Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Kochi

8 Assesing Spatio-Temporal Growth of Kochi City Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Navya Saira George, Patroba Achola Odera


This study aims to determine spatio-temporal expansion of Kochi City, situated on the west coast of Kerala State in India. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been used to determine land use/cover and urban expansion of the City. Classification of Landsat images of the years 1973, 1988, 2002 and 2018 have been used to reproduce a visual story of the growth of the City over a period of 45 years. Accuracy range of 0.79 ~ 0.86 is achieved with kappa coefficient range of 0.69 ~ 0.80. Results show that the areas covered by vegetation and water bodies decreased progressively from 53.0 ~ 30.1% and 34.1 ~ 26.2% respectively, while built-up areas increased steadily from 12.5 to 42.2% over the entire study period (1973 ~ 2018). The shift in land use from agriculture to non-agriculture may be attributed to the land reforms since 1980s.

Keywords: Geographical Information Systems, Kochi City, Land use/cover, Remote Sensing, Urban Sprawl

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7 Measurements of Service Quality vs Customer Satisfaction in Government Owned Retail Store at Kochi

Authors: N. S. Ajisha


In today’s competitive world the quality of the service you deliver is one of the important factor that determine customer satisfaction. Service quality is considered to be one important determinant to evaluate customer satisfaction and the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction is considered as the foundation in researches on customer satisfaction. This research examines to do a gap analysis between the perception and expectation of the services delivered and find relation between the service quality and customer satisfaction. Service quality is found out here using the SERVQUAL model. And it finds out the dimension of service quality which is more important to measure customer satisfaction. The dimensions which we measure using SERVQUAL include the tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. This study involves primary data collection like market survey.

Keywords: customer satisfaction, service quality, retail service quality, Kochi

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6 Beyond the White Cube: A Study on the Site Specific Curatorial Practice of Kochi Muziris Biennale

Authors: Girish Chandran, Milu Tigi


Brian O'Doherty's seminal essay, Inside the white Cube theorized and named the dominant mode of display and exhibition of Modern Art museums. Ever since the advent of Biennales and other site-specific public art projects we have seen a departure from the white cube mode of exhibition. The physicality, materiality and context within which an artwork is framed has a role in the production of meaning of public art. Equally, artworks contribute to the meaning and identity of a place. This to and fro relationship between the site and artwork and its influence on the sense of place and production of meaning is being explored in this paper in the context of Kochi Muziris Biennale (KMB). Known as the Peoples biennale with over 5 lakh visitors, it is India's first Biennale and its largest art exhibition of contemporary art. The paper employs place theory and contemporary curatorial theories to present the case. The KMB has an interesting mix of exhibition spaces which includes existing galleries and halls, site-specific projects in public spaces, infill developments and adaptive reuse of heritage and other unused architecture. The biennale was envisioned as an event connecting to the history, socio-political peculiarities of the cultural landscape of Kerala and more specifically Kochi. The paper explains the role of spatial elements in forming a curatorial narrative connected to the above mentioned ambitions.The site-specific nature of exhibition and its use of unused architecture helps in the formation of exhibition spaces unique in type and materiality. The paper argues how this helps in the creation of an 'archeology of the place'. The research elucidates how a composite nature of experience helps connect with the thematic ambitions of the Biennale and how it brings about an aesthetics distinct to KMB.

Keywords: public art, curatorial practice, architecture, place, contemporary art, site specificity

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5 Object Oriented Classification Based on Feature Extraction Approach for Change Detection in Coastal Ecosystem across Kochi Region

