Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 787

Search results for: Einstein’s Coefficients

787 Nonlocal Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Kazim G. Atman, Hüseyin Sirin

Abstract:

In theoretical physics, nonlocal phenomena has always been subject of debate. However, in the conventional mathematical approach where the developments of the physical systems are investigated by using the standard mathematical tools, nonlocal effects are not taken into account. In order to investigate the nonlocality in quantum mechanics and fractal property of space, fractional derivative operators are employed in this study. In this manner, fractional creation and annihilation operators are introduced and Einstein coefficients are taken into account as an application of concomitant formalism in quantum field theory. Therefore, each energy mode of photons are considered as fractional quantized harmonic oscillator hereby Einstein coefficients are obtained. Nevertheless, wave function and energy eigenvalues of fractional quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator are obtained via the fractional derivative order α which is a measure of the influence of nonlocal effects. In the case α = 1, where space becomes homogeneous and continuous, standard physical conclusions are recovered.

Keywords: Einstein’s Coefficients, Fractional Calculus, Fractional Quantum Mechanics, Nonlocal Theories

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
786 Analyzing Boson Star as a Candidate for Dark Galaxy Using ADM Formulation of General Relativity

Authors: Aria Ratmandanu

Abstract:

Boson stars can be viewed as zero temperature ground state, Bose-Einstein condensates, characterized by enormous occupation numbers. Time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime can be a model of Boson Star. We use (3+1) split of Einstein equation (ADM formulation of general relativity) to solve Einstein field equation coupled to a complex scalar field (Einstein-Klein-Gordon Equation) on time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime, We get the result that Boson stars are pulsating stars with the frequency of oscillation equal to its density. We search for interior solution of Boson stars and get the T.O.V. (Tollman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) equation for Boson stars. Using T.O.V. equation, we get the equation of state and the relation between pressure and density, its total mass and along with its gravitational Mass. We found that the hypothetical particle Axion could form a Boson star with the size of a milky way galaxy and make it a candidate for a dark galaxy, (a galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter).

Keywords: axion, boson star, dark galaxy, time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime

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785 Foliation and the First Law of Thermodynamics for the Kerr Newman Black Hole

Authors: Syed M. Jawwad Riaz

Abstract:

There has been a lot of interest in exploring the thermodynamic properties at the horizon of a black hole geometry. Earlier, it has been shown, for different spacetimes, that the Einstein field equations at the horizon can be expressed as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. In this paper, considering r = constant slices, for the Kerr-Newman black hole, shown that the Einstein field equations for the induced 3-metric of the hypersurface is expressed in thermodynamic quantities under the virtual displacements of the hypersurfaces. As expected, it is found that the field equations of the induced metric corresponding to the horizon can only be written as a first law of black hole thermodynamics. It is to be mentioned here that the procedure adopted is much easier, to obtain such results, as here one has to essentially deal with (n - 1)-dimensional induced metric for an n-dimensional spacetime.

Keywords: black hole space-times, Einstein's field equation, foliation, hyper-surfaces

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784 Non-Singular Gravitational Collapse of a Dust Cloud in Einstein-Cartan Theory

Authors: Amir Hadi Ziaie, Mostafa Hashemi, Shahram Jalalzadeh

Abstract:

It is now known that the end state of the collapse process of a dense star under its own gravity is the formation of a spacetime singularity. This is the spacetime event where the energy density and spacetime curvature diverge, and the classical general relativity breaks down. As we know, a realistic star is composed of fermions so that their spin effects could alter the final fate of the collapse scenario. The underlying theory within which the inclusion of spin effects can be worked out is the Einstein-Cartan theory. In this theory, the spacetime torsion which is defined as a geometrical quantity, is related to an intrinsic angular momentum of fermions (spin). In this work, we study the collapse process of a homogeneous spin fluid in such a framework and show that taking into account the spin effects of the collapsing cloud could prevent the formation of spacetime singularity.

