Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 336

Search results for: Paul C. Okolie

186 Comparative Sustainability Performance Analysis of Australian Companies Using Composite Measures

Authors: Ramona Zharfpeykan, Paul Rouse

Abstract:

Organizational sustainability is important to both organizations themselves and their stakeholders. Despite its increasing popularity and increasing numbers of organizations reporting sustainability, research on evaluating and comparing the sustainability performance of companies is limited. The aim of this study was to develop models to measure sustainability performance for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons across companies in the same or different industries. A secondary aim was to see if sustainability reports can be used to evaluate sustainability performance. The study used both a content analysis of Australian sustainability reports in mining and metals and financial services for 2011-2014 and a survey of Australian and New Zealand organizations. Two methods ranging from a composite index using uniform weights to data envelopment analysis (DEA) were employed to analyze the data and develop the models. The results show strong statistically significant relationships between the developed models, which suggests that each model provides a consistent, systematic and reasonably robust analysis. The results of the models show that for both industries, companies that had sustainability scores above or below the industry average stayed almost the same during the study period. These indices and models can be used by companies to evaluate their sustainability performance and compare it with previous years, or with other companies in the same or different industries. These methods can also be used by various stakeholders and sustainability ranking companies such as the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI).

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, sustainability, sustainability performance measurement system, sustainability performance index, global reporting initiative

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
185 Healing in Lourdes: Qualitative Research with Pilgrims and Their Carers

Authors: Emmylou Rahtz, Sarah Goldingay, Sara Warber, Ann Arbor, Paul Dieppe

Abstract:

Introduction: Lourdes is a Catholic, Marian healing venue in South West France. Many miraculous cures have been attributed to visits there. In addition, many visitors seem to experience improvements in health and wellbeing, in the absence of a cure of disease. We wanted to investigate that phenomenon. Methods: We spent 10 days in Lourdes in 2017, carrying out ethnographic research, talking to many visitors, and carrying out formal, recorded interviews with several pilgrims, doctors, nurses, helpers, and priests. Results: Profound experiences and improvements in health and wellbeing were commonly reported. A number of ‘noetic’ experiences were also described. The paper will illustrate these phenomena. In addition, many participants in the research talked about why being in Lourdes was so beneficial to them. The community spirit, ethos of prayer, flow, synchronicity, and ability to find new meaning for life’s ills were cited as likely reasons. Conclusions: We believe that the ‘real miracle’ of Lourdes is the fact that of the many hundreds of thousands of people who go there each year, many find great benefit in health and wellbeing. It is likely that this is due to the ethos of the place, the community spirit, non-judgmental approach and loving acceptance of all aspects of humanity. Acknowledgments: We thank the BIAL foundation for generous funding of this research, and Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis and his team for facilitating our work, as well as all those who participated.

Keywords: healing, miracles, noetic experiences, wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
184 Eliminating Arm, Neck and Leg Fatigue of United Asia International Plastics Corporation Workers through Rapid Entire Body Assessment

Authors: John Cheferson R. De Belen, John Paul G. Elizares, Ronald John G. Raz, Janina Elyse A. Reyes, Charie G. Salengua, Aristotle L. Soriano

Abstract:

Plastic is a type of synthetic or man-made polymer that can readily be molded into a variety of products. Its usage over the past century has enabled society to make huge technological advances. The workers of United Asia International Plastics Corporation (UAIPC), a plastic manufacturing company performs manual packaging which causes fatigue and stress on their arm, neck, and legs due to extended periods of standing and repetitive motions. With the use of the Fishbone Diagram, Five-Why Analysis, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Anthropometry, the stressful tasks and activities were identified and analyzed. Given the anthropometric measurements obtained from the workers, improved dimensions for the tables and chairs should be used and provide a new packaging machine. The validation of this proposal shall follow after its implementation. By eliminating fatigue during working hours in the production, the workers will be at ease at performing their work properly; productivity will increase that will lead to more profit. Further areas for study include measurement and comparison of the worker’s anthropometric measurement with the industry standard.

Keywords: anthropometry, fishbone diagram, five-why analysis, rapid entire body assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
183 Operational Software Maturity: An Aerospace Industry Analysis

Authors: Raúl González Muñoz, Essam Shehab, Martin Weinitzke, Chris Fowler, Paul Baguley

Abstract:

Software applications have become crucial to the aerospace industry, providing a wide range of functionalities and capabilities used during the design, manufacturing and support of aircraft. However, as this criticality increases, so too does the risk for business operations when facing a software failure. Hence, there is a need for new methodologies to be developed to support aerospace companies in effectively managing their software portfolios, avoiding the hazards of business disruption and additional costs. This paper aims to provide a definition of operational software maturity, and how this can be used to assess software operational behaviour, as well as a view on the different aspects that drive software maturity within the aerospace industry. The key research question addressed is, how can operational software maturity monitoring assist the aerospace industry in effectively managing large software portfolios? This question has been addressed by conducting an in depth review of current literature, by working closely with aerospace professionals and by running an industry case study within a major aircraft manufacturer. The results are a software maturity model composed of a set of drivers and a prototype tool used for the testing and validation of the research findings. By utilising these methodologies to assess the operational maturity of software applications in aerospace, benefits in maintenance activities and operations disruption avoidance have been observed, supporting business cases for system improvement.