Authors: Mohit Modi, Rajiv Kumar, Manojraj Saxena, G. Ravi Shankar


Change detection of coastal ecosystem plays a vital role in monitoring and managing natural resources along the coastal regions. The present study mainly focuses on the decadal change in Kochi islands connecting the urban flatland areas and the coastal regions where sand deposits have taken place. With this, in view, the change detection has been monitored in the Kochi area to apprehend the urban growth and industrialization leading to decrease in the wetland ecosystem. The region lies between 76°11'19.134"E to 76°25'42.193"E and 9°52'35.719"N to 10°5'51.575"N in the south-western coast of India. The IRS LISS-IV satellite image has been processed using a rule-based algorithm to classify the LULC and to interpret the changes between 2005 & 2015. The approach takes two steps, i.e. extracting features as a single GIS vector layer using different parametric values and to dissolve them. The multi-resolution segmentation has been carried out on the scale ranging from 10-30. The different classes like aquaculture, agricultural land, built-up, wetlands etc. were extracted using parameters like NDVI, mean layer values, the texture-based feature with corresponding threshold values using a rule set algorithm. The objects obtained in the segmentation process were visualized to be overlaying the satellite image at a scale of 15. This layer was further segmented using the spectral difference segmentation rule between the objects. These individual class layers were dissolved in the basic segmented layer of the image and were interpreted in vector-based GIS programme to achieve higher accuracy. The result shows a rapid increase in an industrial area of 40% based on industrial area statistics of 2005. There is a decrease in wetlands area which has been converted into built-up. New roads have been constructed which are connecting the islands to urban areas as well as highways. The increase in coastal region has been visualized due to sand depositions. The outcome is well supported by quantitative assessments which will empower rich understanding of land use land cover change for appropriate policy intervention and further monitoring.

Keywords: land use land cover, multiresolution segmentation, NDVI, object based classification

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4 A Pilot Study of Robot Reminiscence in Dementia Care

Authors: Ryuji Yamazaki, Masahiro Kochi, Weiran Zhu, Hiroko Kase


In care for older adults, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) like agitation and aggression are distressing for patients and their caretakers, often resulting in premature institutionalization with increased costs of care. To improve mood and mitigate symptoms, as a non-pharmaceutical approach, emotion-oriented therapy like reminiscence work is adopted in face-to-face communication. Telecommunication support is expected to be provided by robotic media as a bridge for digital divide for those with dementia and facilitate social interaction both verbally and nonverbally. The purpose of this case study is to explore the conditions in which robotic media can effectively attract attention from older adults with dementia and promote their well-being. As a pilot study, we introduced the pillow-phone Hugvie®, a huggable humanly shaped communication medium to five residents with dementia at a care facility, to investigate how the following conditions work for the elderly when they use the medium; 1) no sound, 2) radio, non-interactive, 3) daily conversation, and 4) reminiscence work. As a result, under condition 4, reminiscence work, the five participants kept concentration in interacting with the medium for a longer duration than other conditions. In condition 4, they also showed larger amount of utterances than under other conditions. These results indicate that providing topics related to personal histories through robotic media could affect communication positively and should, therefore, be further investigated. In addition, the issue of ethical implications by using persuasive technology that affects emotions and behaviors of older adults is also discussed.

Keywords: BPSD, reminiscence, tactile telecommunication, utterances

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3 Effects of Lateness Gene on Yield and Related Traits in Indica Rice

Authors: B. B. Rana, M. Yokota, Y. Shimizu, Y. Koide, I. Takamure, T. Kawano, M. Murai


