Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6020

Search results for: flow pattern

6020 Numerical Simulation of Erosion Control in Slurry Pump Casing by Geometrical Flow Pattern Modification Analysis

Authors: A. R. Momeninezhad


Erosion of Slurry Pumps in Related Industries, is one of the major costs in their production process. Many factories in extractive industries try to find ways to diminish this cost. In this paper, we consider the flow pattern modifications by geometric variations made of numerical simulation of flow inside pump casing, which is one of the most important parts analyzed for erosion. The mentioned pump is a cyclone centrifugal slurry pump, which is operating in Sarcheshmeh Copper Industries in Kerman-Iran, named and tagged as HM600 cyclone pump. Simulation shows many improvements in local wear information and situations for better and more qualified design of casing shape and impeller position, before and after geometric corrections. By theory of liquid-solid two-phase flow, the local wear defeats are analyzed and omitted.

Keywords: flow pattern, slurry pump, simulation, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
6019 Numerical Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Blood Flow in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit


Unsteady blood flow has been numerically investigated through stenosed arteries to achieve an idea about the physiological blood flow pattern in diseased arteries. The blood is treated as Newtonian fluid and the arterial wall is considered to be rigid having deposition of plaque in its lumen. For direct numerical simulation, vorticity-stream function formulation has been adopted to solve the problem using implicit finite difference method by developing well known Peaceman-Rachford Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The effects of magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on velocity and wall shear stress are being studied and presented quantitatively over the entire arterial segment. The streamlines have been plotted to understand the flow pattern in the stenosed artery, which has significant alterations in the downstream of the stenosis in the presence of magnetic field. The results show that there are nominal changes in the flow pattern when magnetic field strength is enhanced upto 8T which can have remarkable usage to MRI machines.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics, blood flow, stenosis, energy dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
6018 Liquid-Liquid Plug Flow Characteristics in Microchannel with T-Junction

Authors: Anna Yagodnitsyna, Alexander Kovalev, Artur Bilsky


The efficiency of certain technological processes in two-phase microfluidics such as emulsion production, nanomaterial synthesis, nitration, extraction processes etc. depends on two-phase flow regimes in microchannels. For practical application in chemistry and biochemistry it is very important to predict the expected flow pattern for a large variety of fluids and channel geometries. In the case of immiscible liquids, the plug flow is a typical and optimal regime for chemical reactions and needs to be predicted by empirical data or correlations. In this work flow patterns of immiscible liquid-liquid flow in a rectangular microchannel with T-junction are investigated. Three liquid-liquid flow systems are considered, viz. kerosene – water, paraffin oil – water and castor oil – paraffin oil. Different flow patterns such as parallel flow, slug flow, plug flow, dispersed (droplet) flow, and rivulet flow are observed for different velocity ratios. New flow pattern of the parallel flow with steady wavy interface (serpentine flow) has been found. It is shown that flow pattern maps based on Weber numbers for different liquid-liquid systems do not match well. Weber number multiplied by Ohnesorge number is proposed as a parameter to generalize flow maps. Flow maps based on this parameter are superposed well for all liquid-liquid systems of this work and other experiments. Plug length and velocity are measured for the plug flow regime. When dispersed liquid wets channel walls plug length cannot be predicted by known empirical correlations. By means of particle tracking velocimetry technique instantaneous velocity fields in a plug flow regime were measured. Flow circulation inside plug was calculated using velocity data that can be useful for mass flux prediction in chemical reactions.

Keywords: flow patterns, hydrodynamics, liquid-liquid flow, microchannel

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
6017 Effect of Non-Newtonian Behavior of Oil Phase on Oil-Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Channel

Authors: Satish Kumar Dewangan, Santosh Kumar Senapati


The present work focuses on the investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian behavior on the oil-water stratified flow in a horizontal channel using ANSYS Fluent. Coupled level set and volume of fluid (CLSVOF) has been used to capture the evolving interface assuming unsteady, coaxial flow with constant fluid properties. The diametric variation of oil volume fraction, mixture velocity, total pressure and pressure gradient has been studied. Non-Newtonian behavior of oil has been represented by the power law model in order to investigate the effect of flow behavior index. Stratified flow pattern tends to assume dispersed flow pattern with the change in the behavior of oil to non-Newtonian. The pressure gradient is found to be very much sensitive to the flow behavior index. The findings could be useful in designing the transportation pipe line in petroleum industries.

