Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15306

Search results for: microgravity vibration isolation system

15306 Control Performance Simulation and Analysis for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System Onboard Chinese Space Station

Authors: Wei Liu, Shuquan Wang, Yang Gao


Microgravity Science Experiment Rack (MSER) will be onboard TianHe (TH) spacecraft planned to be launched in 2018. TH is one module of Chinese Space Station. Microgravity Vibration Isolation System (MVIS), which is MSER’s core part, is used to isolate disturbance from TH and provide high-level microgravity for science experiment payload. MVIS is two stage vibration isolation system, consisting of Follow Unit (FU) and Experiment Support Unit (ESU). FU is linked to MSER by umbilical cables, and ESU suspends within FU and without physical connection. The FU’s position and attitude relative to TH is measured by binocular vision measuring system, and the acceleration and angular velocity is measured by accelerometers and gyroscopes. Air-jet thrusters are used to generate force and moment to control FU’s motion. Measurement module on ESU contains a set of Position-Sense-Detectors (PSD) sensing the ESU’s position and attitude relative to FU, accelerometers and gyroscopes sensing ESU’s acceleration and angular velocity. Electro-magnetic actuators are used to control ESU’s motion. Firstly, the linearized equations of FU’s motion relative to TH and ESU’s motion relative to FU are derived, laying the foundation for control system design and simulation analysis. Subsequently, two control schemes are proposed. One control scheme is that ESU tracks FU and FU tracks TH, shorten as E-F-T. The other one is that FU tracks ESU and ESU tracks TH, shorten as F-E-T. In addition, motion spaces are constrained within ±15 mm、±2° between FU and ESU, and within ±300 mm between FU and TH or between ESU and TH. A Proportional-Integrate-Differentiate (PID) controller is designed to control FU’s position and attitude. ESU’s controller includes an acceleration feedback loop and a relative position feedback loop. A Proportional-Integrate (PI) controller is designed in the acceleration feedback loop to reduce the ESU’s acceleration level, and a PID controller in the relative position feedback loop is used to avoid collision. Finally, simulations of E-F-T and F-E-T are performed considering variety uncertainties, disturbances and motion space constrains. The simulation results of E-T-H showed that control performance was from 0 to -20 dB for vibration frequency from 0.01 to 0.1 Hz, and vibration was attenuated 40 dB per ten octave above 0.1Hz. The simulation results of T-E-H showed that vibration was attenuated 20 dB per ten octave at the beginning of 0.01Hz.

Keywords: microgravity science experiment rack, microgravity vibration isolation system, PID control, vibration isolation performance

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15305 Simulation of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Shield B. Lin, Sameer Abdali


Computer simulations were performed using MATLAB/Simulink for a vibration isolation system for astronaut’s exercise platform. Simulation parameters initially were based on an on-going experiment in a laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The authors expanded later simulations to include other parameters. A discrete proportional-integral-derivative controller with a low-pass filter commanding a linear actuator served as the active control unit to push and pull a counterweight in balancing the disturbance forces. A spring-damper device is used as an optional passive control unit. Simulation results indicated such design could achieve near complete vibration isolation with small displacements of the exercise platform.

Keywords: control, counterweight, isolation, vibration

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15304 Simulation with Uncertainties of Active Controlled Vibration Isolation System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Shield B. Lin, Ziraguen O. Williams


In a task to assist NASA in analyzing the dynamic forces caused by operational countermeasures of an astronaut’s exercise platform impacting the spacecraft, an active proportional-integral-derivative controller commanding a linear actuator is proposed in a vibration isolation system to regulate the movement of the exercise platform. Computer simulation shows promising results that most exciter forces can be reduced or even eliminated. This paper emphasizes on parameter uncertainties, variations and exciter force variations. Drift and variations of system parameters in the vibration isolation system for astronaut’s exercise platform are analyzed. An active controlled scheme is applied with the goals to reduce the platform displacement and to minimize the force being transmitted to the spacecraft structure. The controller must be robust enough to accommodate the wide variations of system parameters and exciter forces. Computer simulation for the vibration isolation system was performed via MATLAB/Simulink and Trick. The simulation results demonstrate the achievement of force reduction with small platform displacement under wide ranges of variations in system parameters.