Keywords: aerospace, software lifecycle, software maintenance, software maturity

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
182 Seismic Directionality Effects on In-Structure Response Spectra in Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment

Authors: Sittipong Jarernprasert, Enrique Bazan-Zurita, Paul C. Rizzo

Abstract:

Currently, seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRA) for nuclear facilities use In-Structure Response Spectra (ISRS) in the calculation of fragilities for systems and components. ISRS are calculated via dynamic analyses of the host building subjected to two orthogonal components of horizontal ground motion. Each component is defined as the median motion in any horizontal direction. Structural engineers applied the components along selected X and Y Cartesian axes. The ISRS at different locations in the building are also calculated in the X and Y directions. The choice of the directions of X and Y are not specified by the ground motion model with respect to geographic coordinates, and are rather arbitrarily selected by the structural engineer. Normally, X and Y coincide with the “principal” axes of the building, in the understanding that this practice is generally conservative. For SPRA purposes, however, it is desirable to remove any conservatism in the estimates of median ISRS. This paper examines the effects of the direction of horizontal seismic motion on the ISRS on typical nuclear structure. We also evaluate the variability of ISRS calculated along different horizontal directions. Our results indicate that some central measures of the ISRS provide robust estimates that are practically independent of the selection of the directions of the horizontal Cartesian axes.

Keywords: seismic, directionality, in-structure response spectra, probabilistic risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
181 An Ontological Approach to Existentialist Theatre and Theatre of the Absurd in the Works of Jean-Paul Sartre and Samuel Beckett

Authors: Gülten Silindir Keretli

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the works of playwrights within the framework of existential philosophy. It is to observe the ontological existence in the plays of No Exit and Endgame. Literary works will be discussed separately in each section of this study. The despair of post-war generation of Europe problematized the ‘human condition’ in every field of literature which is the very product of social upheaval. With this concern in his mind, Sartre’s creative works portrayed man as a lonely being, burdened with terrifying freedom to choose and create his own meaning in an apparently meaningless world. The traces of the existential thought are to be found throughout the history of philosophy and literature. On the other hand, the theatre of the absurd is a form of drama showing the absurdity of the human condition and it is heavily influenced by the existential philosophy. Beckett is the most influential playwright of the theatre of the absurd. The themes and thoughts in his plays share many tenets of the existential philosophy. The existential philosophy posits the meaninglessness of existence and it regards man as being thrown into the universe and into desolate isolation. To overcome loneliness and isolation, the human ego needs recognition from the other people. Sartre calls this need of recognition as the need for ‘the Look’ (Le regard) from the Other. In this paper, existentialist philosophy and existentialist angst will be elaborated and then the works of existentialist theatre and theatre of absurd will be discussed within the framework of existential philosophy.

Keywords: consciousness, existentialism, the notion of the absurd, the other

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
180 De Novo Design of a Minimal Catalytic Di-Nickel Peptide Capable of Sustained Hydrogen Evolution

Authors: Saroj Poudel, Joshua Mancini, Douglas Pike, Jennifer Timm, Alexei Tyryshkin, Vikas Nanda, Paul Falkowski

Abstract:

On the early Earth, protein-metal complexes likely harvested energy from a reduced environment. These complexes would have been precursors to the metabolic enzymes of ancient organisms. Hydrogenase is an essential enzyme in most anaerobic organisms for the reduction and oxidation of hydrogen in the environment and is likely one of the earliest evolved enzymes. To attempt to reinvent a precursor to modern hydrogenase, we computationally designed a short thirteen amino acid peptide that binds the often-required catalytic transition metal Nickel in hydrogenase. This simple complex can achieve hundreds of hydrogen evolution cycles using light energy in a broad range of temperature and pH. Biophysical and structural investigations strongly indicate the peptide forms a di-nickel active site analogous to Acetyl-CoA synthase, an ancient protein central to carbon reduction in the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and capable of hydrogen evolution. This work demonstrates that prior to the complex evolution of multidomain enzymes, early peptide-metal complexes could have catalyzed energy transfer from the environment on the early Earth and enabled the evolution of modern metabolism

Keywords: hydrogenase, prebiotic enzyme, metalloenzyme, computational design

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
179 Analgesic Efficacy of Opiorphin and Its Analogue

Authors: Preet Singh, Kavitha Kongara, Dave Harding, Neil Ward, Paul Chambers

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of opiorphin and its analogue with a mu-receptor agonist; morphine. Opiorphins (Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg) belong to the family of endogenous enkephalinase inhibitors, found in saliva of humans. They are inhibitors of two Zinc metal ectopeptidases (Neutral endopeptidase NEP, and amino-peptidase APN) which are responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous opioids; endorphins and enkephalins. Morphine and butorphanol exerts their analgesic effects by mimicking the actions of endorphins and enkephalins. The opiorphin analogue was synthesized based on the structure activity relationship of the amino acid sequence of opiorphin. The pharmacological profile of the analogue was tested by replacing Serine at position 4 with Proline. The hot plate and tail flick test were used to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy. There was a significant increase in the time for the tail flick response after an injection of opiorphin, which was similar to the morphine effect. There was no increase in time in the hot plate test after an injection of opiorphin. The results suggest that opiorphin works at spinal level only rather than both spinal and supraspinal. Further work is required to confirm our results. We did not find analgesic activity of the opiorphin analogue. Thus, Serine at position 4 is also important for its pharmacological action. Further work is required to illustrate the role of serine at position 4 in opiorphin.

