Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Hadis Cheraghi

7 Synthesis Modified Electrodes with Au/Pt Nanoparticles and Two New Coordination Polymers of Ag(I) and Cu(II) Constructed by Pyrazine and 3-Nitrophthalic Acid as a Novel Electrochemical Sensing Platform

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand, Hadis Cheraghi, Azadeh Azadbakht, Vaclav Eigner, Michal Dusek

Abstract:

Two new one and two dimensional metal organic coordination polymers of Cu(II), [Cu(3-nph)2(H2O)2pz]n (1) and Ag(I), {[Ag(3-nph)pz].H2O}n (2) with pyrazine (pz) and 3- nitrophthalic acid (3-nph) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. We used these compounds to preparation modified electrode with Au/Pt nanosparticles in order to investigation electrochemistry and electrocatalysis activities. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag(I) coordination polymer shows a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear silver (I) building blocks in which two crystallographically Ag+ ions are connected to each other by a covalent bond. The pyrazine ligands adopt μ2 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a one and two -dimensional coordination framework in 1 and 2. The two AgI cations are surrounded by pyrazine and 3-nitrophthalate mono anions and indicate distorted tetrahedral geometry. In the crystal structures of Ag(I) complex there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements, C–O•••π and π–π stacking interactions. In Cu(II) coordination polymer, the coordination geometry around Cu(II) atom is a distorted octahedron. Interestingly, the structural analysis illustrates that the strong and weak hydrogen bond accompanied with C–H•••π and C–O•••π stacking interactions assemble the crystal structure of 1 and 2 into fascinating 3D supramolecular architecture.

Keywords: 3-nithrophethalic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis

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6 Generalization of Blom Key Predistribution Scheme

Authors: Abbas Cheraghi

Abstract:

A key predistribution scheme provides one method to distribute secret ahead of time. Blom’s scheme is a symmetric threshold key exchange protocol in cryptography. The scheme was proposed by the Swedish cryptographer Rolf Blom. In this kind of scheme, trusted authority gives each user a secret key and a public identifier, which enables any two users to create independently a shared key for communicating between each other. However, if an attacker can compromise the keys of at least Known numbers of users, he can break the scheme and reconstruct every shared key. In this paper generalized Blom’s Scheme by multivariate Lagrange interpolation formula. This scheme is a form of threshold secret sharing scheme. In this new scheme, the amount of information transmitted by the trusted authority is independent of the numbers of users. In addition, this scheme is unconditionally secure against any individual user.

Keywords: key predistribution, blom’s scheme, secret sharing, unconditional secure

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5 The Relationship between Exercise Attitude and Performance with Self-Image in Elderly Men in Iran

Authors: Hadis Mahmoodsalehi, Elham Shakoor, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi

Abstract:

Background and aims: Given the importance of health promotion in elderly and attention to health factors including physical activity and self-image reinforcing, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between exercise attitude and performance with self-image concept in elderly men. Methods: In this descriptive–correlational study, 50 different daily exercise activities of the elderly men living in Iran (mean age: 60.94 years) were selected through simple sampling method. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding exercise attitude and performance and Beck self-image concept. Pearson correlation test was used for analysis of the data. Results: The results showed the significant correlation between optimism and exercise performance (p = 0.012) and exercise attitude (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Findings show that exercise performance and attitude are associated positively with optimism in elderly women. So, increasing exercise or improving attitude toward exercise can lead to improving optimism.

