Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: Kazim G. Atman

7 Nonlocal Phenomena in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Kazim G. Atman, Hüseyin Sirin


In theoretical physics, nonlocal phenomena has always been subject of debate. However, in the conventional mathematical approach where the developments of the physical systems are investigated by using the standard mathematical tools, nonlocal effects are not taken into account. In order to investigate the nonlocality in quantum mechanics and fractal property of space, fractional derivative operators are employed in this study. In this manner, fractional creation and annihilation operators are introduced and Einstein coefficients are taken into account as an application of concomitant formalism in quantum field theory. Therefore, each energy mode of photons are considered as fractional quantized harmonic oscillator hereby Einstein coefficients are obtained. Nevertheless, wave function and energy eigenvalues of fractional quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator are obtained via the fractional derivative order α which is a measure of the influence of nonlocal effects. In the case α = 1, where space becomes homogeneous and continuous, standard physical conclusions are recovered.

Keywords: Einstein’s Coefficients, Fractional Calculus, Fractional Quantum Mechanics, Nonlocal Theories

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6 The Introduction of the Revolution Einstein’s Relative Energy Equations in Even 2n and Odd 3n Light Dimension Energy States Systems

Authors: Jiradeach Kalayaruan, Tosawat Seetawan


This paper studied the energy of the nature systems by looking at the overall image throughout the universe. The energy of the nature systems was developed from the Einstein’s energy equation. The researcher used the new ideas called even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, which were developed from Einstein’s relativity energy theory equation. In this study, the major methodology the researchers used was the basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, or Tao in order to get new discoveries. The basic beliefs of each religion - Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao respectively, were great influential ideas on the researchers to use them greatly in the study to form new ideas from philosophy. Since the philosophy of each religion was alive with deep insight of the physical nature relative energy, it connected the basic beliefs to light dimension energy states systems. Unfortunately, Einstein’s original relative energy equation showed only even 2n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). But in advance ideas, the researchers multiplied light dimension energy by Einstein’s original relative energy equation and get new idea of theoritical physics in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). Because from basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions philosophy of each religion, you had to add the media light dimension energy into Einstein’s original relative energy equation. Consequently, the simple meaning picture in deep insight showed that you could touch light dimension energy of Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao by light dimension energy. Since light dimension energy was transferred by Nivara, God, Ether, Atman and Tao, the researchers got the new equation of odd 3n light dimension energy states systems. Moreover, the researchers expected to be able to solve overview problems of all light dimension energy in all nature relative energy, which are developed from Eistein’s relative energy equation.The finding of the study was called 'super nature relative energy' ( in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞)). From the new ideas above you could do the summation of even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems in all of nature light dimension energy states systems. In the future time, the researchers will expect the new idea to be used in insight theoretical physics, which is very useful to the development of quantum mechanics, all engineering, medical profession, transportation, communication, scientific inventions, and technology, etc.

Keywords: 2n light dimension energy states systems effect, Ether, even 2n light dimension energy states systems, nature relativity, Nivara, odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, perturbation points energy, relax point energy states systems, stress perturbation energy states systems effect, super relative energy

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5 A Comparative Analysis of Liberation and Contemplation in Sankara and Aquinas

Authors: Zeite Shumneiyang Koireng


Liberation is the act of liberating or the state of being liberated. Indian philosophy, in general, understands liberation as moksa, which etymological is derived from the Sanskrit root muc+ktin meaning to loose, set free, to let go, discharge, release, liberate, deliver, etc. According to Indian schools of thought, moksa is the highest value on realizing which nothing remains to be realized. It is the cessation of birth and death, all kinds of pain and at the same time, it is the realization of one’s own self. Sankara’s Advaita philosophy is based on the following propositions: Brahman is the only Reality; the world has apparent reality, and the soul is not different from Brahman. According to Sankara, Brahman is the basis on which the world form appears; it is the sustaining ground of all various modification. It is the highest self and the self of all reveals himself by dividing himself [ as it was in the form of various objects] in multiple ways. The whole world is the manifestation of the Supreme Being. Brahman modifying itself into the Atman or internal self of all things is the world. Since Brahman is the Upadhana karana of the world, the sruti speaks of the world as the modification of Brahman into the Atman of the effect. Contemplation as the fulfillment of man finds a radical foundation in Aquinas teaching concerning the natural end or as he also referred to it, natural desire. The third book of the Summa Contra Gentiles begins the study of happiness with a consideration of natural desire. According to him, all creatures, even those devoid of understanding are ordered to God as an ultimate end. Intrinsically, a part of every nature is a tendency or inclination, originating in the natural form and tendency toward the end for which the possessor of nature exists. It is the study of the nature and finality of inclination that Aquinas establishes through an argument of induction man’s Contemplation of God as the fulfillment of his nature. The present paper is attempted to critically approach two important, seminal and originated thought, representing Indian and Western traditions which mark on the thinking of their respective times. Both these thoughts- Advaitic concept of Liberation in the Indian tradition and the concept of Contemplation in Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Contra Gentiles’- confront directly the question of the ultimate meaning of human existence. According to Sankara, it is knowledge and knowledge alone which is the means of moksa and the highest knowledge is moksa itself. Liberation in Sankara Vedanta is attained as a process of purification of self, which gradually and increasingly turns into purer and purer intentional construction. Man’s inner natural tendency for Aquinas is towards knowledge. The human subject is driven to know more and more about reality and in particular about the highest reality. Contemplation of this highest reality is fulfillment in the philosophy of Aquinas. Rather, Contemplation is the perfect activity in man’s present state of existence.