Keywords: gravitational collapse, einstein-cartan theory, spacetime singularity, black hole physics

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783 Estimation of Pressure Loss Coefficients in Combining Flows Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Shahzad Yousaf, Imran Shafi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for calculation of pressure loss coefficients by use of the artificial neural network (ANN) in tee junctions. Geometry and flow parameters are feed into ANN as the inputs for purpose of training the network. Efficacy of the network is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental and ANN based calculated data of pressure loss coefficients for combining flows in a tee junction. Reynolds numbers ranging from 200 to 14000 and discharge ratios varying from minimum to maximum flow for calculation of pressure loss coefficients have been used. Pressure loss coefficients calculated using ANN are compared to the models from literature used in junction flows. The results achieved after the application of ANN agrees reasonably to the experimental values.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, combining flow, pressure loss coefficients, solar collector tee junctions

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782 Bianchi Type- I Viscous Fluid Cosmological Models with Stiff Matter and Time Dependent Λ- Term

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Dubey

Abstract:

Einstein’s field equations with variable cosmological term Λ are considered in the presence of viscous fluid for Bianchi type I space time. Exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations are obtained by assuming cosmological term Λ Proportional to (R is a scale factor and m is constant). We observed that the shear viscosity is found to be responsible for faster removal of initial anisotropy in the universe. The physical significance of the cosmological models has also been discussed.

Keywords: bianchi type, I cosmological model, viscous fluid, cosmological constant Λ

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781 The Introduction of the Revolution Einstein’s Relative Energy Equations in Even 2n and Odd 3n Light Dimension Energy States Systems

Authors: Jiradeach Kalayaruan, Tosawat Seetawan

Abstract:

This paper studied the energy of the nature systems by looking at the overall image throughout the universe. The energy of the nature systems was developed from the Einstein’s energy equation. The researcher used the new ideas called even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, which were developed from Einstein’s relativity energy theory equation. In this study, the major methodology the researchers used was the basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, or Tao in order to get new discoveries. The basic beliefs of each religion - Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao respectively, were great influential ideas on the researchers to use them greatly in the study to form new ideas from philosophy. Since the philosophy of each religion was alive with deep insight of the physical nature relative energy, it connected the basic beliefs to light dimension energy states systems. Unfortunately, Einstein’s original relative energy equation showed only even 2n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). But in advance ideas, the researchers multiplied light dimension energy by Einstein’s original relative energy equation and get new idea of theoritical physics in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). Because from basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions philosophy of each religion, you had to add the media light dimension energy into Einstein’s original relative energy equation. Consequently, the simple meaning picture in deep insight showed that you could touch light dimension energy of Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao by light dimension energy. Since light dimension energy was transferred by Nivara, God, Ether, Atman and Tao, the researchers got the new equation of odd 3n light dimension energy states systems. Moreover, the researchers expected to be able to solve overview problems of all light dimension energy in all nature relative energy, which are developed from Eistein’s relative energy equation.The finding of the study was called 'super nature relative energy' ( in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞)). From the new ideas above you could do the summation of even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems in all of nature light dimension energy states systems. In the future time, the researchers will expect the new idea to be used in insight theoretical physics, which is very useful to the development of quantum mechanics, all engineering, medical profession, transportation, communication, scientific inventions, and technology, etc.

Keywords: 2n light dimension energy states systems effect, Ether, even 2n light dimension energy states systems, nature relativity, Nivara, odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, perturbation points energy, relax point energy states systems, stress perturbation energy states systems effect, super relative energy

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780 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang

Abstract:

One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

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779 Analytical Solution of Non–Autonomous Discrete Non-Linear Schrodinger Equation With Saturable Non-Linearity

Authors: Mishu Gupta, Rama Gupta

Abstract:

It has been elucidated here that non- autonomous discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation is associated with saturable non-linearity through photo-refractive media. We have investigated the localized solution of non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equations. The similarity transformation has been involved in converting non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation to constant-coefficient saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (SDNLSE), whose exact solution is already known. By back substitution, the solution of the non-autonomous version has been obtained. We have analysed our solution for the hyperbolic and periodic form of gain/loss term, and interesting results have been obtained. The most important characteristic role is that it helps us to analyse the propagation of electromagnetic waves in glass fibres and other optical wave mediums. Also, the usage of SDNLSE has been seen in tight binding for Bose-Einstein condensates in optical mediums. Even the solutions are interrelated, and its properties are prominently used in various physical aspects like optical waveguides, Bose-Einstein (B-E) condensates in optical mediums, Non-linear optics in photonic crystals, and non-linear kerr–type non-linearity effect and photo refracting medium.

