Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10086

Search results for: acceleration performance

10086 A Particle Swarm Optimal Control Method for DC Motor by Considering Energy Consumption

Authors: Yingjie Zhang, Ming Li, Ying Zhang, Jing Zhang, Zuolei Hu


In the actual start-up process of DC motors, the DC drive system often faces a conflict between energy consumption and acceleration performance. To resolve the conflict, this paper proposes a comprehensive performance index that energy consumption index is added on the basis of classical control performance index in the DC motor starting process. Taking the comprehensive performance index as the cost function, particle swarm optimization algorithm is designed to optimize the comprehensive performance. Then it conducts simulations on the optimization of the comprehensive performance of the DC motor on condition that the weight coefficient of the energy consumption index should be properly designed. The simulation results show that as the weight of energy consumption increased, the energy efficiency was significantly improved at the expense of a slight sacrifice of fastness indicators with the comprehensive performance index method. The energy efficiency was increased from 63.18% to 68.48% and the response time reduced from 0.2875s to 0.1736s simultaneously compared with traditional proportion integrals differential controller in energy saving.

Keywords: comprehensive performance index, energy consumption, acceleration performance, particle swarm optimal control

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10085 Modelling the Effect of Alcohol Consumption on the Accelerating and Braking Behaviour of Drivers

Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav, Nagendra R. Velaga


Driving under the influence of alcohol impairs the driving performance and increases the crash risks worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of different Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC) on the accelerating and braking behaviour of drivers with the help of driving simulator experiments. Eighty-two licensed Indian drivers drove on the rural road environment designed in the driving simulator at BAC levels of 0.00%, 0.03%, 0.05%, and 0.08% respectively. Driving performance was analysed with the help of vehicle control performance indicators such as mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force of the participants. Preliminary analysis reported an increase in mean acceleration and mean brake pedal force with increasing BAC levels. Generalized linear mixed models were developed to quantify the effect of different alcohol levels and explanatory variables such as driver’s age, gender and other driver characteristic variables on the driving performance indicators. Alcohol use was reported as a significant factor affecting the accelerating and braking performance of the drivers. The acceleration model results indicated that mean acceleration of the drivers increased by 0.013 m/s², 0.026 m/s² and 0.027 m/s² for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Results of the brake pedal force model reported that mean brake pedal force of the drivers increased by 1.09 N, 1.32 N and 1.44 N for the BAC levels of 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.08% respectively. Age was a significant factor in both the models where one year increase in drivers’ age resulted in 0.2% reduction in mean acceleration and 19% reduction in mean brake pedal force of the drivers. It shows that driving experience could compensate for the negative effects of alcohol to some extent while driving. Female drivers were found to accelerate slower and brake harder as compared to the male drivers which confirmed that female drivers are more conscious about their safety while driving. It was observed that drivers who were regular exercisers had better control on their accelerator pedal as compared to the non-regular exercisers during drunken driving. The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol which deteriorates their driving performance. Drunk driving state can be differentiated from sober driving state by observing the accelerating and braking behaviour of the drivers. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety.

Keywords: alcohol, acceleration, braking behaviour, driving simulator

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10084 Effects of Vertimax Training on Agility, Quickness and Acceleration

