Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 66

Search results for: Queena K. Qian

66 An Overview of Sustainable Development for Greening Roadmap in Asia

Authors: Robby Dwiko Juliardi, Queena K. Qian

Abstract:

Economic, environmental, and human considerations, as sustainable building design principles, are to be balanced and integrated into building design strategy. Building codes often suggest the efficient and sustainable building products, such as energy-efficient fixtures. However, building departments sometimes fail to manage the full range of requirements in the building assessment, such as siting, neighborhood proximity, and public facility, etc. Hence, it shows roadmap develops the future, an extended look at the future of a chosen field of inquiry composed from the collective knowledge and imagination of the brightest drivers of change in that field. This paper is taken from the best practice of green building implementation in a few countries of Asia (China, Malaysia, and India). Sustainable development will be presented on developing the roadmap of sustainability development of a country. Findings on the similarities and dissimilarities of those countries will show: (1) A general knowledge development on the sustainable green roadmap in Asia, (2) What are the components of developing the roadmap, and (3) What affects the government regulation in a political ecology.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Political ecology, Green Building, developing roadmap

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65 Towards Security in Virtualization of SDN

Authors: Kai Qian, Wanqing You, Xi He, Ying Qian

Abstract:

In this paper, the potential security issues brought by the virtualization of a Software Defined Networks (SDN) would be analyzed. The virtualization of SDN is achieved by FlowVisor (FV). With FV, a physical network is divided into multiple isolated logical networks while the underlying resources are still shared by different slices (isolated logical networks). However, along with the benefits brought by network virtualization, it also presents some issues regarding security. By examining security issues existing in an OpenFlow network, which uses FlowVisor to slice it into multiple virtual networks, we hope we can get some significant results and also can get further discussions among the security of SDN virtualization.

Keywords: Security, Network, Virtualization, SDN

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64 Hierarchical Queue-Based Task Scheduling with CloudSim

Authors: Kai Qian, Wanqing You, Ying Qian

Abstract:

The concepts of Cloud Computing provide users with infrastructure, platform and software as service, which make those services more accessible for people via Internet. To better analysis the performance of Cloud Computing provisioning policies as well as resources allocation strategies, a toolkit named CloudSim proposed. With CloudSim, the Cloud Computing environment can be easily constructed by modelling and simulating cloud computing components, such as datacenter, host, and virtual machine. A good scheduling strategy is the key to achieve the load balancing among different machines as well as to improve the utilization of basic resources. Recently, the existing scheduling algorithms may work well in some presumptive cases in a single machine; however they are unable to make the best decision for the unforeseen future. In real world scenario, there would be numbers of tasks as well as several virtual machines working in parallel. Based on the concepts of multi-queue, this paper presents a new scheduling algorithm to schedule tasks with CloudSim by taking into account several parameters, the machines’ capacity, the priority of tasks and the history log.

Keywords: Information Technology, Load Balancing, hierarchical queue, CloudSim

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63 Translating Discourse Organization Structures Used in Chinese and English Scientific and Engineering Writings

Authors: Ming Qian, Davis Qian

Abstract:

This study compares the different organization structures of Chinese and English writing discourses in the engineering and scientific fields, and recommends approaches for translators to convert the organization structures properly. Based on existing intercultural communication literature, English authors tend to deductively give their main points at the beginning, following with detailed explanations or arguments afterwards while the Chinese authors tend to place their main points inductively towards the end. In this study, this hypothesis has been verified by the authors’ Chinese-to-English translation experiences in the fields of science and engineering (e.g. journal papers, conference papers and monographs). The basic methodology used is the comparison of writings by Chinese authors with writings of the same or similar topic written by English authors in terms of organization structures. Translators should be aware of this nuance, so that instead of limiting themselves to translating the contents of an article in its original structure, they can convert the structures to fill the cross-culture gap. This approach can be controversial because if a translator changes the structure organization of a paragraph (e.g. from a 'because-therefore' inductive structure by a Chinese author to a deductive structure in English), this change of sentence order could be questioned by the original authors. For this reason, translators need to properly inform the original authors on the intercultural differences of English and Chinese writing (e.g. inductive structure versus deductive structure), and work with the original authors to maintain accuracy while converting from one structure used in a source language to another structure in the target language. The authors have incorporated these methodologies into their translation practices and work closely with the authors on the inter-cultural organization structure mapping. Translating discourse organization structure should become a standard practice in the translation process.

