Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: Gangasagar festival

54 A Comparative Study of Costumes for Religious Festivals in ASEAN Countries

Authors: Jaruphan Supprung

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Aims of this research were to study the major religious festivals of merit making and joyful celebrations (nationwide) in each country of ASEAN countries and to compare the costumes for these major religious festivals among these countries. This documentary research employed qualitative research methodology. The findings of the research disclosed that there are 28 main religious festivals in ASEAN countries: 3 Islamic festivals in Brunei Darussalam such as Hari Raya Aidiladha Festival, Mauludin Nabi Festival and Hari Raya Aidilfitri Festival; 2 Buddhist festivals in Cambodia such as Pchum Ben Festival and Khmer New Year Festival; 3 Islamic festivals in Indonesia such as Eid al-Adha Festival, Maulid Nabi Festival and Eid ul-Fitr Festival; 5 Buddhist festivals in Laos such as Boun Awk Pansa Festival, Boun Pha Vet Festival, Boun Pi Mai Festival, Boun Khao Pradabdin Festival and Boun Khao Salak Festival; 3 Islamic festivals in Malaysia such as Hari Raya Aidil Adha Festival, Maulidur Rasul Festival and Hari Raya Aidilfitri Festival; 4 Buddhist festivals in Myanmar such as Thadingyut Festival, Tazaungmon Full Moon Festival, Htamane Festival, and Thingyan Festival; 2 Christian festivals in Philippines such as Christmas Festival and Feast of the Santo Niño; Only 1 Buddhist festival in Singapore: Festival of Vesak Day; 4 Buddhist festivals in Thailand such as Songkran Festival (Thai New Year), Sart Thai Festival, Khao Pansa Festival and Awk Pansa Festival; and only 1 Buddhist festival in Vietnam: Tet Nguyen Dan Festival. For the comparison of the costumes for these major religious festivals, it can be concluded that the most popular style of male costume for religious festivals in ASEAN countries consists of stand-up collar (100%), long sleeves (100%), shirt (90%), and long pants (100%), and the most popular style of male costume for religious festivals in ASEAN countries consists of round neck (90%), long sleeves (80%), blouse (60%), and maxi tube skirt (80%).

Keywords: costume, religious festival, ASEAN countries, visual and performing arts

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53 Impact of Anthropogenic Stresses on Plankton Biodiversity in Indian Sundarban Megadelta: An Approach towards Ecosystem Conservation and Sustainability

Authors: Dibyendu Rakshit, Santosh K. Sarkar

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The study illustrates a comprehensive account of large-scale changes plankton community structure in relevance to water quality characteristics due to anthropogenic stresses, mainly concerned for Annual Gangasagar Festival (AGF) at the southern tip of Sagar Island of Indian Sundarban wetland for 3-year duration (2012-2014; n=36). This prograding, vulnerable and tide-dominated megadelta has been formed in the estuarine phase of the Hooghly Estuary infested by largest continuous tract of luxurious mangrove forest, enriched with high native flora and fauna. The sampling strategy was designed to characterize the changes in plankton community and water quality considering three diverse phases, namely during festival period (January) and its pre - (December) as well as post (February) events. Surface water samples were collected for estimation of different environmental variables as well as for phytoplankton and microzooplankton biodiversity measurement. The preservation and identification techniques of both biotic and abiotic parameters were carried out by standard chemical and biological methods. The intensive human activities lead to sharp ecological changes in the context of poor water quality index (WQI) due to high turbidity (14.02±2.34 NTU) coupled with low chlorophyll a (1.02±0.21 mg m-3) and dissolved oxygen (3.94±1.1 mg l-1), comparing to pre- and post-festival periods. Sharp reduction in abundance (4140 to 2997 cells l-1) and diversity (H′=2.72 to 1.33) of phytoplankton and microzooplankton tintinnids (450 to 328 ind l-1; H′=4.31 to 2.21) was very much pronounced. The small size tintinnid (average lorica length=29.4 µm; average LOD=10.5 µm) composed of Tintinnopsis minuta, T. lobiancoi, T. nucula, T. gracilis are predominant and reached some of the greatest abundances during the festival period. Results of ANOVA revealed a significant variation in different festival periods with phytoplankton (F= 1.77; p=0.006) and tintinnid abundance (F= 2.41; P=0.022). RELATE analyses revealed a significant correlation between the variations of planktonic communities with the environmental data (R= 0.107; p= 0.005). Three distinct groups were delineated from principal component analysis, in which a set of hydrological parameters acted as the causative factor(s) for maintaining diversity and distribution of the planktonic organisms. The pronounced adverse impact of anthropogenic stresses on plankton community could lead to environmental deterioration, disrupting the productivity of benthic and pelagic ecosystems as well as fishery potentialities which directly related to livelihood services. The festival can be considered as multiple drivers of changes in relevance to beach erosion, shoreline changes, pollution from discarded plastic and electronic wastes and destruction of natural habitats resulting loss of biodiversity. In addition, deterioration in water quality was also evident from immersion of idols, causing detrimental effects on aquatic biota. The authors strongly recommend for adopting integrated scientific and administrative strategies for resilience, sustainability and conservation of this megadelta.