Authors: Dede Basturk, Metin Kaya, Halil Taskin, Nurtekin Erkmen


In total, 29 students studying in Selçuk University Physical Training and Sports School who are recreationally active participated voluntarilyin this study which was carried out in order to examine effects of Vertimax trainings on agility, quickness and acceleration. 3 groups took their parts in this study as Vertimax training group (N=10), Ordinary training group (N=10) and Control group (N=9). Measurements were carried out in performance laboratory of Selçuk University Physical Training and Sports School. A training program for quickness and agility was followed up for subjects 3 days a week (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) for 8 weeks. Subjects taking their parts in vertimax training group and ordinary training group participated in the training program for quickness and agility. Measurements were applied as pre-test and post-test. Subjects of vertimax training group followed the training program with vertimax device and subjects of ordinary training group followed the training program without vertimax device. As to control group who are recreationally active, they did not participate in any program. 4 gate photocells were used for measuring and measurement of distances was carried out in m. Furthermore, single gate photocell and honi were used for agility test. Measurements started with 15 minutes of warm-up. Acceleration, quickness and agility tests were applied on subjects. 3 measurements were made for each subject at 3 minutes resting intervals. The best rating of three measurements was recorded. 5 m quickness pre-test value of vertimax training groups has been determined as 1,11±0,06 s and post-test value has been determined as 1,06 ± 0,08 s (P<0,05). 5 m quickness pre-test value of ordinary training group has been determined as 1,11±0,06 s and post-test value has been determined as 1,07±0,07 s (P<0,05).5 m quickness pre-test value of control group has been determined as 1,13±0,08 s and post-test value has been determined as 1,10 ± 0,07 s (P>0,05). Upon examination of 10 m acceleration value before and after the training, 10 m acceleration pre-test value of vertimax training group has been determined as 1,82 ± 0,07 s and post-test value has been determined as 1,76±0,83 s (P>0,05). 10 m acceleration pre-test value of ordinary training group has been determined as 1,83±0,05 s and post-test value has been determined as 1,78 ± 0,08 s (P>0,05).10 m acceleration pre-test value of control group has been determined as 1,87±0,11 s and post-test value has been determined as 1,83 ± 0,09 s (P>0,05). Upon examination of 15 m acceleration value before and after the training, 15 m acceleration pre-test value of vertimax training group has been determined as 2,52±0,10 s and post-test value has been determined as 2,46 ± 0,11 s (P>0,05).15 m acceleration pre-test value of ordinary training group has been determined as 2,52±0,05 s and post-test value has been determined as 2,48 ± 0,06 s (P>0,05). 15 m acceleration pre-test value of control group has been determined as 2,55 ± 0,11 s and post-test value has been determined as 2,54 ± 0,08 s (P>0,05).Upon examination of agility performance before and after the training, agility pre-test value of vertimax training group has been determined as 9,50±0,47 s and post-test value has been determined as 9,66 ± 0,47 s (P>0,05). Agility pre-test value of ordinary training group has been determined as 9,99 ± 0,05 s and post-test value has been determined as 9,86 ± 0,40 s (P>0,05). Agility pre-test value of control group has been determined as 9,74 ± 0,45 s and post-test value has been determined as 9,92 ± 0,49 s (P>0,05). Consequently, it has been observed that quickness and acceleration features were developed significantly following 8 weeks of vertimax training program and agility features were not developed significantly. It is suggested that training practices used for the study may be used for situations which may require sudden moves and in order to attain the maximum speed in a short time. Nevertheless, it is also suggested that this training practice does not make contribution in development of moves which may require sudden direction changes. It is suggested that productiveness and innovation may come off in terms of training by using various practices of vertimax trainings.

Keywords: vertimax, training, quickness, agility, acceleration

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10083 Effect of Pre-Plasma Potential on Laser Ion Acceleration

Authors: Djemai Bara, Mohamed Faouzi Mahboub, Djamila Bennaceur-Doumaz


In this work, the role of the preformed plasma created on the front face of a target, irradiated by a high intensity short pulse laser, in the framework of ion acceleration process, modeled by Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, is studied. This plasma is composed of cold ions governed by fluid equations and non-thermal & trapped with densities represented by a "Cairns-Gurevich" equation. The self-similar solution of the equations shows that electronic trapping and the presence of non-thermal electrons in the pre-plasma are both responsible in ion acceleration as long as the proportion of energetic electrons is not too high. In the case where the majority of electrons are energetic, the electrons are accelerated directly by the ponderomotive force of the laser without the intermediate of an accelerating plasma wave.

Keywords: Cairns-Gurevich Equation, ion acceleration, plasma expansion, pre-plasma

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10082 Exploring the Difficulties of Acceleration Concept from the Perspective of Historical Textual Analysis

Authors: Yun-Ju Chiu, Feng-Yi Chen


Kinematics is the beginning to learn mechanics in physics course. The concept of acceleration plays an important role in learning kinematics. Teachers usually instruct the conception through the formulas and graphs of kinematics and the well-known law F = ma. However, over the past few decades, a lot of researchers reveal numerous students’ difficulties in learning acceleration. One of these difficulties is that students frequently confuse acceleration with velocity and force. Why is the concept of acceleration so difficult to learn? The aim of this study is to understand the conceptual evolution of acceleration through the historical textual analysis. Text analysis and one-to-one interviews with high school students and teachers are used in this study. This study finds the history of science constructed from textbooks is usually quite different from the real evolution of history. For example, most teachers and students believe that the best-known law F = ma was written down by Newton. The expression of the second law is not F = ma in Newton’s best-known book Principia in 1687. Even after more than one hundred years, a famous Cambridge textbook titled An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics by Whewell of Trinity College did not express this law as F = ma. At that time of Whewell, the early mid-nineteenth century Britain, the concept of acceleration was not only ambiguous but also confused with the concept of force. The process of learning the concept of acceleration is analogous to its conceptual development in history. The study from the perspective of historical textual analysis will promote the understanding of the concept learning difficulties, the development of professional physics teaching, and the improvement of the context of physics textbooks.