Keywords: analgesic peptides, endogenous opioids, morphine, opiorphin

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
178 The Conditionality of Financial Risk: A Comparative Analysis of High-Tech and Utility Companies Listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SSE)

Authors: Joseph Paul Chunga

Abstract:

The investment universe is awash with a myriad of financial choices that investors have to opt for, which principally culminates into a duality between aggressive or conservative approaches. Howbeit, it is pertinent to emphasize that the investment vehicles with an aggressive approach tend to take on more risk than the latter group in an effort to generate higher future returns for their respective investors. This study examines the conditionality effect that such partiality in financing has on the High-Tech and Public Utility companies listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SSE). Specifically, it examines the significance of the relationship between capitalization ratios of Total Debt Ratio (TDR), Degree of Financial Leverage (DFL) and profitability ratios of Earnings per Share (EPS) and Returns on Equity (ROE) on the Financial Risk of the two industries. We employ a modified version of the Panel Regression Model used by Rahman (2017) to estimate the relationship. The study finds that there is a significant positive relationship between the capitalization ratios on the financial risk of Public Utility companies more than High-Tech companies and a substantial negative relationship between the profitability ratios and the financial risk of the former than the latter companies. This then spells an important insight for prospective investors with regards to the volatility of earnings of such companies.

Keywords: financial leverage, debt financing, conservative firms, aggressive firms

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
177 The Leadership Criterion: Challenges in Pursuing Excellence in the Jordanian Public Sector

Authors: Shaker Aladwan, Paul Forrester

Abstract:

This paper explores the challenges that face leaders when implementing business excellence programmes in the Jordanian public sector. The study adopted a content analysis approach to analyse the excellence assessment reports that have been produced by the King Abdullah II Centre for Excellence (KACE). The sample comprises ten public organisations which have participated in the King Abdullah Award for Excellence (KAA) more than once and acknowledge in their reports that they have failed to achieve satisfactory results. The key challenges to the implementation of leadership criteria in the public sector in Jordan were found to be poor strategic planning, lack of employee empowerment, weaknesses in benchmarking performance, a lack of financial resources, poor integration and coordination, and poor measurement system: This study proposes a conceptual model for the as assessment of challenges that face managers when seeking to implement excellence in leadership in the Jordanian public sector. Theoretically, this paper fills context gaps in the excellence literature in general and organisational excellence in the public sector in particular. Leadership challenges in the public sector are generally widely studied, but it is important to gain a better understanding of how these challenges can be overcome. In comparison to many existing studies, this research has provided specific and detailed insights these organisational excellence challenges in the public sector and provides a conceptual model for use by other researchers into the future.

Keywords: leadership criterion, organisational excellence, challenges, quality awards, public sector, Jordan

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
176 Sport and Religion, the Specificity of Polish Stadiums

Authors: Michal Mazurkiewicz

Abstract:

It would seem at first glance that sport and religion are totally separate spheres. Yet, as a matter of fact, sport exists in religion (for example, In the teachings of John Paul II) and religion exists in sport (not only in religious rituals of players and fans). In this paper, the author examining the specific behaviours of Polish football fans and players analyses the question of religion in sport, mostly football. Like in the case of other countries, football holds a special place in Polish sporting history which constitutes an interesting subject of scientific research. It is a great identity builder and it influences culture which manifests itself in many ways (films, music, literature, etc.). Football is definitely a fascinating and colourful discipline pervaded with miscellaneous phenomena worth analysing. The aim of the paper is to show the "religious" uniqueness of Polish football fandom –namely, religious choreographies, participation in masses and pilgrimages to the Jasna Gora Shrine in Częstochowa. The peculiar combination of sport and religion visible at the stadiums and during the pilgrimages is analysed by the author. This mixture definitely adds colour to Polish sport and makes it intriguing to people from other countries. Religious rituals of the players are also examined here. The methods of the research included: Observations of numerous matches, looking through sports books, newspapers and magazines, interviews with the fans. The conclusions corroborate the thesis that sport may be and often is an important element of sporting contests. The main reasons and justifications are given in this analysis.

Keywords: football, religion, sport, colourful, newspapers

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
175 Polish Catholic Discourse on Gender Equality in the Face of Social and Cultural Changes in Poland

Authors: Anna Jagielska

Abstract:

Five years ago, the word ‘gender’ was discussed in Poland exclusively in academic contexts. One year later, it was chosen as the word of the year and omnipresent in the Polish media. The rapid career of this word is due to the involvement of the Polish church hierarchy who strategically brought this term into relation with abortion, pornography and paedophilia. ‘Gender’ is more than a political slogan. It is a symbol of social anxiety and moral panic in Poland which need to be historically considered. The aim of this paper is to present selected rhetorical strategies used by the Polish Catholic clergy who strive to have an impact on the current gender discourse in Poland. In particular, the gender debate, culminated in the pastoral letter of the Bishops' Conference of Poland, will be discussed. The church’s protest against the Council of Europe’s Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence will be analyzed and the recent heated debates in Poland on contraception, abortion, in vitro fertilization, and sex education will be mentioned. To provide explanations on the specificity of Polish gender debates the role of the Catholic Church in the fall of communism in Poland as well as the charismatisation of Polish society by Pope John Paul II will be explained. The social constructions of communism and feminism which are manifested in both written and symbolic contracts on gender equality between the Church and the State will be demonstrated. At the end of the paper, theories about the changing role of religion in society will be applied.