Keywords: Intercultural Communication, Information Structure, translation practice, discourse structure

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62 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weiyong Ying, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian

Abstract:

Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: gadolinium, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, carbon number distributions

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61 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wang Ye, Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi

Abstract:

Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

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60 Residual Life Estimation of K-out-of-N Cold Standby System

Authors: Bo Guo, Qian Zhao, Shi-Qi Liu, Zhi-Jun Cheng, Xiao-Yue Wu

Abstract:

Cold standby redundancy is considered to be an effective mechanism for improving system reliability and is widely used in industrial engineering. However, because of the complexity of the reliability structure, there is little literature studying on the residual life of cold standby system consisting of complex components. In this paper, a simulation method is presented to predict the residual life of k-out-of-n cold standby system. In practical cases, failure information of a system is either unknown, partly unknown or completely known. Our proposed method is designed to deal with the three scenarios, respectively. Differences between the procedures are analyzed. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed simulation method.

Keywords: cold standby system, k-out-of-n, residual life, simulation sampling

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59 Catalytic Study of Methanol-to-Propylene Conversion over Nano-Sized HZSM-5

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Jianwen Li, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian

Abstract:

Methanol-to-propylene conversion was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over nano-sized HZSM-5 zeolites. The HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized with different Si/Al ratio and silicon sources, and treated with NaOH. The structural property, morphology, and acidity of catalysts were measured by XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The results indicate that the increment of Si/Al ratio decreased the acidity of catalysts and then improved propylene selectivity, while silicon sources had slight impact on the acidity but affected the product distribution. The desilication after alkali treatment could increase intracrystalline mesopores and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: alkali treatment, HZSM-5, methanol-to-propylene, synthesis condition

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58 Acoustic Performance and Application of Three Personalized Sound-Absorbing Materials

Authors: Fangying Wang, Zhang Sanming, Ni Qian

Abstract:

In recent years, more and more personalized sound absorbing materials have entered the Chinese room acoustical decoration market. The acoustic performance of three kinds of personalized sound-absorbing materials: Flame-retardant Flax Fiber Sound-absorbing Cotton, Eco-Friendly Sand Acoustic Panel and Transparent Micro-perforated Panel (Film) are tested by Reverberation Room Method. The sound absorption characteristic curves show that their performance match for or even exceed the traditional sound absorbing material. Through the application in the actual projects, these personalized sound-absorbing materials also proved their sound absorption ability and unique decorative effect.

Keywords: acoustic performance, application prospect personalized sound-absorbing materials

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57 Experimental Study on the Molecular Spring Isolator

Authors: Qian Chen, Muchun Yu, Xue Gao

Abstract:

As a novel passive vibration isolation technology, molecular spring isolator (MSI) is investigated in this paper. An MSI consists of water and hydrophobic zeolites as working medium. Under periodic excitation, water molecules intrude into hydrophobic pores of zeolites when the pressure rises and water molecules extrude from hydrophobic pores when pressure drops. At the same time, energy is stored, released and dissipated. An MSI of piston-cylinder structure was designed in this work. Experiments were conducted to investigate the stiffness properties of MSI. The results show that MSI exhibits high-static-low dynamic (HSLD) stiffness. Furthermore, factors such as the quantity of zeolites, temperature, and ions in water are proved to have an influence on the stiffness properties of MSI.

Keywords: Vibration Isolation, Stiffness, hydrophobic zeolites, molecular spring

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56 Measurements of Radial Velocity in Fixed Fluidized Bed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Using LDV

Authors: Xiaolai Zhang, Weiyong Ying, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Qiwen Sun

Abstract:

High temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process use fixed fluidized bed as a reactor. In order to understand the flow behavior in the fluidized bed better, the research of how the radial velocity affect the entire flow field is necessary. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the radial velocity distribution along the diameter direction of the cross-section of the particle in a fixed fluidized bed. The velocity in the cross-section is fluctuating within a small range. The direction of the speed is a random phenomenon. In addition to r/R is 1, the axial velocity are more than 6 times of the radial velocity, the radial velocity has little impact on the axial velocity in a fixed fluidized bed.

