Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Rituraj Deka

12 CMMI Key Process Areas and FDD Practices

Authors: Rituraj Deka, Nomi Baruah


The development of information technology during the past few years resulted in designing of more and more complex software. The outsourcing of software development makes a higher requirement for the management of software development project. Various software enterprises follow various paths in their pursuit of excellence, applying various principles, methods and techniques along the way. The new research is proving that CMMI and Agile methodologies can benefit from using both methods within organizations with the potential to dramatically improve business performance. The paper describes a mapping between CMMI key process areas (KPAs) and Feature-Driven Development (FDD) communication perspective, so as to increase the understanding of how improvements can be made in the software development process.

Keywords: Agile, CMMI, FDD, KPAs

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11 Optimisation of Stored Alcoholic Beverage Joufinai with Reverse Phase HPLC Method and Its Antioxidant Activities: North- East India

Authors: Dibakar Chandra Deka, Anamika Kalita Deka


Fermented alcoholic beverage production has its own stand among the tribal communities of North-East India. This biological oxidation method is followed by Ahom, Dimasa, Nishi, Miri, Bodo, Rabha tribes of this region. Bodo tribes among them not only prepare fermented alcoholic beverage but also store it for various time periods like 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months and 15 months etc. They prepare alcoholic beverage Jou (rice beer) following the fermentation of Oryza sativa with traditional yeast culture Amao. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main domain strain present in Amao. Dongphangrakep (Scoparia dulcis), Mwkhna (Clerodendrum viscosum), Thalir (Musa balbisina) and Khantal Bilai (Ananas cosmos) are the main plants used for Amao preparation. The stored Jou is known as Joufinai. They store the fermented mixture (rice and Amao) in anaerobic conditions for the preparation of Joufinai. We observed a successive increase in alcohol content from 3 months of storage period with 11.79 ± 0.010 (%, v/v) to 15.48 ± 0.070 (%, v/v) at 15 months of storage by a simple, reproducible and solution based colorimetric method. A positive linear correlation was also observed between pH and ethanol content with storage having correlation coefficient 0.981. Here, we optimised the detection of change in constituents of Joufinai during storage using reverse phase HPLC method. We found acetone, ethanol, acetic acid, glycerol as main constituents present in Joufinai. A very good correlation was observed from 3 months to 15 months of storage periods with its constituents. Increase in glycerol content was also detected with storage periods and hence Joufinai can be use as a precursor of above stated compounds. We also observed antioxidant activities increase from 0.056 ±2.80 mg/mL for 3 months old to 0.078± 5.33 mg/mL (in ascorbic acid equivalents) for 15 month old beverage by DPPH radical scavenging method. Therefore, we aimed for scientific validation of storage procedure used by Bodos in Joufinai production and to convert the Bodos’ traditional alcoholic beverage to a commercial commodity through our study.

Keywords: Amao, correlation, beverage, joufinai

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10 Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Rice Husk Filled Jute Reinforced Composites

Authors: Priyankar P. Deka, Sutanu Samanta


This paper describes the development of new class of epoxy based hybrid composites reinforced with jute and filled with rice husk flour. Rice husk flour is added in 0%, 1%, 3%, 5% by weight. Epoxy resin and triethylene tetramine (T.E.T.A) is used as matrix and hardener respectively. It investigates the mechanical properties of the composites and a comparison is done for monolithic jute composite and the filled ones. The specimens are prepared according to the ASTM standards and experimentation is carried out using INSTRON 8801. The result shows that with the increase of filler percentage the tensile properties increases but compressive and flexural properties decreases.