Keywords: gender, Poland, religion, catholicism, feminism

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
174 Analysis of the Elastic Energy Released and Characterization of the Eruptive Episodes Intensity’s during 2014-2015 at El Reventador Volcano, Ecuador

Authors: Paúl I. Cornejo

Abstract:

The elastic energy released through Strombolian explosions has been quite studied, detailing various processes, sources, and precursory events at several volcanoes. We realized an analysis based on the relative partitioning of the elastic energy radiated into the atmosphere and ground by Strombolian-type explosions recorded at El Reventador volcano, using infrasound and seismic signals at high and moderate seismicity episodes during intense eruptive stages of explosive and effusive activity. Our results show that considerable values of Volcano Acoustic-Seismic Ratio (VASR or η) are obtained at high seismicity stages. VASR is a physical diagnostic of explosive degassing that we used to compare eruption mechanisms at El Reventador volcano for two datasets of explosions recorded at a Broad-Band BB seismic and infrasonic station located at ~5 kilometers from the vent. We conclude that the acoustic energy EA released during explosive activity (VASR η = 0.47, standard deviation σ = 0.8) is higher than the EA released during effusive activity; therefore, producing the highest values of η. Furthermore, we realized the analysis and characterization of the eruptive intensity for two episodes at high seismicity, calculating a η three-time higher for an episode of effusive activity with an occasional explosive component (η = 0.32, and σ = 0.42), than a η for an episode of only effusive activity (η = 0.11, and σ = 0.18), but more energetic.

Keywords: effusive, explosion quakes, explosive, Strombolian, VASR

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
173 Global Health, Humanitarian Medical Aid, and the Ethics of Rationing

Authors: N. W. Paul, S. Michl

Abstract:

In our globalized world we need to appreciate the fact that questions of health and justice need to be addressed on a global scale, too. The way in which diverse governmental and non-governmental initiatives are trying to answer the need for humanitarian medical aid has long since been a visible result of globalized responsibility. While the intention of humanitarian medical aids seems to be evident, the allocation of resources has become more and more an ethical and societal challenge. With a rising number and growing dimension of humanitarian catastrophes around the globe the search for ethically justifiable ways to decide who might benefit from limited resources has become a pressing question. Rooted in theories of justice (Rawls) and concepts of social welfare (Sen) we developed and implemented a model for an ethically sound distribution of a limited annual budget for humanitarian care in one of the largest medical universities of Germany. Based on our long lasting experience with civil casualties of war (Afghanistan) and civil war (Libya) as well as with under- and uninsured and/or stateless patients we are now facing the on-going refugee crisis as our most recent challenge in terms of global health and justice. Against this background, the paper strives to a) explain key issues of humanitarian medical aid in the 21st century, b) explore the problem of rationing from an ethical point of view, c) suggest a tool for the rational allocation of scarce resources in humanitarian medical aid, d) present actual cases of humanitarian care that have been managed with our toolbox, and e) discuss the international applicability of our model beyond local contexts.

Keywords: humanitarian care, medical ethics, allocation, rationing

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
172 Investigation of the Cyclic Response of Mudrock

Authors: Shaymaa Kennedy, Sam Clark, Paul Shaply

Abstract:

With the upcoming construction of high-speed rail HS2 in the UK, a number of issues surrounding the construction technology and track design need to be answered. In this paper performance of subsoil subjected to dynamic loads were studied. The material of study is Mudrock backfill, a weak prevalent rock which response under indicative loading of high-speed rail line is unknown. This paper aims to investigate the use of different track types and the influence they will have on the underlying soil, in order to evaluate the behaviour of it. Ballstless track is a well-established concept in Europe, and the investigation the benefit of the form of construction due to its known savings in maintenance costs. Physical test using a triaxial cyclic loading machine was conducted to assess the expected mechanical behaviour of mudrock under a range of dynamic loads which could be generated beneath different track constructions. Some further parameters are required to frame the problem including determining the stress change with depth and cyclic response are vital to determine the residual plastic strain which is a major concern. In addition, Stress level is discussed in this paper, which are applied to recreate conditions of soil in the laboratory. Results indicate that stress levels are highly influential on the performance of soil at shallower depth and become insignificant with increasing depth.