Keywords: elderly, exercise performance and attitude, self-image, descriptive–correlational study

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4 Communication Layer Security in Smart Farming: A Survey on Wireless Technologies

Authors: Hossein Mohammadi Rouzbahani, Hadis Karimipour, Evan Fraser, Ali Dehghantanha, Emily Duncan, Arthur Green, Conchobhair Russell

Abstract:

Human population growth has driven rising demand for food that has, in turn, imposed huge impacts on the environment. In an effort to reconcile our need to produce more sustenance while also protecting the world’s ecosystems, farming is becoming more reliant on smart tools and communication technologies. Developing a smart farming framework allows farmers to make more efficient use of inputs, thus protecting water quality and biodiversity habitat. Internet of Things (IoT), which has revolutionized every sphere of the economy, is being applied to agriculture by connecting on-farm devices and providing real-time monitoring of everything from environmental conditions to market signals through to animal health data. However, utilizing IoT means farming networks are now vulnerable to malicious activities, mostly when wireless communications are highly employed. With that in mind, this research aims to review different utilized communication technologies in smart farming. Moreover, possible cyber-attacks are investigated to discover the vulnerabilities of communication technologies considering the most frequent cyber-attacks that have been happened.

Keywords: smart farming, Internet of Things, communication layer, cyber-attack

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3 Study of Rehydration Process of Dried Squash (Cucurbita pepo) at Different Temperatures and Dry Matter-Water Ratios

Authors: Sima Cheraghi Dehdezi, Nasser Hamdami

Abstract:

Air-drying is the most widely employed method for preserving fruits and vegetables. Most of the dried products must be rehydrated by immersion in water prior to their use, so the study of rehydration kinetics in order to optimize rehydration phenomenon has great importance. Rehydration typically composes of three simultaneous processes: the imbibition of water into dried material, the swelling of the rehydrated products and the leaching of soluble solids to rehydration medium. In this research, squash (Cucurbita pepo) fruits were cut into 0.4 cm thick and 4 cm diameter slices. Then, squash slices were blanched in a steam chamber for 4 min. After cooling to room temperature, squash slices were dehydrated in a hot air dryer, under air flow 1.5 m/s and air temperature of 60°C up to moisture content of 0.1065 kg H2O per kg d.m. Dehydrated samples were kept in polyethylene bags and stored at 4°C. Squash slices with specified weight were rehydrated by immersion in distilled water at different temperatures (25, 50, and 75°C), various dry matter-water ratios (1:25, 1:50, and 1:100), which was agitated at 100 rpm. At specified time intervals, up to 300 min, the squash samples were removed from the water, and the weight, moisture content and rehydration indices of the sample were determined.The texture characteristics were examined over a 180 min period. The results showed that rehydration time and temperature had significant effects on moisture content, water absorption capacity (WAC), dry matter holding capacity (DHC), rehydration ability (RA), maximum force and stress in dried squash slices. Dry matter-water ratio had significant effect (p˂0.01) on all squash slice properties except DHC. Moisture content, WAC and RA of squash slices increased, whereas DHC and texture firmness (maximum force and stress) decreased with rehydration time. The maximum moisture content, WAC and RA and the minimum DHC, force and stress, were observed in squash slices rehydrated into 75°C water. The lowest moisture content, WAC and RA and the highest DHC, force and stress, were observed in squash slices immersed in water at 1:100 dry matter-water ratio. In general, for all rehydration conditions of squash slices, the highest water absorption rate occurred during the first minutes of process. Then, this rate decreased. The highest rehydration rate and amount of water absorption occurred in 75°C.

Keywords: dry matter-water ratio, squash, maximum force, rehydration ability

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2 Investigation of the Possible Correlation of Earthquakes with a Red Tide Occurrence in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

Authors: Hadis Hosseinzadehnaseri

Abstract:

The red tide is a kind of algae blooming, caused different problems at different sizes for the human life and the environment, so it has become one of the serious global concerns in the field of Oceanography in few recent decades. This phenomenon has affected on Iran's water, especially the Persian Gulf's since last few years. Collecting data associated with this phenomenon and comparison in different parts of the world is significant as a practical way to study this phenomenon and controlling it. Effective factors to occur this phenomenon lead to the increase of the required nutrients of the algae or provide a good environment for blooming. In this study, we examined the probability of relation between the earthquake and the harmful algae blooming in the Persian Gulf's water through comparing the earthquake data and the recorded Red tides. On the one hand, earthquakes can cause changes in seawater temperature that is effective in creating a suitable environment and the other hand, it increases the possibility of water nutrients, and its transportation in the seabed, so it can play a principal role in the development of red tide occurrence. Comparing the distribution spatial-temporal maps of the earthquakes and deadly red tides in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, confirms the hypothesis, why there is a meaningful relation between these two distributions. Comparing the number of earthquakes around the world as well as the number of the red tides in many parts of the world indicates the correlation between these two issues. This subject due to numerous earthquakes, especially in recent years and in the southern part of the country should be considered as a warning to the possibility of re-occurrence of a critical state of red tide in a large scale, why in the year 2008, the number of recorded earthquakes have been more than near years. In this year, the distribution value of the red tide phenomenon in the Persian Gulf got measured about 140,000 square kilometers and entire Oman Sea, with 10 months Survival in the area, which is considered as a record among the occurred algae blooming in the world. In this paper, we could obtain a logical and reasonable relation between the earthquake frequency and this phenomenon occurrence, through compilation of statistics relating to the earthquakes in the southern Iran, from 2000 to the end of the first half of 2013 and also collecting statistics on the occurrence of red tide in the region as well as examination of similar data in different parts of the world. As shown in Figure 1, according to a survey conducted on the earthquake data, the most earthquakes in the southern Iran ranks first in the fourth Gregorian calendar month In April, coincided with Ordibehesht and Khordad in Persian calendar and then in the tenth Gregorian calendar month In October, coincided in Aban and Azar in Persian calendar.

Keywords: red tide, earth quake, persian gulf, harmful algae bloom

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1 Reducing Road Traffic Accident: Rapid Evidence Synthesis for Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Tesfaye Dagne, Dagmawit Solomon, Firmaye Bogale, Yosef Gebreyohannes, Samson Mideksa, Mamuye Hadis, Desalegn Ararso, Ermias Woldie, Tsegaye Getachew, Sabit Ababor, Zelalem Kebede

Abstract:

Globally, road traffic accident (RTA) is causing millions of deaths and injuries every year. It is one of the leading causes of death among people of all age groups and the problem is worse among young reproductive age group. Moreover the problem is increasing with an increasing number of vehicles. The majority of the problem happen in low and middle income countries (LMIC), even if the number of vehicles in these countries is low compared to their population. So, the objective of this paper is to summarize the best available evidence on interventions that can reduce road traffic accidents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Method: A rapid evidence synthesis approach adapted from the SURE Rapid Response Service was applied to search, appraise and summarize the best available evidence on effective intervention in reducing road traffic injury. To answer the question under review, we searched for relevant studies from databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, TRANSPORT, Health system evidence, Epistemonikos, and SUPPORT summary. The following key terms were used for searching: Road traffic accident, RTA, Injury, Reduc*, Prevent*, Minimiz*, “Low and middle-income country”, LMIC. We found 18 articles through a search of different databases mentioned above. After screening for the titles and abstracts of the articles, four of them which satisfy the inclusion criteria were included in the final review. Then we appraised and graded the methodological quality of systematic reviews that are deemed to be highly relevant using AMSTAR. Finding: The identified interventions to reduce road traffic accidents were legislation and enforcement, public awareness/education, speed control/ rumble strips, road improvement, mandatory motorcycle helmet, graduated driver license, street lighting. Legislation and Enforcement: Legislation focusing on mandatory motorcycle helmet usage, banning cellular phone usage when driving, seat belt laws, decreasing the legal blood alcohol content (BAC) level from 0.06 g/L to 0.02 g/L bring the best result where enforcement is there. Public Awareness/Education: focusing on seat belt use, child restraint use, educational training in health centers and schools/universities, and public awareness with media through the distribution of videos, posters/souvenirs, and pamphlets are effective in the short run. Speed Control: through traffic calming bumps, or speed bumps, rumbled strips are effective in reducing accidents and fatality. Mandatory Motorcycle Helmet: is associated with reduction in mortality. Graduated driver’s license (GDL): reduce road traffic injury by 19%. Street lighting: is a low-cost intervention which may reduce road traffic accidents.

Keywords: evidence synthesis, injury, rapid review, reducing, road traffic accident

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