Keywords: control, counterweight, isolation, vibration

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15303 Investigation of Shear Thickening Fluid Isolator with Vibration Isolation Performance

Authors: M. C. Yu, Z. L. Niu, L. G. Zhang, W. W. Cui, Y. L. Zhang


According to the theory of the vibration isolation for linear systems, linear damping can reduce the transmissibility at the resonant frequency, but inescapably increase the transmissibility of the isolation frequency region. To resolve this problem, nonlinear vibration isolation technology has recently received increasing attentions. Shear thickening fluid (STF) is a special colloidal material. When STF is subject to high shear rate, it rheological property changes from a flowable behavior into a rigid behavior, i.e., it presents shear thickening effect. STF isolator is a vibration isolator using STF as working material. Because of shear thickening effect, STF isolator is a variable-damped isolator. It exhibits small damping under high vibration frequency and strong damping at resonance frequency due to shearing rate increasing. So its special inherent character is very favorable for vibration isolation, especially for restraining resonance. In this paper, firstly, STF was prepared by dispersing nano-particles of silica into polyethylene glycol 200 fluid, followed by rheological properties test. After that, an STF isolator was designed. The vibration isolation system supported by STF isolator was modeled, and the numerical simulation was conducted to study the vibration isolation properties of STF. And finally, the effect factors on vibrations isolation performance was also researched quantitatively. The research suggests that owing to its variable damping, STF vibration isolator can effetely restrain resonance without bringing unfavorable effect at high frequency, which meets the need of ideal damping properties and resolves the problem of traditional isolators.

Keywords: shear thickening fluid, variable-damped isolator, vibration isolation, restrain resonance

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15302 Simulation for Squat Exercise of an Active Controlled Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System for Astronaut’s Exercise Platform

Authors: Ziraguen O. Williams, Shield B. Lin, Fouad N. Matari, Leslie J. Quiocho


In a task to assist NASA in analyzing the dynamic forces caused by operational countermeasures of an astronaut’s exercise platform impacting the spacecraft, feedback delay, and signal noise were added to a simulation model of an active-controlled vibration isolation system to regulate the movement of the exercise platform. Previous simulation work was conducted primarily via MATLAB/Simulink. Two additional simulation tools used in this study were Trick and MBDyn, NASA co-developed software simulation environments. Simulation results obtained from these three tools were very similar. All simulation results support the hypothesis that an active-controlled vibration isolation system outperforms a passive-controlled system even with the addition of feedback delay and signal noise to the active-controlled system. In this paper, squat exercise was used in creating excited force to the simulation model. The exciter force from a squat exercise was calculated from the motion capture of an exerciser. The simulation results demonstrate much greater transmitted force reduction in the active-controlled system than the passive-controlled system.

Keywords: control, counterweight, isolation, vibration

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15301 Experimental Study on the Vibration Isolation Performance of Metal-Net Rubber Vibration Absorber

Authors: Su Yi Ming, Hou Ying, Zou Guang Ping


Metal-net rubber is a new dry friction damping material, compared with the traditional metal rubber, which has high mechanization degree, and the mechanical performance of metal-net rubber is more stable. Through the sine sweep experiment and random vibration experiment of metal-net rubber vibration isolator, the influence of several important factors such as the lines slope, relative density and wire diameter on the transfer rate, natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration of metal-net rubber vibration isolation system, were studied through the method of control variables. Also, several relevant change curves under different vibration levels were derived, and the effects of vibration level on the natural frequency and root-mean-square response acceleration were analyzed through the curves.

Keywords: metal-net rubber vibration isolator, relative density, vibration level, wire diameter

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15300 Passive Vibration Isolation Analysis and Optimization for Mechanical Systems

Authors: Ozan Yavuz Baytemir, Ender Cigeroglu, Gokhan Osman Ozgen


Vibration is an important issue in the design of various components of aerospace, marine and vehicular applications. In order not to lose the components’ function and operational performance, vibration isolation design involving the optimum isolator properties selection and isolator positioning processes appear to be a critical study. Knowing the growing need for the vibration isolation system design, this paper aims to present two types of software capable of implementing modal analysis, response analysis for both random and harmonic types of excitations, static deflection analysis, Monte Carlo simulations in addition to study of parameter and location optimization for different types of isolation problem scenarios. Investigating the literature, there is no such study developing a software-based tool that is capable of implementing all those analysis, simulation and optimization studies in one platform simultaneously. In this paper, the theoretical system model is generated for a 6-DOF rigid body. The vibration isolation system of any mechanical structure is able to be optimized using hybrid method involving both global search and gradient-based methods. Defining the optimization design variables, different types of optimization scenarios are listed in detail. Being aware of the need for a user friendly vibration isolation problem solver, two types of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are prepared and verified using a commercial finite element analysis program, Ansys Workbench 14.0. Using the analysis and optimization capabilities of those GUIs, a real application used in an air-platform is also presented as a case study at the end of the paper.