Keywords: stress level, dynamic load, residual plastic strain, high speed railway

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
171 Development of a New Characterization Method to Analyse Cypermethrin Penetration in Wood Material by Immunolabelling

Authors: Sandra Tapin-Lingua, Katia Ruel, Jean-Paul Joseleau, Daouia Messaoudi, Olivier Fahy, Michel Petit-Conil

Abstract:

The preservative efficacy of organic biocides is strongly related to their capacity of penetration and retention within wood tissues. The specific detection of the pyrethroid insecticide is currently obtained after extraction followed by chemical analysis by chromatography techniques. However visualizing the insecticide molecule within the wood structure requires specific probes together with microscopy techniques. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to apply a new methodology based on antibody-antigen recognition and electronic microscopy to visualize directly pyrethroids in the wood material. A polyclonal antibody directed against cypermethrin was developed and implement it on Pinus sylvestris wood samples coated with technical cypermethrin. The antibody was tested on impregnated wood and the specific recognition of the insecticide was visualized in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The immunogold-TEM assay evidenced the capacity of the synthetic biocide to penetrate in the wood. The depth of penetration was measured on sections taken at increasing distances from the coated surface of the wood. Such results correlated with chemical analyzes carried out by GC-ECD after extraction. In addition, the immuno-TEM investigation allowed visualizing, for the first time at the ultrastructure scale of resolution, that cypermethrin was able to diffuse within the secondary wood cell walls.

Keywords: cypermethrin, insecticide, wood penetration, wood retention, immuno-transmission electron microscopy, polyclonal antibody

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
170 Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Mortars Manufactured from Moisture Correction Using the Halogen Light Thermogravimetric Balance as an Alternative to the Traditional ASTM C 128 Method

Authors: Diana Gomez-Cano, J. C. Ochoa-Botero, Roberto Bernal Correa, Yhan Paul Arias

Abstract:

To obtain high mechanical performance, the fresh conditions of a mortar are decisive. Measuring the absorption of aggregates used in mortar mixes is a fundamental requirement for proper design of the mixes prior to their placement in construction sites. In this sense, absorption is a determining factor in the design of a mix because it conditions the amount of water, which in turn affects the water/cement ratio and the final porosity of the mortar. Thus, this work focuses on the mechanical behavior of recycled mortars manufactured from moisture correction using the Thermogravimetric Balancing Halogen Light (TBHL) technique in comparison with the traditional ASTM C 128 International Standard method. The advantages of using the TBHL technique are favorable in terms of reduced consumption of resources such as materials, energy, and time. The results show that in contrast to the ASTM C 128 method, the TBHL alternative technique allows obtaining a higher precision in the absorption values of recycled aggregates, which is reflected not only in a more efficient process in terms of sustainability in the characterization of construction materials but also in an effect on the mechanical performance of recycled mortars.

Keywords: alternative raw materials, halogen light, recycled mortar, resources optimization, water absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
169 Chemical Oxygen Demand Fractionation of Primary Wastewater Effluent for Process Optimization and Modelling

Authors: Thandeka Y. S. Jwara, Paul Musonge

Abstract:

Traditionally, the complexity associated with implementing and controlling biological nutrient removal (BNR) in wastewater works (WWW) has been primarily in terms of balancing competing requirements for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, particularly with respect to the use of influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) as a carbon source for the microorganisms. Successful BNR optimization and modelling using WEST (Worldwide Engine for Simulation and Training) depend largely on the accurate fractionation of the influent COD. The different COD fractions have differing effects on the BNR process, and therefore, the influent characteristics need to be well understood. This study presents the fractionation results of primary wastewater effluent COD at one of South Africa’s wastewater works treating 65ML/day of mixed industrial and domestic effluent. The method used for COD fractionation was the oxygen uptake rate/respirometry method. The breakdown of the results of the analysis is as follows: 70.5% biodegradable COD (bCOD) and 29.5% of non-biodegradable COD (iCOD) in terms of the total COD. Further fractionation led to a readily biodegradable soluble fraction (SS) of 75%, a slowly degradable particulate fraction (XS) of 24%, a particulate non-biodegradable fraction (XI) of 50.8% and a non-biodegradable soluble fraction (SI) of 49.2%. The fractionation results demonstrate that the primary effluent has good COD characteristics, as shown by the high level of the bCOD fraction with Ss being higher than Xs. This means that the microorganisms have sufficient substrate for the BNR process and that these components can now serve as inputs to the WEST Model for the plant under study.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, COD fractionation, wastewater modelling, wastewater optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
168 Attitudes and Behaviors of Pediatric Residents towards Care for Underserved Children in a Tertiary Government Hospital

Authors: Paul Lawrence Filomeno, John Robert Medina, Anna Lisa Ong-Lim, Leonila Dans

Abstract:

Introduction: In most hospitals, pediatric residents are part of the frontline team who interacts with medically underserved patients. Despite of these daily encounters, little is known regarding their attitudes and behaviors towards caring for these underserved patients. Objectives: This study measured the pediatric resident physicians’ attitudes and behaviors towards underserved patients and determine its association. Methodology: The study utilized a cross-sectional mixed methodology, combining the use of a self-administered questionnaire survey using the Learner’s Needs Assessment tool, measuring both attitudes and behaviors towards the underserved. This is followed by a focus group discussion (FGD) involving a sample of residents at the Philippine General Hospital. Results: The response rate was 100% among 62 residents. Overall, 78% of pediatric residents acknowledged the issues of medically underserved to be very important. Volunteerism (behaviors) was only 27% during residency, and was projected to be 90% in future practice. No significant association was noted between their attitudes and behaviors. The FGD revealed that factors (i.e. burnout) causes strains in residents towards the underserved. Frustration from genuine concern for the underserved children was apparent. Conclusion: Among PGH pediatric residents, their attitudes and behaviors are noted to be positive towards the underserved. There was no significant correlation noted between having positive attitudes and volunteerism (behaviors) of the residents towards the underserved. Despite this, residents pointed out certain factors (i.e. burnout) that affect their attitudes and behaviors. The study results may serve as the basis for curriculum enhancements tailored to promote resident well-being, molding them to become the ‘5-star pediatricians’ who will genuinely be ready to serve the underserved.

