Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Dibyendu Rakshit

8 Impact of Anthropogenic Stresses on Plankton Biodiversity in Indian Sundarban Megadelta: An Approach towards Ecosystem Conservation and Sustainability

Authors: Dibyendu Rakshit, Santosh K. Sarkar

Abstract:

The study illustrates a comprehensive account of large-scale changes plankton community structure in relevance to water quality characteristics due to anthropogenic stresses, mainly concerned for Annual Gangasagar Festival (AGF) at the southern tip of Sagar Island of Indian Sundarban wetland for 3-year duration (2012-2014; n=36). This prograding, vulnerable and tide-dominated megadelta has been formed in the estuarine phase of the Hooghly Estuary infested by largest continuous tract of luxurious mangrove forest, enriched with high native flora and fauna. The sampling strategy was designed to characterize the changes in plankton community and water quality considering three diverse phases, namely during festival period (January) and its pre - (December) as well as post (February) events. Surface water samples were collected for estimation of different environmental variables as well as for phytoplankton and microzooplankton biodiversity measurement. The preservation and identification techniques of both biotic and abiotic parameters were carried out by standard chemical and biological methods. The intensive human activities lead to sharp ecological changes in the context of poor water quality index (WQI) due to high turbidity (14.02±2.34 NTU) coupled with low chlorophyll a (1.02±0.21 mg m-3) and dissolved oxygen (3.94±1.1 mg l-1), comparing to pre- and post-festival periods. Sharp reduction in abundance (4140 to 2997 cells l-1) and diversity (H′=2.72 to 1.33) of phytoplankton and microzooplankton tintinnids (450 to 328 ind l-1; H′=4.31 to 2.21) was very much pronounced. The small size tintinnid (average lorica length=29.4 µm; average LOD=10.5 µm) composed of Tintinnopsis minuta, T. lobiancoi, T. nucula, T. gracilis are predominant and reached some of the greatest abundances during the festival period. Results of ANOVA revealed a significant variation in different festival periods with phytoplankton (F= 1.77; p=0.006) and tintinnid abundance (F= 2.41; P=0.022). RELATE analyses revealed a significant correlation between the variations of planktonic communities with the environmental data (R= 0.107; p= 0.005). Three distinct groups were delineated from principal component analysis, in which a set of hydrological parameters acted as the causative factor(s) for maintaining diversity and distribution of the planktonic organisms. The pronounced adverse impact of anthropogenic stresses on plankton community could lead to environmental deterioration, disrupting the productivity of benthic and pelagic ecosystems as well as fishery potentialities which directly related to livelihood services. The festival can be considered as multiple drivers of changes in relevance to beach erosion, shoreline changes, pollution from discarded plastic and electronic wastes and destruction of natural habitats resulting loss of biodiversity. In addition, deterioration in water quality was also evident from immersion of idols, causing detrimental effects on aquatic biota. The authors strongly recommend for adopting integrated scientific and administrative strategies for resilience, sustainability and conservation of this megadelta.

Keywords: Gangasagar festival, phytoplankton, Sundarban megadelta, tintinnid

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7 Process Modified Geopolymer Concrete: A Sustainable Material for Green Construction Technology

Authors: Dibyendu Adak, Saroj Mandal

Abstract:

The fly ash based geopolymer concrete generally requires heat activation after casting, which has been considered as an important limitation for its practical application. Such limitation can be overcome by a modification in the process at the time of mixing of ingredients (fly and activator fluid) for geopolymer concrete so that curing can be made at ambient temperature. This process modified geopolymer concrete shows an appreciable improvement in structural performance compared to conventional heat cured geopolymer concrete and control cement concrete. The improved durability performance based on water absorption, sulphate test, and RCPT is also noted. The microstructural properties analyzed through Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques show the better interaction of fly ash and activator solution at early ages for the process modified geopolymer concrete. This accelerates the transformation of the amorphous phase of fly ash to the crystalline phase.