Keywords: Gangasagar festival, phytoplankton, Sundarban megadelta, tintinnid

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52 Tourists' Percepion of Osun Osogbo Festival in Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria

Authors: Yina Donald Orga

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Osun Osogbo festival is one of the biggest art festivals in Nigeria with over 235, 518 tourist visits in 2014. The purpose of this study is to generate data on the tourists’ perception of Osun Osogbo Festival in Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria. Based on the population of 199, 860 tourist visits at Osun Osogbo festival in 2013, Krejcie and Morgan sample size table was used to select 768 tourists/respondents. Likert questionnaire were used to elicit data from the respondents. Descriptive statistic was used to describe the characteristics of respondents and analyse the tourists’ perception of the festival. The findings from data analysed suggest that the trend of domestic and international tourist visits in the past ten years for the festival had shown a consistent increase since 2004 except in 2007 and 2008 and continue to increase up to 2013. This is an indication that the tourists are satisfied with traditional, historical and authenticity features of the festival. Also, findings from the study revealed that the tourists are not satisfied with the number of toilets at Osun Sacred Grove, crowd control of visitors during the festival, medical personnel to cater for visitors during the festival, etc. In view of the findings of the study, the following recommendations are suggested; provision of more toilets at Osun Sacred grove, Osogbo Heritage Council to recruit festival guides to help control the huge crowd at the festival, the Government of State of Osun in conjunction with Red Cross Society should engage adequate medical personnel to cater for medical needs of visitors at the festival, etc.

Keywords: festival, perception, positive, tourists

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51 Exploring the Effect of Environmental Cues of Food Festival on Visitor Satisfaction

Authors: Tao Zhang

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As the competition of all kinds of festival events becomes more and more fierce, more and more event organizers try to design a blended festivalscape by integrating multifaceted environmental cues in order to raise the service quality of festival events and then raise visitors’ satisfaction. As the main type of festival events, food festivals are popular in all over the world. The organizers’ of food festivals also try to mix food with multifaceted environmental cues (e.g., music, stage, light, dance) to design a blended festivalscape. However, until now little studies explore the environmental cues of food festivals and their relationship with visitors’ satisfaction. Therefore, the aim of this study is to ascertain the environmental cues of food festival and their relationship with visitors’ satisfaction by using the blended festivalscape theory. Using convenient sampling method, this study investigated 1,000 food festival visitors in Macau. Factor analysis showed there are mainly six environmental cues (i.e., food, atmosphere, program, staff, facility, and information). All six environmental cues are positively related with visitors’ satisfaction, while the most influential factors are food, atmosphere, and program. This study showed that festival event organizers’ should focus on the topic of their festival event, build festival atmosphere, and create interesting programs in order to design a blended festivalscape and then raise visitors’ satisfaction.

Keywords: environmental cue, event, festival, satisfaction

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50 The Study on Tourist’s Satisfaction in Xinshe Flowers Festival

Authors: Yashan Liu, Yu-Chen Chien

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In the past few years, a global trend to hold sightseeing festivals has prevailed. For the purpose of attracting more tourists, the Taiwan government has not only organized a considerable number of international activities, but also provided guidance to counties and cities in organizing festivals which reflect a collaboration of culture and humanity. These festivals have also assisted in the development of local industry and the promotion of their unique characteristics. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influences and relationships between tourist satisfaction and the revisiting willingness of visitors at the Xin-she Flower Festival.