Keywords: hybrid optimization, Monte Carlo simulation, multi-degree-of-freedom system, parameter optimization, location optimization, passive vibration isolation analysis

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15299 Simulated Microgravity Inhibits L-Type Calcium Channel Currents by Up-Regulation of miR-103 in Osteoblasts

Authors: Zhongyang Sun, Shu Zhang


In osteoblasts, L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs), especially the Cav1.2 LTCCs, play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. Several lines of evidence have revealed that the density of bone is increased and the resorption of bone is decreased when these calcium channels in osteoblasts are activated. And numerous studies have shown that mechanical loading promotes bone formation in the modeling skeleton, whereas removal of this stimulus in microgravity results in a reduction in bone mass. However, the effect of microgravity on LTCCs in osteoblasts is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether microgravity exerts influence on LTCCs in osteoblasts and the possible mechanisms underlying. In this study, we demonstrate that simulated microgravity substantially inhibits LTCCs in osteoblast by suppressing the expression of Cav1.2. Then we show that the up-regulation of miR-103 is involved in the down-regulation of Cav1.2 expression and inhibition of LTCCs by simulated microgravity in osteoblasts. Our study provides a novel mechanism of simulated microgravity-induced adverse effects on osteoblasts, offering a new avenue to further investigate the bone loss caused by microgravity.

Keywords: L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels, Cav1.2, osteoblasts, microgravity

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15298 Dual-Actuated Vibration Isolation Technology for a Rotary System’s Position Control on a Vibrating Frame: Disturbance Rejection and Active Damping

Authors: Kamand Bagherian, Nariman Niknejad


A vibration isolation technology for precise position control of a rotary system powered by two permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motors is proposed, where this system is mounted on an oscillatory frame. To achieve vibration isolation for this system, active damping and disturbance rejection (ADDR) technology is presented which introduces a cooperation of a main and an auxiliary PMDC, controlled by discrete-time sliding mode control (DTSMC) based schemes. The controller of the main actuator tracks a desired position and the auxiliary actuator simultaneously isolates the induced vibration, as its controller follows a torque trend. To determine this torque trend, a combination of two algorithms is introduced by the ADDR technology. The first torque-trend producing algorithm rejects the disturbance by counteracting the perturbation, estimated using a model-based observer. The second torque trend applies active variable damping to minimize the oscillation of the output shaft. In this practice, the presented technology is implemented on a rotary system with a pendulum attached, mounted on a linear actuator simulating an oscillation-transmitting structure. In addition, the obtained results illustrate the functionality of the proposed technology.

Keywords: active damping, discrete-time nonlinear controller, disturbance tracking algorithm, oscillation transmitting support, position control, stability robustness, vibration isolation

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15297 MiR-103 Inhibits Osteoblast Proliferation Mainly through Suppressing Cav 1.2 Expression in Simulated Microgravity

Authors: Zhongyang Sun, Shu Zhang, Manjiang Xie


Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in modulating osteoblast function and bone formation. However, the influence of miRNA on osteoblast proliferation and the possible mechanisms underlying remain to be defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether miR-103 regulates osteoblast proliferation under simulated microgravity condition through regulating Cav1.2, the primary subunit of L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels (LTCCs). We first investigated the effect of simulated microgravity on osteoblast proliferation and the outcomes clearly demonstrated that the mechanical unloading inhibits MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells proliferation. Using quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR), we provided data showing that miR-103 was up-regulated in response to simulated microgravity. In addition, we observed that up-regulation of miR-103 inhibited and down-regulation of miR-103 promoted osteoblast proliferation under simulated microgravity condition. Furthermore, knocking-down or over-expressing miR-103, respectively, up- or down-regulated the level of Cav1.2 expression and LTCCs currents, suggesting that miR-103 acts as an endogenous attenuator of Cav1.2 in osteoblasts under the condition of simulated microgravity. More importantly, we showed that the effect of miR-103 on osteoblast proliferation was diminished in simulated microgravity, when co-transfecting miR-103 mimic or inhibitor with Cav1.2 siRNA. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-103 inhibits osteoblast proliferation mainly through suppression of Cav1.2 expression under simulated microgravity condition. This work may provide a novel mechanism of microgravity-induced detrimental effects on osteoblast, identifying miR-103 as a novel possible therapeutic target in bone remodeling disorders in this mechanical unloading.