Keywords: velocity, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, Fixed fluidized bed, LDV

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55 Effect of Relative Humidity on Corrosion Behavior of SN-0.7Cu Solder under Polyvinyl Chloride Fire Smoke Atmosphere

Authors: Shouxiang Lu, Qian Li

Abstract:

With the rapid increase in electric power use, wire and cable fire occur more and more frequent. The fire smoke has a corrosive effect on the solders, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the effect of environment relative humidity on corrosion behavior of Sn-0.7Cu solder has been researched under 140 g·m⁻³ polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire smoke atmosphere. The mass loss of Sn-0.7Cu solder increased with the relative humidity. Furthermore, the microstructures and corrosion mechanism were analyzed by using SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result shows that Sn₂₁Cl₁₆(OH)₁₄O₆ is the main corrosion products and the corrosion process is an electrochemical reaction. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.

Keywords: Corrosion, relative humidity, fire smoke, Sn-0.7Cu solder

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54 A Plasmonic Mass Spectrometry Approach for Detection of Small Nutrients and Toxins

Authors: Kun Qian, Haiyang Su

Abstract:

We developed a novel plasmonic matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) approach to detect small nutrients and toxin in complex biological emulsion samples. We used silver nanoshells (SiO₂@Ag) with optimized structures as matrices and achieved direct analysis of ~6 nL of human breast milk without any enrichment or separation. We performed identification and quantitation of small nutrients and toxins with limit-of-detection down to 0.4 pmol (for melamine) and reaction time shortened to minutes, superior to the conventional biochemical methods currently in use. Our approach contributed to the near-future application of MALDI MS in a broad field and personalized design of plasmonic materials for real case bio-analysis.

Keywords: Toxins, Mass Spectrometry, plasmonic materials, laser desorption/ionization, small nutrients

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53 Comparison of ANN and Finite Element Model for the Prediction of Ultimate Load of Thin-Walled Steel Perforated Sections in Compression

Authors: Zhi-Jun Lu, Qi Lu, Meng Wu, Qian Xiang, Jun Gu

Abstract:

The analysis of perforated steel members is a 3D problem in nature, therefore the traditional analytical expressions for the ultimate load of thin-walled steel sections cannot be used for the perforated steel member design. In this study, finite element method (FEM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used to simulate the process of stub column tests based on specific codes. Results show that compared with those of the FEM model, the ultimate load predictions obtained from ANN technique were much closer to those obtained from the physical experiments. The ANN model for the solving the hard problem of complex steel perforated sections is very promising.

Keywords: finite element method (FEM), artificial neural network (ANN), perforated sections, thin-walled Steel, ultimate load

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52 The Influence of 3D Printing Course on Middle School Students' Spatial Thinking Ability

Authors: Wang Xingjuan, Qian Dongming

Abstract:

As a common thinking ability, spatial thinking ability plays an increasingly important role in the information age. The key to cultivating students' spatial thinking ability is to cultivate students' ability to process and transform graphics. The 3D printing course enables students to constantly touch the rotation and movement of objects during the modeling process and to understand spatial graphics from different views. To this end, this article combines the classic PSVT: R test to explore the impact of 3D printing courses on the spatial thinking ability of middle school students. The results of the study found that: (1) Through the study of the 3D printing course, the students' spatial ability test scores have been significantly improved, which indirectly reflects the improvement of the spatial thinking ability level. (2) The student's spatial thinking ability test results are influenced by the parent's occupation.

Keywords: influence, middle school students, spatial thinking ability

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51 The Current Status of Middle Class Internet Use in China: An Analysis Based on the Chinese General Social Survey 2015 Data and Semi-Structured Investigation

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

In today's China, the well-educated middle class, with stable jobs and above-average income, are the driving force behind its Internet society. Through the analysis of data from the 2015 Chinese General Social Survey and 50 interviewees, this study investigates the current situation of this group’s specific internet usage. The findings of this study demonstrate that daily life among the members of this socioeconomic group is closely tied to the Internet. For Chinese middle class, the Internet is used to socialize and entertain self and others. It is also used to search for and share information as well as to build their identities. The empirical results of this study will provide a reference, supported by factual data, for enterprises seeking to target the Chinese middle class through online marketing efforts.