Keywords: jute, mechanical characterization, natural fiber, rice husk

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9 Column Studies on Chromium(VI) Adsorption onto Kala Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) Seed Powder

Authors: Sumi Deka, Krishna Gopal Bhattacharyya


This paper evaluate the industrial use of Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed powder (KSP) for the continuous adsorption of Cr(VI) in a column adsorption process. Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Kala jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) Seed Powder have been examined with the variation of (a) bed depth of the adsorbents, (b) flow rate of the adsorbents and (c) Cr(VI) concentration. The results showed that both the adsorption and the regeneration of the Cr(VI) onto Kala Jamun (Syzygiumcumini L.) seed Powder (KSP) can effectively occur in the column mode of adsorption. On increasing the bed depth, the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto KSP increases whereas on increasing the flow rate and the Cr(VI) concentration of KSP adsorption decreases. The results of the column studies were also fitted to Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model. The BDST model was appropriate for designing the column for industrial purpose.

Keywords: bed-depth-service-time, continuous adsorption, Cr(VI), KSP

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8 Higher Education and Empowerment of Women: A Case Study

Authors: Anupam Deka


Gender discrimination has been considered as a major obstacle in granting equal opportunity for woman in Higher education as education plays a pivotal role in a country’s socio-economic development. To examine the empowerment of women in the higher education field of Assam, a case study has been carried out. In the first stage, an overview of enrolment of students in different courses has been made by considering the whole state. In the second stage a study has been conducted regarding the enrolment of students in various degree and P-G courses for the period 2000-2007 under Gauhati University (which is one of the four universities of Assam) and the relevant data has been collected. It has been found that though the enrolment of students in the degree levels has been constantly increasing, but the enrolment of girls are not proportionately increasing, specially in commerce and law. On the other hand, in the post-graduate level, these proportions are higher in almost all the subjects (except some subjects like M. COM., L.L.M, M. C. A., Mathematics, etc.), indicating that more number of girls than boys are taking admission in the P-G courses.

Keywords: field study, enrolment of girls in degree and P G levels, regression lines, Chi Square test, diagrams and statistical tables

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7 Higher Education and Empowerment of Women in Assam (India): An Empirical Analysis

Authors: Anupam Deka, Indira Bardoloi


Gender discrimination has been considered as a major obstacle in granting equal opportunity for women in higher education as education plays a pivotal role in a country’s socioeconomic development. To examine the empowerment of women in the higher education field of Assam, a case study has been carried out. In the first stage, an overview of enrollment of students in different courses has been made by considering the whole state. In the second stage, a study has been conducted regarding the enrollment of students in various degree and postgraduate courses for the period 2000-2007 at Gauhati University (one of the four universities of Assam), and the relevant data has been collected. It has been found that though the enrollment of students in the degree levels has been constantly increasing, but the enrollment of girls are not proportionately increasing, especially in commerce and law. On the other hand, in the postgraduate level, these proportions are higher in almost all subjects (except some subjects like M. COM., L.L.M, M. C. A., Mathematics, etc.), indicating that compared to boys, a higher number of girls are being admitted in postgraduate courses.

Keywords: field study, enrollment of girls in degree and postgratudate levels, regression lines, chi square test, diagrams, statistical tables

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6 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil

Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka


Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon contamination, bioremediation, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid

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5 Microencapsulation for Enhancing the Survival of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus during Spray Drying of Sweetened Yoghurt

Authors: Dibyakanta Seth, Hari Niwas Mishra, Sankar Chandra Deka


Microencapsulation is an established method of protecting bacteria from the adverse conditions. An improved extrusion spraying technique was used to encapsulate mixed bacteria culture of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus using sodium alginate as the coating material. The effect of nozzle air pressure (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa), sodium alginate concentration (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 3% w/v), different concentration of calcium chloride (0.1, 0.2, 1 M) and initial cell loads (10⁷, 10⁸, 10⁹ cfu/ml) on the viability of encapsulated bacteria were investigated. With the increase in air pressure the size of microcapsules decreased, however the effect was non-significant. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the viability of encapsulated cells when the concentration of calcium chloride was increased. Increased level of sodium alginate significantly increased the survival ratio of encapsulated bacteria (P < 0.01). Encapsulation with 3% alginate was treated as optimum since a higher concentration of alginate increased the gel strength of the solution and thus was difficult to spray. Under optimal conditions 3% alginate, 10⁹ cfu/ml cell load, 20 min hardening time in 0.1 M CaCl2 and 400 kPa nozzle air pressure, the viability of bacteria cells was maximum compared to the free cells. The microcapsules made at the optimal condition when mixed with yoghurt and subjected to spray drying at 148°C, the survival ratio was 2.48×10⁻¹ for S. thermophilus and 7.26×10⁻¹ for L. bulgaricus. In contrast, the survival ratio of free cells of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus were 2.36×10⁻³ and 8.27×10⁻³, respectively. This study showed a decline in viable cells count of about 0.5 log over a period of 7 weeks while there was a decline of about 1 log in cultures which were incorporated as free cells in yoghurt. Microencapsulation provided better protection at higher acidity compared to free cells. This study demonstrated that microencapsulation of yoghurt culture in sodium alginate is an effective technique of protection against extreme drying conditions.