Keywords: microRNA, osteoblasts, cell proliferation, Cav1.2, simulated microgravity

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15296 Seismic Isolation System for Irregular Structure with the Largest Isolation Building Area in the World

Authors: Houmame Benbouali


This paper introduces the design, analysis, tests and application of a new isolation system used in irregular structure, also briefly introduces the recent research, and development on seismic isolation of civil buildings in China. A very large platform (2 stories RC frame) with plane size 1500m wide and 2000m long was built to cover the city railway communication hub area. About 50 isolation house buildings (9 stories RC frame) with 480,000 M2 were built on the top floor of platform. A new advanced isolation system named Storied-Isolation was used to ensure the seismic safety for this irregular structure with the largest isolation house building area in the world. This new isolation system has been used widely in China. There are over 400 buildings with seismic isolation have been built in China until 2003. This paper will introduce the recent research, and development on seismic isolation of civil buildings in China, including the tendency of application on seismic isolation, different isolation systems, different design level being used, design codes, application status and examples of application. Also the paper makes discussion of some problems on the future development of seismic isolation in China.

Keywords: civil buildings, floor, irregular structure, seismic isolation

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15295 Seismic Response Mitigation of Structures Using Base Isolation System Considering Uncertain Parameters

Authors: Rama Debbarma


The present study deals with the performance of Linear base isolation system to mitigate seismic response of structures characterized by random system parameters. This involves optimization of the tuning ratio and damping properties of the base isolation system considering uncertain system parameters. However, the efficiency of base isolator may reduce if it is not tuned to the vibrating mode it is designed to suppress due to unavoidable presence of system parameters uncertainty. With the aid of matrix perturbation theory and first order Taylor series expansion, the total probability concept is used to evaluate the unconditional response of the primary structures considering random system parameters. For this, the conditional second order information of the response quantities are obtained in random vibration framework using state space formulation. Subsequently, the maximum unconditional root mean square displacement of the primary structures is used as the objective function to obtain optimum damping parameters Numerical study is performed to elucidate the effect of parameters uncertainties on the optimization of parameters of linear base isolator and system performance.

Keywords: linear base isolator, earthquake, optimization, uncertain parameters

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15294 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim


When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

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15293 Comparative Study of Seismic Isolation as Retrofit Method for Historical Constructions

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra


Seismic isolation can be used as a retrofit method for historical buildings with the advantage that minimum intervention on super-structure is required. However, selection of isolation devices depends on weight and stiffness of upper structure. In this study, two buildings are considered for analyses to evaluate the applicability of this retrofitting methodology. Both buildings are located at Akita prefecture in the north part of Japan. One building is a wooden structure that corresponds to the old council meeting hall of Noshiro city. The second building is a brick masonry structure that was used as house of a foreign mining engineer and it is located at Ani town. Ambient vibration measurements were performed on both buildings to estimate their dynamic characteristics. Then, target period of vibration of isolated systems is selected as 3 seconds is selected to estimate required stiffness of isolation devices. For wooden structure, which is a light construction, it was found that natural rubber isolators in combination with friction bearings are suitable for seismic isolation. In case of masonry building elastomeric isolator can be used for its seismic isolation. Lumped mass systems are used for seismic response analysis and it is verified in both cases that seismic isolation can be used as retrofitting method of historical construction. However, in the case of the light building, most of the weight corresponds to the reinforced concrete slab that is required to install isolation devices.

Keywords: historical building, finite element method, masonry structure, seismic isolation, wooden structure

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15292 Shock Isolation Performance of a Pre-Compressed Large Deformation Shock Isolator with Quasi-Zero-Stiffness Characteristic

Authors: Ji Chen, Chunhui Zhang, Fanming Zeng, Lei Zhang, Ying Li, Wei Zhang


Based on the synthetic principle of force, a pre-compressed nonlinear isolator with quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) is developed for shock isolation of ship equipment. The proposed isolator consists of a vertical spring with positive stiffness and several lateral springs with negative stiffness. An analytical expression of vertical stiffness of the nonlinear isolator is derived and numerical simulation on the effect of the geometric design parameters is carried out. Besides, a pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system model is established. The stiffness characteristic of the system is studied and the effects of excitation amplitude and friction damping on shock isolation performance are discussed respectively. The research results show that in comparison with linear shock isolation system, the pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system could realize constant-force or approximately constant-force function and perform better anti-impact performance.