Keywords: Flowers Festival in Xin-she, Tourist Satisfaction, Festival, Revisiting Willingness

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49 Festival Gamification: Conceptualization and Scale Development

Authors: Liu Chyong-Ru, Wang Yao-Chin, Huang Wen-Shiung, Tang Wan-Ching

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Although gamification has been concerned and applied in the tourism industry, limited literature could be found in tourism academy. Therefore, to contribute knowledge in festival gamification, it becomes essential to start by establishing a Festival Gamification Scale (FGS). This study defines festival gamification as the extent of a festival to involve game elements and game mechanisms. Based on self-determination theory, this study developed an FGS. Through the multi-study method, in study one, five FGS dimensions were sorted through literature review, followed by twelve in-depth interviews. A total of 296 statements were extracted from interviews and were later narrowed down to 33 items under six dimensions. In study two, 226 survey responses were collected from a cycling festival for exploratory factor analysis, resulting in twenty items under five dimensions. In study three, 253 survey responses were obtained from a marathon festival for confirmatory factor analysis, resulting in the final sixteen items under five dimensions. Then, results of criterion-related validity confirmed the positive effects of these five dimensions on flow experience. In study four, for examining the model extension of the developed five-dimensional 16-item FGS, which includes dimensions of relatedness, mastery, competence, fun, and narratives, cross-validation analysis was performed using 219 survey responses from a religious festival. For the tourism academy, the FGS could further be applied in other sub-fields such as destinations, theme parks, cruise trips, or resorts. The FGS serves as a starting point for examining the mechanism of festival gamification in changing tourists’ attitudes and behaviors. Future studies could work on follow-up studies of FGS by testing outcomes of festival gamification or examining moderating effects of enhancing outcomes of festival gamification. On the other hand, although the FGS has been tested in cycling, marathon, and religious festivals, the research settings are all in Taiwan. Cultural differences of FGS is another further direction for contributing knowledge in festival gamification. This study also contributes to several valuable practical implications. First, this FGS could be utilized in tourist surveys for evaluating the extent of gamification of a festival. Based on the results of the performance assessment by FGS, festival management organizations and festival planners could learn the relative scores among dimensions of FGS, and plan for future improvement of gamifying the festival. Second, the FGS could be applied in positioning a gamified festival. Festival management organizations and festival planners could firstly consider the features and types of their festival, and then gamify their festival based on investing resources in key FGS dimensions.

Keywords: festival gamification, festival tourism, scale development, self-determination theory

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48 The Significance of Oranyan Festival among the Oyo Yoruba

Authors: Emmanuel Bole Akinpelu

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Festival is a social event that takes place every year which showcase culture and other social activities that usually take place in an environment or town. However, Oranyan Festival is an annual event organized and celebrated in Oyo town in honor of Oranyan the great who is reputed to be the overall head of the Kings of the Yoruba. This event is attended by people from all works of life. The Oyos are used to celebrating various cultural festivals; like Ogun, Oya, Sango, Egungun, Obatala and others. However, Oranyan festival in Oyo is a recent development in honour of Oranyan. He was said to be powerful and an embodiment of a unique cultural tradition. The study examined the significance of the festival to the Oyo Yoruba group. Oyo Yoruba cultural heritage include; Ewi, Ijala, Traditional food ‘Amala and Gbegiri’, Ekun Iyawo, (Bridal Chants), Traditional Music, Traditional Dance, Traditional Game ‘Ayo Olopon’ Eke (Traditional wrestling) and others. Data for this work was gathered through archival sources as journals and relevant publications on the various Oyo Yoruba Traditional Art and Culture. The study is of the opinion that the festival has influence over the religion, Political, economic and other aspects of the modern day traditions. The study also revealed that Oranyan Festival made people to have a better understanding of their rich Cultural Heritage and promoted unity among all and sundry. It also promotes peace among the people. Conclusively, it promotes the rich Cultural Heritage of Oyo Yoruba’s both within and outside NIGERIA and the world at large.

