Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Guarani

2 Finding a Paraguayan Voice: The Indigenous Language Guarani in Performances of Paraguayan Female Singers

Authors: Romy Martinez

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the use of the indigenous language Guarani in Paraguayan popular song and on some key interpreters born between the 1930s and 1980s. It analyses two representative musical genres of Paraguay, the Polka Paraguaya and Guarania. The lyrics of these genres follow one of four poetic-linguistic forms: to be entirely in Guarani, entirely in Spanish, bilingual (alternating verses in Guarani and Spanish), or in Jopará; the last being a form where words of both languages may be mixed in a single verse. Through these forms, the lyrics alternate and combine the indigenous voice with the one introduced with colonisation, in turn reflecting how Guarani seems to constantly transit, to and from, between a position of disdain and of value within Paraguayan society. Through analysing recordings of Polkas, Paraguayas, and Guaranias, it identifies three styles of singing adopted by female singers who include these genres in their repertoires, namely Paraguayan classical folk, Paraguayan folk, and Paraguayan pop-folk. This analysis is informed by a pilot study which consisted of online interviews with several Paraguayan artists, revealing significant aspects of their backgrounds and musical influences. In addition, it draws on autoethnographic approaches, building on the experience of the music researcher and singer. From a decolonising perspective, the paper brings together the distinctive voices and sounds expressed in popular songs from a marginalised country, language, and gender.

Keywords: female singers, Guarani, Paraguayan song, performance

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1 A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for Forensic Soil Analysis: Tested Using a Simulated Crime Scene

Authors: Samara A. Testoni, Vander F. Melo, Lorna A. Dawson, Fabio A. S. Salvador

Abstract:

Soil traces are useful as forensic evidence due to their potential to transfer and adhere to different types of surfaces on a range of objects or persons. The great variability expressed by soil physical, chemical, biological and mineralogical properties show soil traces as complex mixtures. Soils are continuous and variable, no two soil samples being indistinguishable, nevertheless, the complexity of soil characteristics can provide powerful evidence for comparative forensic purposes. This work aimed to establish a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for forensic soil analysis in Brazil. We carried out a simulated crime scene with double blind sampling to calibrate the sampling procedures. Samples were collected at a range of locations covering a range of soil types found in South of Brazil: Santa Candida and Boa Vista, neighbourhoods from Curitiba (State of Parana) and in Guarani and Guaraituba, neighbourhoods from Colombo (Curitiba Metropolitan Region). A previously validated sequential analyses of chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses was developed in around 2 g of soil. The suggested SOP and the sequential range of analyses were effective in grouping the samples from the same place and from the same parent material together, as well as successfully discriminated samples from different locations and originated from different rocks. In addition, modifications to the sample treatment and analytical protocol can be made depending on the context of the forensic work.

Keywords: clay mineralogy, forensic soils analysis, sequential analyses, kaolinite, gibbsite

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