Keywords: pediatric residents, attitudes, behaviors, underserved children

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
167 Dyeing of Wool and Silk with Soxhlet Water Extracted Natural Dye from Dacryodes macrophylla Fruits and Study of Antimicrobial Properties of Extract

Authors: Alvine Sandrine Ndinchout, D. P. Chattopadhyay, Moundipa Fewou Paul, Nyegue Maximilienne Ascension, Varinder Kaur, Sukhraj Kaur, B. H. Patel

Abstract:

Dacryodes macrophylla is a species of the Burseraceae family that is widespread in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. The only part of D. macrophylla known to use is the pulp contained in the fruit. This very juicy pulp is consumed directly and used in making juices. During consumption, these fruit leaves a dark blackish colour on fingers and garment. This observation means that D. macrophylla fruits must be a good source of natural dye with probably good fastness properties on textile materials. But D. macrophylla has not yet been investigated with reference as a potential source of natural dye to our best knowledge. Natural dye has been extracted using water as solvent by soxhlet extraction method. The extracted color was characterized by spectroscopic studies like UV/Visible and further tested for antimicrobial activity against gram-negative (Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, Shigella flexneri) and gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. It was observed that the water extract of D. macrophylla showed antimicrobial activities against S. enterica. The results of fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were fair to good. Taken together, these results indicate that D. macrophylla can be used as natural dye not only in textile but also in other domains like food coloring.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, natural dye, silk, wash fastness, wool

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
166 When Worlds Collide: Clashes of Communication between Italian and Anglophone Cultures in Movies Set in Venice

Authors: Angela Fabris, Joerg Helbig

Abstract:

Our paper deals with feature films set in Venice which focus on the influence of Italian life style on anglophone characters. Usually, these films emphasize the different cultures and mentalities of Italian and British (or American) people. More often than not, these encounters result in a profound change of the anglophone characters' attitude towards romance and sensuality. A case in point is David Lean's Summer Madness (UK 1955). This film recounts the love affair between the American tourist Jane Hudson (Katherine Hepburn) and the Venetian antique shop owner Renato de Rossi (Rossano Brazzi). Jane is a spinster in her mid-forties who longs for love and romance. The chance arrives when she meets Renato who feels attracted to her. Jane's immediate reaction, however, is to reject Renato's advances. What follows is a struggle between the strict morality of a puritan upbringing and the irresitable charm of Mediterranean temptations. Similar conflicts can be found in many other movies. Apart from Summer Madness we will discuss Aldo Lado's Chi l'ha vista morire? (It 1972), Nicolas Roeg's Don't Look Now (UK/It 1973) and Paul Schrader's The Comfort of Strangers (It/UK/USA 1990). Our paper raises the question whether or not these and other films present false stereotypes and chlichés. The paper is part of our large-scale research project which explores the history of erotic cinema in Italy and England.

Keywords: culture clash, erotic cinema, film, Venice

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
165 Windstorm Risk Assessment for Offshore Wind Farms in the North Sea

Authors: Paul Buchana, Patrick E. Mc Sharry

Abstract:

In 2017 there will be about 38 wind farms in the North Sea belonging to 5 different countries. The North Sea is ideal for offshore wind power generation and is thus attractive to offshore wind energy developers and investors. With concerns about the potential for offshore wind turbines to sustain substantial damage as a result of extreme weather conditions, particularly windstorms, this poses a unique challenge to insurers and reinsurers as to adequately quantify the risk and offer appropriate insurance cover for these assets. The need to manage this risk also concerns regulators, who provide the oversight needed to ensure that if a windstorm or a series of storms occur in this area over a one-year time frame, the insurers of these assets in the EU remain solvent even after meeting consequent damage costs. In this paper, using available European windstorm data for the past 33 years and actual wind farm locations together with information pertaining to each of the wind farms (number of turbines, total capacity and financial value), we present a Monte Carlo simulation approach to assess the number of turbines that would be buckled in each of the wind farms using maximum wind speeds reaching each of them. These wind speeds are drawn from historical windstorm data. From the number of turbines buckled, associated financial loss and output capacity can be deduced. The results presented in this paper are targeted towards offshore wind energy developers, insurance and reinsurance companies and regulators.

Keywords: catastrophe modeling, North Sea wind farms, offshore wind power, risk analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
164 Optimization of Photocatalytic Degradation of Para-Nitrophenol in Visible Light by Nitrogen and Phosphorus Co-Doped Zinc Oxide Using Factorial Design of Experimental

Authors: Friday Godwin Okibe, Elaoyi David Paul, Oladayo Thomas Ojekunle

Abstract:

In this study, Nitrogen and Phosphorous co-doped Zinc Oxide (NPZ) was prepared through a solvent-free reaction. The NPZ was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated by monitoring the degradation of para-nitrophenol (PNP) under visible light irradiation and the process was optimized using factorial design of experiment. The factors investigated were initial concentration of para-nitrophenol, catalyst loading, pH and irradiation time. The characterization results revealed a successful doping of ZnO by nitrogen and phosphorus and an improvement in the surface morphology of the catalyst. The photo-catalyst exhibited improved photocatalytic activity under visible light by 73.8%. The statistical analysis of the optimization result showed that the model terms were significant at 95% confidence level. Interactions plots revealed that irradiation time was the most significant factor affecting the degradation process. The cube plots of the interactions of the variables showed that an optimum degradation efficiency of 66.9% was achieved at 10mg/L initial PNP concentration, 0.5g catalyst loading, pH 7 and 150 minutes irradiation time.