Keywords: oil-water stratified flow, horizontal channel, CLSVOF, non–Newtonian behaviour.

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
6016 A 2D Numerical Model of Viscous Flow-Cylinder Interaction

Authors: Bang-Fuh Chen, Chih-Chun Chu


The flow induced cylinder vibration or earthquake-induced cylinder motion are moving in an arbitrary direction with time. The phenomenon of flow across cylinder is highly nonlinear and a linear-superposition of flow pattern across separated oscillating direction of cylinder motion is not valid to obtain the flow pattern across a cylinder oscillating in multiple directions. A novel finite difference scheme is developed to simulate the viscous flow across an arbitrary moving circular cylinder and we call this a complete 2D (two-dimensional) flow-cylinder interaction. That is, the cylinder is simultaneously oscillating in x- and y- directions. The time-dependent domain and meshes associated with the moving cylinder are mapped to a fixed computational domain and meshes, which are time independent. The numerical results are validated by several bench mark studies. Several examples are introduced including flow across steam-wise, transverse oscillating cylinder and flow across rotating cylinder and flow across arbitrary moving cylinder. The Morison’s formula can not describe the complex interaction phenomenon between cross flow and oscillating circular cylinder. And the completed 2D computational fluid dynamic analysis should be made to obtain the correct hydrodynamic force acting on the cylinder.

Keywords: 2D cylinder, finite-difference method, flow-cylinder interaction, flow induced vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
6015 Scouring Rate Pattern/Monitoring at Coastal and Offshore Structures

Authors: Ahmad Saifullah Mazlan, Hossein Basser, Shatirah Akib


Scouring pattern evaluation and measuring its depth around coastal and offshore structures is very essential issue to assure the safety of the structures as well as providing needed design parameters. Scouring is known as one of the important phenomena which threatens the safety of infrastructures. Several countermeasures have been developed to control scouring by protecting the structures against water flow attack directly or indirectly by changing the water flow pattern. Recently, monitoring methods for estimating water flow pattern and scour depth are studied to track the safety of structures. Since most of studies regarding scouring is related to monitoring scouring around piers in rivers therefore it is necessary to develop researches investigating scouring around piers in coastal and offshore areas. This paper describes a review of monitoring methods may be used for detecting scour depth around piers in coastal and offshore structures.

Keywords: scour, monitoring, pier, coastal, offshore

Procedia PDF Downloads 547
6014 Braiding Channel Pattern Due to Variation of Discharge

Authors: Satish Kumar, Spandan Sahu, Sarjati Sahoo, K. K. Khatua


An experimental investigation has been carried out in a tilting flume of 2 m wide, 13 m long, and 0.3 m deep to study the effect of flow on the formation of braided channel pattern. Sediment flow is recirculated through the flume, which passes from the headgate to the sediment/water collecting tank through the tailgate. Further, without altering the geometry of the sand bed channel, the discharge is varied to study the effect of the formation of the braided pattern with time. Then the flow rate is varied to study the effect of flow on the formation of the braided pattern. Sediment transport rate is highly variable and was found to be a nonlinear function of flow rate, aspect ratio, longitudinal slope, and time. Total braided intensity (BIT) for each discharge case is found to be more than the active braided intensity (BIA). Both the parameters first increase and then decrease as the time progresses following a similar pattern for all the observed discharge cases. When the flow is increased, the movement of sediment also increases since the active braided intensity is found to adjust quickly. The measurement of velocity and boundary shear helps to study the erosion and sedimentation processes in the channel and formation of small meandering channels and then the braided channel for different discharge conditions of a sediment river. Due to regime properties of rivers, both total braided Intensity and active braided intensity become stable for a given channel and flow conditions. In the present case, the trend of the ratio of BIA to BIT is found to be asymptotic against the time with a value of 0.4. After the particular time elapses off the flow, new small channels are also found to be formed with changes in the sinuosity of the active channels, thus forming the braided network. This is due to the continuous erosion and sedimentation processes occurring for the flow process for the flow and sediment conditions.

