Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7174

Search results for: building assessment

7174 Development of Risk Assessment and Occupational Safety Management Model for Building Construction Projects

Authors: Preeda Sansakorn, Min An

Abstract:

In order to be capable of dealing with uncertainties, subjectivities, including vagueness arising in building construction projects, the application of fuzzy reasoning technique based on fuzzy set theory is proposed. This study contributes significantly to the development of a fuzzy reasoning safety risk assessment model for building construction projects that could be employed to assess the risk magnitude of each hazardous event identified during construction, and a third parameter of probability of consequence is incorporated in the model. By using the proposed safety risk analysis methodology, more reliable and less ambiguities, which provide the safety risk management project team for decision-making purposes.

Keywords: safety risk assessment, building construction safety, fuzzy reasoning, construction risk assessment model, building construction projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
7173 Development of Mobile Application for Energy Consumption Assessment of University Buildings

Authors: MinHee Chung, BoYeob Lee, Yuri Kim, Eon Ku Rhee

Abstract:

With an increase in the interest in the energy conservation for buildings, and the emergence of many methods and easily-understandable approaches to it, energy conservation has now become the public’s main interest, as compared to in the past when it was only focused upon by experts. This study aims to help the occupants of a building to understand the energy efficiency and consumption of the building by providing them information on the building’s energy efficiency through a mobile application. The energy performance assessment models are proposed on the basis of the actual energy usage and building characteristics such as the architectural scheme and the building equipment. The university buildings in Korea are used as a case to demonstrate the mobile application.

Keywords: energy consumption, energy performance assessment, mobile application, university buildings

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7172 BIM-Based Tool for Sustainability Assessment and Certification Documents Provision

Authors: Taki Eddine Seghier, Mohd Hamdan Ahmad, Yaik-Wah Lim, Samuel Opeyemi Williams

Abstract:

The assessment of building sustainability to achieve a specific green benchmark and the preparation of the required documents in order to receive a green building certification, both are considered as major challenging tasks for green building design team. However, this labor and time-consuming process can take advantage of the available Building Information Modeling (BIM) features such as material take-off and scheduling. Furthermore, the workflow can be automated in order to track potentially achievable credit points and provide rating feedback for several design options by using integrated Visual Programing (VP) to handle the stored parameters within the BIM model. Hence, this study proposes a BIM-based tool that uses Green Building Index (GBI) rating system requirements as a unique input case to evaluate the building sustainability in the design stage of the building project life cycle. The tool covers two key models for data extraction, firstly, a model for data extraction, calculation and the classification of achievable credit points in a green template, secondly, a model for the generation of the required documents for green building certification. The tool was validated on a BIM model of residential building and it serves as proof of concept that building sustainability assessment of GBI certification can be automatically evaluated and documented through BIM.

Keywords: green building rating system, GBRS, building information modeling, BIM, visual programming, VP, sustainability assessment

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7171 A Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Approach for Assessing the Sustainability Index of Building Façades

Authors: Golshid Gilani, Albert De La Fuente, Ana Blanco

Abstract:

Sustainability assessment of new and existing buildings has generated a growing interest due to the evident environmental, social and economic impacts during their construction and service life. Façades, as one of the most important exterior elements of a building, may contribute to the building sustainability by reducing the amount of energy consumption and providing thermal comfort for the inhabitants, thus minimizing the environmental impact on both the building and on the environment. Various methods have been used for the sustainability assessment of buildings due to the importance of this issue. However, most of the existing methods mainly concentrate on environmental and economic aspects, disregarding the third pillar of sustainability, which is the social aspect. Besides, there is a little focus on comprehensive sustainability assessment of facades, as an important element of a building. This confirms the need of developing methods for assessing the sustainable performance of building façades as an important step in achieving building sustainability. In this respect, this paper aims at presenting a model for assessing the global sustainability of façade systems. for that purpose, the Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment (MIVES), a Multi-Criteria Decision Making model that integrates the main sustainability requirements (economic, environmental and social) and includes the concept of value functions, used as an assessment tool.

Keywords: façade, MCDM, MIVES, sustainability

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7170 A Study of Carbon Emissions during Building Construction

Authors: Jonggeon Lee, Sungho Tae, Sungjoon Suk, Keunhyeok Yang, George Ford, Michael E. Smith, Omidreza Shoghli

Abstract:

In recent years, research to reduce carbon emissions through quantitative assessment of building life cycle carbon emissions has been performed as it relates to the construction industry. However, most research efforts related to building carbon emissions assessment have been focused on evaluation during the operational phase of a building’s life span. Few comprehensive studies of the carbon emissions during a building’s construction phase have been performed. The purpose of this study is to propose an assessment method that quantitatively evaluates the carbon emissions of buildings during the construction phase. The study analysed the amount of carbon emissions produced by 17 construction trades, and selected four construction trades that result in high levels of carbon emissions: reinforced concrete work; sheathing work; foundation work; and form work. Building materials, and construction and transport equipment used for the selected construction trades were identified, and carbon emissions produced by the identified materials and equipment were calculated for these four construction trades. The energy consumption of construction and transport equipment was calculated by analysing fuel efficiency and equipment productivity rates. The combination of the expected levels of carbon emissions associated with the utilization of building materials and construction equipment provides means for estimating the quantity of carbon emissions related to the construction phase of a building’s life cycle. The proposed carbon emissions assessment method was validated by case studies.