Keywords: fly ash, geopolymer concrete, process modification, structural properties, durability, micro-structures

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6 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications

Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit

Abstract:

Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.

Keywords: carbon fiber, conductive textiles, electrostatic dissipative materials, hybrid yarns

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5 Recognizing Customer Preferences Using Review Documents: A Hybrid Text and Data Mining Approach

Authors: Oshin Anand, Atanu Rakshit

Abstract:

The vast increment in the e-commerce ventures makes this area a prominent research stream. Besides several quantified parameters, the textual content of reviews is a storehouse of many information that can educate companies and help them earn profit. This study is an attempt in this direction. The article attempts to categorize data based on a computed metric that quantifies the influencing capacity of reviews rendering two categories of high and low influential reviews. Further, each of these document is studied to conclude several product feature categories. Each of these categories along with the computed metric is converted to linguistic identifiers and are used in an association mining model. The article makes a novel attempt to combine feature attraction with quantified metric to categorize review text and finally provide frequent patterns that depict customer preferences. Frequent mentions in a highly influential score depict customer likes or preferred features in the product whereas prominent pattern in low influencing reviews highlights what is not important for customers. This is achieved using a hybrid approach of text mining for feature and term extraction, sentiment analysis, multicriteria decision-making technique and association mining model.

Keywords: association mining, customer preference, frequent pattern, online reviews, text mining

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4 Design of Liquid Crystal Based Interface to Study the Interaction of Gram Negative Bacterial Endotoxin with Milk Protein Lactoferrin

Authors: Dibyendu Das, Santanu Kumar Pal

Abstract:

Milk protein lactoferrin (Lf) exhibits potent antibacterial activity due to its interaction with Gram-negative bacterial cell membrane component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This paper represents fabrication of new Liquid crystals (LCs) based biosensors to explore the interaction between Lf and LPS. LPS self-assembled at aqueous/LCs interface and orients interfacial nematic 4-cyano-4’- pentylbiphenyl (5CB) LCs in a homeotropic fashion (exhibiting dark optical image under polarized optical microscope). Interestingly, on the exposure of Lf on LPS decorated aqueous/LCs interface, an optical image of LCs changed from dark to bright indicating an ordering alteration of interfacial LCs from homeotropic to tilted/planar state. The ordering transition reflects strong binding between Lf and interfacial LPS that, in turn, perturbs the orientation of LCs. With the help of epifluorescence microscopy, we further affirmed the interfacial LPS-Lf binding event by imaging the presence of FITC tagged Lf at the LPS laden aqueous/LCs interface. Finally, we have investigated the conformational behavior of Lf in solution as well as in the presence of LPS using Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and further reconfirmed with Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy where we found that Lf undergoes alpha-helix to random coil-like structure in the presence of LPS. As a whole the entire results described in this paper establish a robust approach to envisage the interaction between LPS and Lf through the ordering transitions of LCs at aqueous/LCs interface.

Keywords: endotoxin, interface, lactoferrin, lipopolysaccharide

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3 Design of an Acoustic Imaging Sensor Array for Mobile Robots

Authors: Dibyendu Roy, V. Ramu Reddy, Parijat Deshpande, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

Imaging of underwater objects is primarily conducted by acoustic imagery due to the severe attenuation of electro-magnetic waves in water. Acoustic imagery underwater has varied range of significant applications such as side-scan sonar, mine hunting sonar. It also finds utility in other domains such as imaging of body tissues via ultrasonography and non-destructive testing of objects. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using active acoustic imagery in air and simulate phased array beamforming techniques available in literature for various array designs to achieve a suitable acoustic sensor array design for a portable mobile robot which can be applied to detect the presence/absence of anomalous objects in a room. The multi-path reflection effects especially in enclosed rooms and environmental noise factors are currently not simulated and will be dealt with during the experimental phase. The related hardware is designed with the same feasibility criterion that the developed system needs to be deployed on a portable mobile robot. There is a trade of between image resolution and range with the array size, number of elements and the imaging frequency and has to be iteratively simulated to achieve the desired acoustic sensor array design. The designed acoustic imaging array system is to be mounted on a portable mobile robot and targeted for use in surveillance missions for intruder alerts and imaging objects during dark and smoky scenarios where conventional optic based systems do not function well.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, acoustic imagery, anomaly detection, phased array beamforming