Keywords: Yoruba Oyo, arts and culture, Oranyan, festival

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47 The Strategy of Traditional Religious Culture Tourism: Taking Taiwan Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival for Example

Authors: Ching-Yi Wang

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The purpose of this study is to explore strategies for integrate Minhsiung environments and cultural resources for Infernal Lord Festival. Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival is one of the famous religious event in Chia-Yi County, Taiwan. This religious event and the life of local residents are inseparable. Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival has a rich cultural ceremonies meaning and sentiment of local concern. This study apply field study, document analysis and interviews to analyze Minhsiung Township’s featured attractions and folklore events. The research results reveal the difficulties and strategies while incorporating culture elements into culture tourism. This study hopes to provide innovative techniques for the purpose of prolonging the feasibility of future development of the tradition folk culture.

Keywords: Taiwan folk culture, Minhsiung Infernal Lord Festival, religious tourism, folklore, cultural tourism

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46 Aesthetics of Colours, Symbols, and Spectacles in the 2021 National Festival of Arts and Culture, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Authors: Bade-Afuye Toyin Beatrice

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Nigeria, as a multi-cultural nation, boasts of many festivals, many of which are found in the six geo-political zones of the country. One of the major festivals that bring together the Nigerian citizens as one entity is the National Festival of Arts and Culture (NAFEST), organized by the National Council for Arts and Culture (NCAC). The festival is celebrated yearly in ways that are unique to Nigerians and culture enthusiasts locally and abroad. The festival has equally boosted the Nigerian economy through tourism promotion and culture preservation. This study shall adopt the cultural identity theory. The theory will be used to examine the festival as a platform that showcases culture, which represents the totality of the ways and lives of the Nigerian people. To achieve this, the researcher shall gather data as a participant-observer during the festival, which featured elements such as costume, make-up, dance, drama, children's theatre, fashion parade, local cuisines, local games, music, props, acrobatic displays, trade fair among others. These elements are the cultural aesthetics of the festival, thereby creating spectacles and colours in unique styles by each of the 36 states of the federation and the FCT Abuja. The study particularly examines the 2021 edition of NAFEST hosted by the Ekiti State Government. The study reveals that the festival is a unique multi-ethnic event that brings together Nigerians and their kinsmen in the diaspora. NAFEST has equally provided a good opportunity to showcase the rich cultural heritage of the Ekiti people and the economic values of their products and materials. The paper, therefore, concludes that the National Festival of Arts and Culture has over the years promoted national unity and social integration among Nigerians.

Keywords: colours, culture, spectacle, NAFEST

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45 Using Two-Mode Network to Access the Connections of Film Festivals

Authors: Qiankun Zhong

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In a global cultural context, film festival awards become authorities to define the aesthetic value of films. To study which genres and producing countries are valued by different film festivals and how those evaluations interact with each other, this research explored the interactions between the film festivals through their selection of movies and the factors that lead to the tendency of film festivals to nominate the same movies. To do this, the author employed a two-mode network on the movies that won the highest awards at five international film festivals with the highest attendance in the past ten years (the Venice Film Festival, the Cannes Film Festival, the Toronto International Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival) and the film festivals that nominated those movies. The title, genre, producing country and language of 50 movies, and the range (regional, national or international) and organizing country or area of 129 film festivals were collected. These created networks connected by nominating the same films and awarding the same movies. The author then assessed the density and centrality of these networks to answer the question: What are the film festivals that tend to have more shared values with other festivals? Based on the Eigenvector centrality of the two-mode network, Palm Springs, Robert Festival, Toronto, Chicago, and San Sebastian are the festivals that tend to nominate commonly appreciated movies. In contrast, Black Movie Film Festival has the unique value of generally not sharing nominations with other film festivals. A homophily test was applied to access the clustering effects of film and film festivals. The result showed that movie genres (E-I index=0.55) and geographic location (E-I index=0.35) are possible indicators of film festival clustering. A blockmodel was also created to examine the structural roles of the film festivals and their meaning in real-world context. By analyzing the same blocks with film festival attributes, it was identified that film festivals either organized in the same area, with the same history, or with the same attitude on independent films would occupy the same structural roles in the network. Through the interpretation of the blocks, language was identified as an indicator that contributes to the role position of a film festival. Comparing the result of blockmodeling in the different periods, it is seen that international film festivals contrast with the Hollywood industry’s dominant value. The structural role dynamics provide evidence for a multi-value film festival network.