Keywords: nitrogen and phosphorous co-doped Zno, p-nitrophenol, photocatalytic degradation, optimization, factorial design of experimental

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
163 Estimation of Soil Moisture at High Resolution through Integration of Optical and Microwave Remote Sensing and Applications in Drought Analyses

Authors: Donglian Sun, Yu Li, Paul Houser, Xiwu Zhan

Abstract:

California experienced severe drought conditions in the past years. In this study, the drought conditions in California are analyzed using soil moisture anomalies derived from integrated optical and microwave satellite observations along with auxiliary land surface data. Based on the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM) classifications, three typical drought conditions were selected for the analysis: extreme drought conditions in 2007 and 2013, severe drought conditions in 2004 and 2009, and normal conditions in 2005 and 2006. Drought is defined as negative soil moisture anomaly. To estimate soil moisture at high spatial resolutions, three approaches are explored in this study: the universal triangle model that estimates soil moisture from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST); the basic model that estimates soil moisture under different conditions with auxiliary data like precipitation, soil texture, topography, and surface types; and the refined model that uses accumulated precipitation and its lagging effects. It is found that the basic model shows better agreements with the USDM classifications than the universal triangle model, while the refined model using precipitation accumulated from the previous summer to current time demonstrated the closest agreements with the USDM patterns.

Keywords: soil moisture, high resolution, regional drought, analysis and monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
162 Closed-Loop Supply Chain: A Study of Bullwhip Effect Using Simulation

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Debabrata Das

Abstract:

Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) management focuses on integrating forward and reverse flow of material as well as information to maximize value creation over the entire life-cycle of a product. Bullwhip effect in supply chain management refers to the phenomenon where a small variation in customers’ demand results in larger variation of orders at the upstream levels of supply chain. Since the quality and quantity of products returned to the collection centers (as a part of reverse logistics process) are uncertain, bullwhip effect is inevitable in CLSC. Therefore, in the present study, first, through an extensive literature survey, we identify all the important factors related to forward as well as reverse supply chain which causes bullwhip effect in CLSC. Second, we develop a system dynamics model to study the interrelationship among the factors and their effect on the performance of overall CLSC. Finally, the results of the simulation study suggest that demand forecasting, lead times, information sharing, inventory and work in progress adjustment rate, supply shortages, batch ordering, price variations, erratic human behavior, parameter correcting, delivery time delays, return rate of used products, manufacturing and remanufacturing capacity constraints are the important factors which have a significant influence on system’s performance, specifically on bullwhip effect in a CLSC.

Keywords: bullwhip effect, closed-loop supply chain, system dynamics, variance ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
161 Synthesis and Characterisation of Bio-Based Acetals Derived from Eucalyptus Oil

Authors: Kirstin Burger, Paul Watts, Nicole Vorster

Abstract:

Green chemistry focuses on synthesis which has a low negative impact on the environment. This research focuses on synthesizing novel compounds from an all-natural Eucalyptus citriodora oil. Eight novel plasticizer compounds are synthesized and optimized using flow chemistry technology. A precursor to one novel compound can be synthesized from the lauric acid present in coconut oil. Key parameters, such as catalyst screening and loading, reaction time, temperature, residence time using flow chemistry techniques is investigated. The compounds are characterised using GC-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR techniques, X-ray crystallography. The efficiency of the compounds is compared to two commercial plasticizers, i.e. Dibutyl phthalate and Eastman 168. Several PVC-plasticized film formulations are produced using the bio-based novel compounds. Tensile strength, stress at fracture and percentage elongation are tested. The property of having increasing plasticizer percentage in the film formulations is investigated, ranging from 3, 6, 9 and 12%. The diastereoisomers of each compound are separated and formulated into PVC films, and differences in tensile strength are measured. Leaching tests, flexibility, and change in glass transition temperatures for PVC-plasticized films is recorded. Research objective includes using these novel compounds as a green bio-plasticizer alternative in plastic products for infants. The inhibitory effect of the compounds on six pathogens effecting infants are studied, namely; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella choleraesuis and Klebsiella oxytoca.