Various genes which control or affect heading time have been found in rice. Out of them, Se1 and E1 loci play important roles in determining heading time by controlling photosensitivity. An isogenic-line pair of late and early lines were developed from progenies of the F1 from Suweon 258 × 36U. A lateness gene tentatively designated as “Ex” was found to control the difference in heading time between the early and late lines mentioned above. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of Ex on yield and related traits. Indica-type variety Suweon 258 was crossed with 36U, which is an Ur1 (Undulate rachis-1) isogenic line of IR36. In the F2 population, comparatively early-heading, late-heading and intermediate-heading plants were segregated. Segregation similar to that by the three types of heading was observed in the F3 and later generations. A late-heading plant and an early-heading plant were selected in the F8 population from an intermediate-heading F7 plant, for developing L and E of the isogenic-line pair, respectively. Experiments for L and E were conducted by randomized block design with three replications. Transplanting was conducted on May 3 at a planting distance of 30 cm × 15 cm with two seedlings per hill to an experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University. Chemical fertilizers containing N, P2O5 and K2O were applied at the nitrogen levels of 4 g/m2, 9 g/m2 and 18 g/m2 in total being denoted by "N4", "N9" and "N18", respectively. Yield, yield components and other traits were measured. Ex delayed 80%-heading by 17 or 18 days in L as compared with E. In total brown rice yield (g/m2), L was 635, 606 and 590, and E was 577, 548 and 501, respectively, at N18, N9 and N4, indicating that Ex increased this trait by 10% to 18%. Ex increased yield-1.5 mm sieve (g/m2) b 9% to 15% at the three fertilizer levels. Ex increased the spikelet number per panicle by 16% to 22%. As a result, the spikelet number per m2 was increased by 11% to 18% at the three fertilizer levels. Ex decreased 1000-grain weight (g) by 2 to 4%. L was not significantly different from E in ripened-grain percentage, fertilized-spikelet percentage and percentage of ripened grains to fertilized spikelets. Hence, it is inferred that Ex increased yield by increasing spikelet number per panicle. Hence, Ex could be utilized to develop high yielding varieties for warmer districts.

Keywords: heading time, lateness gene, photosensitivity, yield, yield components

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2 Effects of a Dwarfing Gene sd1-d (Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen Dwarf) on Yield and Related Traits in Rice: Preliminary Report

Authors: M. Bhattarai, B. B. Rana, M. Kamimukai, I. Takamure, T. Kawano, M. Murai


The sd1-d allele at the sd1 locus on chromosome 1, originating from Taiwanese variety Dee-geo-woo-gen, has been playing important role for developing short-culm and lodging-resistant indica varieties such as IR36 in rice. The dominant allele SD1 for long culm at the locus is differentiated into SD1-in and SD1-ja which are harbored in indica and japonica subspecies’s, respectively. The sd1-d of an indica variety IR36 was substituted with SD1-in or SD1-ja by recurrent backcrosses of 17 times with IR36, and two isogenic tall lines regarding the respective dominant alleles were developed by using an indica variety IR5867 and a japonica one ‘Koshihikari’ as donors, which were denoted by '5867-36' and 'Koshi-36', respectively. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of sd1-d on yield and related traits as compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, by using the two isogenic tall lines. Seedlings of IR36 and the two isogenic lines were transplanted on an experimental field of Kochi University, by the planting distance of 30 cm × 15 cm with two seedlings per hill, on May 3, 2017. Chemical fertilizers were supplied by basal application and top-dressing at a rate of 8.00, 6.57 and 7.52 g/m², respectively, for N, P₂O₅ and K₂O in total. Yield, yield components, and other traits were measured. Culm length (cm) was in the order of 5867-36 (101.9) > Koshi-36 (80.1) > IR36 (60.0), where '>' indicates statistically significant difference at the 5% level. Accordingly, sd1-d reduced culm by 41.9 and 20.1 cm, compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, respectively, and the effect of elongating culm was higher in the former allele than in the latter one. Total brown rice yield (g/m²), including unripened grains, was in the order of IR36 (611) ≧ 5867-36 (586) ≧ Koshi-36 (572), indicating non-significant differences among them. Yield-1.5mm sieve (g/m²) was in the order of IR36 (596) ≧ 5867-36 (575) ≧ Koshi-36 (558). Spikelet number per panicle was in the order of 5867-36 (89.2) ≧ IR36 (84.7) ≧ Koshi-36 (79.8), and 5867-36 > Koshi-36. Panicle number per m² was in the order of IR36 (428) ≧ Koshi-36 (403) ≧ 5867-36 (353), and IR36 > 5867-36, suggesting that sd1-d increased number of panicles compared with SD1-in. Ripened-grain percentage-1.5mm sieve was in the order of Koshi-36 (86.0) ≧ 5867-36 (85.0) ≧ IR36 (82.7), and Koshi-36 > IR36. Thousand brown-rice-grain weight-1.5mm sieve (g) was in the order of 5867-36 (21.5) > Koshi-36 (20.2) ≧ IR36 (19.9). Total dry weight at maturity (g/m²) was in the order of 5867-36 (1404 ) ≧ IR36 (1310) ≧ Kosihi-36 (1290). Harvest index of total brown rice (%) was in the order of IR36 (39.6) > Koshi-36 (37.7) > 5867-36 (35.5). Hence, sd1-d did not exert significant effect on yield in indica genetic background. However, lodging was observed from the late stage of maturity in 5867-36 and Koshi-36, particularly in the former, which was principally due to their long culms. Consequently, sd1-d enables higher yield with higher fertilizer application, by enhancing lodging resistance, particularly in indica subspecies.

