed angle tolerance range to carry out the required estimation for obtaining an appropriate steering vector. A matrix associated with the direction vector of signal sources is first created. Then projection matrices related to the matrix are generated and are utilized to iteratively estimate the actual direction vector of the desired signal. As a result, the quiescent weight vector and the required signal blocking matrix required for performing adaptive beamforming can be easily found. By utilizing the proposed GSC-based beamformer, we find that the performance degradation due to the considered local scattering environments can be effectively mitigated. To further enhance the beamforming performance, a signal subspace projection matrix is also introduced into the proposed GSC-based beamformer. Several computer simulation examples show that the proposed GSC-based beamformer outperforms the existing robust techniques.

Keywords: adaptive antenna beamforming, local scattering, signal blocking, steering mismatch

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
7054 Design, Control and Implementation of 300Wp Single Phase Photovoltaic Micro Inverter for Village Nano Grid Application

Authors: Ramesh P., Aby Joseph

Abstract:

Micro Inverters provide Module Embedded Solution for harvesting energy from small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. In addition to higher modularity & reliability (25 years of life), the MicroInverter has inherent advantages such as avoidance of long DC cables, eliminates module mismatch losses, minimizes partial shading effect, improves safety and flexibility in installations etc. Due to the above-stated benefits, the renewable energy technology with Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Micro Inverter becomes more widespread in Village Nano Grid application ensuring grid independence for rural communities and areas without access to electricity. While the primary objective of this paper is to discuss the problems related to rural electrification, this concept can also be extended to urban installation with grid connectivity. This work presents a comprehensive analysis of the power circuit design, control methodologies and prototyping of 300Wₚ Single Phase PV Micro Inverter. This paper investigates two different topologies for PV Micro Inverters, based on the first hand on Single Stage Flyback/ Forward PV Micro-Inverter configuration and the other hand on the Double stage configuration including DC-DC converter, H bridge DC-AC Inverter. This work covers Power Decoupling techniques to reduce the input filter capacitor size to buffer double line (100 Hz) ripple energy and eliminates the use of electrolytic capacitors. The propagation of the double line oscillation reflected back to PV module will affect the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) performance. Also, the grid current will be distorted. To mitigate this issue, an independent MPPT control algorithm is developed in this work to reject the propagation of this double line ripple oscillation to PV side to improve the MPPT performance and grid side to improve current quality. Here, the power hardware topology accepts wide input voltage variation and consists of suitably rated MOSFET switches, Galvanically Isolated gate drivers, high-frequency magnetics and Film capacitors with a long lifespan. The digital controller hardware platform inbuilt with the external peripheral interface is developed using floating point microcontroller TMS320F2806x from Texas Instruments. The firmware governing the operation of the PV Micro Inverter is written in C language and was developed using code composer studio Integrated Development Environment (IDE). In this work, the prototype hardware for the Single Phase Photovoltaic Micro Inverter with Double stage configuration was developed and the comparative analysis between the above mentioned configurations with experimental results will be presented.

Keywords: double line oscillation, micro inverter, MPPT, nano grid, power decoupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
7053 A Three Phase Shunt Active Power Filter for Currents Harmonics Elimination and Reactive Power Compensation

Authors: Amar Omeiri

Abstract:

This paper presents a three-phase shunt active power filter for current harmonics suppression and reactive power compensation using the supply current as reference. The proposed APF has a simple control circuit; it consists of detecting the supply current instead of the load current. The advantages of this APF are simplicity of control circuits and low implementation cost. The simulation results show that the proposed APF can compensate the reactive power and suppress current harmonics with two types of non-linear loads.

Keywords: active power filter, current harmonics and reactive power compensation, PWM inverter, Total Harmonic Distortion, power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
7052 Load Characteristics of Improved Howland Current Pump for Bio-Impedance Measurement

Authors: Zhao Weijie, Lin Xinjian, Liu Xiaojuan, Li Lihua

Abstract:

The Howland current pump is widely used in bio-impedance measurement. Much attention has been focused on the output impedance of the Howland circuit. Here we focus on the maximum load of the Howland source and discuss the relationship between the circuit parameters at maximum load. We conclude that the signal input terminal of the feedback resistor should be as large as possible, but that the current-limiting resistor should be smaller. The op-amp saturation voltage should also be high. The bandwidth of the circuit is proportional to the bandwidth of the op-amp. The Howland current pump was simulated using multisim12. When the AD8066AR was selected as the op-amp, the maximum load was 11.5 kΩ, and the Howland current pump had a stable output ipp to 2mAp up to 200 kHz. However, with an OPA847 op-amp and a load of 6.3 kΩ, the output current was also stable, and the frequency was as high as 3 MHz.

Keywords: bio-impedance, improved Howland current pump, load characteristics, bioengineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
7051 Power Reduction of Hall-Effect Sensor by Pulse Width Modulation of Spinning-Current

Authors: Hyungil Chae

Abstract:

This work presents a method to reduce spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor for low-power magnetic sensor applications. Spinning current of a Hall-effect sensor changes the direction of bias current periodically and can separate signals from DC-offset. The bias current is proportional to the sensor sensitivity but also increases the power consumption. To achieve both high sensitivity and low power consumption, the bias current can be pulse-width modulated. When the bias current duration Tb is reduced by a factor of N compared to the spinning current period of Tₛ/2, the total power consumption can be saved by N times. N can be large as long as the Hall-effect sensor settles down within Tb. The proposed scheme is implemented and simulated in a 0.18um CMOS process, and the power saving factor is 9.6 when N is 10. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by Institute for Information & communications Technology Promotion (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (20160001360022003, Development of Hall Semi-conductor for Smart Car and Device).

Keywords: chopper stabilization, Hall-effect sensor, pulse width modulation, spinning current

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
7050 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems

Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman

Abstract:

The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.

Keywords: fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector

Procedia PDF Downloads 93