Keywords: extrusion, microencapsulation, spray drying, sweetened yoghurt

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4 Pregnancy Outcome in Women with HIV Infection from a Tertiary Care Centre of India

Authors: Kavita Khoiwal, Vatsla Dadhwal, K. Aparna Sharma, Dipika Deka, Plabani Sarkar


Introduction: About 2.4 million (1.93 - 3.04 million) people are living with HIV/AIDS in India. Of all HIV infections, 39% (9,30,000) are among women. 5.4% of infections are from mother to child transmission (MTCT), 25,000 infected children are born every year. Besides the risk of mother to child transmission of HIV, these women are at risk of the higher adverse pregnancy outcome. The objectives of the study were to compare the obstetric and neonatal outcome in women who are HIV positive with low-risk HIV negative women and effect of antiretroviral drugs on preterm birth and IUGR. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective case record analysis of 212 HIV-positive women delivering between 2002 to 2015, in a tertiary health care centre which was compared with 238 HIV-negative controls. Women who underwent medical termination of pregnancy and abortion were excluded from the study. Obstetric outcome analyzed were pregnancy induced hypertension, HIV positive intrauterine growth restriction, preterm birth, anemia, gestational diabetes and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Neonatal outcome analysed were birth weight, apgar score, NICU admission and perinatal transmission.HIV-positiveOut of 212 women, 204 received antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent MTCT, 27 women received single dose nevirapine (sdNVP) or sdNVP tailed with 7 days of zidovudine and lamivudine (ZDV + 3TC), 15 received ZDV, 82 women received duovir and 80 women received triple drug therapy depending upon the time period of presentation. Results: Mean age of 212 HIV positive women was 25.72+3.6 years, 101 women (47.6 %) were primigravida. HIV positive status was diagnosed during pregnancy in 200 women while 12 women were diagnosed prior to conception. Among 212 HIV positive women, 20 (9.4 %) women had preterm delivery (< 37 weeks), 194 women (91.5 %) delivered by cesarean section and 18 women (8.5 %) delivered vaginally. 178 neonates (83.9 %) received exclusive top feeding and 34 neonates (16.03 %) received exclusive breast feeding. When compared to low risk HIV negative women (n=238), HIV positive women were more likely to deliver preterm (OR 1.27), have anemia (OR 1.39) and intrauterine growth restriction (OR 2.07). Incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension, diabetes mellitus and ICP was not increased. Mean birth weight was significantly lower in HIV positive women (2593.60+499 gm) when compared to HIV negative women (2919+459 gm). Complete follow up is available for 148 neonates till date, rest are under evaluation. Out of these 7 neonates found to have HIV positive status. Risk of preterm birth (P value = 0.039) and IUGR (P value = 0.739) was higher in HIV positive women who did not receive any ART during pregnancy than women who received ART. Conclusion: HIV positive pregnant women are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Multidisciplinary team approach and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy can optimize the maternal and perinatal outcome.