Keywords: active braided intensity, bed load, sediment transport, shear stress, total braided intensity

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6013 CFD Analysis of a Two-Sided Windcatcher Inlet/Outlet Ducts’ Height in Ventilation Flow through a Three Dimensional Room

Authors: Amirreza Niktash, B. P. Huynh


A windcatcher is a structure fitted on the roof of a building for providing natural ventilation by using wind power; it exhausts the inside stale air to the outside and supplies the outside fresh air into the interior space of the building working by pressure difference between outside and inside of the building and using ventilation principles of passive stacks and wind tower, respectively. In this paper, the effect of different heights of inlet/outlets’ ducts of a two-sided windcatcher on the flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern through a three-dimensional room fitted with the windcatcher are investigated and analysed by using RANS CFD technique and applying standard K-ε turbulence model via a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package. The achieved results show that the inlet/outlet ducts height strongly affects flow rate, flow velocity and flow pattern especially in the living area of the room when the wind velocity is not too low. The results are confirmed by the experimental test for constructed scaled model in the laboratory and it develops the two-sided windcatcher’s performance in ventilation applications.

Keywords: CFD, RANS, ventilation, windcatcher

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
6012 Studying Roughness Effects on Flow Regimes in Offshore Pipelines

Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Narges, Zahra Ghadampour


Due to the specific condition, offshore pipelines are given careful consideration and care in both design and operation. Most of the offshore pipeline flows are multi-phase. Multi-phase flows construct different pattern or flow regimes (in simultaneous gas-liquid flow, flow regimes like slug flow, wave and …) under different circumstances. One of the influencing factors on the flow regime is the pipeline roughness value. So far, roughness value influences and the sensitivity of the present models to this parameter have not been taken into consideration. Therefore, roughness value influences on the flow regimes in offshore pipelines are discussed in this paper. Results showed that geometry, absolute pipeline roughness value (materials that the pipeline is made of) and flow phases prevailing the system are of the influential parameters on the flow regimes prevailing multi-phase pipelines in a way that a change in any of these parameters results in a change in flow regimes in all or part of the pipeline system.

Keywords: absolute roughness, flow regime, multi-phase flow, offshore pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6011 Effect of Communication Pattern on Agricultural Employees' Job Performance

Authors: B. G. Abiona, E. O. Fakoya, S. O. Adeogun, J. O. Blessed


This study assessed the influence of communication pattern on agricultural employees’ job performance. Data were collected from 61 randomly selected respondents using a structured questionnaire. Perceived communication pattern that influence job performance include: the attitude of the administrators (x̅ = 3.41, physical barriers to communication flow among employees (x̅ = 3.21). Major challenges to respondents’ job performance were different language among employees (x̅ = 3.12), employees perception on organizational issues (x̅ = 3.09), networking (x̅ = 2.88), and unclear definition of work (x̅ = 2.74). A significant relationship was found between employees’ perceived communication pattern (r = 0.423, p < 0.00) and job performance. Information must be well designed in such a way that would positively influence employees’ job performance as this is essential in any agricultural organizations.

Keywords: communication pattern, job performance, agricultural employees, constraint, administrators, attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
6010 Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow Phenomenon in Near Horizontal Upward and Downward Inclined Pipe Orientations

Authors: Afshin J. Ghajar, Swanand M. Bhagwat


The main purpose of this work is to experimentally investigate the effect of pipe orientation on two phase flow phenomenon. Flow pattern, void fraction and two phase pressure drop is measured in a polycarbonate pipe with an inside diameter of 12.7mm for inclination angles ranging from -20° to +20° using air-water fluid combination. The experimental data covers all flow patterns and the entire range of void fraction typically observed in two phase flow. The effect of pipe orientation on void fraction and two phase pressure drop is justified with reference to the change in flow structure and two phase flow behavior. In addition to this, the top performing void fraction and two phase pressure drop correlations available in the literature are presented and their performance is assessed against the experimental data in the present study and that available in the literature.

Keywords: flow patterns, inclined two phase flow, pressure drop, void fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
6009 Visualized Flow Patterns around and inside a Two-Sided Wind-Catcher in the Presence of Upstream Structures

Authors: M. Afshin, A. Sohankar, M. Dehghan Manshadi, M. R. Daneshgar, G. R. Dehghan Kamaragi


In this paper, the influence of an upstream structure on the flow pattern within and around the wind-catcher is experimentally investigated by smoke flow visualization techniques. Wind-catchers are an important part of natural ventilation in residential buildings or public places such as shopping centers, libraries, etc. Wind-catchers might be also used in places of high urban densities; hence their potential to provide natural ventilation in this case is dependent on the presence of upstream objects. In this study, the two-sided wind-catcher model was based on a real wind-catcher observed in the city of Yazd, Iran. The present study focuses on the flow patterns inside and outside the isolated two-sided wind-catcher, and on a two-sided wind-catcher in the presence of an upstream structure. The results show that the presence of an upstream structure influences the airflow pattern force and direction. Placing a high upstream object reverses the airflow direction inside the wind-catcher.