Keywords: B-E-Bose-Einstein, DNLSE-Discrete non linear schrodinger equation, NLSE-non linear schrodinger equation, SDNLSE - saturable discrete non linear Schrodinger equation

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778 Estimation of Synchronous Machine Synchronizing and Damping Torque Coefficients

Authors: Khaled M. EL-Naggar

Abstract:

Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients of a synchronous machine can give a quite clear picture for machine behavior during transients. These coefficients are used as a power system transient stability measurement. In this paper, a crow search optimization algorithm is presented and implemented to study the power system stability during transients. The algorithm makes use of the machine responses to perform the stability study in time domain. The problem is formulated as a dynamic estimation problem. An objective function that minimizes the error square in the estimated coefficients is designed. The method is tested using practical system with different study cases. Results are reported and a thorough discussion is presented. The study illustrates that the proposed method can estimate the stability coefficients for the critical stable cases where other methods may fail. The tests proved that the proposed tool is an accurate and reliable tool for estimating the machine coefficients for assessment of power system stability.

Keywords: optimization, estimation, synchronous, machine, crow search

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777 Introduction of Para-Sasaki-Like Riemannian Manifolds and Construction of New Einstein Metrics

Authors: Mancho Manev

Abstract:

The concept of almost paracontact Riemannian manifolds (abbr., apcR manifolds) was introduced by I. Sato in 1976 as an analogue of almost contact Riemannian manifolds. The notion of an apcR manifold of type (p,q) was defined by S. Sasaki in 1980, where p and q are respectively the numbers of the multiplicity of the structure eigenvalues 1 and -1. It also has a simple eigenvalue of 0. In our work, we consider (2n+1)-dimensional apcR manifolds of type (n,n), i.e., the paracontact distribution of the studied manifold can be considered as a 2n-dimensional almost paracomplex Riemannian distribution with almost paracomplex structure and structure group O(n) × O(n). The aim of the present study is to introduce a new class of apcR manifolds. Such a manifold is obtained using the construction of a certain Riemannian cone over it, and the resulting manifold is a paraholomorphic paracomplex Riemannian manifold (abbr., phpcR manifold). We call it a para-Sasaki-like Riemannian manifold (abbr., pSlR manifold) and give some explicit examples. We study the structure of pSlR spaces and find that the paracontact form η is closed and each pSlR manifold locally can be considered as a certain product of the real line with a phpcR manifold, which is locally a Riemannian product of two equidimensional Riemannian spaces. We also obtain that the curvature of the pSlR manifolds is completely determined by the curvature of the underlying local phpcR manifold. Moreover, the ξ-directed Ricci curvature is equal to -2n, while in the Sasaki case, it is 2n. Accordingly, the pSlR manifolds can be interpreted as the counterpart of the Sasaki manifolds; the skew-symmetric part of ∇η vanishes, while in the Sasaki case, the symmetric part vanishes. We define a hyperbolic extension of a (complete) phpcR manifold that resembles a certain warped product, and we indicate that it is a (complete) pSlR manifold. In addition, we consider the hyperbolic extension of a phpcR manifold and prove that if the initial manifold is a complete Einstein manifold with negative scalar curvature, then the resulting manifold is a complete Einstein pSlR manifold with negative scalar curvature. In this way, we produce new examples of a complete Einstein Riemannian manifold with negative scalar curvature. Finally, we define and study para contact conformal/homothetic deformations by deriving a subclass that preserves the para-Sasaki-like condition. We then find that if we apply a paracontact homothetic deformation of a pSlR space, we obtain that the Ricci tensor is invariant.