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2 Analytic Hierarchy Process and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach for Selecting the Most Effective Soil Erosion Zone in Gomati River Basin

Authors: Rajesh Chakraborty, Dibyendu Das, Rabindra Nath Barman, Uttam Kumar Mandal

Abstract:

In the present study, the objective is to find out the most effective zone causing soil erosion in the Gumati river basin located in the state of Tripura, a north eastern state of India using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA).The watershed is segmented into 20 zones based on Area. The watershed is considered by pointing the maximum elevation from sea lever from Google earth. The soil erosion is determined using the universal soil loss equation. The different independent variables of soil loss equation bear different weightage for different soil zones. And therefore, to find the weightage factor for all the variables of soil loss equation like rainfall runoff erosivity index, soil erodibility factor etc, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used. And thereafter, multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA) approach is used to select the most effective zone causing soil erosion. The MCDM technique concludes that the maximum soil erosion is occurring in the zone 14.

Keywords: soil erosion, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), multi criteria decision making (MCDM), universal soil loss equation (USLE), multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA)

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1 Development of Mesoporous Gel Based Nonwoven Structure for Thermal Barrier Application

Authors: R. P. Naik, A. K. Rakshit

Abstract:

In recent years, with the rapid development in science and technology, people have increasing requirements on uses of clothing for new functions, which contributes to opportunities for further development and incorporation of new technologies along with novel materials. In this context, textiles are of fast decalescence or fast heat radiation media as per as comfort accountability of textile articles are concern. The microstructure and texture of textiles play a vital role in determining the heat-moisture comfort level of the human body because clothing serves as a barrier to the outside environment and a transporter of heat and moisture from the body to the surrounding environment to keep thermal balance between body heat produced and body heat loss. The main bottleneck which is associated with textile materials to be successful as thermal insulation materials can be enumerated as; firstly, high loft or bulkiness of material so as to provide predetermined amount of insulation by ensuring sufficient trapping of air. Secondly, the insulation depends on forced convection; such convective heat loss cannot be prevented by textile material. Third is that the textile alone cannot reach the level of thermal conductivity lower than 0.025 W/ m.k of air. Perhaps, nano-fibers can do so, but still, mass production and cost-effectiveness is a problem. Finally, such high loft materials for thermal insulation becomes heavier and uneasy to manage especially when required to carry over a body. The proposed works aim at developing lightweight effective thermal insulation textiles in combination with nanoporous silica-gel which provides the fundamental basis for the optimization of material properties to achieve good performance of the clothing system. This flexible nonwoven silica-gel composites fabric in intact monolith was successfully developed by reinforcing SiO2-gel in thermal bonded nonwoven fabric via sol-gel processing. Ambient Pressure Drying method is opted for silica gel preparation for cost-effective manufacturing. The formed structure of the nonwoven / SiO₂ -gel composites were analyzed, and the transfer properties were measured. The effects of structure and fibre on the thermal properties of the SiO₂-gel composites were evaluated. Samples are then tested against untreated samples of same GSM in order to study the effect of SiO₂-gel application on various properties of nonwoven fabric. The nonwoven fabric composites reinforced with aerogel showed intact monolith structure were also analyzed for their surface structure, functional group present, microscopic images. Developed product reveals a significant reduction in pores' size and air permeability than the conventional nonwoven fabric. Composite made from polyester fibre with lower GSM shows lowest thermal conductivity. Results obtained were statistically analyzed by using STATISTICA-6 software for their level of significance. Univariate tests of significance for various parameters are practiced which gives the P value for analyzing significance level along with that regression summary for dependent variable are also studied to obtain correlation coefficient.

Keywords: silica-gel, heat insulation, nonwoven fabric, thermal barrier clothing

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