Keywords: natural ventilation, smoke flow visualization, two-sided wind-catcher, flow patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
6008 High Viscous Oil–Water Flow: Experiments and CFD Simulations

Authors: A. Archibong-Eso, J. Shi, Y Baba, S. Alagbe, W. Yan, H. Yeung


This study presents over 100 experiments conducted in a 25.4 mm internal diameter (ID) horizontal pipeline. Oil viscosity ranging from 3.5 Pa.s–5.0 Pa.s are used with superficial velocities of oil and water ranging from 0.06 to 0.55 m/s and 0.01 m/s to 1.0 m/s, respectively. Pressure gradient measurements and flow pattern observations are discussed. Numerical simulation of some flow conditions is performed using the commercial CFD code ANSYS Fluent® and the simulation results are compared with experimental results. Results indicate that CFD numerical simulation performed moderately well in predicting the flow configurations observed in this study while discrepancies were observed in the pressure gradient predictions.

Keywords: flow patterns, plug, pressure gradient, rivulet

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
6007 CFD Modeling of Mixing Enhancement in a Pitted Micromixer by High Frequency Ultrasound Waves

Authors: Faezeh Mohammadi, Ebrahim Ebrahimi, Neda Azimi


Use of ultrasound waves is one of the techniques for increasing the mixing and mass transfer in the microdevices. Ultrasound propagation into liquid medium leads to stimulation of the fluid, creates turbulence and so increases the mixing performance. In this study, CFD modeling of two-phase flow in a pitted micromixer equipped with a piezoelectric with frequency of 1.7 MHz has been studied. CFD modeling of micromixer at different velocity of fluid flow in the absence of ultrasound waves and with ultrasound application has been performed. The hydrodynamic of fluid flow and mixing efficiency for using ultrasound has been compared with the layout of no ultrasound application. The result of CFD modeling shows well agreements with the experimental results. The results showed that the flow pattern inside the micromixer in the absence of ultrasound waves is parallel, while when ultrasound has been applied, it is not parallel. In fact, propagation of ultrasound energy into the fluid flow in the studied micromixer changed the hydrodynamic and the forms of the flow pattern and caused to mixing enhancement. In general, from the CFD modeling results, it can be concluded that the applying ultrasound energy into the liquid medium causes an increase in the turbulences and mixing and consequently, improves the mass transfer rate within the micromixer.

Keywords: CFD modeling, ultrasound, mixing, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
6006 Shrinkage Evaluation in a Stepped Wax Pattern – a Simulation Approach

Authors: Alok S Chauhan, Sridhar S., Pradyumna R.


In the process of precision investment casting of turbine hollow blade/vane components, a part of the dimensional deviations observed in the castings can be attributed to the wax pattern. In the process of injection moulding of wax to produce patterns, heated wax shrinks in size during cooling in the die, leading to a reduction in the dimensions of the pattern. Also, flow and thermal induced residual stresses result in shrinkage & warpage of the component after removal from the die, further adding to the deviations. Injection moulding parameters such as wax temperature, flow rate, packing pressure, etc. affect the flow and thermal behavior of the component and hence are directly responsible for the dimensional deviations. There is a need to precisely determine and control these deviations in order to achieve stringent dimensional accuracies imposed on these castings by aerospace standards. Simulation based approaches provide a platform to predict these dimensional deviations without resorting to elaborate experimentation. In the present paper, Moldex3D simulation package has been utilized to analyze the effect of variations in injection temperature, packing pressure and cooling time on the shrinkage behavior of a stepped pattern. Two types of waxes with different rheological properties have been included in the study to gauge the effect of change in wax on the dimensional deviations. A full factorial design of experiments has been configured with these parameters and results of analysis of variance have been presented.