Keywords: antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection, IUGR, preterm birth

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3 Selfie: Redefining Culture of Narcissism

Authors: Junali Deka


“Pictures speak more than a thousand words”. It is the power of image which can have multiple meanings the way it is read by the viewers. This research article is an outcome of the extensive study of the phenomenon of‘selfie culture’ and dire need of self-constructed virtual identity among youths. In the recent times, there has been a revolutionary change in the concept of photography in terms of both techniques and applications. The popularity of ‘self-portraits’ mainly depend on the temporal space and time created on social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram. With reference to Stuart’s Hall encoding and decoding process, the article studies the behavior of the users who post photographs online. The photographic messages (Roland Barthes) are interpreted differently by different viewers. The notion of ‘self’, ‘self-love and practice of looking (Marita Sturken) and ways of seeing (John Berger) got new definition and dimensional together. After Oscars Night, show host Ellen DeGeneres’s selfie created the most buzz and hype in the social media. The term was judged the word of 2013, and has earned its place in the dictionary. “In November 2013, the word "selfie" was announced as being the "word of the year" by the Oxford English Dictionary. By the end of 2012, Time magazine considered selfie one of the "top 10 buzzwords" of that year; although selfies had existed long before, it was in 2012 that the term "really hit the big time an Australian origin. The present study was carried to understand the concept of ‘selfie-bug’ and the phenomenon it has created among youth (especially students) at large in developing a pseudo-image of its own. The topic was relevant and gave a platform to discuss about the cultural, psychological and sociological implications of selfie in the age of digital technology. At the first level, content analysis of the primary and secondary sources including newspapers articles and online resources was carried out followed by a small online survey conducted with the help of questionnaire to find out the student’s view on selfie and its social and psychological effects. The newspapers reports and online resources confirmed that selfie is a new trend in the digital media and it has redefined the notion of beauty and self-love. The Facebook and Instagram are the major platforms used to express one-self and creation of virtual identity. The findings clearly reflected the active participation of female students in comparison to male students. The study of the photographs of few selected respondents revealed the difference of attitude and image building among male and female users. The study underlines some basic questions about the desire of reconstruction of identity among young generation, such as - are they becoming culturally narcissist; responsible factors for cultural, social and moral changes in the society, psychological and technological effects caused by Smartphone as well, culminating into a big question mark whether the selfie is a social signifier of identity construction.

Keywords: Culture, Narcissist, Photographs, Selfie

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2 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Pollution and Ecological Risk Assessment in Surface Soil of the Tezpur Town, on the North Bank of the Brahmaputra River, Assam, India

Authors: Kali Prasad Sarma, Nibedita Baul, Jinu Deka


In the present study, pollution level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in surface soil of historic Tezpur town located in the north bank of the River Brahmaputra were evaluated. In order to determine the seasonal distribution and concentration level of 16 USEPA priority PAHs surface soil samples were collected from 12 different sampling sites with various land use type. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (∑16 PAHs) varied from 242.68µgkg-1to 7901.89µgkg-1. Concentration of total probable carcinogenic PAH ranged between 7.285µgkg-1 and 479.184 µgkg-1 in different seasons. However, the concentration of BaP, the most carcinogenic PAH, was found in the range of BDL to 50.01 µgkg-1. The composition profiles of PAHs in 3 different seasons were characterized by following two different types of ring: (1) 4-ring PAHs, contributed to highest percentage of total PAHs (43.75%) (2) while in pre- and post- monsoon season 3- ring compounds dominated the PAH profile, contributing 65.58% and 74.41% respectively. A high PAHs concentration with significant seasonality and high abundance of LMWPAHs was observed in Tezpur town. Soil PAHs toxicity was evaluated taking toxic equivalency factors (TEFs), which quantify the carcinogenic potential of other PAHs relative to BaP and estimate benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent concentration (BaPeq). The calculated BaPeq value signifies considerable risk to contact with soil PAHs. We applied cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) with multivariate linear regression (MLR) to apportion sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface soil of Tezpur town, based on the measured PAH concentrations. The results indicate that petrogenic and pyrogenic sources are the important sources of PAHs. A combination of chemometric and molecular indices were used to identify the sources of PAHs, which could be attributed to vehicle emissions, a mixed source input, natural gas combustion, wood or biomass burning and coal combustion. Source apportionment using absolute principle component scores–multiple linear regression showed that the main sources of PAHs are 22.3% mix sources comprising of diesel and biomass combustion and petroleum spill,13.55% from vehicle emission, 9.15% from diesel and natural gas burning, 38.05% from wood and biomass burning and 16.95% contribute coal combustion. Pyrogenic input was found to dominate source of PAHs origin with more contribution from vehicular exhaust. PAHs have often been found to co-emit with other environmental pollutants like heavy metals due to similar source of origin. A positive correlation was observed between PAH with Cr and Pb (r2 = 0.54 and 0.55 respectively) in monsoon season and PAH with Cd and Pb (r2 = 0.54 and 0.61 respectively) indicating their common source. Strong correlation was observed between PAH and OC during pre- and post- monsoon (r2=0.46 and r2=0.65 respectively) whereas during monsoon season no significant correlation was observed (r2=0.24).