Keywords: quasi-zero-stiffness, constant-force, pre-compressed, large deformation, shock isolation, friction damping

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15291 Vibration Control of Two Adjacent Structures Using a Non-Linear Damping System

Authors: Soltani Amir, Wang Xuan


The advantage of using non-linear passive damping system in vibration control of two adjacent structures is investigated under their base excitation. The base excitation is El Centro earthquake record acceleration. The damping system is considered as an optimum and effective non-linear viscous damper that is connected between two adjacent structures. A Matlab program is developed to produce the stiffness and damping matrices and to determine a time history analysis of the dynamic motion of the system. One structure is assumed to be flexible while the other has a rule as laterally supporting structure with rigid frames. The response of the structure has been calculated and the non-linear damping coefficient is determined using optimum LQR algorithm in an optimum vibration control system. The non-linear parameter of damping system is estimated and it has shown a significant advantage of application of this system device for vibration control of two adjacent tall building.

Keywords: active control, passive control, viscous dampers, structural control, vibration control, tall building

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15290 Theoretical Investigation on the Dynamic Characteristics of One Degree of Freedom Vibration System Equipped with Inerter of Variable Inertance

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Yoshiki Tsuji


In this paper, a theoretical investigation on the dynamic characteristics of one degree of freedom vibration system equipped with inerter of variable inertance, is presented. Differential equation of movement was solved under proper initial conditions in the case of free undamped/damped vibration, considered in the absence/presence of the inerter in the mechanical system. Influence of inertance on the amplitude of vibration, phase angle, natural frequency, damping ratio, and logarithmic decrement was clarified. It was mainly found that the inerter decreases the natural frequency of the undamped system and also of the damped system if the damping ratio is below 0.707. On the other hand, the inerter increases the natural frequency of the damped system if the damping ratio exceeds 0.707. Results obtained in this work are useful for the adequate design of inerters.

Keywords: damping, frequency control, inerter, one degree of freedom vibration system, parallel connection, variable inertance

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15289 Design and Implementation of a Memory Safety Isolation Method Based on the Xen Cloud Environment

Authors: Dengpan Wu, Dan Liu


In view of the present cloud security problem has increasingly become one of the major obstacles hindering the development of the cloud computing, put forward a kind of memory based on Xen cloud environment security isolation technology implementation. And based on Xen virtual machine monitor system, analysis of the model of memory virtualization is implemented, using Xen memory virtualization system mechanism of super calls and grant table, based on the virtual machine manager internal implementation of access control module (ACM) to design the security isolation system memory. Experiments show that, the system can effectively isolate different customer domain OS between illegal access to memory data.

Keywords: cloud security, memory isolation, xen, virtual machine

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15288 Effects of Humidity and Silica Sand Particles on Vibration Generation by Friction Materials of Automotive Brake System

Authors: Mostafa M. Makrahy, Nouby M. Ghazaly, G. T. Abd el-Jaber


This paper presents the experimental study of vibration generated by friction materials of an automotive disc brake system using brake test rig. Effects of silica sand particles which are available on the road surface as an environmental condition with a size varied from 150 μm to 600 μm are evaluated. Also, the vibration of the brake disc is examined against the friction material in humidity environment conditions under variable rotational speed. The experimental results showed that the silica sand particles have significant contribution on the value of vibration amplitude which enhances with increasing the size of silica sand particles at different speed conditions. Also, it is noticed that the friction material is sensitive to humidity and the vibration magnitude increases under wet testing conditions. Moreover, it can be reported that with increasing the applied pressure and rotational speed of the braking system, the vibration amplitudes decrease for all cases.