Keywords: wax patterns, investment casting, pattern die/mould, wax injection, Moldex3D simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
6005 Comparison on Electrode and Ground Arrangements Effect on Heat Transfer under Electric Force in a Channel and a Cavity Flow

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya, Chainarong Chaktranond, Phadungsak Rattanadecho


This study numerically investigates the effects of Electrohydrodynamic on flow patterns and heat transfer enhancement within a cavity which is on the lower wall of channel. In this simulation, effects of using ground wire and ground plate on the flow patterns are compared. Moreover, the positions of electrode wire respecting with ground are tested in the range of angles θ = 0 - 180°. High electrical voltage exposes to air is 20 kV. Bulk mean velocity and temperature of inlet air are controlled at 0.1 m/s and 60°C, respectively. The result shows when electric field is applied, swirling flow is appeared in the channel. In addition, swirling flow patterns in the main flow of using ground plate are widely spreader than that of using ground wire. Moreover, direction of swirling flow also affects the flow pattern and heat transfer in a cavity. These cause the using ground wire to give the maximum temperature and heat transfer higher than using ground plate. Furthermore, when the angle is at θ = 60°, high shear flow effect is obtained. This results show high strength of swirling flow and effective heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: swirling flow, heat transfer, electrohydrodynamic, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
6004 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Hydraulic L-Shaped Check Ball Behavior

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara


The spring-driven ball-type check valve is one of the most important components of hydraulic systems: it controls the position of the ball and prevents backward flow. To simplify the structure, the spring must be eliminated, and to accomplish this, the flow pattern and the behavior of the check ball in L-shaped pipe must be determined. In this paper, we present a full-scale model of a check ball made of acrylic resin, and we determine the relationship between the initial position of the ball, the position and diameter of the inflow port. The check flow rate increases in a standard center inflow model, and it is possible to greatly decrease the check-flow rate by shifting the inflow from the center.

Keywords: hydraulics, pipe flow, numerical simulation, flow visualization, check ball, L-shaped pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
6003 Effect of Highly Pressurized Dispersion Arc Nozzle on Breakup of Oil Leakage in Offshore

Authors: N. M. M. Ammar, S. M. Mustaqim, N. M. Nadzir


The most important problem occurs on oil spills in sea water is to reduce the oil spills size. This study deals with the development of high pressurized nozzle using dispersion method for oil leakage in offshore. 3D numerical simulation results were obtained using ANSYS Fluent 13.0 code and correlate with the experimental data for validation. This paper studies the contribution of the process on flow speed and pressure of the flow from two different geometrical designs of nozzles and to generate a spray pattern suitable for dispersant application. Factor of size distribution of droplets generated by the nozzle is calculated using pressures ranging from 2 to 6 bars. Results obtain from both analyses shows a significant spray pattern and flow distribution as well as distance. Results also show a significant contribution on the effect of oil leakage in terms of the diameter of the oil spills break up.

Keywords: arc nozzle, CFD simulation, droplets, oil spills

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
6002 An Experimental Investigation of Air Entrainment Due to Water Jets in Crossflows

Authors: Mina Esmi Jahromi, Mehdi Khiadani


Vertical water jets discharging into free surface turbulent cross flows result in the ingression of a large amount of air in the body of water and form a region of two-phase air-water flow with a considerable interfacial area. This research presents an experimental study of the two-phase bubbly flow using image processing technique. The air ingression and the trajectories of bubble swarms under different experimental conditions are evaluated. The rate of air entrainment and the bubble characteristics such as penetration depth, and dispersion pattern were found to be affected by the most influential parameters of water jet and cross flow including water jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio, water jet falling height, and cross flow depth. This research improves understanding of the underwater flow structure due to the water jet impingement in crossflow and advances the practical applications of water jets such as artificial aeration, circulation, and mixing where crossflow is present.

Keywords: air entrainment, image processing, jet in cross flow, two-phase flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
6001 Slugging Frequency Correlation for High Viscosity Oil-Gas Flow in Horizontal Pipeline

Authors: B. Y. Danjuma, A. Archibong-Eso, Aliyu M. Aliyu, H. Yeung


In this experimental investigation, a new data for slugging frequency for high viscosity oil-gas flow are reported. Scale experiments were carried out using a mixture of air and mineral oil as the liquid phase in a 17 m long horizontal pipe with 0.0762 ID. The data set was acquired using two high-speed Gamma Densitometers at a data acquisition frequency of 250 Hz over a time interval of 30 seconds. For the range of flow conditions investigated, increase in liquid oil viscosity was observed to strongly influence the slug frequency. A comparison of the present data with prediction models available in the literature revealed huge discrepancies. A new correlation incorporating the effect of viscosity on slug frequency has been proposed for the horizontal flow, which represents the main contribution of this work.