Keywords: acceleration, textbooks, mechanics, misconception, history of science

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10081 3D Biomechanical Analysis in Shot Put Techniques of International Throwers

Authors: Satpal Yadav, Ashish Phulkar, Krishna K. Sahu


Aim: The research aims at doing a 3 Dimension biomechanical analysis in the shot put techniques of International throwers to evaluate the performance. Research Method: The researcher adopted the descriptive method and the data was subjected to calculate by using Pearson’s product moment correlation for the correlation of the biomechanical parameters with the performance of shot put throw. In all the analyses, the 5% critical level (p ≤ 0.05) was considered to indicate statistical significance. Research Sample: Eight (N=08) international shot putters using rotational/glide technique in male category was selected as subjects for the study. The researcher used the following methods and tools to obtain reliable measurements the instrument which was used for the purpose of present study namely the tesscorn slow-motion camera, specialized motion analyzer software, 7.260 kg Shot Put (for a male shot-putter) and steel tape. All measurement pertaining to the biomechanical variables was taken by the principal investigator so that data collected for the present study was considered reliable. Results: The finding of the study showed that negative significant relationship between the angular velocity right shoulder, acceleration distance at pre flight (-0.70), (-0.72) respectively were obtained, the angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at flight (0.81), (0.75) and (0.71) respectively were obtained, the angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at transition phase (0.77), (0.79) respectively were obtained and angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder, release velocity shot, angle of release, height of release, projected distance and measured distance as the values (0.76), (0.77), (-0.83), (-0.79), (-0.77), (0.99) and (1.00) were found higher than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, there exists an insignificant relationship between the performance of shot put and acceleration distance [m], angular displacement shot, C.G at release and horizontal release distance on the technique of shot put.

Keywords: biomechanics, analysis, shot put, international throwers

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10080 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber

Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping


Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.

Keywords: metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter

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10079 A Survey of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Convolutional Neural Network Accelerators

Authors: Wei Zhang


With the rapid development of deep learning, neural network and deep learning algorithms play a significant role in various practical applications. Due to the high accuracy and good performance, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) especially have become a research hot spot in the past few years. However, the size of the networks becomes increasingly large scale due to the demands of the practical applications, which poses a significant challenge to construct a high-performance implementation of deep learning neural networks. Meanwhile, many of these application scenarios also have strict requirements on the performance and low-power consumption of hardware devices. Therefore, it is particularly critical to choose a moderate computing platform for hardware acceleration of CNNs. This article aimed to survey the recent advance in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based acceleration of CNNs. Various designs and implementations of the accelerator based on FPGA under different devices and network models are overviewed, and the versions of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are compared to present our own critical analysis and comments. Finally, we give a discussion on different perspectives of these acceleration and optimization methods on FPGA platforms to further explore the opportunities and challenges for future research. More helpfully, we give a prospect for future development of the FPGA-based accelerator.

Keywords: deep learning, field programmable gate array, FPGA, hardware accelerator, convolutional neural networks, CNN

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10078 Control Performance Simulation and Analysis for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System Onboard Chinese Space Station

Authors: Wei Liu, Shuquan Wang, Yang Gao


Microgravity Science Experiment Rack (MSER) will be onboard TianHe (TH) spacecraft planned to be launched in 2018. TH is one module of Chinese Space Station. Microgravity Vibration Isolation System (MVIS), which is MSER’s core part, is used to isolate disturbance from TH and provide high-level microgravity for science experiment payload. MVIS is two stage vibration isolation system, consisting of Follow Unit (FU) and Experiment Support Unit (ESU). FU is linked to MSER by umbilical cables, and ESU suspends within FU and without physical connection. The FU’s position and attitude relative to TH is measured by binocular vision measuring system, and the acceleration and angular velocity is measured by accelerometers and gyroscopes. Air-jet thrusters are used to generate force and moment to control FU’s motion. Measurement module on ESU contains a set of Position-Sense-Detectors (PSD) sensing the ESU’s position and attitude relative to FU, accelerometers and gyroscopes sensing ESU’s acceleration and angular velocity. Electro-magnetic actuators are used to control ESU’s motion. Firstly, the linearized equations of FU’s motion relative to TH and ESU’s motion relative to FU are derived, laying the foundation for control system design and simulation analysis. Subsequently, two control schemes are proposed. One control scheme is that ESU tracks FU and FU tracks TH, shorten as E-F-T. The other one is that FU tracks ESU and ESU tracks TH, shorten as F-E-T. In addition, motion spaces are constrained within ±15 mm、±2° between FU and ESU, and within ±300 mm between FU and TH or between ESU and TH. A Proportional-Integrate-Differentiate (PID) controller is designed to control FU’s position and attitude. ESU’s controller includes an acceleration feedback loop and a relative position feedback loop. A Proportional-Integrate (PI) controller is designed in the acceleration feedback loop to reduce the ESU’s acceleration level, and a PID controller in the relative position feedback loop is used to avoid collision. Finally, simulations of E-F-T and F-E-T are performed considering variety uncertainties, disturbances and motion space constrains. The simulation results of E-T-H showed that control performance was from 0 to -20 dB for vibration frequency from 0.01 to 0.1 Hz, and vibration was attenuated 40 dB per ten octave above 0.1Hz. The simulation results of T-E-H showed that vibration was attenuated 20 dB per ten octave at the beginning of 0.01Hz.