Keywords: almost paracontact Riemannian manifolds, Einstein manifolds, holomorphic product manifold, warped product manifold

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776 The Generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Solutions in Modeling the Cosmological Black Holes

Authors: Elena M. Kopteva, Pavlina Jaluvkova, Zdenek Stuchlik

Abstract:

In spite of the numerous attempts to close the discussion about the influence of cosmological expansion on local gravitationally bounded systems, this question arises in literature again and again and remains still far from its final resolution. Here one of the main problems is the problem of obtaining a physically adequate model of strongly gravitating object immersed in non-static cosmological background. Such objects are usually called ‘cosmological’ black holes and are of great interest in wide set of cosmological and astrophysical areas. In this work the set of new exact solutions of the Einstein equations is derived for the flat space that generalizes the known Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution for the case of nonzero pressure. The solutions obtained are pretending to describe the black hole immersed in nonstatic cosmological background and give a possibility to investigate the hot problems concerning the effects of the cosmological expansion in gravitationally bounded systems, the structure formation in the early universe, black hole thermodynamics and other related problems. It is shown that each of the solutions obtained contains either the Reissner-Nordstrom or the Schwarzschild black hole in the central region of the space. It is demonstrated that the approach of the mass function use in solving of the Einstein equations allows clear physical interpretation of the resulting solutions, that is of much benefit to any their concrete application.

Keywords: exact solutions of the Einstein equations, cosmological black holes, generalized Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solutions, nonzero pressure

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775 The Combination of the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP), JITTER and SHIMMER Coefficients for the Improvement of Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthric Speech

Authors: Brahim-Fares Zaidi, Malika Boudraa, Sid-Ahmed Selouani

Abstract:

Our work aims to improve our Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthria Speech (ARSDS) based on the Hidden Models of Markov (HMM) and the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) to help people who are sick. With pronunciation problems, we applied two techniques of speech parameterization based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC's) and Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP's) and concatenated them with JITTER and SHIMMER coefficients in order to increase the recognition rate of a dysarthria speech. For our tests, we used the NEMOURS database that represents speakers with dysarthria and normal speakers.

Keywords: hidden Markov model toolkit (HTK), hidden models of Markov (HMM), Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), perceptual linear prediction (PLP’s)

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774 Stern-Gerlach Force in Quantum Magnetic Field and Schrodinger's Cat

Authors: Mandip Singh

Abstract:

Quantum entanglement plays a fundamental role in our understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of quantum reality. If classical physics is an approximation of quantum physics, then quantum entanglement should persist at a macroscopic scale. In this paper, a thought experiment is presented where a free falling spin polarized Bose-Einstein condensate interacts with a quantum superimposed magnetic field of nonzero gradient. In contrast to the semiclassical Stern-Gerlach experiment, the magnetic field and the spin degrees of freedom both are considered to be quantum mechanical in a generalized scenario. As a consequence, a Bose-Einstein condensate can be prepared at distinct locations in space in a sense of quantum superposition. In addition, the generation of Schrodinger-cat like quantum states shall be presented.

Keywords: Schrodinger-cat quantum states, macroscopic entanglement, macroscopic quantum fields, foundations of quantum physics

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773 On Quasi Conformally Flat LP-Sasakian Manifolds with a Coefficient α

Authors: Jay Prakash Singh

Abstract:

The aim of the present paper is to study properties of Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifolds with a coefficient α. In this paper, we prove that a Quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α is an η−Einstein and in a quasi conformally flat LP-Sasakian manifold M (n > 3) with a constant coefficient α if the scalar curvature tensor is constant then M is of constant curvature.

Keywords: LP-Sasakian manifolds, quasi-conformal curvature tensor, concircular vector field, torse forming vector field, Einstein manifold

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772 Electron-Ion Recombination of N^{2+} and O^{3+} Ions

Authors: Shahin A. Abdel-Naby, Asad T. Hassan, Stuart Loch, Michael Fogle, Negil R. Badnell, Michael S. Pindzola

Abstract:

Accurate and reliable laboratory astrophysical data for electron-ion recombination are needed for plasma modeling. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients are calculated for boron-like nitrogen and oxygen ions using state-of-the-art multi-configuration Breit-Pauli atomic structure AUTOSTRUCTURE collisional package within the generalized collisional-radiative framework. The calculations are performed in intermediate coupling scheme associated with n = 0 (2  2) and n = 1 (2  3) core-excitations. Good agreements are found between the theoretically convoluted rate coefficients and the experimental measurements performed at CRYRING heavy-ion storage ring for both ions. Fitting coefficients for the rate coefficients are produced for these ions in the temperature range q2(102-107) K, where q is the ion charge before recombination.