Keywords: Online Marketing, China, middle class, internet use, network behaviour

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50 Fabrication of Profile-Coated Rhodium X-Ray Focusing Mirror

Authors: Bing Shi, Raymond A. Conley, Jun Qian, Xianbo Shi, Steve Heald, Lahsen Assoufid

Abstract:

A pair of Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors were designed and fabricated for experiments within a hard x-ray energy range lower than 20 kev at beamline 20-ID in a synchrotron radiation facility, Advanced Photon Source (APS). The KB mirrors were deposited with Rhodium thin films using a customized designed and self-built magnetron sputtering system. The purpose of these mirrors is to focus the x-ray beam down to 1 micron. This is the first pair of Rhodium-coated KB mirrors with elliptical shape that was fabricated using the profile coating technique. The profile coating technique is to coat the substrate with designed shape using masks during the deposition. The mirrors were equipped at the beamline and achieved the designed focusing requirement. The details of the mirror design, the fabrication process, and the customized magnetron sputtering deposition system will be discussed.

Keywords: X-Ray, magnetron-sputtering deposition, focusing optics, rhodium thin film

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49 Bubbling in Gas Solids Fluidization at a Strouhal Number Tuned for Low Energy Dissipation

Authors: Chenxi Zhang, Weizhong Qian, Fei Wei

Abstract:

Gas solids multiphase flow is common in many engineering and environmental applications. Turbulence and multiphase flows are two of the most challenging topics in fluid mechanics, and when combined they pose a formidable challenge, even in the dilute dispersed regime. Dimensionless numbers are important in mechanics because their constancy can imply dynamic similarity between systems, despite possible differences in medium or scale. In the fluid mechanics literature, the Strouhal number is usually associated with the dimensionless shedding frequency of a von Karman wake; here we introduce this dimensionless number to investigate bubbling in gas solids fluidization. St=fA/U, which divides stroke frequency (f) and amplitude (A) by forward speed (U). The bubble behavior in a large two-dimensional bubbling fluidized bed (500mm×30mm×6000mm) is investigated. Our result indicates that propulsive efficiency is high and energy dissipation is low over a narrow range of St and usually within the interval 0.2Keywords: two-phase flow, energy dissipation, bubbles, Strouhal number

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48 Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance

Authors: Jian Huang, Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian

Abstract:

Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, heavy hydrocarbons, cobalt catalyst, support shape

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47 Estimation of Respiratory Parameters in Pressure Controlled Ventilation System with Double Lungs on Secretion Clearance

Authors: Yan Shi, Qian Zhang, Dongkai Shen

Abstract:

A new mechanical ventilator with automatic secretion clearance function can improve the secretion clearance safely and efficiently. However, in recent modeling studies on various mechanical ventilators, it was considered that human had one lung, and the coupling effect of double lungs was never illustrated. In this paper, to expound the coupling effect of double lungs, a mathematical model of a ventilation system of a bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) controlled ventilator with secretion clearance was set up. Moreover, an experimental study about the mechanical ventilation system of double lungs on BiPAP ventilator was conducted to verify the mathematical model. Finally, the coupling effect of double lungs of the mathematical ventilation was studied by simulation and orthogonal experimental design. This paper adds to previous studies and can be referred to optimization methods in medical researches.

Keywords: coupling effect, double lungs, secretion clearance, orthogonal experimental design

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46 3D Remote Sensing Images Parallax Refining Based On HTML5

Authors: Hai Wang, Qian Pei, Hengjian Tong, Weitao Chen, Yanrong Feng

Abstract:

Horizontal parallax is the foundation of stereoscopic viewing. However, the human eye will feel uncomfortable and it will occur diplopia if horizontal parallax is larger than eye separation. Therefore, we need to do parallax refining before conducting stereoscopic observation. Although some scholars have been devoted to online remote sensing refining, the main work of image refining is completed on the server side. There will be a significant delay when multiple users access the server at the same time. The emergence of HTML5 technology in recent years makes it possible to develop rich browser web application. Authors complete the image parallax refining on the browser side based on HTML5, while server side only need to transfer image data and parallax file to browser side according to the browser’s request. In this way, we can greatly reduce the server CPU load and allow a large number of users to access server in parallel and respond the user’s request quickly.