Keywords: microgravity science experiment rack, microgravity vibration isolation system, PID control, vibration isolation performance

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10077 2-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis on Sprint Start with Sprinting Performance of Novice Athletes

Authors: Satpal Yadav, Biswajit Basumatary, Arvind S. Sajwan, Ranjan Chakravarty


The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of 2D kinematical selected variables on sprint start with sprinting performance of novice athletes. Six (3 National and 3 State level) athletes of sports authority of India, Guwahati has been selected for this study. The mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of sprinters were age (17.44, 1.55), height (1.74m, .84m), weight (62.25 kg, 4.55), arm length (65.00 cm, 3.72) and leg length (96.35 cm, 2.71). Biokin-2D motion analysis system V4.5 can be used for acquiring two-dimensional kinematical data/variables on sprint start with Sprinting Performance. For the purpose of kinematic analysis a standard motion driven camera which frequency of the camera was 60 frame/ second i.e. handy camera of Sony Company were used. The sequence of photographic was taken under controlled condition. The distance of the camera from the athletes was 12 mts away and was fixed at 1.2-meter height. The result was found that National and State level athletes significant difference in there, trajectory knee, trajectory ankle, displacement knee, displacement ankle, linear velocity knee, linear velocity ankle, and linear acceleration ankle whereas insignificant difference was found between National and State level athletes in their linear acceleration knee joint on sprint start with sprinting performance. For all the Statistical test the level of significance was set at p<0.05.

Keywords: 2D kinematic analysis, sprinting performance, novice athletes, sprint start

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10076 The Simultaneous Effect of Horizontal and Vertical Earthquake Components on the Seismic Response of Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame

Authors: Mahdi Shokrollahi


Over the past years, much research has been conducted on the vulnerability of structures to earthquakes, which only horizontal components of the earthquake were considered in their seismic analysis and vertical earthquake acceleration especially in near-fault area was less considered. The investigation of the mappings shows that vertical earthquake acceleration can be significantly closer to the maximum horizontal earthquake acceleration, and even exceeds it in some cases. This study has compared the behavior of different members of three steel moment frame with a buckling-restrained brace (BRB), one time only by considering the horizontal component and again by considering simultaneously the horizontal and vertical components under the three mappings of the near-fault area and the effect of vertical acceleration on structural responses is investigated. Finally, according to the results, the vertical component of the earthquake has a greater effect on the axial force of the columns and the vertical displacement of the middle of the beams of the different classes and less on the lateral displacement of the classes.

Keywords: vertical earthquake acceleration, near-fault area, steel frame, horizontal and vertical component of earthquake, buckling-restrained brace

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10075 Proposed Algorithms to Assess Concussion Potential in Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Rami Hashish, Manon Limousis-Gayda, Caitlin McCleery


Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injuries, also referred to as concussions, represent an increasing burden to society. Due to limited objective diagnostic measures, concussions are diagnosed by assessing subjective symptoms, often leading to disputes to their presence. Common biomechanical measures associated with concussion are high linear and/or angular acceleration to the head. With regards to linear acceleration, approximately 80g’s has previously been shown to equate with a 50% probability of concussion. Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a leading cause of concussion, due to high head accelerations experienced. The change in velocity (delta-V) of a vehicle in an MVC is an established metric for impact severity. As acceleration is the rate of delta-V with respect to time, the purpose of this paper is to determine the relation between delta-V (and occupant parameters) with linear head acceleration. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted for manuscripts collected using the following keywords: head acceleration, concussion, brain injury, head kinematics, delta-V, change in velocity, motor vehicle collision, and rear-end. Ultimately, 280 studies were surveyed, 14 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria as studies investigating the human response to impacts, reporting head acceleration, and delta-V of the occupant’s vehicle. Statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS and R. The best fit line analysis allowed for an initial understanding of the relation between head acceleration and delta-V. To further investigate the effect of occupant parameters on head acceleration, a quadratic model and a full linear mixed model was developed. Results: From the 14 selected studies, 139 crashes were analyzed with head accelerations and delta-V values ranging from 0.6 to 17.2g and 1.3 to 11.1 km/h, respectively. Initial analysis indicated that the best line of fit (Model 1) was defined as Head Acceleration = 0.465

Keywords: acceleration, brain injury, change in velocity, Delta-V, TBI

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10074 Intelligent Semi-Active Suspension Control of a Electric Model Vehicle System

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh


A four-wheel drive electric vehicle was built with hub DC motors and FPGA embedded control structure. A 40 steps manual adjusting motorcycle shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. An intelligent fuzzy logic controller was proposed to real-time search appropriate damping ratio based on vehicle running condition. Then, a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC) is employed to regulate the target damping ratio of each wheel axis semi-active suspension system. Finally, different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension and compare with that of passive system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: acceleration, FPGA, Fuzzy sliding mode control, semi-active suspension

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10073 Neuromuscular Control and Performance during Sudden Acceleration in Subjects with and without Unilateral Acute Ankle Sprains