Keywords: building construction phase, carbon emissions assessment, building life cycle

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7169 Downtime Modelling for the Post-Earthquake Building Assessment Phase

Authors: S. Khakurel, R. P. Dhakal, T. Z. Yeow

Abstract:

Downtime is one of the major sources (alongside damage and injury/death) of financial loss incurred by a structure in an earthquake. The length of downtime associated with a building after an earthquake varies depending on the time taken for the reaction (to the earthquake), decision (on the future course of action) and execution (of the decided course of action) phases. Post-earthquake assessment of buildings is a key step in the decision making process to decide the appropriate safety placarding as well as to decide whether a damaged building is to be repaired or demolished. The aim of the present study is to develop a model to quantify downtime associated with the post-earthquake building-assessment phase in terms of two parameters; i) duration of the different assessment phase; and ii) probability of different colour tagging. Post-earthquake assessment of buildings includes three stages; Level 1 Rapid Assessment including a fast external inspection shortly after the earthquake, Level 2 Rapid Assessment including a visit inside the building and Detailed Engineering Evaluation (if needed). In this study, the durations of all three assessment phases are first estimated from the total number of damaged buildings, total number of available engineers and the average time needed for assessing each building. Then, probability of different tag colours is computed from the 2010-11 Canterbury earthquake Sequence database. Finally, a downtime model for the post-earthquake building inspection phase is proposed based on the estimated phase length and probability of tag colours. This model is expected to be used for rapid estimation of seismic downtime within the Loss Optimisation Seismic Design (LOSD) framework.

Keywords: assessment, downtime, LOSD, Loss Optimisation Seismic Design, phase length, tag color

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7168 Mechanical Properties of Ancient Timber Structure Based on the Non Destructive Test Method: A Study to Feiyun Building, Shanxi, China

Authors: Annisa Dewanti Putri, Wang Juan, Y. Qing Shan

Abstract:

The structural assessment is one of a crucial part for ancient timber structure, in which this phase will be the reference for the maintenance and preservation phase. The mechanical properties of a structure are one of an important component of the structural assessment of building. Feiyun as one of the particular preserved building in China will become one of the Pioneer of Timber Structure Building Assessment. The 3-storey building which is located in Shanxi Province consists of complex ancient timber structure. Due to condition and preservation purpose, assessments (visual inspections, Non-Destructive Test and a Semi Non-Destructive test) were conducted. The stress wave measurement, moisture content analyzer, and the micro-drilling resistance meter data will overview the prediction of Mechanical Properties. As a result, the mechanical properties can be used for the next phase as reference for structural damage solutions.

Keywords: ancient structure, mechanical properties, non destructive test, stress wave, structural assessment, timber structure

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7167 Building Rating Systems: A Critical Review on Their Sustainability Compatibility

Authors: Divya Mohanan, Deepa G. Nair

Abstract:

The most accepted international definition of sustainable development quoted from the Brundtland Report published in 1987 states that development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This definition serves as a foundation for many fields including the building sector to consider sustainability and focuses on the three pillars of sustainability social, economic, and environment. The building industry due to its multi-faceted nature requires building codes, standards, and certification systems to effectively address the sustainability assessment. In the last decade, many buildings rating systems evolved that address sustainability in one way and many more are on the drawing boards yet to come. This paper attempts to offer a comprehensive literature review of seven popular building rating systems (LEED (US), BREEAM (UK), CASBEE (Japan), GRIHA, LEED, IGBC), scrutinizing their macro-areas, segments of sustainability and thus highlight the need for a framework which addresses the assessment of the building in terms of sustainability as a whole.