Keywords: disc brake vibration, friction-induced vibration, silica sand particles, brake operational and environmental conditions

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15287 Microgravity, Hydrological and Metrological Monitoring of Shallow Ground Water Aquifer in Al-Ain, UAE

Authors: Serin Darwish, Hakim Saibi, Amir Gabr


The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is situated within an arid zone where the climate is arid and the recharge of the groundwater is very low. Groundwater is the primary source of water in the United Arab Emirates. However, rapid expansion, population growth, agriculture, and industrial activities have negatively affected these limited water resources. The shortage of water resources has become a serious concern due to the over-pumping of groundwater to meet demand. In addition to the deficit of groundwater, the UAE has one of the highest per capita water consumption rates in the world. In this study, a combination of time-lapse measurements of microgravity and depth to groundwater level in selected wells in Al Ain city was used to estimate the variations in groundwater storage. Al-Ain is the second largest city in Abu Dhabi Emirates and the third largest city in the UAE. The groundwater in this region has been overexploited. Relative gravity measurements were acquired using the Scintrex CG-6 Autograv. This latest generation gravimeter from Scintrex Ltd provides fast, precise gravity measurements and automated corrections for temperature, tide, instrument tilt and rejection of data noise. The CG-6 gravimeter has a resolution of 0.1μGal. The purpose of this study is to measure the groundwater storage changes in the shallow aquifers based on the application of microgravity method. The gravity method is a nondestructive technique that allows collection of data at almost any location over the aquifer. Preliminary results indicate a possible relationship between microgravity and water levels, but more work needs to be done to confirm this. The results will help to develop the relationship between monthly microgravity changes with hydrological and hydrogeological changes of shallow phreatic. The study will be useful in water management considerations and additional future investigations.

Keywords: Al-Ain, arid region, groundwater, microgravity

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15286 Growth and Anatomical Responses of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes) under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions

Authors: Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Joseph Omojola, Ezekiel S. Joshua, Seyi C. Adediwura, Elijah T. Adesuji, Michael O. Odey, Oyinade A. Dedeke, Ayo H. Labulo


Microgravity is known to be a major abiotic stress in space which affects plants depending on the duration of exposure. In this work, tomatoes seeds were exposed to long hours of simulated microgravity condition using a one-axis clinostat. The seeds were sown on a 1.5% combination of plant nutrient and agar-agar solidified medium in three Petri dishes. One of the Petri dishes was mounted on the clinostat and allowed to rotate at the speed of 20 rpm for 72 hours, while the others were subjected to the normal gravity vector. The anatomical sections of both clinorotated and normal gravity plants were made after 72 hours and observed using a Phase-contrast digital microscope. The percentage germination, as well as the growth rate of the normal gravity seeds, was higher than the clinorotated ones. The germinated clinorotated roots followed different directions unlike the normal gravity ones which grew towards the direction of gravity vector. The clinostat was able to switch off gravistimulation. Distinct cellular arrangement was observed for tomatoes under normal gravity condition, unlike those of clinorotated ones. The root epidermis and cortex of normal gravity are thicker than the clinorotated ones. This implied that under long-term microgravity influence, plants do alter their anatomical features as a way of adapting to the stress condition.

Keywords: anatomy, clinostat, germination, lycopersicon esculentum, microgravity

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15285 Resonant Auxetic Metamaterial for Automotive Applications in Vibration Isolation

Authors: Adrien Pyskir, Manuel Collet, Zoran Dimitrijevic, Claude-Henri Lamarque


During the last decades, great efforts have been made to reduce acoustic and vibrational disturbances in transportations, as it has become a key feature for comfort. Today, isolation and design have neutralized most of the troublesome vibrations, so that cars are quieter and more comfortable than ever. However, some problems remain unsolved, in particular concerning low-frequency isolation and the frequency-dependent stiffening of materials like rubber. To sum it up, a balance has to be found between a high static stiffness to sustain the vibration source’s mass, and low dynamic stiffness, as wideband as possible. Systems meeting these criteria are yet to be designed. We thus investigated solutions inspired by metamaterials to control efficiently low-frequency wave propagation. Structures exhibiting a negative Poisson ratio, also called auxetic structures, are known to influence the propagation of waves through beaming or damping. However, their stiffness can be quite peculiar as well, as they can present regions of zero stiffness on the stress-strain curve for compression. In addition, auxetic materials can be easily adapted in many ways, inducing great tuning potential. Using finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, a resonant design has been tested through statics and dynamics simulations. These results are compared to experimental results. In particular, the bandgaps featured by these structures are analyzed as a function of design parameters. Great stiffness properties can be observed, including low-frequency dynamic stiffness loss and broadband transmission loss. Such features are very promising for practical isolation purpose, and we hope to adopt this kind of metamaterial into an effective industrial damper.