Keywords: rice, dwarfing gene, sd1-d, SD1-in, SD1-ja, yield

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1 A High Amylose-Content and High-Yielding Elite Line Is Favorable to Cook 'Nanhan' (Semi-Soft Rice) for Nursing Care Food Particularly for Serving Aged Persons

Authors: M. Kamimukai, M. Bhattarai, B. B. Rana, K. Maeda, H. B. Kc, T. Kawano, M. Murai


Most of the aged people older than 70 have difficulty in chewing and swallowing more or less. According to magnitude of this difficulty, gruel, “nanhan” (semi-soft rice) and ordinary cooked rice are served in general, particularly in sanatoriums and homes for old people in Japan. Nanhan is the name of a cooked rice used in Japan, having softness intermediate between gruel and ordinary cooked rice, which is boiled with intermediate amount of water between those of the latter two kinds of cooked rice. In the present study, nanhan was made in the rate of 240g of water to 100g of milled rice with an electric rice cooker. Murai developed a high amylose-content and high-yielding elite line ‘Murai 79’. Sensory eating-quality test was performed for nanhan and ordinary cooked rice of Murai 79 and the standard variety ‘Hinohikari’ which is a high eating-quality variety representative in southern Japan. Panelists (6 to 14 persons) scored each cooked rice in six items viz. taste, stickiness, hardness, flavor, external appearance and overall evaluation. Grading (-3 ~ +3) in each trait was performed, regarding the value of the standard variety Hinohikari as 0. Paddy rice produced in a farmer’s field in 2013 and 2014 and in an experimental field of Kochi University in 2015 and 2016 were used for the sensory test. According to results of the sensory eating-quality test for nanhan, Murai 79 is higher in overall evaluation than Hinohikari in the four years. The former was less sticky than the latter in the four years, but the former was statistically significantly harder than the latter throughout the four years. In external appearance, the former was significantly higher than the latter in the four years. In the taste, the former was significantly higher than the latter in 2014, but significant difference was not noticed between them in the other three years. There were no significant differences throughout the four years in flavor. Regarding amylose content, Murai 79 is higher by 3.7 and 5.7% than Hinohikari in 2015 and 2016, respectively. As for protein content, Murai 79 was higher than Hinohikari in 2015, but the former was lower than the latter in 2016. Consequently, the nanhan of Murai 79 was harder and less sticky, keeping the shape of grains as compared with that of Hinohikari, which may be due to its higher amylose content. Hence, the nanhan of Murai 79 may be recognized as grains more easily in a human mouth, which could make easier the continuous performance of mastication and deglutition particularly in aged persons. Regarding ordinary cooked rice, Murai 79 was similar to or higher in both overall evaluation and external appearance as compared with Hinohikari, despite its higher hardness and lower stickiness. Additionally, Murai 79 had brown-rice yield of 1.55 times as compared with Hinohikari, suggesting that it would enable to supply inexpensive rice for making nanhan with high quality particularly for aged people in Japan.

Keywords: high-amylose content, high-yielding rice line, nanhan, nursing care food, sensory eating quality test

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