Keywords: building rating systems, sustainability, LEED, BREEAM, CASBEE, GRIHA, IGBC

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7166 A Case Study on Post-Occupancy Evaluation of User Satisfaction in Higher Educational Buildings

Authors: Yuanhong Zhao, Qingping Yang, Andrew Fox, Tao Zhang

Abstract:

Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is a systematic approach to assess the actual building performance after the building has been occupied for some time. In this paper, a structured POE assessment was conducted using the building use survey (BUS) methodology in two higher educational buildings in the United Kingdom. This study aims to help close the building performance gap, provide optimized building operation suggestions, and to improve occupants’ satisfaction level. In this research, the questionnaire survey investigated the influences of environmental factors on user satisfaction from the main aspects of building overall design, thermal comfort, perceived control, indoor environment quality for noise, lighting, ventilation, and other non-environmental factors, such as the background information about age, sex, time in buildings, workgroup size, and so on. The results indicate that the occupant satisfaction level with the main aspects of building overall design, indoor environment quality, and thermal comfort in summer and winter on both two buildings, which is lower than the benchmark data. The feedback of this POE assessment has been reported to the building management team to allow managers to develop high-performance building operation plans. Finally, this research provided improvement suggestions to the building operation system to narrow down the performance gap and improve the user work experience satisfaction and productivity level.

Keywords: building performance assessment systems, higher educational buildings, post-occupancy evaluation, user satisfaction

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7165 The Eco-Efficient Construction: A Review of Embodied Energy in Building Materials

Authors: Francesca Scalisi, Cesare Sposito

Abstract:

The building construction industry consumes a large amount of resources and energy, both during construction (embodied energy) and during the operational phase (operating energy). This paper presents a review of the literature on low carbon and low embodied energy materials in buildings. The embodied energy comprises the energy consumed during the extraction, processing, transportation, construction, and demolition of building materials. While designing a nearly zero energy building, it is necessary to choose and use materials, components, and technologies that allow to reduce the consumption of energy and also to reduce the emissions in the atmosphere during all the Life Cycle Assessment phases. The appropriate choice of building materials can contribute decisively to reduce the energy consumption of the building sector. The increasing worries for the environmental impact of construction materials are witnessed by a lot of studies. The mentioned worries have brought again the attention towards natural materials. The use of more sustainable construction materials and construction techniques represent a major contribution to the eco-efficiency of the construction industry and thus to a more sustainable development.

Keywords: embodied energy, embodied carbon, life cycle assessment, architecture, sustainability, material construction

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7164 Analysis of a Strengthening of a Building Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Nassereddine Attari

Abstract:

Each operation to strengthen or repair requires special consideration and requires the use of methods, tools and techniques appropriate to the situation and specific problems of each of the constructs. The aim of this paper is to study the pathology of building of reinforced concrete towards the earthquake and the vulnerability assessment using a non-linear Pushover analysis and to develop curves for a medium capacity building in order to estimate the damaged condition of the building.

Keywords: pushover analysis, earthquake, damage, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
7163 Application of Life Cycle Assessment “LCA” Approach for a Sustainable Building Design under Specific Climate Conditions

Authors: Djeffal Asma, Zemmouri Noureddine

Abstract:

In order for building designer to be able to balance environmental concerns with other performance requirements, they need clear and concise information. For certain decisions during the design process, qualitative guidance, such as design checklists or guidelines information may not be sufficient for evaluating the environmental benefits between different building materials, products and designs. In this case, quantitative information, such as that generated through a life cycle assessment, provides the most value. LCA provides a systematic approach to evaluating the environmental impacts of a product or system over its entire life. In the case of buildings life cycle includes the extraction of raw materials, manufacturing, transporting and installing building components or products, operating and maintaining the building. By integrating LCA into building design process, designers can evaluate the life cycle impacts of building design, materials, components and systems and choose the combinations that reduce the building life cycle environmental impact. This article attempts to give an overview of the integration of LCA methodology in the context of building design, and focuses on the use of this methodology for environmental considerations concerning process design and optimization. A multiple case study was conducted in order to assess the benefits of the LCA as a decision making aid tool during the first stages of the building design under specific climate conditions of the North East region of Algeria. It is clear that the LCA methodology can help to assess and reduce the impact of a building design and components on the environment even if the process implementation is rather long and complicated and lacks of global approach including human factors. It is also demonstrated that using LCA as a multi objective optimization of building process will certainly facilitates the improvement in design and decision making for both new design and retrofit projects.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, buildings, sustainability, elementary schools, environmental impacts

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7162 Analysis of Human Toxicity Potential of Major Building Material Production Stage Using Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Rakhyun Kim, Sungho Tae

Abstract:

Global environmental issues such as abnormal weathers due to global warming, resource depletion, and ecosystem distortions have been escalating due to rapid increase of population growth, and expansion of industrial and economic development. Accordingly, initiatives have been implemented by many countries to protect the environment through indirect regulation methods such as Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), in addition to direct regulations such as various emission standards. Following this trend, life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques that provide quantitative environmental information, such as Human Toxicity Potential (HTP), for buildings are being developed in the construction industry. However, at present, the studies on the environmental database of building materials are not sufficient to provide this support adequately. The purpose of this study is to analysis human toxicity potential of major building material production stage using life cycle assessment. For this purpose, the theoretical consideration of the life cycle assessment and environmental impact category was performed and the direction of the study was set up. That is, the major material in the global warming potential view was drawn against the building and life cycle inventory database was selected. The classification was performed about 17 kinds of substance and impact index, such as human toxicity potential, that it specifies in CML2001. The environmental impact of analysis human toxicity potential for the building material production stage was calculated through the characterization. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of building material in the same category was analyze based on the characterization impact which was calculated in this study. In this study, establishment of environmental impact coefficients of major building material by complying with ISO 14040. Through this, it is believed to effectively support the decisions of stakeholders to improve the environmental performance of buildings and provide a basis for voluntary participation of architects in environment consideration activities.