Keywords: auxetics, metamaterials, structural dynamics, vibration isolation

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15284 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu


This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws

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15283 Development of a Human Vibration Model Considering Muscles and Stiffness of Intervertebral Discs

Authors: Young Nam Jo, Moon Jeong Kang, Hong Hee Yoo


Most human vibration models have been modeled as a multibody system consisting of some rigid bodies and spring-dampers. These models are developed for certain posture and conditions. So, the models cannot be used in vibration analysis in various posture and conditions. The purpose of this study is to develop a human vibration model that represent human vibration characteristics under various conditions by employing a musculoskeletal model. To do this, the human vibration model is developed based on biomechanical models. In addition, muscle models are employed instead of spring-dampers. Activations of muscles are controlled by PD controller to maintain body posture under vertical vibration is applied. Each gain value of the controller is obtained to minimize the difference of apparent mass and acceleration transmissibility between experim ent and analysis by using an optimization method.

Keywords: human vibration analysis, hill type muscle model, PD control, whole-body vibration

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15282 Evaluation of Response Modification Factor and Behavior of Seismic Base-Isolated RC Structures

Authors: Mohammad Parsaeimaram, Fang Congqi


In this paper, one of the significant seismic design parameter as response modification factor in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with base isolation system was evaluated. The seismic isolation system is a capable approach to absorbing seismic energy at the base and transfer to the substructure with lower response modification factor as compared to non-isolated structures. A response spectrum method and static nonlinear pushover analysis in according to Uniform Building Code (UBC-97), have been performed on building models involve 5, 8, 12 and 15 stories building with fixed and isolated bases consist of identical moment resisting configurations. The isolation system is composed of lead rubber bearing (LRB) was designed with help UBC-97 parameters. The force-deformation behavior of isolators was modeled as bi-linear hysteretic behavior which can be effectively used to create the isolation systems. The obtained analytical results highlight the response modification factor of considered base isolation system with higher values than recommended in the codes. The response modification factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of structures.

Keywords: response modification factor, base isolation system, pushover analysis, lead rubber bearing, bi-linear hysteretic

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15281 Experimental Study on the Molecular Spring Isolator

Authors: Muchun Yu, Xue Gao, Qian Chen


As a novel passive vibration isolation technology, molecular spring isolator (MSI) is investigated in this paper. An MSI consists of water and hydrophobic zeolites as working medium. Under periodic excitation, water molecules intrude into hydrophobic pores of zeolites when the pressure rises and water molecules extrude from hydrophobic pores when pressure drops. At the same time, energy is stored, released and dissipated. An MSI of piston-cylinder structure was designed in this work. Experiments were conducted to investigate the stiffness properties of MSI. The results show that MSI exhibits high-static-low dynamic (HSLD) stiffness. Furthermore, factors such as the quantity of zeolites, temperature, and ions in water are proved to have an influence on the stiffness properties of MSI.

Keywords: hydrophobic zeolites, molecular spring, stiffness, vibration isolation

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15280 Improving the Exploitation of Fluid in Elastomeric Polymeric Isolator

Authors: Haithem Elderrat, Huw Davies, Emmanuel Brousseau


Elastomeric polymer foam has been used widely in the automotive industry, especially for isolating unwanted vibrations. Such material is able to absorb unwanted vibration due to its combination of elastic and viscous properties. However, the ‘creep effect’, poor stress distribution and susceptibility to high temperatures are the main disadvantages of such a system. In this study, improvements in the performance of elastomeric foam as a vibration isolator were investigated using the concept of Foam Filled Fluid (FFFluid). In FFFluid devices, the foam takes the form of capsule shapes, and is mixed with viscous fluid, while the mixture is contained in a closed vessel. When the FFFluid isolator is affected by vibrations, energy is absorbed, due to the elastic strain of the foam. As the foam is compressed, there is also movement of the fluid, which contributes to further energy absorption as the fluid shears. Also, and dependent on the design adopted, the packaging could also attenuate vibration through energy absorption via friction and/or elastic strain. The present study focuses on the advantages of the FFFluid concept over the dry polymeric foam in the role of vibration isolation. This comparative study between the performance of dry foam and the FFFluid was made according to experimental procedures. The paper concludes by evaluating the performance of the FFFluid isolator in the suspension system of a light vehicle. One outcome of this research is that the FFFluid may preferable over elastomer isolators in certain applications, as it enables a reduction in the effects of high temperatures and of ‘creep effects’, thereby increasing the reliability and load distribution. The stiffness coefficient of the system has increased about 60% by using an FFFluid sample. The technology represented by the FFFluid is therefore considered by this research suitable for application in the suspension system of a light vehicle.