Keywords: gamma densitometer, flow pattern, pressure gradient, slug frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
6000 Aerodynamic Study of an Open Window Moving Bus with Passengers

Authors: Pawan Kumar Pant, Bhanu Gupta, S. R. Kale, S. V. Veeravalli


In many countries, buses are the principal means of transport, of which a majority are naturally ventilated with open windows. The design of this ventilation has little scientific basis and to address this problem a study has been undertaken involving both experiments and numerical simulations. The flow pattern inside and around of an open window bus with passengers has been investigated in detail. A full scale three-dimensional numerical simulation has been used for a) a bus with closed windows and b) with open windows. In either simulation, the bus had 58 seated passengers. The bus dimensions used were 2500 mm wide × 2500 mm high (exterior) × 10500 mm long and its speed was set at 40 km/h. In both cases, the flow separates at the top front edge forming a vortex and reattaches close to the mid-length. This attached flow separates once more as it leaves the bus. However, the strength and shape of the vortices at the top front and wake region is different for both cases. The streamline pattern around the bus is also different for the two cases. For the bus with open windows, the dominant airflow inside the bus is from the rear to the front of the bus and air velocity at the face level of the passengers was found to be 1/10th of the free stream velocity. These findings are in good agreement with flow visualization experiments performed in a water channel at 10 m/s, and with smoke/tuft visualizations in a wind tunnel with a free-stream velocity of approximately 40 km/h on a 1:25 scaled Perspex model.

Keywords: air flow, moving bus, open windows, vortex, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
5999 Investigating the Motion of a Viscous Droplet in Natural Convection Using the Level Set Method

Authors: Isadora Bugarin, Taygoara F. de Oliveira


Binary fluids and emulsions, in general, are present in a vast range of industrial, medical, and scientific applications, showing complex behaviors responsible for defining the flow dynamics and the system operation. However, the literature describing those highlighted fluids in non-isothermal models is currently still limited. The present work brings a detailed investigation on droplet migration due to natural convection in square enclosure, aiming to clarify the effects of drop viscosity on the flow dynamics by showing how distinct viscosity ratios (droplet/ambient fluid) influence the drop motion and the final movement pattern kept on stationary regimes. The analysis was taken by observing distinct combinations of Rayleigh number, drop initial position, and viscosity ratios. The Navier-Stokes and Energy equations were solved considering the Boussinesq approximation in a laminar flow using the finite differences method combined with the Level Set method for binary flow solution. Previous results collected by the authors showed that the Rayleigh number and the drop initial position affect drastically the motion pattern of the droplet. For Ra ≥ 10⁴, two very marked behaviors were observed accordingly with the initial position: the drop can travel either a helical path towards the center or a cyclic circular path resulting in a closed cycle on the stationary regime. The variation of viscosity ratio showed a significant alteration of pattern, exposing a large influence on the droplet path, capable of modifying the flow’s behavior. Analyses on viscosity effects on the flow’s unsteady Nusselt number were also performed. Among the relevant contributions proposed in this work is the potential use of the flow initial conditions as a mechanism to control the droplet migration inside the enclosure.

Keywords: binary fluids, droplet motion, level set method, natural convection, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
5998 Gas-Liquid Flow Regimes in Vertical Venturi Downstream of Horizontal Blind-Tee

Authors: Muhammad Alif Bin Razali, Cheng-Gang Xie, Wai Lam Loh


A venturi device is commonly used as an integral part of a multiphase flowmeter (MPFM) in real-time oil-gas production monitoring. For an accurate determination of individual phase fraction and flowrate, a gas-liquid flow ideally needs to be well mixed in the venturi measurement section. Partial flow mixing is achieved by installing a venturi vertically downstream of the blind-tee pipework that ‘homogenizes’ the incoming horizontal gas-liquid flow. In order to study in-depth the flow-mixing effect of the blind-tee, gas-liquid flows are captured at blind-tee and venturi sections by using a high-speed video camera and a purpose-built transparent test rig, over a wide range of superficial liquid velocities (0.3 to 2.4m/s) and gas volume fractions (10 to 95%). Electrical capacitance sensors are built to measure the instantaneous holdup (of oil-gas flows) at the venturi inlet and throat. Flow regimes and flow (a)symmetry are investigated based on analyzing the statistical features of capacitance sensors’ holdup time-series data and of the high-speed video time-stacked images. The perceived homogenization effect of the blind-tee on the incoming intermittent horizontal flow regimes is found to be relatively small across the tested flow conditions. A horizontal (blind-tee) to vertical (venturi) flow-pattern transition map is proposed based on gas and liquid mass fluxes (weighted by the Baker parameters).