Keywords: human toxicity potential, major building material, life cycle assessment, production stage

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7161 An Approach towards Designing an Energy Efficient Building through Embodied Energy Assessment: A Case of Apartment Building in Composite Climate

Authors: Ambalika Ekka

Abstract:

In today’s world, the growing demand for urban built forms has resulted in the production and consumption of building materials i.e. embodied energy in building construction, leading to pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, new buildings will offer a unique opportunity to implement more energy efficient building without compromising on building performance of the building. Embodied energy of building materials forms major contribution to embodied energy in buildings. The paper results in an approach towards designing an energy efficient apartment building through embodied energy assessment. This paper discusses the trend of residential development in Rourkela, which includes three case studies of the contemporary houses, followed by architectural elements, number of storeys, predominant material use and plot sizes using primary data. It results in identification of predominant material used and other characteristics in urban area. Further, the embodied energy coefficients of various dominant building materials and alternative materials manufactured in Indian Industry is taken in consideration from secondary source i.e. literature study. The paper analyses the embodied energy by estimating materials and operational energy of proposed building followed by altering the specifications of the materials based on the building components i.e. walls, flooring, windows, insulation and roof through res build India software and comparison of different options is assessed with consideration of sustainable parameters. This paper results that autoclaved aerated concrete block only reaches the energy performance Index benchmark i.e. 69.35 kWh/m2 yr i.e. by saving 4% of operational energy and as embodied energy has no particular index, out of all materials it has the highest EE 23206202.43  MJ.

Keywords: energy efficient, embodied energy, EPI, building materials

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7160 Life Cycle Assessment of Mass Timber Structure, Construction Process as System Boundary

Authors: Mahboobeh Hemmati, Tahar Messadi, Hongmei Gu

Abstract:

Today, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a leading method in mitigating the environmental impacts emerging from the building sector. In this paper, LCA is used to quantify the Green House Gas (GHG) emissions during the construction phase of the largest mass timber residential structure in the United States, Adohi Hall. This building is a 200,000 square foot 708-bed complex located on the campus of the University of Arkansas. The energy used for buildings’ operation is the most dominant source of emissions in the building industry. Lately, however, the efforts were successful at increasing the efficiency of building operation in terms of emissions. As a result, the attention is now shifted to the embodied carbon, which is more noticeable in the building life cycle. Unfortunately, most of the studies have, however, focused on the manufacturing stage, and only a few have addressed to date the construction process. Specifically, less data is available about environmental impacts associated with the construction of mass timber. This study presents, therefore, an assessment of the environmental impact of the construction processes based on the real and newly built mass timber building mentioned above. The system boundary of this study covers modules A4 and A5 based on building LCA standard EN 15978. Module A4 includes material and equipment transportation. Module A5 covers the construction and installation process. This research evolves through 2 stages: first, to quantify materials and equipment deployed in the building, and second, to determine the embodied carbon associated with running equipment for construction materials, both transported to, and installed on, the site where the edifice is built. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the building is the primary metric considered in this research. The outcomes of this study bring to the front a better understanding of hotspots in terms of emission during the construction process. Moreover, the comparative analysis of the mass timber construction process with that of a theoretically similar steel building will enable an effective assessment of the environmental efficiency of mass timber.

Keywords: construction process, GWP, LCA, mass timber

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7159 Assessment of Causes of Building Collapse in Nigeria

Authors: Olufemi Oyedele

Abstract:

Building collapse (BC) in Nigeria is becoming a regular occurrence, each recording great casualties in the number of lives and materials lost. Building collapse is a situation where building which has been completed and occupied, completed but not occupied or under construction, collapses on its own due to action or inaction of man or due to natural event like earthquake, storm, flooding, tsunami or wildfire. It is different from building demolition. There are various causes of building collapse and each case requires expert judgment to decide the cause of its collapse. Rate of building collapse is a reflection of the level of organization and control of building activities and degree of sophistication of the construction professionals in a country. This study explored the use of case study by examining the causes of six (6) collapsed buildings (CB) across Nigeria. Samples of materials from the sites of the collapsed buildings were taken for testing and analysis, while critical observations were made at the sites to note the conditions of the ground (building base). The study found out that majority of the building collapses in Nigeria were due to poor workmanship, sub-standard building materials, followed by bad building base and poor design. The National Building Code 2006 is not effective due to lack of enforcement and the Physical Development Departments of states and Federal Capital Territory are just mere agents of corruption allowing all types of construction without building approvals.