Keywords: HTML5, parallax, online refining, rich browser web application

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45 The 'Human Medium' in Communicating the National Image: A Case Study of Chinese Middle-Class Tourists Visiting Japan

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

In recent years, the prosperity of mass tourism in China has accelerated the breadth and depth of direct communication between countries, and the national image has been placed in a new communication context. Outbound tourists are not only directly involved in the formation of the national image, but are also the most direct medium and the most active symbol representing the national image. This study uses Chinese middle-class tourists visiting Japan as a case study, and analyzes, through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, the communication function of the national image transmitted by 'human medium' in tourism activities. It also explores the 'human medium' in the era of mass tourism. This study hopes to build a bridge for tourism research and national image and media studies. It will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for promoting the national image, strengthening exchanges between tourists and local populations, and expanding the tourism market in the future.

Keywords: Communication, national image, human medium, Chinese middle class, outbound tourists

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44 Effect of Si/Al Ratio on SSZ-13 Crystallization and Its Methanol-To-Olefins Catalytic Properties

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Weiyong Ying, Haitao Zhang, Weixin Qian, Zhiqiang Xu

Abstract:

SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were prepared by varying the composition of aluminosilicate precursor solutions upon hydrothermal treatment at 150 °C. The Si/Al ratio of the initial system was systematically changed from 12.5 to infinity in order to study the limits of Al composition in precursor solutions for constructing CHA structure. The intermediates and final products were investigated by complementary techniques such as XRD, HRTEM, FESEM, and chemical analysis. NH3-TPD was used to study the Brønsted acidity of SSZ-13 samples with different Si/Al ratios. The effect of the Si/Al ratio on the precursor species, ultimate crystal size, morphology and yield was investigated. The results revealed that Al species determine the nucleation rate and the number of nuclei, which is tied to the morphology and yield of SSZ-13. The size of SSZ-13 increased and the yield decreased as the Si/Al ratio was improved. Varying Si/Al ratio of the initial system is a facile, commercially viable method of tailoring SSZ-13 crystal size and morphology. Furthermore, SSZ-13 materials with different Si/Al ratio were tested as catalysts for the methanol to olefins (MTO) reaction at 350 °C. SSZ-13 with the Si/Al ratio of 35 shows the best MTO catalytic performance.

Keywords: Crystallization, MTO, Si/Al ratio, SSZ-13

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43 The Study on Life of Valves Evaluation Based on Tests Data

Authors: Bo Guo, Ping Jiang, Qian Zhao, Binjuan Xu, Zhijun Cheng, Xiaoyue Wu

Abstract:

Astronautical valves are key units in engine systems of astronautical products; their reliability will influence results of rocket or missile launching, even lead to damage to staff and devices on the ground. Besides failure in engine system may influence the hitting accuracy and flight shot of missiles. Therefore high reliability is quite essential to astronautical products. There are quite a few literature doing research based on few failure test data to estimate valves’ reliability, thus this paper proposed a new method to estimate valves’ reliability, according to the corresponding tests of different failure modes, this paper takes advantage of tests data which acquired from temperature, vibration, and action tests to estimate reliability in every failure modes, then this paper has regarded these three kinds of tests as three stages in products’ process to integrate these results to acquire valves’ reliability. Through the comparison of results achieving from tests data and simulated data, the results have illustrated how to obtain valves’ reliability based on the few failure data with failure modes and prove that the results are effective and rational.

Keywords: Valves, censored data, temperature tests, vibration tests

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42 A Sociological Exploration of How Chinese Highly Educated Women Respond to the Gender Stereotype in China

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In this study, Chinese highly educated women referred to those women who are currently doing their Ph.D. studies, and those who have already had Ph.D. degrees. In ancient Chinese society, women were subordinated to men. The only gender role of women was to be a wife and a mother. With the rapid development of China, women are encouraged to pursue higher education. As a result of this, the number of highly educated women is growing very quickly. However, people, especially men, believe that highly educated women are challenging the traditional image of Chinese women. It is thus believed that highly educated women are very different with the traditional women. They are demonstrating an image of independent and confident women with promising careers. Plus, with the reinforcement of mass media, highly educated women are regarded as non-traditional women. People stigmatize them as the 'third gender' on the basis of male and female. Now, the 'third gender' has become a gender stereotype of highly educated women. In this study, 20 participants were interviewed to explore their perceptions of self and how these highly educated women respond to the stereotype. The study finds that Chinese highly educated women are facing a variety of problems and difficulties in their daily life, and they believe that one of the leading causes is the contradiction between patriarchal values and the views of gender equality in contemporary China. This study gives rich qualitative data in the research of Chinese women and will help to extend the current Chinese gender studies.