Keywords: Atomic data, atomic processes, electron-ion collision, plasma

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771 Methyltrioctylammonium Chloride as a Separation Solvent for Binary Mixtures: Evaluation Based on Experimental Activity Coefficients

Authors: B. Kabane, G. G. Redhi

Abstract:

An ammonium based ionic liquid (methyltrioctylammonium chloride) [N8 8 8 1] [Cl] was investigated as an extraction potential solvent for volatile organic solvents (in this regard, solutes), which includes alkenes, alkanes, ketones, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, tetrahydrofuran (THF), alcohols, thiophene, water and acetonitrile based on the experimental activity coefficients at infinite THF measurements were conducted by the use of gas-liquid chromatography at four different temperatures (313.15 to 343.15) K. Experimental data of activity coefficients obtained across the examined temperatures were used in order to calculate the physicochemical properties at infinite dilution such as partial molar excess enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy term. Capacity and selectivity data for selected petrochemical extraction problems (heptane/thiophene, heptane/benzene, cyclohaxane/cyclohexene, hexane/toluene, hexane/hexene) were computed from activity coefficients data and compared to the literature values with other ionic liquids. Evaluation of activity coefficients at infinite dilution expands the knowledge and provides a good understanding related to the interactions between the ionic liquid and the investigated compounds.

Keywords: separation, activity coefficients, methyltrioctylammonium chloride, ionic liquid, capacity

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770 Combined Odd Pair Autoregressive Coefficients for Epileptic EEG Signals Classification by Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: Boukari Nassim

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of odd pair autoregressive coefficients (Yule _Walker and Burg) for the feature extraction of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In the classification: the radial basis function neural network neural network (RBFNN) is employed. The RBFNN is described by his architecture and his characteristics: as the RBF is defined by the spread which is modified for improving the results of the classification. Five types of EEG signals are defined for this work: Set A, Set B for normal signals, Set C, Set D for interictal signals, set E for ictal signal (we can found that in Bonn university). In outputs, two classes are given (AC, AD, AE, BC, BD, BE, CE, DE), the best accuracy is calculated at 99% for the combined odd pair autoregressive coefficients. Our method is very effective for the diagnosis of epileptic EEG signals.

Keywords: epilepsy, EEG signals classification, combined odd pair autoregressive coefficients, radial basis function neural network

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769 Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction from Minimum Computation Combinations Using OpenVSP Software

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

OpenVSP is an aerodynamic solver developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that allows building a reliable model of an aircraft. This software performs an aerodynamic simulation according to the angle of attack of the aircraft makes between the incoming airstream, and its speed. A reliable aerodynamic model of the Cessna Citation X was designed but it required a lot of computation time. As a consequence, a prediction method was established that allowed predicting lift and drag coefficients for all Mach numbers and for all angles of attack, exclusively for stall conditions, from a computation of three angles of attack and only one Mach number. Aerodynamic coefficients given by the prediction method for a Cessna Citation X model were finally compared with aerodynamics coefficients obtained using a complete OpenVSP study.

Keywords: aerodynamic, coefficient, cruise, improving, longitudinal, openVSP, solver, time

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768 Subclasses of Bi-Univalent Functions Associated with Hohlov Operator

Authors: Rashidah Omar, Suzeini Abdul Halim, Aini Janteng

Abstract:

The coefficients estimate problem for Taylor-Maclaurin series is still an open problem especially for a function in the subclass of bi-univalent functions. A function f ϵ A is said to be bi-univalent in the open unit disk D if both f and f-1 are univalent in D. The symbol A denotes the class of all analytic functions f in D and it is normalized by the conditions f(0) = f’(0) – 1=0. The class of bi-univalent is denoted by  The subordination concept is used in determining second and third Taylor-Maclaurin coefficients. The upper bound for second and third coefficients is estimated for functions in the subclasses of bi-univalent functions which are subordinated to the function φ. An analytic function f is subordinate to an analytic function g if there is an analytic function w defined on D with w(0) = 0 and |w(z)| < 1 satisfying f(z) = g[w(z)]. In this paper, two subclasses of bi-univalent functions associated with Hohlov operator are introduced. The bound for second and third coefficients of functions in these subclasses is determined using subordination. The findings would generalize the previous related works of several earlier authors.

Keywords: analytic functions, bi-univalent functions, Hohlov operator, subordination

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767 Analysis and Modeling of the Building’s Facades in Terms of Different Convection Coefficients

Authors: Enes Yasa, Guven Fidan

Abstract:

Building Simulation tools need to better evaluate convective heat exchanges between external air and wall surfaces. Previous analysis demonstrated the significant effects of convective heat transfer coefficient values on the room energy balance. Some authors have pointed out that large discrepancies observed between widely used building thermal models can be attributed to the different correlations used to calculate or impose the value of the convective heat transfer coefficients. Moreover, numerous researchers have made sensitivity calculations and proved that the choice of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient values can lead to differences from 20% to 40% of energy demands. The thermal losses to the ambient from a building surface or a roof mounted solar collector represent an important portion of the overall energy balance and depend heavily on the wind induced convection. In an effort to help designers make better use of the available correlations in the literature for the external convection coefficients due to the wind, a critical discussion and a suitable tabulation is presented, on the basis of algebraic form of the coefficients and their dependence upon characteristic length and wind direction, in addition to wind speed. Many research works have been conducted since early eighties focused on the convection heat transfer problems inside buildings. In this context, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program has been used to predict external convective heat transfer coefficients at external building surfaces. For the building facades model, effects of wind speed and temperature differences between the surfaces and the external air have been analyzed, showing different heat transfer conditions and coefficients. In order to provide further information on external convective heat transfer coefficients, a numerical work is presented in this paper, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial package (CFX) to predict convective heat transfer coefficients at external building surface.

Keywords: CFD in buildings, external convective heat transfer coefficients, building facades, thermal modelling

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766 Recombination Rate Coefficients for NIII and OIV Ions

Authors: Shahin A. Abdel-Naby, Asad T. Hassan

Abstract:

Electron-ion recombination data are needed for plasma modeling. The recombination processes include radiative recombination (RR), dielectronic recombination (DR), and trielectronic recombination (TR). When a free electron is captured by an ion with simultaneous excitation of its core, a doubly-exited intermediate state may be formed. The doubly excited state relaxes either by electron emission (autoionization) or by radiative decay (photon emission). DR process takes place when the relaxation occurs to a bound state by photon emission. Reliable laboratory astrophysics data (theory and experiment) for DR rate coefficients are needed to determine the charge state distribution in photoionized sources such as X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei. DR rate coefficients for NIII and OIV ions are calculated using state-of-the-art multi-configuration Breit-Pauli atomic structure AUTOSTRUCTURE collisional package within the generalized collisional-radiative framework. Level-resolved calculations for RR and DR rate coefficients from the ground and metastable initial states are produced in an intermediate coupling scheme associated with Δn = 0 (2→2) and Δn = 1 (2 →3) core-excitations. DR cross sections for these ions are convoluted with the experimental electron-cooler temperatures to produce DR rate coefficients. Good agreements are found between these rate coefficients and the experimental measurements performed at the CRYRING heavy-ion storage ring for both ions.