Keywords: liberation, Brahman, contemplation, fulfillment

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4 Preparation of Frozen Bivalent Babesial (Babesia Bovis and Babesia Bigemina) Vaccine from Field Isolates and Evaluation of Its Efficacy in Calves

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz Qamar, Ahmad Faraz, Muhammad Arfan Zaman, Kazim Ali, Waleed Akram


Babesiosis is reflected as the most important disease of cattle that are transmitted by arthropods. In Pakistan, its prevalence is up to 29% in the cattle and buffalo population in different regions. Cattle show a long lasting and durable immunity by giving an infection of B.bovis, B. bigemina, or Babesiadivergens. this is used in cattle to immunize them in a few countries as anti-babesiosis vaccine. Development of frozen vaccine allows for complete testing after production of each batch, However, once thawed, its reduced its shelf life, frozen vaccines are more difficult to transport as well as expensive to produce as compared to chilled vaccine. The contamination of blood derived vaccine has the potential risk that makes pre-production and post-production quality control necessary. For the trail master seed production of whole blood frozen bivalent Babesia(Babesiabovis and Babesiabigemina), 100 blood samples of Babesial positive suspected cattle was taken and processed for separation microscopic detection and rectification by PCR. Vaccine passages were done to reduce the parasitaemiasis in live calves. After 8 passages, parasitemia of Babesia reduced from 80% to 15%. Infected donor calf’s blood was taken by jugular cannulation by using preservative free lithium heparin as an anticoagulant (5 International Units IU heparin/ml blood). In lab, parasite containing blood was mixed in equal volumes with 3 M glycerol in PBS supplemented with 5 mM glucose (final concentration of glycerol 1.5 M) at 37°C. The mixture was then equilibrized at 37°C for 30 minutes and were dispensed in required containers (e.g., 5 ml cryovials).

Keywords: distribution, babesia, primer sequences, PCV

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3 Control Mechanisms for Sprayer Used in Turkey

Authors: Huseyin Duran, Yesim Benal Oztekin, Kazim Kubilay Vursavus, Ilker Huseyin Celen


There are two main approaches to manufacturing, market and usage of plant protection machinery in Turkey. The first approach is called as ‘Product Safety Approach’ and could be summarized as minimum health and safety requirements of consumer needs on plant protection equipment and machinery products. The second approach is the practices related to the Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery Directive. Product safety approach covers the plant protection machinery product groups within the framework of a new approach directive, Machinery Safety Directive (2006/42 / AT). The new directive is in practice in our country by 03.03.2009, parallel to the revision of the EU Regulation on the Directive (03.03.2009 dated and numbered 27158 published in the Official Gazette). ‘Pesticide Application for Machines’ paragraph is added to the 2006/42 / EC Machinery Safety Directive, which is, in particular, reveals the importance of primary health care and product safety issue, explaining the safety requirements for machines used in the application of plant protection products. The Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology is the authorized organizations in our country for the publication and implementation of this regulation. There is a special regulation, carried out by Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock General Directorate of Food and Control, on the manufacture and sale of plant protection machinery. This regulation, prepared based on 5996 Veterinary Services, Plant Health, Food and Feed Law, is ‘Regulation on Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery’ (published on 02.04.2011 whit number 27893 in the Official Gazette). The purposes of this regulation are practicing healthy and reliable crop production, the preparation, implementation and dissemination of the integrated pest management programs and projects for the development of human health and environmentally friendly pest control methods. This second regulation covers: approval, manufacturing, licensing of Plant Protection Equipment and Machinery; duties and responsibilities of the dealers; principles and procedures related to supply and control of the market. There are no inspection procedures for the application of currently used plant protection machinery in Turkey. In this study, content and application principles of all regulation approaches currently used in Turkey are summarized.