Keywords: building collapse, concrete tests, differential settlement, integrity test, quality control

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7158 An Assessment of the Factors Affecting Green Building Technology (GBT) Adoption

Authors: Nuruddeen Usman, Usman Mohammed Gidado

Abstract:

A construction and post construction activity in buildings contributes to environmental degradation, because of the generation of solid waste during construction to the production of carbon dioxide by the occupants during utilization. These problems were caused as a result of lack of adopting green building technology during and after construction. However, this study aims at conceptualizing the factors that are affecting the adoption of green building technology with a view to suggest better ways for its successful adoption in the construction industry through developing a green building technology model. Thus, the research findings show that: Economic, social, cultural, and technological progresses are the factors affecting Green Building Technology Adoption. Therefore, identifying these factors and developing the model might help in the successful adoption of green building technology.

Keywords: green building technology, construction, post construction, degradation

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7157 3D Building Model Utilizing Airborne LiDAR Dataset and Terrestrial Photographic Images

Authors: J. Jasmee, I. Roslina, A. Mohammed Yaziz & A.H Juazer Rizal

Abstract:

The need of an effective building information collection method is vital to support a diversity of land development activities. At present, advances in remote sensing such as airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is an established technology for building information collection, location, and elevation of the reflecting laser points towards the construction of 3D building models. In this study, LiDAR datasets and terrestrial photographic images of buildings towards the construction of 3D building models is explored. It is found that, the quantitative accuracy of the constructed 3D building model, namely in the horizontal and vertical components were ± 0.31m (RMSEx,y) and ± 0.145m (RMSEz) respectively. The accuracies were computed based on sixty nine (69) horizontal and twenty (20) vertical surveyed points. As for the qualitative assessment, it is shown that the appearance of the 3D building model is adequate to support the requirements of LOD3 presentation based on the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard CityGML.

Keywords: LiDAR datasets, DSM, DTM, 3D building models

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7156 Developing a Framework to Aid Sustainable Assessment in Indian Buildings

Authors: P. Amarnath, Albert Thomas

Abstract:

Buildings qualify to be the major consumer of energy and resources thereby urging the designers, architects and policy makers to place a great deal of effort in achieving and implementing sustainable building strategies in construction. Green building rating systems help a great deal in this by measuring the effectiveness of these strategies along with the escalation of building performance in social, environmental and economic perspective, and construct new sustainable buildings. However, for a country like India, enormous population and its rapid rate of growth impose an increasing burden on the country's limited and continuously degrading natural resource base, which also includes the land available for construction. In general, the number of sustainable rated buildings in India is very minimal primarily due to the complexity and obstinate nature of the assessment systems/regulations that restrict the stakeholders and designers in proper implementation and utilization of these rating systems. This paper aims to introduce a data driven and user-friendly framework which cross compares the present prominent green building rating systems such as LEED, BREEAM, and GRIHA and subsequently help the users to rate their proposed building design as per the regulations of these assessment frameworks. This framework is validated using the input data collected from green buildings constructed globally. The proposed system has prospects to encourage the users to test the efficiency of various sustainable construction practices and thereby promote more sustainable buildings in the country.

Keywords: BREEAM, GRIHA, green building rating systems, LEED, sustainable buildings

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7155 A Proposal for Developing a Post Occupancy Evaluation Sustainability Assessment Tool for Refurbished Historic Government Buildings

Authors: Hasnizan Aksah, Adi Irfan Che Ani

Abstract:

Refurbished historic government buildings should perform as intended to support the organization’s goals that enhance occupant satisfaction. However, these buildings may have issues associated with functional performance evaluation. The aim of this study is to develop a Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) sustainability assessment tool for functional performance evaluation of refurbished historic government buildings. Developing an assessment tool requires a strategic methodology for a logical and cohesive tool that incorporating relevant theories and practical experiences. In this study, mixed method approaches use to collect all necessary data to achieve the objectives of this study. The design of sampling involves are interviews and survey questionnaires to relevant professionals in order to evaluate the criteria and problem encircled in functional performance evaluation. Then, the involvement of expert panels is required in establishing the assessment tool. During the process of investigation on the functional performance criteria, it was discovered that is seen to be critical in aspects of comfort, safety, and services. The proposed assessment tool has a significant role in providing opportunities for the improvement of building performance especially on functional performance for the future historic government building refurbishment project. It is hoped that the tool developed from this study will give benefits to related professionals, public agencies, local municipality, and relevant interested parties in historic building management.