Keywords: film festivals, film studies, media industry studies, network analysis

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44 Potentials and Impediments in the Development of Ikeji Festival for Cultural Tourism

Authors: Ifegbo Lawrencia Ifegbo

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Nigeria is a country with many ethnic groups and therefore endowed with festival of different types and nature, yet no concerted effort is committed towards their development for cultural tourism. This paper assessed the adequacy of tourism potential of the festivals, and most importantly investigated the impediments surrounding their non-development. Ikeji, a masquerade festival of the people of Arondizuogu clan in Imo State of Nigeria was selected for the study. Ethnographic research using observer-as-participant technique was used for conducting the study. This was supplemented by focused group discussion (FGD), key informant and unstructured interviews. The result revealed that there exist so much potentials like masquerading, cultural dances, native and highlife music, drumming, role reversals and traditional dishes in the festival. It was further deduced that poor supply of amenities and infrastructural facilities, insecurity of life, lack of trained indigenous experts in tourism, lack of awareness and publicity for the festival on the part of the host communities were responsible for the non-development into tourism destinations. The implication of this is that unless the government resolves to provide the needed resources for the development of the enormous festivals, and restores security and peace in the country, cultural tourism will rarely thrive in Nigeria.

Keywords: festivals, cultural tourism, tourism potential, cultural resources, tourism development

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43 Gender Influence in Yoruba Festivals: A Case Study of Agbaasin Festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Alice Abiodun Atolagbe, Samson Abiodun Atolagbe

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All over the world and in the history of mankind, festivals have evolved to celebrate one thing or the other. The Yoruba people are no exemptions and they have several festivals which they celebrate at different times, for different reasons and in different communities. Because mankind is mainly of male and female, most of the festivals involve the two sexes, though different roles are usually assigned. In this paper, the writers examine the influence of gender in Yoruba festival using ‘Agbaasin’ festival in Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State of Nigeria as a case study. A research was conducted by visiting the priests, worshipers, and shrine of ‘Agbaasin’ during which interviews were conducted, documented, and analyzed. It was, thereafter, discovered that men dominated the process of celebrating the ‘Agbaasin’ festival even to the extent of cooking by themselves. The paper recommends that women should be more involved in political and communal activities, government should encourage and sponsor researches on gender issues and that, authors of books and writers of plays should create some fora to encourage women empowerment among the Yoruba people. It is hoped that this paper would contribute to the pool of literature available on gender issues among the Yoruba people of Nigeria.

Keywords: gender, Yoruba, festival, Agbaasin, Isanlu-Isin, Kwara State

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42 The Changes of Functions of Leishan Miao New-Year in Southeast Guizhou

Authors: Lanyan Peng, Ling Chen

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Leishan Miao New-Year is one of the grandest festivals in the southeastern of Guizhou Province in China. It was officially listed in the National Intangible Cultural Heritage List in 2008, as a traditional folk cultural activity organized by the local Miao people. With the rise of cultural tourism, after 19 years of exploration, the local government has successfully built Miao New-Year into a cultural card that is well-known at home and abroad. During the Miao New-Year period, it has attracted 3.8 million tourists and achieves a win-win situation in the economy and culture. However, tourism development has changed the living environment and living state of the local people. And it is accompanied by changes in the form of the festival, the content of the festival, and the local people’s needs and attitudes to the festival. This paper uses the field investigation method to achieve 410 questionnaires and 35 interviews, exploring the process and the reasons for changes of Leishan Miao New-Year’s cultural function. Among all the functions, the economic function, identity function, and entertainment function have been enhanced, and the marriage and love function has been extended. In the meanwhile, sacrificial function has been weakened. There are some trends in functions. The function of commemorating ancestor and self-entertainment has been changed to entertaining people and economic pursuit.