Keywords: blind-tee, flow visualization, gas-liquid two-phase flow, MPFM

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
5997 Effects of Urbanization on Land Use/Land Cover and Stream Flow of a Sub-Tropical River Basin of India

Authors: Satyavati Shukla, Lakhan V. Rathod, Mohan V. Khire


Rapid urbanization changes the land use/land cover pattern of a developing region. Due to these land surface changes, stream flow of the rivers also changes. It is important to investigate the factors affecting hydrological characteristics of the river basin for better river basin management planning. This study is aimed to understand the effect of Land Use/Land Cover (LU/LC) changes on stream flow of Upper Bhima River basin which is highly stressed in terms of water resources. In this study, Upper Bhima River basin is divided into two adjacent sub-watersheds: Mula-Mutha (urbanized) sub-watershed and Bhima (non-urbanized) sub-watershed. First of all, LU/LC changes were estimated over 1980, 2002, and 2009 for both Mula-Mutha and Bhima sub-watersheds. Further, stream flow simulations were done using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the streams draining both watersheds. Results revealed that stream flow was relatively higher for urbanized sub-watershed. Through Sensitivity Analysis it was observed that out of all the parameters used, base flow was the most sensitive parameter towards LU/LC changes.

Keywords: land use/land cover, remote sensing, stream flow, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
5996 Study on the Stages of Knowledge Flow in Central Libraries of Tehran Universities by the Pattern of American Productivity & Quality Center

Authors: Amir Reza Asnafi, Ehsan Tajabadi, Mohsen Hajizeinolabedini


The purpose of this study is to identify the concept of knowledge flow in central libraries of Tehran universities in by the pattern of American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC). The present study is an applied and descriptive survey in terms of its purpose and the methodology used. In this study, APQC framework was used for data collection. The study population is managers and supervisors of central libraries’ departments of public universities of Tehran belonging to the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology. These libraries include: Central Libraries of Al-Zahra University, Amir Kabir, Tarbiat Modarres, Tehran, Khajeh Nasir Toosi University of Technology, Shahed, Sharif, Shahid Beheshti, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Iran University of Science and Technology. Due to the limited number of members of the community, sampling was not performed and the census was conducted instead. The study of knowledge flow in central libraries of public universities in Tehran showed that in seven dimensions of knowledge flow of APQC, these libraries are far from desirable level and to achieve the ideal point, many activities in the field of knowledge flow need to be made, therefore suggestions were made in this study to reach the desired level. One Sample t Test in this research showed that these libraries are at a poor level in terms of these factors: in the dimensions of creation, identification and use of knowledge at a medium level and in the aspects of knowledge acquisition, review, sharing and access and also Manova test or Multivariable Analyze of Variance proved that there was no significant difference between the dimensions of knowledge flow between these libraries and the status of the knowledge flow in these libraries is at the same level as well. Except for the knowledge creation aspect that is slightly different in this regard that was mentioned before.

Keywords: knowledge flow, knowledge management, APQC, Tehran’s academic university libraries

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5995 System Productivity Enhancement by Inclusion of Mungbean in Potato-Jute -T. Aman Rice Cropping Pattern

Authors: Apurba Kanti Chowdhury, Taslima Zahan


The inclusion of mungbean in a cropping pattern not only increases the cropping intensity but also enriches soil health as well as ensures nutrition for the fast-growing population of Bangladesh. A study was conducted in the farmers’ field during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to observe the performance of four-crop based improve cropping pattern Potato-Mungbean-Jute -t.aman rice against the existing cropping pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice at Domar, Nilphamari followed by randomized complete block design with three replications. Two years study revealed that inclusion of mungbean and better management practices in improved cropping pattern provided higher economic benefit over the existing pattern by 73.1%. Moreover, the average yield of potato increased in the improved pattern by 64.3% compared to the existing pattern; however yield of jute and t.aman rice in improved pattern declined by 5.6% and 10.7% than the existing pattern, respectively. Nevertheless, the additional yield of mungbean in the improved pattern helped to increase rice equivalent yield of the whole pattern by 38.7% over the existing pattern. Thus, the addition of mungbean in the existing pattern Potato-Jute -t.aman rice seems to be profitable for the farmers and also might be sustainable if the market channel of mungbean developed.