Keywords: refurbished historic government buildings, functional performance, Post Occupancy Evaluation, sustainability

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7154 An Overview of Sustainable Development for Greening Roadmap in Asia

Authors: Robby Dwiko Juliardi, Queena K. Qian

Abstract:

Economic, environmental, and human considerations, as sustainable building design principles, are to be balanced and integrated into building design strategy. Building codes often suggest the efficient and sustainable building products, such as energy-efficient fixtures. However, building departments sometimes fail to manage the full range of requirements in the building assessment, such as siting, neighborhood proximity, and public facility, etc. Hence, it shows roadmap develops the future, an extended look at the future of a chosen field of inquiry composed from the collective knowledge and imagination of the brightest drivers of change in that field. This paper is taken from the best practice of green building implementation in a few countries of Asia (China, Malaysia, and India). Sustainable development will be presented on developing the roadmap of sustainability development of a country. Findings on the similarities and dissimilarities of those countries will show: (1) A general knowledge development on the sustainable green roadmap in Asia, (2) What are the components of developing the roadmap, and (3) What affects the government regulation in a political ecology.

Keywords: developing roadmap, green building, political ecology, sustainable development

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7153 Sustainable Building Technologies for Post-Disaster Temporary Housing: Integrated Sustainability Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: S. M. Amin Hosseini, Oriol Pons, Albert de la Fuente

Abstract:

After natural disasters, displaced people (DP) require important numbers of housing units, which have to be erected quickly due to emergency pressures. These tight timeframes can cause the multiplication of the environmental construction impacts. These negative impacts worsen the already high energy consumption and pollution caused by the building sector. Indeed, post-disaster housing, which is often carried out without pre-planning, usually causes high negative environmental impacts, besides other economic and social impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a suitable strategy to deal with this problem which also takes into account the instability of its causes, like changing ratio between rural and urban population. To this end, this study aims to present a model that assists decision-makers to choose the most suitable building technology for post-disaster housing units. This model focuses on the alternatives sustainability and fulfillment of the stakeholders’ satisfactions. Four building technologies have been analyzed to determine the most sustainability technology and to validate the presented model. In 2003, Bam earthquake DP had their temporary housing units (THUs) built using these four technologies: autoclaved aerated concrete blocks (AAC), concrete masonry unit (CMU), pressed reeds panel (PR), and 3D sandwich panel (3D). The results of this analysis confirm that PR and CMU obtain the highest sustainability indexes. However, the second life scenario of THUs could have considerable impacts on the results.

Keywords: sustainability, post-disaster temporary housing, integrated value model for sustainability assessment, life cycle assessment

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7152 Assessment and Optimisation of Building Services Electrical Loads for Off-Grid or Hybrid Operation

Authors: Desmond Young

Abstract:

In building services electrical design, a key element of any project will be assessing the electrical load requirements. This needs to be done early in the design process to allow the selection of infrastructure that would be required to meet the electrical needs of the type of building. The type of building will define the type of assessment made, and the values applied in defining the maximum demand for the building, and ultimately the size of supply or infrastructure required, and the application that needs to be made to the distribution network operator, or alternatively to an independent network operator. The fact that this assessment needs to be undertaken early in the design process provides limits on the type of assessment that can be used, as different methods require different types of information, and sometimes this information is not available until the latter stages of a project. A common method applied in the earlier design stages of a project, typically during stages 1,2 & 3, is the use of benchmarks. It is a possibility that some of the benchmarks applied are excessive in relation to the current loads that exist in a modern installation. This lack of accuracy is based on information which does not correspond to the actual equipment loads that are used. This includes lighting and small power loads, where the use of more efficient equipment and lighting has reduced the maximum demand required. The electrical load can be used as part of the process to assess the heat generated from the equipment, with the heat gains from other sources, this feeds into the sizing of the infrastructure required to cool the building. Any overestimation of the loads would contribute to the increase in the design load for the heating and ventilation systems. Finally, with the new policies driving the industry to decarbonise buildings, a prime example being the recently introduced London Plan, loads are potentially going to increase. In addition, with the advent of the pandemic and changes to working practices, and the adoption of electric heating and vehicles, a better understanding of the loads that should be applied will aid in ensuring that infrastructure is not oversized, as a cost to the client, or undersized to the detriment of the building. In addition, more accurate benchmarks and methods will allow assessments to be made for the incorporation of energy storage and renewable technologies as these technologies become more common in buildings new or refurbished.