Keywords: FFFluid, dry foam, anti-vibration devices, elastomeric polymer foam

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15279 Application of Seismic Isolators in Kutahya City Hospital Project Utilizing Double Friction Pendulum Type Devices

Authors: Kaan Yamanturk, Cihan Dogruoz


Seismic isolators have been utilized around the world to protect the structures, nonstructural components and contents from the damaging effects of earthquakes. In Structural Engineering, seismic isolation is used for protecting buildings and its vibration-sensitive contents from earthquakes. Seismic isolation is a passive control system that lowers effective earthquake forces by utilizing flexible bearings. One of the most significant isolation systems is seismic isolators. In this paper, double pendulum type Teflon coated seismic isolators utilized in a city hospital project by Guris Construction and Engineering Co. Inc, located in Kutahya, Turkey, have been investigated. Totally, 498 seismic isolators were applied in the project. These isolators are double friction pendulum type seismic isolation devices. The review of current practices is also examined in this study. The focus of this study is related to the application of passive seismic isolation systems for buildings as practiced in Kutahya City Hospital Project. Based on the study, the acceleration at the top floor will be 0.18 g and it will decrease 0.01 g in every floor. Therefore, seismic isolators are very important for buildings located in earthquake zones.

Keywords: maximum considered earthquake, moment resisting frame, seismic isolator, seismic design

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15278 Design Development and Qualification of a Magnetically Levitated Blower for C0₂ Scrubbing in Manned Space Missions

Authors: Larry Hawkins, Scott K. Sakakura, Michael J. Salopek


The Marshall Space Flight Center is designing and building a next-generation CO₂ removal system, the Four Bed Carbon Dioxide Scrubber (4BCO₂), which will use the International Space Station (ISS) as a testbed. The current ISS CO2 removal system has faced many challenges in both performance and reliability. Given that CO2 removal is an integral Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) subsystem, the 4BCO2 Scrubber has been designed to eliminate the shortfalls identified in the current ISS system. One of the key required upgrades was to improve the performance and reliability of the blower that provides the airflow through the CO₂ sorbent beds. A magnetically levitated blower, capable of higher airflow and pressure than the previous system, was developed to meet this need. The design and qualification testing of this next-generation blower are described here. The new blower features a high-efficiency permanent magnet motor, a five-axis, active magnetic bearing system, and a compact controller containing both a variable speed drive and a magnetic bearing controller. The blower uses a centrifugal impeller to pull air from the inlet port and drive it through an annular space around the motor and magnetic bearing components to the exhaust port. Technical challenges of the blower and controller development include survival of the blower system under launch random vibration loads, operation in microgravity, packaging under strict size and weight requirements, and successful operation during 4BCO₂ operational changeovers. An ANSYS structural dynamic model of the controller was used to predict response to the NASA defined random vibration spectrum and drive minor design changes. The simulation results are compared to measurements from qualification testing the controller on a vibration table. Predicted blower performance is compared to flow loop testing measurements. Dynamic response of the system to valve changeovers is presented and discussed using high bandwidth measurements from dynamic pressure probes, magnetic bearing position sensors, and actuator coil currents. The results presented in the paper show that the blower controller will survive launch vibration levels, the blower flow meets the requirements, and the magnetic bearings have adequate load capacity and control bandwidth to maintain the desired rotor position during the valve changeover transients.

Keywords: blower, carbon dioxide removal, environmental control and life support system, magnetic bearing, permanent magnet motor, validation testing, vibration

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15277 Early Installation Effect on the Machines’ Generated Vibration

Authors: Maitham Al-Safwani


Motor vibration issues were analyzed by several studies. It is generally accepted that vibration issues result from poor equipment installation. We had a water injection pump tested in the factory and exceeded the pump the vibration limit. Once the pump was brought to the site, its half-size shim plates were replaced with full-size shims plates that drastically reduced the vibration. In this study, vibration data was recorded for several similar motors run at the same and different speeds. The vibration values were recorded -for two and a half hours- and the vibration readings were analyzed to determine when the readings became consistent. This was as well supported by recording the audio noises produced by some machines seeking a relationship between changes in machine noises and machine abnormalities, such as vibration.

Keywords: vibration, noise, installation, machine

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