Keywords: crop diversity, food nutrition, production efficiency, yield improvement

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5994 2D Surface Flow Model in The Biebrza Floodplain

Authors: Dorota Miroslaw-Swiatek, Mateusz Grygoruk, Sylwia Szporak


We applied a two-dimensional surface water flow model with irregular wet boundaries. In this model, flow equations are in the form of a 2-D, non-linear diffusion equations which allows to account spatial variations in flow resistance and topography. Calculation domain to simulate the flow pattern in the floodplain is congruent with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) grid. The rate and direction of sheet flow in wetlands is affected by vegetation type and density, therefore the developed model take into account spatial distribution vegetation resistance to the water flow. The model was tested in a part of the Biebrza Valley, of an outstanding heterogeneity in the elevation and flow resistance distributions due to various ecohydrological conditions and management measures. In our approach we used the highest-possible quality of the DEM in order to obtain hydraulic slopes and vegetation distribution parameters for the modelling. The DEM was created from the cloud of points measured in the LiDAR technology. The LiDAR reflects both the land surface as well as all objects on top of it such as vegetation. Depending on the density of vegetation cover the ability of laser penetration is variable. Therefore to obtain accurate land surface model the “vegetation effect” was corrected using data collected in the field (mostly the vegetation height) and satellite imagery such as Ikonos (to distinguish different vegetation types of the floodplain and represent them spatially). Model simulation was performed for the spring thaw flood in 2009.

Keywords: floodplain flow, Biebrza valley, model simulation, 2D surface flow model

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5993 A Novel NRIS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, blood flow, working memory, BA46, first language, second language

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5992 Coupled Analysis for Hazard Modelling of Debris Flow Due to Extreme Rainfall

Authors: N. V. Nikhil, S. R. Lee, Do Won Park


Korean peninsula receives about two third of the annual rainfall during summer season. The extreme rainfall pattern due to typhoon and heavy rainfall results in severe mountain disasters among which 55% of them are debris flows, a major natural hazard especially when occurring around major settlement areas. The basic mechanism underlined for this kind of failure is the unsaturated shallow slope failure by reduction of matric suction due to infiltration of water and liquefaction of the failed mass due to generation of positive pore water pressure leading to abrupt loss of strength and commencement of flow. However only an empirical model cannot simulate this complex mechanism. Hence, we have employed an empirical-physical based approach for hazard analysis of debris flow using TRIGRS, a debris flow initiation criteria and DAN3D in mountain Woonmyun, South Korea. Debris flow initiation criteria is required to discern the potential landslides which can transform into debris flow. DAN-3D, being a new model, does not have the calibrated values of rheology parameters for Korean conditions. Thus, in our analysis we have used the recent 2011 debris flow event in mountain Woonmyun san for calibration of both TRIGRS model and DAN-3D, thereafter identifying and predicting the debris flow initiation points, path, run out velocity, and area of spreading for future extreme rainfall based scenarios.

Keywords: debris flow, DAN-3D, extreme rainfall, hazard analysis

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5991 Effect of Helical Flow on Separation Delay in the Aortic Arch for Different Mechanical Heart Valve Prostheses by Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Qianhui Li, Christoph H. Bruecker


Atherosclerotic plaques are typically found where flow separation and variations of shear stress occur. Although helical flow patterns and flow separations have been recorded in the aorta, their relation has not been clearly clarified and especially in the condition of artificial heart valve prostheses. Therefore, an experimental study is performed to investigate the hemodynamic performance of different mechanical heart valves (MHVs), i.e. the SJM Regent bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) and the Lapeyre-Triflo FURTIVA trileaflet mechanical heart valve (TMHV), in a transparent model of the human aorta under a physiological pulsatile right-hand helical flow condition. A typical systolic flow profile is applied in the pulse-duplicator to generate a physiological pulsatile flow which thereafter flows past an axial turbine blade structure to imitate the right-hand helical flow induced in the left ventricle. High-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are used to map the flow evolution. A circular open orifice nozzle inserted in the valve plane as the reference configuration initially replaces the valve under investigation to understand the hemodynamic effects of the entered helical flow structure on the flow evolution in the aortic arch. Flow field analysis of the open orifice nozzle configuration illuminates the helical flow effectively delays the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. The comparison of the flow evolution for different MHVs shows that the BMHV works like a flow straightener which re-configures the helical flow pattern into three parallel jets (two side-orifice jets and the central orifice jet) while the TMHV preserves the helical flow structure and therefore prevent the flow separation at the inner radius wall of the aortic arch. Therefore the TMHV is of better hemodynamic performance and reduces the pressure loss.

Keywords: flow separation, helical aortic flow, mechanical heart valve, particle image velocimetry

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