Authors: M. Qorbani


Neuromuscular control of posture as understood through studies of responses to mechanical sudden acceleration automatically has been previously demonstrated in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI), but the presence of acute condition has not been previously explored specially in a sudden acceleration. The aim of this study was to determine neuromuscular control pattern in those with and without unilateral acute ankle sprains. Design: Case - control. Setting: University research laboratory. The sinker–card protocol with surface translation was be used as a sudden acceleration protocol with study of EMG upon 4 posture stabilizer muscles in two sides of the body in response to sudden acceleration in forward and backward directions. 20 young adult women in two groups (10 LAS; 23.9 ± 2.03 yrs and 10 normal; 26.4 ± 3.2 yrs). The data of EMG were assessed by using multivariate test and one-way repeated measures 2×2×4 ANOVA (P< 0.05). The results showed a significant muscle by direction interaction. Higher TA activity of left and right side in LAS group than normal group in forward direction significantly be showed. Higher MGR activity in normal group than LAS group in backward direction significantly showed. These findings suggest that compared two sides of the body in two directions for 4 muscles EMG activities between and within group for neuromuscular control of posture in avoiding fall. EMG activations of two sides of the body in lateral ankle sprain (LAS) patients were symmetric significantly. Acute ankle instability following once ankle sprains caused to coordinated temporal spatial patterns and strategy selection.

Keywords: neuromuscular response, sEMG, lateral ankle sprain, posture.

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10072 SIPINA Induction Graph Method for Seismic Risk Prediction

Authors: B. Selma


The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of SIPINA method to predict the harmfulness parameters controlling the seismic response. The approach developed takes into consideration both the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration. The parameter to determine is displacement. The data used for the learning of this method and analysis nonlinear seismic are described and applied to a class of models damaged to some typical structures of the existing urban infrastructure of Jassy, Romania. The results obtained indicate an influence of the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration on the displacement.

Keywords: SIPINA algorithm, seism, focal depth, peak ground acceleration, displacement

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10071 Seismic Behavior of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Reinforced Concrete Column

Authors: Raghabendra Yadav, Baochun Chen, Huihui Yuan, Zhibin Lian


Pseudo-dynamic test (PDT) method is an advanced seismic test method that combines loading technology with computer technology. Large-scale models or full scale seismic tests can be carried out by using this method. CFST-RC columns are used in civil engineering structures because of their better seismic performance. A CFST-RC column is composed of four CFST limbs which are connected with RC web in longitudinal direction and with steel tube in transverse direction. For this study, a CFST-RC pier is tested under Four different earthquake time histories having scaled PGA of 0.05g. From the experiment acceleration, velocity, displacement and load time histories are observed. The dynamic magnification factors for acceleration due to Elcentro, Chi-Chi, Imperial Valley and Kobe ground motions are observed as 15, 12, 17 and 14 respectively. The natural frequency of the pier is found to be 1.40 Hz. The result shows that this type of pier has excellent static and earthquake resistant properties.

Keywords: bridge pier, CFST-RC pier, pseudo dynamic test, seismic performance, time history

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10070 Study on Seismic Performance of Reinforced Soil Walls in Order to Offer Modified Pseudo Static Method

Authors: Majid Yazdandoust


This study, tries to suggest a design method based on displacement using finite difference numerical modeling in reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. In this case, dynamic loading characteristics such as duration, frequency, peak ground acceleration, geometrical characteristics of reinforced soil structure and type of the site are considered to correct the pseudo static method and finally introduce the pseudo static coefficient as a function of seismic performance level and peak ground acceleration. For this purpose, the influence of dynamic loading characteristics, reinforcement length, height of reinforced system and type of the site are investigated on seismic behavior of reinforcing soil retaining wall with steel strip. Numerical results illustrate that the seismic response of this type of wall is highly dependent to cumulative absolute velocity, maximum acceleration, and height and reinforcement length so that the reinforcement length can be introduced as the main factor in shape of failure. Considering the loading parameters, mechanically stabilized earth wall parameters and type of the site showed that the used method in this study leads to most efficient designs in comparison with other methods which are generally suggested in cods that are usually based on limit-equilibrium concept. The outputs show the over-estimation of equilibrium design methods in comparison with proposed displacement based methods here.

Keywords: pseudo static coefficient, seismic performance design, numerical modeling, steel strip reinforcement, retaining walls, cumulative absolute velocity, failure shape

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10069 Ballistics of Main Seat Ejection Cartridges for Aircraft Application

Authors: B. A. Parate, K. D. Deodhar, V. K. Dixit, V. V. Rao


This article outlines the ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges for aircraft application. The ballistics of main seat ejection cartridges plays a vital role during the ejection of the pilot in an emergency. The ballistic parameters such as maximum pressure, time is taken to reach the maximum pressure, and time required to reach half the maximum pressure contributes to the spinal injury of the pilot. Therefore, the evaluations of these parameters are very critical during various stages of development. Elaborate testing was carried out for main seat ejection cartridges on seat ejection tower (SET) at different operating temperatures considering physiological limits. As these trials are cumbersome in nature, a vented vessel (VV) testing facility was devised to lay down the performance parameters at hot and cold temperature conditions. Single base (SB) propellant having hepta-tubular configuration is selected as the main filling. Gun powder plays the role of a booster based on ballistic requirements. The evaluation methodology of various performance parameters of main seat ejection cartridges is explained in this paper. Physiological parameters such as maximum seat ejection velocity, acceleration, and rate of rising of acceleration are also experimentally determined on seat ejection tower. All the parameters are observed well within physiological limits. This paper addresses the internal ballistic of main seat ejection cartridges, propellant selection, its calculation, and evaluation of various performance parameters for an aircraft application.