Keywords: energy, ADMD, electrical load assessment, energy benchmarks

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7151 Life Cycle Assessment as a Decision Making for Window Performance Comparison in Green Building Design

Authors: Ghada Elshafei, Abdelazim Negm

Abstract:

Life cycle assessment is a technique to assess the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or service, by compiling an inventory of relevant energy and material inputs and environmental releases; evaluating the potential environmental impacts associated with identified inputs and releases; and interpreting the results to help you make a more informed decision. In this paper, the life cycle assessment of aluminum and beech wood as two commonly used materials in Egypt for window frames are heading, highlighting their benefits and weaknesses. Window frames of the two materials have been assessed on the basis of their production, energy consumption and environmental impacts. It has been found that the climate change of the windows made of aluminum and beech wood window, for a reference window (1.2m × 1.2m), are 81.7 mPt and - 52.5 mPt impacts respectively. Among the most important results are: fossil fuel consumption, potential contributions to the green building effect and quantities of solid waste tend to be minor for wood products compared to aluminum products; incineration of wood products can cause higher impacts of acidification and eutrophication than aluminum, whereas thermal energy can be recovered.

Keywords: aluminum window, beech wood window, green building, life cycle assessment, life cycle analysis, SimaPro software, window frame

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7150 Probabilistic Seismic Loss Assessment of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frame Buildings Pre- and Post-Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Flora, A. Di Lascio, D. Cardone, G. Gesualdi, G. Perrone

Abstract:

This paper considers the seismic assessment and retrofit of a pilotis-type RC frame building, which was designed for gravity loads only, prior to the introduction of seismic design provisions. Pilotis-type RC frame buildings, featuring an uniform infill throughout the height and an open ground floor, were, and still are, quite popular all over the world, as they offer large open areas very suitable for retail space at the ground floor. These architectural advantages, however, are of detriment to the building seismic behavior, as they can determine a soft-storey collapse mechanism. Extensive numerical analyses are carried out to quantify and benchmark the performance of the selected building, both in terms of overall collapse capacity and expected losses. Alternative retrofit strategies are then examined, including: (i) steel jacketing of RC columns and beam-column joints, (ii) steel bracing and (iv) seismic isolation. The Expected Annual Loss (EAL) of the selected case-study building, pre- and post-rehabilitation, is evaluated, following a probabilistic approach. The breakeven time of each solution is computed, comparing the initial cost of the retrofit intervention with expected benefit in terms of EAL reduction.

Keywords: expected annual loss, reinforced concrete buildings, seismic loss assessment, seismic retrofit

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7149 The Development of Assessment Criteria Framework for Sustainable Healthcare Buildings in China

Authors: Chenyao Shen, Jie Shen

Abstract:

The rating system provides an effective framework for assessing building environmental performance and integrating sustainable development into building and construction processes; as it can be used as a design tool by developing appropriate sustainable design strategies and determining performance measures to guide the sustainable design and decision-making processes. Healthcare buildings are resource (water, energy, etc.) intensive. To maintain high-cost operations and complex medical facilities, they require a great deal of hazardous and non-hazardous materials, stringent control of environmental parameters, and are responsible for producing polluting emission. Compared with other types of buildings, the impact of healthcare buildings on the full cycle of the environment is particularly large. With broad recognition among designers and operators that energy use can be reduced substantially, many countries have set up their own green rating systems for healthcare buildings. There are four main green healthcare building evaluation systems widely acknowledged in the world - Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC), which was jointly organized by the United States HCWH and CMPBS in 2003; BREEAM Healthcare, issued by the British Academy of Building Research (BRE) in 2008; the Green Star-Healthcare v1 tool, released by the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA) in 2009; and LEED Healthcare 2009, released by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) in 2011. In addition, the German Association of Sustainable Building (DGNB) has also been developing the German Sustainable Building Evaluation Criteria (DGNB HC). In China, more and more scholars and policy makers have recognized the importance of assessment of sustainable development, and have adapted some tools and frameworks. China’s first comprehensive assessment standard for green building (the GBTs) was issued in 2006 (lately updated in 2014), promoting sustainability in the built-environment and raise awareness of environmental issues among architects, engineers, contractors as well as the public. However, healthcare building was not involved in the evaluation system of GBTs because of its complex medical procedures, strict requirements of indoor/outdoor environment and energy consumption of various functional rooms. Learn from advanced experience of GGHC, BREEAM, and LEED HC above, China’s first assessment criteria for green hospital/healthcare buildings was finally released in December 2015. Combined with both quantitative and qualitative assessment criteria, the standard highlight the differences between healthcare and other public buildings in meeting the functional needs for medical facilities and special groups. This paper has focused on the assessment criteria framework for sustainable healthcare buildings, for which the comparison of different rating systems is rather essential. Descriptive analysis is conducted together with the cross-matrix analysis to reveal rich information on green assessment criteria in a coherent manner. The research intends to know whether the green elements for healthcare buildings in China are different from those conducted in other countries, and how to improve its assessment criteria framework.