Keywords: Self, gender stereotype, Chinese highly educated women, the ‘third gender’

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41 Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.

Keywords: Gender Role, Chinese culture, Chinese female Ph.D. students, the ‘leftover women’, the Chinese patriarchal society

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40 Large Eddy Simulation of Particle Clouds Using Open-Source CFD

Authors: Ruo-Qian Wang

Abstract:

Open-source CFD has become increasingly popular and promising. The recent progress in multiphase flow enables new CFD applications, which provides an economic and flexible research tool for complex flow problems. Our numerical study using four-way coupling Euler-Lagrangian Large-Eddy Simulations to resolve particle cloud dynamics with OpenFOAM and CFDEM will be introduced: The fractioned Navier-Stokes equations are numerically solved for fluid phase motion, solid phase motion is addressed by Lagrangian tracking for every single particle, and total momentum is conserved by fluid-solid inter-phase coupling. The grid convergence test was performed, which proves the current resolution of the mesh is appropriate. Then, we validated the code by comparing numerical results with experiments in terms of particle cloud settlement and growth. A good comparison was obtained showing reliability of the present numerical schemes. The time and height at phase separations were defined and analyzed for a variety of initial release conditions. Empirical formulas were drawn to fit the results.

Keywords: Multiphase Flows, Oil Spill, Land Reclamation, four-way coupling, dredging

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39 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian

Abstract:

Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: Scaffolds, Titanium, Mechanical Properties, metal injection moulding

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38 Design of Regular Communication Area for Infrared Electronic-Toll-Collection Systems

Authors: Wern-Yarng Shieh, Chao Qian, Bingnan Pei

Abstract:

A design of communication area for infrared electronic-toll-collection systems to provide an extended communication interval in the vehicle traveling direction and regular boundary between contiguous traffic lanes is proposed. By utilizing two typical low-cost commercial infrared LEDs with different half-intensity angles Φ1/2 = 22° and 10°, the radiation pattern of the emitter is designed to properly adjust the spatial distribution of the signal power. The aforementioned purpose can be achieved with an LED array in a three-piece structure with appropriate mounting angles. With this emitter, the influence of the mounting parameters, including the mounting height and mounting angles of the on-board unit and road-side unit, on the system performance in terms of the received signal strength and communication area are investigated. The results reveal that, for our emitter proposed in this paper, the ideal "long-and-narrow" characteristic of the communication area is very little affected by these mounting parameters. An optimum mounting configuration is also suggested.

Keywords: dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), electronic toll collection (ETC), infrared communication, intelligent transportation system (ITS), multilane free flow

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37 Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ Alloys with Tuneable Energy Band Gap on GaAs (100) Substrate Manufactured by a Modified Magnetron Co-Sputtering

Authors: Li Qian, Jinchao Tong, Daohua Zhang, Weijun Fan, Fei Suo

Abstract:

Photonic applications based on group IV semiconductors have always been an interest but also a challenge for the research community. We report manufacturing group IV Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ alloys with tuneable energy band gap on (100) GaAs substrate by a modified radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Images were taken by atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope clearly demonstrates a smooth surface profile, and Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ nano clusters are with the size of several tens of nanometers. Transmittance spectra were measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that showed changing energy gaps with the variation in elementary composition. Calculation results by 8-band k.p method are consistent with measured gaps. Our deposition system realized direct growth of Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ thin film on GaAs (100) substrate by sputtering. This simple deposition method was modified to be able to grow high-quality photonic materials with tuneable energy gaps. This work provides an alternative and successful method for fabricating Group IV photonic semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Photonic, Crystal Growth, sputtering, GeSn

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