Keywords: bio-based compounds, plasticizer, tensile strength, microbiological inhibition , synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
160 Ethnomedicinal Assets of Plants Collected from Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria

Authors: Enock E. Goler, Emmanuel H. Kwon-Ndung, Gbenga F. Akomolafe, Terna T. Paul, Markus Musa, Joshua I. Waya, James H. Okogbaa

Abstract:

An ethno-medicinal survey of plants used in treating various diseases and ailments was carried out in the study area of Nasarawa State, North Central Nigeria to obtain information on their uses and potentials. The ethno-medicinal survey was administered through structured questionnaires among local inhabitants from areas with high plant density and diversity within the various Local Government Areas of the State. A total of 84 (Eighty four) plant species belonging to 45 (Forty five) families were found to be useful in treatment of various ailments such as diabetes, measles, fever, asthma, jaundice, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), aches, diarrhea, cough, arthritis, yellow fever, typhoid, erectile dysfunction and excessive bleeding. Different parts of the plant such as the roots, leaves and stems are used in preparing herbal remedies which could be from dry or freshly collected plants. The main methods of preparation are decoction or infusion, while in some cases the plant parts used are consumed directly. Residents in the study areas find the herbal remedy cheaper and more accessible and claimed that there are no side effects compared to orthodox medicine. This study has confirmed the need towards the conscious conservation of plant genetic resources in order to ensure sustained access to these ethno-medicinal plant materials.

Keywords: ethno-medicinal, Nasarawa, plants, survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
159 Introgressive Hybridisation between Two Widespread Sharks in the East Pacific Region

Authors: Diana A. Pazmino, Lynne vanHerwerden, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, Claudia Junge, Stephen C. Donnellan, Mauricio Hoyos-Padilla, Clinton A. J. Duffy, Charlie Huveneers, Bronwyn Gillanders, Paul A. Butcher, Gregory E. Maes

Abstract:

With just a handful of documented cases of hybridisation in cartilaginous fishes, shark hybridisation remains poorly investigated. Small amounts of admixture have been detected between Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis) and dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) sharks previously, generating a hypothesis of ongoing hybridisation. We sampled a large number of individuals from areas where both species co-occur (contact zones) across the Pacific Ocean and used both mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded SNPs to examine genetic admixture and introgression between the two species. Using empirical, analytical approaches and simulations, we first developed a set of 1,873 highly informative and reliable diagnostic SNPs for these two species to evaluate the degree of admixture between them. Overall, results indicate a high discriminatory power of nuclear SNPs (FST=0.47, p < 0.05) between the two species, unlike mitochondrial DNA (ΦST = 0.00 p > 0.05), which failed to differentiate between these species. We identified four hybrid individuals (~1%) and detected bi-directional introgression between C. galapagensis and C. obscurus in the Gulf of California along the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas. We emphasize the importance of including a combination of mtDNA and diagnostic nuclear markers to properly assess species identification, detect patterns of hybridisation, and better inform management and conservation of these sharks, especially given the morphological similarities within the genus Carcharhinus.

Keywords: elasmobranchs, single nucleotide polymorphisms, hybridisation, introgression, misidentification

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
158 Nigeria's Distressed Economy and Achievement of Child-Friendly School Model

Authors: Onyeke Paul Chuks

Abstract:

Nigeria is ranked among the developing nations and a country with a low income per capita. The consequences of this economic situation have led to the low achievement records below UN benchmark especially in the area of basic education for her citizens. The country is, however, making relentless efforts at arresting the situation by making budgetary allocations to ensure the realization of Millennium Development Goal No. 2 which is achieving universal basic education, her distressed economy notwithstanding. Basic education which comprises primary and lower secondary education as well as pre-primary and/or adult literacy programs have suffered serious setbacks orchestrated by the dwindling of the nation’s economy. This category of education being the bedrock of all other levels of education is regarded as a priority by developing countries and also the focus of the Education for All Movement led by UNESCO. The introduction of child-friendly school model is one of the strategies designed by UNESCO to achieving this all important MDGs goal No. 2. Child-friendly education model is aimed at replacing the out-dated, mundane, regimented and officious school administrative model where the basic rights of school children are trampled upon with impunity and community participation in school activities is viewed as unnecessary interference by school managers. This paper ex-rayed the potential obstacles likely to impinge on the implementation of child-friendly school model in Nigeria especially from the angle of her distressed economy and the colossal effects of the corrupt practices bedeviling the nation. The paper as well outlines prospects for the successful implementation of the child-friendly school model in Nigeria.

Keywords: child-friendly school, distressed economy, model, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
157 Sustainable Environmental Management through the Comparative Study of Two Recreational Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola, Cornelius Olatunji Omojola, Dayo Martins Oyeshomo

Abstract:

The role of a recreational park in human and environmental development has attracted much interest in the recent time. Recreation parks' development could act as an effective planning strategy to enhance environmental sustainability, social cohesiveness, and users' quality of life. Similarly, parks enhance neighbourhood's aesthetics, refresh the air and enhance humans' contact with nature. In this connection, recreation parks create natural surroundings of rural areas for leisure, relaxation, recreation, psychological and physical comfort of the people. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the two recreational parks' development as a strategy for neighbourhood's environmental improvement, sustainability and the recreationists' cohesiveness. A total number of 158 survey questionnaires were distributed to the tourists at Ikogosi cold and warm spring in Ekiti state as well as Olumirin waterfalls, Erin-Ijesa, Osun State, in South-West, Nigeria. The quantitative results of the analyzed data with Relative Importance Index (RII) revealed that recreation parks provide optimum opportunities for users' social cohesiveness and well-being while parks' sustainable environment could be enhanced base on the provision of essential facilities, services, and future developmental plans. It is recommended that for recreation parks to realize their full potential in environmental sustainability, adequate maintenance and provision of essential facilities becomes imperative.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, neighbourhood development, recreational park, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 100