Keywords: assessment criteria framework, green building design, healthcare building, building performance rating tool

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7148 New Evaluation Methodology for Solidification Product Durability Assessment

Authors: Bozena Dohnalkova, Jakub Hodul, Rostislav Drochytka, Jana Kosikova

Abstract:

This paper deals with a proposal of a new methodology for durability assessment of solidification product for its safe further use. The new methodology is based on a review of the current state of assessment of treated waste in Czech Republic and abroad. The aim of the paper is to propose an optimal evaluation methodology for verifying properties of solidification product to ensure its safe further use in building industry.

Keywords: solidification, stabilization, durability, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
7147 Long-Term Economic-Ecological Assessment of Optimal Local Heat-Generating Technologies for the German Unrefurbished Residential Building Stock on the Quarter Level

Authors: M. A. Spielmann, L. Schebek

Abstract:

In order to reach the long-term national climate goals of the German government for the building sector, substantial energetic measures have to be executed. Historically, those measures were primarily energetic efficiency measures at the buildings’ shells. Advanced technologies for the on-site generation of heat (or other types of energy) often are not feasible at this small spatial scale of a single building. Therefore, the present approach uses the spatially larger dimension of a quarter. The main focus of the present paper is the long-term economic-ecological assessment of available decentralized heat-generating (CHP power plants and electrical heat pumps) technologies at the quarter level for the German unrefurbished residential buildings. Three distinct terms have to be described methodologically: i) Quarter approach, ii) Economic assessment, iii) Ecological assessment. The quarter approach is used to enable synergies and scaling effects over a single-building. For the present study, generic quarters that are differentiated according to significant parameters concerning their heat demand are used. The core differentiation of those quarters is made by the construction time period of the buildings. The economic assessment as the second crucial parameter is executed with the following structure: Full costs are quantized for each technology combination and quarter. The investment costs are analyzed on an annual basis and are modeled with the acquisition of debt. Annuity loans are assumed. Consequently, for each generic quarter, an optimal technology combination for decentralized heat generation is provided in each year of the temporal boundaries (2016-2050). The ecological assessment elaborates for each technology combination and each quarter a Life Cycle assessment. The measured impact category hereby is GWP 100. The technology combinations for heat production can be therefore compared against each other concerning their long-term climatic impacts. Core results of the approach can be differentiated to an economic and ecological dimension. With an annual resolution, the investment and running costs of different energetic technology combinations are quantified. For each quarter an optimal technology combination for local heat supply and/or energetic refurbishment of the buildings within the quarter is provided. Coherently to the economic assessment, the climatic impacts of the technology combinations are quantized and compared against each other.

Keywords: building sector, economic-ecological assessment, heat, LCA, quarter level

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
7146 Seismic Assessment of an Existing Dual System RC Buildings in Madinah City

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail

Abstract:

A 15-storey RC building, studied in this paper, is representative of modern building type constructed in Madina City in Saudi Arabia before 10 years ago. These buildings are almost consisting of reinforced concrete skeleton, i. e. columns, beams and flat slab as well as shear walls in the stairs and elevator areas arranged in the way to have a resistance system for lateral loads (wind–earthquake loads). In this study, the dynamic properties of the 15-storey RC building were identified using ambient motions recorded at several spatially-distributed locations within each building. After updating the mathematical models for this building with the experimental results, three dimensional pushover analysis (nonlinear static analysis) was carried out using SAP2000 software incorporating inelastic material properties for concrete, infill and steel. The effect of modeling the building with and without infill walls on the performance point as well as capacity and demand spectra due to EQ design spectrum function in Madina area has been investigated. The response modification factor (R) for the 15 storey RC building is evaluated from capacity and demand spectra (ATC-40). The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the expected performance of structural systems by estimating, strength and deformation demands in design, and comparing these demands to available capacities at the performance levels of interest. The results are summarized and discussed.

Keywords: seismic assessment, pushover analysis, ambient vibration, modal update

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
7145 Effects of Ground Motion Characteristics on Damage of RC Buildings: A Detailed Investiagation

Authors: Mohamed Elassaly

Abstract:

The damage status of RC buildings is greatly influenced by the characteristics of the imposed ground motion. Peak Ground Acceleration and frequency contents are considered the main two factors that affect ground motion characteristics; hence, affecting the seismic response of RC structures and consequently their damage state. A detailed investigation on the combined effects of these two factors on damage assessment of RC buildings, is carried out. Twenty one earthquake records are analyzed and arranged into three groups, according to their frequency contents. These records are used in an investigation to define the expected damage state that would be attained by RC buildings, if subjected to varying ground motion characteristics. The damage assessment is conducted through examining drift ratios and damage indices of the overall structure and the significant structural components of RC building. Base and story shear of RC building model, are also investigated, for cases when the model is subjected to the chosen twenty one earthquake records. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 2-dimensional model of a 12-story R.C. building.

Keywords: damage, frequency content, ground motion, PGA, RC building, seismic

Procedia PDF Downloads 339