Keywords: ballistics of seat ejection, ejection seat, gas generator, gun propulsion, main seat ejection cartridges, maximum pressure, performance parameters, propellant, progressive burning and vented vessel

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10068 Detection of Parkinsonian Freezing of Gait

Authors: Sang-Hoon Park, Yeji Ho, Gwang-Moon Eom


Fast and accurate detection of Freezing of Gait (FOG) is desirable for appropriate application of cueing which has been shown to ameliorate FOG. Utilization of frequency spectrum of leg acceleration to derive the freeze index requires much calculation and it would lead to delayed cueing. We hypothesized that FOG can be reasonably detected from the time domain amplitude of foot acceleration. A time instant was recognized as FOG if the mean amplitude of the acceleration in the time window surrounding the time instant was in the specific FOG range. Parameters required in the FOG detection was optimized by simulated annealing. The suggested time domain methods showed performances comparable to those of frequency domain methods.

Keywords: freezing of gait, detection, Parkinson's disease, time-domain method

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10067 Numerical Investigation of the Transverse Instability in Radiation Pressure Acceleration

Authors: F. Q. Shao, W. Q. Wang, Y. Yin, T. P. Yu, D. B. Zou, J. M. Ouyang


The Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) mechanism is very promising in laser-driven ion acceleration because of high laser-ion energy conversion efficiency. Although some experiments have shown the characteristics of RPA, the energy of ions is quite limited. The ion energy obtained in experiments is only several MeV/u, which is much lower than theoretical prediction. One possible limiting factor is the transverse instability incited in the RPA process. The transverse instability is basically considered as the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, which is a kind of interfacial instability and occurs when a light fluid pushes against a heavy fluid. Multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that the onset of transverse instability will destroy the acceleration process and broaden the energy spectrum of fast ions during the RPA dominant ion acceleration processes. The evidence of the RT instability driven by radiation pressure has been observed in a laser-foil interaction experiment in a typical RPA regime, and the dominant scale of RT instability is close to the laser wavelength. The development of transverse instability in the radiation-pressure-acceleration dominant laser-foil interaction is numerically examined by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When a laser interacts with a foil with modulated surface, the internal instability is quickly incited and it develops. The linear growth and saturation of the transverse instability are observed, and the growth rate is numerically diagnosed. In order to optimize interaction parameters, a method of information entropy is put forward to describe the chaotic degree of the transverse instability. With moderate modulation, the transverse instability shows a low chaotic degree and a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam is produced.

Keywords: information entropy, radiation pressure acceleration, Rayleigh-Taylor instability, transverse instability

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10066 On the Network Packet Loss Tolerance of SVM Based Activity Recognition

Authors: Gamze Uslu, Sebnem Baydere, Alper K. Demir


In this study, data loss tolerance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) based activity recognition model and multi activity classification performance when data are received over a lossy wireless sensor network is examined. Initially, the classification algorithm we use is evaluated in terms of resilience to random data loss with 3D acceleration sensor data for sitting, lying, walking and standing actions. The results show that the proposed classification method can recognize these activities successfully despite high data loss. Secondly, the effect of differentiated quality of service performance on activity recognition success is measured with activity data acquired from a multi hop wireless sensor network, which introduces high data loss. The effect of number of nodes on the reliability and multi activity classification success is demonstrated in simulation environment. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of data loss in a wireless sensor network on activity detection success rate of an SVM based classification algorithm has not been studied before.

Keywords: activity recognition, support vector machines, acceleration sensor, wireless sensor networks, packet loss

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10065 A Study on the Method of Accelerated Life Test to Electric Rotating System

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim


This paper introduces the study on the method of accelerated life test to electrical rotating system. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors and generators, there is a growing need for research on the life expectancy. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. In this paper, the accelerated life test methods of the electrical rotating system are classified according to the application. This paper describes the development of the test procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 100kW permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) of electric vehicle. Finally, it explains how to select acceleration load for vibration, temperature, bearing load, etc. for accelerated life test.