Keywords: atomic data, atomic process, electron-ion collision, plasmas

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765 Numerical Study for the Estimation of Hydrodynamic Current Drag Coefficients for the Colombian Navy Frigates Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Mauricio Gracia, Luis Leal, Bharat Verma

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become nowadays an important tool in the process of hydrodynamic design of modern ships. CFD is used to model any phenomena related to fluid flow in a control volume like a ship or any offshore structure in the sea. In the present study, the current force drag coefficients for a Colombian Navy Frigate in deep and shallow water are estimated through the application of CFD. The study shows the process of simulating the ship current drag coefficients using the CFD simulations method, which is conducted using STAR-CCM+ software package. The Almirante Padilla class Frigate ship scale model is investigated. The results show the ship current drag coefficient calculated considering a current speed of 1 knot with a 90° drift angle for the full-scale ship. Predicted results were compared against the current drag coefficients published in the Lloyds register OCIMF report. It is shown that the simulation results agree fairly well with the published results and that STAR-CCM+ code can predict current drag coefficients.

Keywords: CFD, current draft coefficient, STAR-CCM+, OCIMF, Bollard pull

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764 Computation of Drag and Lift Coefficients on Submerged Vanes in Open Channels

Authors: Anshul Jain, P. Deepak Kumar, P. K. S. Dikshit

Abstract:

To stabilize the riverbanks in the curved reaches of alluvial channels due to erosion and to stop sediment transportation, many models and theories have been put forth. One among such methods is to install flat vanes on the channel bed in predetermined manner. In practical, a relatively small no of vanes can produce bend flows which are practically uniform across the channel. The objective of the present study is to measure the drag and lift on such submerged vanes in open channels. Experiments were performed and the data collected have been presented and analyzed. Using the data collected herein, predictors for the coefficients of drag and lift have been developed. Such predictors yield the value of these coefficients for the known fluid properties and flow characteristic of the channel.

Keywords: drag, lift, vanes, open channel

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763 A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns

Authors: Wajdi Mohamed Ratemi

Abstract:

The very well-known stacked sets of numbers referred to as Pascal’s triangle present the coefficients of the binomial expansion of the form (x+y)n. This paper presents an approach (the Staircase Horizontal Vertical, SHV-method) to the generalization of planar Pascal’s triangle for polynomial expansion of the form (x+y+z+w+r+⋯)n. The presented generalization of Pascal’s triangle is different from other generalizations of Pascal’s triangles given in the literature. The coefficients of the generalized Pascal’s triangles, presented in this work, are generated by inspection, using embedded Pascal’s triangles. The coefficients of I-variables expansion are generated by horizontally laying out the Pascal’s elements of (I-1) variables expansion, in a staircase manner, and multiplying them with the relevant columns of vertically laid out classical Pascal’s elements, hence avoiding factorial calculations for generating the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Furthermore, the classical Pascal’s triangle has some pattern built into it regarding its odd and even numbers. Such pattern is known as the Sierpinski’s triangle. In this study, a presentation of Sierpinski-like patterns of the generalized Pascal’s triangles is given. Applications related to those coefficients of the binomial expansion (Pascal’s triangle), or polynomial expansion (generalized Pascal’s triangles) can be in areas of combinatorics, and probabilities.

Keywords: pascal’s triangle, generalized pascal’s triangle, polynomial expansion, sierpinski’s triangle, combinatorics, probabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
762 Micromechanics Modeling of 3D Network Smart Orthotropic Structures

Authors: E. M. Hassan, A. L. Kalamkarov

Abstract:

Two micromechanical models for 3D smart composite with embedded periodic or nearly periodic network of generally orthotropic reinforcements and actuators are developed and applied to cubic structures with unidirectional orientation of constituents. Analytical formulas for the effective piezothermoelastic coefficients are derived using the Asymptotic Homogenization Method (AHM). Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is subsequently developed and used to examine the aforementioned periodic 3D network reinforced smart structures. The deformation responses from the FE simulations are used to extract effective coefficients. The results from both techniques are compared. This work considers piezoelectric materials that respond linearly to changes in electric field, electric displacement, mechanical stress and strain and thermal effects. This combination of electric fields and thermo-mechanical response in smart composite structures is characterized by piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients. The problem is represented by unit-cell and the models are developed using the AHM and the FEA to determine the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients. Each unit cell contains a number of orthotropic inclusions in the form of structural reinforcements and actuators. Using matrix representation of the coupled response of the unit cell, the effective piezoelectric and thermal expansion coefficients are calculated and compared with results of the asymptotic homogenization method. A very good agreement is shown between these two approaches.