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Tezpur town, chemometric analysis, ecological risk assessment, pollution

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1 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Enzyme Activities of Geosmithia pallida (KU693285): A Fungal Endophyte Associated with Brucea mollis Wall Ex. Kurz, an Endangered and Medicinal Plant of N. E. India

Authors: Deepanwita Deka, Dhruva Kumar Jha


Endophytes are the microbes that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. Endophytes are rich source of therapeutic substances like antimicrobial, anticancerous, herbicidal, insecticidal, immunomodulatory compounds. Brucea mollis, commonly known as Quinine in Assam, belonging to the family Simaroubaceae, is a shrub or small tree, recorded as endangered species in North East India by CAMP survey in 2003. It is traditionally being used as antimalarial and antimicrobial agent and has antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, anticancer, diuretic, cardiovascular effect etc. Being endangered and medicinal; this plant may host certain noble endophytes which need to be studied in depth. The aim of the present study was isolation and identification of potent endophytic fungi from Brucea mollis, an endangered medicinal plant, to protect it from extinction due to over use for medicinal purposes. Aseptically collected leaves, barks and roots samples of healthy plants were washed and cut into a total of 648 segments of about 2 cm long and 0.5 cm broad with sterile knife, comprising 216 segments each from leaves, barks and roots. These segments were surface sterilized using ethanol, mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). Different media viz., Czapeck-Dox-Agar (CDA, Himedia), Potato-Dextrose-Agar (PDA, Himedia), Malt Extract Agar (MEA, Himedia), Sabourad Dextrose Agar (SDA, Himedia), V8 juice agar, nutrient agar and water agar media and media amended with plant extracts were used separately for the isolation of the endophytic fungi. A total of 11 fungal species were recovered from leaf, bark and root tissues of B. mollis. The isolates were screened for antimicrobial, antioxidant and enzymatic activities using certain protocols. Cochliobolus geniculatus was identified as the most dominant species. The mycelia sterilia (creamy white) showing highest inhibitory activity against Candida albicans (MTCC 183) was induced to sporulate using modified PDA media. The isolate was identified as Geosmithia pallida. The internal transcribed spacer of rDNA was sequenced for confirmation of the taxonomic identity of the sterile mycelia (creamy white). The internal transcribed spacer r-DNA sequence was submitted to the NCBI (KU693285) for the first time from India. G. pallida and Penicillium showed highest antioxidant activity among all the isolates. The antioxidant activity of G. pallida and Penicillium didn’t show statistically significant difference (P˃0.05). G. pallida, Cochliobolus geniculatus and P. purpurogenum respectively showed highest cellulase, amylase and protease activities. Thus, endopytic fungal isolates may be used as potential natural resource of pharmaceutical importance. The endophytic fungi, Geosmithia pallida, may be used for synthesis of pharmaceutically important natural products and consequently can replace plants hitherto used for the same purpose. This study suggests that endophytes should be investigated more aggressively to better understand the endophyte biology of B. mollis.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, Brucea mollis, endophytic fungi, enzyme activity, Geosmithia pallida

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