Keywords: acceleration coefficient, electric vehicle motor, HALT, life expectancy, vibration

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10064 Seismic Performance of Nuclear Power Plant Structures Subjected to Korean Earthquakes

Authors: D. D. Nguyen, H. S. Park, S. W. Yang, B. Thusa, Y. M. Kim, T. H. Lee


Currently, the design response spectrum (i.e., Nuclear Regulatory Commission - NRC 1.60 spectrum) with the peak ground acceleration (PGA) 0.3g (for Safe Shutdown Earthquake level) is specified for designing the new nuclear power plant (NPP) structures in Korea. However, the recent earthquakes in the region such as the 2016 Gyeongju and the 2017 Pohang earthquake showed that the possible PGA of ground motions can be larger than 0.3g. Therefore, there is a need to analyze the seismic performance of the existing NPP structures under these earthquakes. An NPP model, APR-1400, which is designed and built in Korea was selected for a case study. The NPP structure is numerically modeled in terms of lumped-mass stick elements using OpenSees framework. The floor acceleration and displacement of components are measured to quantify the responses of components. The numerical results show that the floor spectral accelerations are significantly amplified in the components subjected to Korean earthquakes. A comparison between floor response spectra of Korean earthquakes and the NRC design motion highlights that the seismic design level of NPP components under an earthquake should be thoroughly reconsidered. Additionally, a seismic safety assessment of the equipment and relays attached to main structures is also required.

Keywords: nuclear power plant, floor response spectra, Korean earthquake, NRC spectrum

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10063 Design and Analysis of Semi-Active Isolation System in Low Frequency Excitation Region for Vehicle Seat to Reduce Discomfort

Authors: Andrea Tonoli, Nicola Amati, Maria Cavatorta, Reza Mirsanei, Behzad Mozaffari, Hamed Ahani, Akbar Karamihafshejani, Mohammad Ghazivakili, Mohammad Abuabiah


The vibrations transmitted to the drivers and passengers through vehicle seat seriously effect on the level of their attention, fatigue and physical health and reduce the comfort and efficiency of the occupants. Recently, some researchers have focused on vibrations at low excitation frequency(0.5-5 Hz) which are considered to be the main risk factors for lumbar part of the backbone but they were not applicable to A and B-segment cars regarding to the size and weight. A semi-active system with two symmetric negative stiffness structures (NSS) in parallel to a positive stiffness structure and actuators has been proposed to attenuate low frequency excitation and makes system flexible regarding to different weight of passengers which is applicable for A and B-Segment cars. Here, the 3 degree of freedom system is considered, dynamic equation clearly is presented, then simulated in MATLAB in order to analysis of performance of the system. The design procedure is derived so that the resonance peak of frequency–response curve shift to the left, the isolating range is increased and especially, the peak of the frequency–response curve is minimized. According to ISO standard different class of road profile as an input is applied to the system to evaluate the performance of the system. To evaluate comfort issues, we extract the RMS value of the vertical acceleration acting on the passenger's body. Then apply the band-pass filter, which takes into account the human sensitivity to acceleration. According to ISO, this weighted acceleration is lower than 0.315 m/s^2, so the ride is considered as comfortable.

Keywords: low frequency excitation, negative stiffness, seat vehicle, vibration isolation

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10062 Assessment of Bridge Performance with Laminated versus Spring Seismic Isolation

Authors: M. Z. Ramli, A. Adnan, Chee Wei Tan


To gain a better understanding of earthquake forces on reinforced concrete bridge piers with different bearing condition, a series of experiments was conducted on a realistic, 1:4 scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. The normal practices of laminated seismic isolation bearing is compared with the new design spring seismic isolation bearing where invented by Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research (e-SEER), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The nonlinear behavior of piers is modeled using the fibre beam theory to verify the experimental works. The hysteresis of bridge pier with different bearing condition was illustrated under different Peak Ground Acceleration (PGAs). The average slope of the hysteresis respectively to the global stiffness was also investigated.

Keywords: bridge, laminated seismic isolation, spring seismic isolation, Peak Ground Acceleration, stiffness

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10061 Empirical Acceleration Functions and Fuzzy Information

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq


In accelerated life testing approaches life time data is obtained under various conditions which are considered more severe than usual condition. Classical techniques are based on obtained precise measurements, and used to model variation among the observations. In fact, there are two types of uncertainty in data: variation among the observations and the fuzziness. Analysis techniques, which do not consider fuzziness and are only based on precise life time observations, lead to pseudo results. This study was aimed to examine the behavior of empirical acceleration functions using fuzzy lifetimes data. The results showed an increased fuzziness in the transformed life times as compare to the input data.