Keywords: plant protection equipment and machinery, product safety, market surveillance, inspection procedures

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2 Development of Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (Lamp) Assay for the Diagnosis of Ovine Theileriosis

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz Qamar, Uzma Mehreen, Muhammad Arfan Zaman, Kazim Ali


Ovine Theileriosis is a world-wide concern, especially in tropical and subtropical areas, due to having tick abundance that has received less awareness in different developed and developing areas due to less worth of sheep, low to the middle level of infection in different small ruminants herd. Across Asia, the prevalence reports have been conducted to provide equivalent calculation of flock and animal level prevalence of Theileriosisin animals. It is a challenge for veterinarians to timely diagnosis & control of Theileriosis and famers because of the nature of the organism and inadequacy of restricted plans to control. All most work is based upon the development of such a technique which should be farmer-friendly, less expensive, and easy to perform into the field. By the timely diagnosis of this disease will decrease the irrational use of the drugs, and other plan was to determine the prevalence of Theileriosis in District Jhang by using the conventional method, PCR and qPCR, and LAMP. We quantify the molecular epidemiology of T.lestoquardiin sheep from Jhang districts, Punjab, Pakistan. In this study, we concluded that the overall prevalence of Theileriosis was (32/350*100= 9.1%) in sheep by using Giemsa staining technique, whereas (48/350*100= 13%) is observed by using PCR technique (56/350*100=16%) in qPCR and the LAMP technique have shown up to this much prevalence percentage (60/350*100= 17.1%). The specificity and sensitivity also calculated in comparison with the PCR and LAMP technique. Means more positive results have been shown when the diagnosis has been done with the help of LAMP. And there is little bit of difference between the positive results of PCR and qPCR, and the least positive animals was by using Giemsa staining technique/conventional method. If we talk about the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP as compared to PCR, The cross tabulation shows that the results of sensitivity of LAMP counted was 94.4%, and specificity of LAMP counted was 78%. Advances in scientific field must be upon reality based ideas which can lessen the gaps and hurdles in the way of scientific research; the lamp is one of such techniques which have done wonders in adding value and helping human at large. It is such a great biological diagnostic tools and has helped a lot in the proper diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. Other methods for diagnosis, such as culture techniques and serological techniques, have exposed humans with great danger. However, with the help of molecular diagnostic technique like LAMP, exposure to such pathogens is being avoided in the current era Most prompt and tentative diagnosis can be made using LAMP. Other techniques like PCR has many disadvantages when compared to LAMP as PCR is a relatively expensive, time consuming, and very complicated procedure while LAMP is relatively cheap, easy to perform, less time consuming, and more accurate. LAMP technique has removed hurdles in the way of scientific research and molecular diagnostics, making it approachable to poor and developing countries.

Keywords: distribution, thelaria, LAMP, primer sequences, PCR

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1 Clinical Response of Nuberol Forte® (Paracetamol 650 MG+Orphenadrine 50 MG) For Pain Management with Musculoskeletal Conditions in Routine Pakistani Practice (NFORTE-EFFECT)

Authors: Shahid Noor, Kazim Najjad, Muhammad Nasir, Irshad Bhutto, Abdul Samad Memon, Khurram Anwar, Tehseen Riaz, Mian Muhammad Hanif, Nauman A. Mallik, Saeed Ahmed, Israr Ahmed, Ali Yasir


Background: Musculoskeletal pain is the most common complaint presented to the health practitioner. It is well known that untreated or under-treated pain can have a significant negative impact on an individual’s quality of life (QoL). Objectives: This study was conducted across 10 sites in six (6) major cities of Pakistan to evaluate the tolerability, safety, and the clinical response of Nuberol Forte® (Paracetamol 650 mg + Orphenadrine 50 mg) to musculoskeletal pain in routine Pakistani practice and its impact on improving the patient’s QoL. Design & Methods: This NFORT-EFFECT observational, prospective multicenter study was conducted in compliance with Good Clinical Practice guidelines and local regulatory requirements. The study sponsor was "The Searle Company Limited, Pakistan. To maintain the GCP compliances, the sponsor assigned the CRO for the site and data management. Ethical approval was obtained from an independent ethics committee. The IEC reviewed the progress of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants, and their confidentiality was maintained throughout the study. A total of 399 patients with known prescreened musculoskeletal conditions and pain who attended the study sites were recruited, as per the inclusion/exclusion criteria ( ID# NCT04765787). The recruited patients were then prescribed Paracetamol (650 mg) and Orphenadrine (50 mg) combination (Nuberol Forte®) for 7 to 14 days as per the investigator's discretion based on the pain intensity. After the initial screening (visit 1), a follow-up visit was conducted after 1-2 weeks of the treatment (visit 2). Study Endpoints: The primary objective was to assess the pain management response of Nuberol Forte treatment and the overall safety of the drug. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale was used to measure pain severity. Secondary to pain, the patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also assessed using the Muscle, Joint Measure (MJM) scale. The safety was monitored on the first dose by the patients. These assessments were done on each study visit. Results: Out of 399 enrolled patients, 49.4% were males, and 50.6% were females with a mean age of 47.24 ± 14.20 years. Most patients were presented with Knee Osteoarthritis (OA), i.e., 148(38%), followed by backache 70(18.2%). A significant reduction in the mean pain score was observed after the treatment with the combination of Paracetamol and Orphenadrine (p<0.05). Furthermore, an overall improvement in the patient’s QoL was also observed. During the study, only ten patients reported mild adverse events (AEs). Conclusion: The combination of Paracetamol and Orphenadrine (Nuberol Forte®) exhibited effective pain management among patients with musculoskeletal conditions and also improved their QoL.

Keywords: musculoskeletal pain, orphenadrine/paracetamol combination, pain management, quality of life, Pakistani population

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