Keywords: asymptotic homogenization method, finite element analysis, effective piezothermoelastic coefficients, 3D smart network composite structures

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761 Combination Rule for Homonuclear Dipole Dispersion Coefficients

Authors: Giorgio Visentin, Inna S. Kalinina, Alexei A. Buchachenko

Abstract:

In the ambit of intermolecular interactions, a combination rule is defined as a relation linking a potential parameter for the interaction of two unlike species with the same parameters for interaction pairs of like species. Some of their most exemplificative applications cover the construction of molecular dynamics force fields and dispersion-corrected density functionals. Here, an extended combination rule is proposed, relating the dipole-dipole dispersion coefficients for the interaction of like target species to the same coefficients for the interaction of the target and a set of partner species. The rule can be devised in two different ways, either by uniform discretization of the Casimir-Polder integral on a Gauss-Legendre quadrature or by relating the dynamic polarizabilities of the target and the partner species. Both methods return the same system of linear equations, which requires the knowledge of the dispersion coefficients for interaction between the partner species to be solved. The test examples show a high accuracy for dispersion coefficients (better than 1% in the pristine test for the interaction of Yb atom with rare gases and alkaline-earth metal atoms). In contrast, the rule does not ensure correct monotonic behavior of the dynamic polarizability of the target species. Acknowledgment: The work is supported by Russian Science Foundation grant # 17-13-01466.

Keywords: combination rule, dipole-dipole dispersion coefficient, Casimir-Polder integral, Gauss-Legendre quadrature

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760 The Optimum Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) Contribution to Iranian Traditional Music Genre Classification by Instrumental Features

Authors: M. Abbasi Layegh, S. Haghipour, K. Athari, R. Khosravi, M. Tafkikialamdari

Abstract:

An approach to find the optimum mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) for the Radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh, which is the principal emblem and the heart of Persian music, performed by most famous Iranian masters on two Iranian stringed instruments ‘Tar’ and ‘Setar’ is proposed. While investigating the variance of MFCC for each record in themusic database of 1500 gushe of the repertoire belonging to 12 modal systems (dastgâh and âvâz), we have applied the Fuzzy C-Mean clustering algorithm on each of the 12 coefficient and different combinations of those coefficients. We have applied the same experiment while increasing the number of coefficients but the clustering accuracy remained the same. Therefore, we can conclude that the first 7 MFCCs (V-7MFCC) are enough for classification of The Radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh. Classical machine learning algorithms such as MLP neural networks, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) have been employed. Finally, it can be realized that SVM shows a better performance in this study.

Keywords: radif of Mirzâ Ábdollâh, Gushe, mel frequency cepstral coefficients, fuzzy c-mean clustering algorithm, k-nearest neighbors (KNN), gaussian mixture model (GMM), hidden markov model (HMM), support vector machine (SVM)

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759 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati

Abstract:

In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.

Keywords: bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients

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758 A Fuzzy Satisfactory Optimization Method Based on Stress Analysis for a Hybrid Composite Flywheel

Authors: Liping Yang, Curran Crawford, Jr. Ren, Zhengyi Ren

Abstract:

Considering the cost evaluation and the stress analysis, a fuzzy satisfactory optimization (FSO) method has been developed for a hybrid composite flywheel. To evaluate the cost, the cost coefficients of the flywheel components are obtained through calculating the weighted sum of the scores of the material manufacturability, the structure character, and the material price. To express the satisfactory degree of the energy, the cost, and the mass, the satisfactory functions are proposed by using the decline function and introducing a satisfactory coefficient. To imply the different significance of the objectives, the object weight coefficients are defined. Based on the stress analysis of composite material, the circumferential and radial stresses are considered into the optimization formulation. The simulations of the FSO method with different weight coefficients and storage energy density optimization (SEDO) method of a flywheel are contrasted. The analysis results show that the FSO method can satisfy different requirements of the designer and the FSO method with suitable weight coefficients can replace the SEDO method.

Keywords: flywheel energy storage, fuzzy, optimization, stress analysis

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