Keywords: acceleration function, accelerated life testing, fuzzy number, non-precise data

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10060 A Framework for Incorporating Non-Linear Degradation of Conductive Adhesive in Environmental Testing

Authors: Kedar Hardikar, Joe Varghese


Conductive adhesives have found wide-ranging applications in electronics industry ranging from fixing a defective conductor on printed circuit board (PCB) attaching an electronic component in an assembly to protecting electronics components by the formation of “Faraday Cage.” The reliability requirements for the conductive adhesive vary widely depending on the application and expected product lifetime. While the conductive adhesive is required to maintain the structural integrity, the electrical performance of the associated sub-assembly can be affected by the degradation of conductive adhesive. The degradation of the adhesive is dependent upon the highly varied use case. The conventional approach to assess the reliability of the sub-assembly involves subjecting it to the standard environmental test conditions such as high-temperature high humidity, thermal cycling, high-temperature exposure to name a few. In order to enable projection of test data and observed failures to predict field performance, systematic development of an acceleration factor between the test conditions and field conditions is crucial. Common acceleration factor models such as Arrhenius model are based on rate kinetics and typically rely on an assumption of linear degradation in time for a given condition and test duration. The application of interest in this work involves conductive adhesive used in an electronic circuit of a capacitive sensor. The degradation of conductive adhesive in high temperature and humidity environment is quantified by the capacitance values. Under such conditions, the use of established models such as Hallberg-Peck model or Eyring Model to predict time to failure in the field typically relies on linear degradation rate. In this particular case, it is seen that the degradation is nonlinear in time and exhibits a square root t dependence. It is also shown that for the mechanism of interest, the presence of moisture is essential, and the dominant mechanism driving the degradation is the diffusion of moisture. In this work, a framework is developed to incorporate nonlinear degradation of the conductive adhesive for the development of an acceleration factor. This method can be extended to applications where nonlinearity in degradation rate can be adequately characterized in tests. It is shown that depending on the expected product lifetime, the use of conventional linear degradation approach can overestimate or underestimate the field performance. This work provides guidelines for suitability of linear degradation approximation for such varied applications

Keywords: conductive adhesives, nonlinear degradation, physics of failure, acceleration factor model.

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10059 A Study on the Calculation of Bearing Life of Electric Motor Using Accelerated Life Test

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Hae-Joong Kim, Jae-Won Moon


This paper introduces the results of the study on the development of accelerated life test methods for the motor used in machine tools. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors, there is a growing need for research on life expectancy of motors. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. This paper describes the equipment development procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 12kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs). After the test, the lifetime analysis was carried out and it is compared with the bearing life expectancy by ISO 281.

Keywords: acceleration coefficient, bearing, HALT, life expectancy, motor

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10058 Retrofitted Semi-Active Suspension System for a Eelectric Model Vehicle

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Yun-Han Yeh


A 40 steps manual adjusting shock absorber was refitted with DC motor driving mechanism to construct as a semi-active suspension system for a four-wheel drive electric vehicle. Accelerometer and potentiometer sensors are installed to measure the sprung mass acceleration and suspension system compression or rebound states for control purpose. A fuzzy logic controller was designed to derive appropriate damping target based on vehicle running condition for semi-active suspension system to follow. The damping ratio control of each wheel axis suspension system is executed with a robust fuzzy sliding mode controller (FSMC). Different road surface conditions are chosen to evaluate the control performance of this semi-active suspension system based on wheel axis acceleration signal.

Keywords: semi-active suspension, electric vehicle, fuzzy sliding mode control, accelerometer

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10057 Displacement Based Design of a Dual Structural System

Authors: Romel Cordova Shedan


The traditional seismic design is the methodology of Forced Based Design (FBD). The Displacement Based Design (DBD) is a seismic design that considers structural damage to achieve a failure mechanism of the structure before the collapse. It is easier to quantify damage of a structure with displacements rather than forces. Therefore, a structure to achieve an inelastic displacement design with good ductility, it is necessary to be damaged. The first part of this investigation is about differences between the methodologies of DBD and FBD with some DBD advantages. In the second part, there is a study case about a dual building 5-story, which is regular in plan and elevation. The building is located in a seismic zone, which acceleration in firm soil is 45% of the acceleration of gravity. Then it is applied both methodologies into the study case to compare its displacements, shear forces and overturning moments. In the third part, the Dynamic Time History Analysis (DTHA) is done, to compare displacements with DBD and FBD methodologies. Three accelerograms were used and the magnitude of the acceleration scaled to be spectrum compatible with design spectrum. Then, using ASCE 41-13 guidelines, the hinge plastics were assigned to structure. Finally, both methodologies results about study case are compared. It is important to take into account that the seismic performance level of the building for DBD is greater than FBD method. This is due to drifts of DBD are in the order of 2.0% and 2.5% comparing with FBD drifts of 0.7%. Therefore, displacements of DBD is greater than the FBD method. Shear forces of DBD result greater than FBD methodology. These strengths of DBD method ensures that structure achieves design inelastic displacements, because those strengths were obtained due to a displacement spectrum reduction factor which depends on damping and ductility of the dual system. Also, the displacements for the study case for DBD results to be greater than FBD and DTHA. In that way, it proves that the seismic performance level of the building for DBD is greater than FBD method. Due to drifts of DBD which are in the order of 2.0% and 2.5% compared with little FBD drifts of 0.7%.

Keywords: displacement-based design, displacement spectrum reduction factor, dynamic time history analysis, forced based design

Procedia PDF Downloads 149