Keywords: Miao New-Year, Miao nationality, festival function, changes

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41 The Influence of Chinese Philosophic-Religious Traditions on Chinese Consumption Behaviour: Findings from the Taoist Case Study

Authors: Haiping Zhu

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The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to explore how the Chinese philosophic-religious tradition of Taoism impacts on the consumption behaviour of contemporary Chinese consumers. Although much cultural research has been conducted on Chinese consumption behaviours, most studies have approached the subject from Western perspectives. Examination of the limited literature indicates a gap in the knowledge of the relationship of traditional Chinese Taoism philosophy and Chinese consumption behaviour. To bridge this gap, this study examines Chinese consumption behaviour at a Taoist-related Chinese religious festival - the DuanWu festival - in order to seek some understanding of how the Taoism philosophic-religious tradition influences Chinese consumption behaviour from the point of view of the individuals involved. It focuses attention on their expression of Taoism cultural values, purchasing experience and subsequent consumption behaviours. This study undertook multiple methods for Taoist case study data collection: accompanied shopping with Taoists before DuanWu Festival; participant observations during DuanWu Festival; and in-depth interviews in order to explore Taoists consumption behaviours at the end of the Festival. Specifically, the finding from the Taoist case study corroborates and details the influence of the Taoism doctrine: man–nature orientation, Fenshui, ecological effect, and ecological knowledge, on their attitudes toward green purchasing behaviour. Findings from this Taoist case study - one of a series of three Chinese philosophic religious tradition case studies - contribute to the deeper understanding of contemporary Chinese consumers from a non-Western viewpoint and offer initial insights for global marketers to differentiate consumer needs and develop effective marketing strategies.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, culture values, green purchase behaviour, Taoism

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40 Investigating the Role of Clam Festival for Destination Branding: A Case Study of Tainan Cigu

Authors: Lim Lie Pin, Lin Hui Wen

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Rural tourism has become popular in Taiwan, the villages based on agriculture including fishery have to follow the trend to develop the local economy and achieve the sustainable development of the rural areas. Through cultural festivals, the tourist could experience the benefit while promoting and stimulating the local development of rural tourism. Cigu is famous for salt history and abundant natural resources, such as lagoon, black-faced spoonbills and other fishery products. Digging clam has become the most special parent-child activities in Tainan and increasing awareness since it was initiated. Therefore, festival organizers and regional destination marketers need to identify visitors’ experiences attributes which lead to opportunities for industry professionals, community involvement to plan and organize regional festivals and their programmes for effective destination branding finding out more potential rural resources encouraging the local industry growth and sustainable development.

Keywords: rural tourism, cultural festival, destination branding, tourist experience, sustainable development

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39 Studyt on New Strategies of Sustainable Neighbourhood Design Based on the 2014 Waf

Authors: Zhou Xiaowen China, Zhang Sanming China

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Neighbourhood space as a very important part of city spaces, is an organic combination of material environment and spiritual achievement in people’ daily life, and has a real impact upon the sustainable development of the whole city. Looking back on the past 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF), 4 out of 35winning buildings were neighbourhood designs, and all of them mentioned about space-sharing and sustainable development. In this paper, three award-winning cases were studied, including the world building of the year—the chapel (Vietnam, A21 studio), The Carve (Norway, A-Lab) and House for Trees (Vietnam, Vo Trong Nghia Architects). Urban context, planning, space construction and sustainable technology were discussed. Based on those, it was discovered that passive energy-saving technologies have been paid more and more attention, sharing space has been designed ingeniously, and the architectural forms of them reflect social inclusion and equity. This paper is aimed at summarizing the excellent works on the Festival and providing reference for the future design.

Keywords: neighbourhood design, 2014 World Architecture Festival (WAF), sustainable development, space-sharing

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38 Comprehensive Strategy for Healthy City from Local Practice Networking among Citizens, Industry, University and Municipality

Authors: Yuki Hara

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Healthy assets are recognized as important for all people in the world through experiencing COVID-19. Each part of life and work is important to be changed against the preceding wide-spreading of COVID-19. Furthermore, it is necessary to innovate the whole structure of a city upon the sum of the parts. This study aims at creating a comprehensive strategy from a small practice of making healthier lives with collaborating local actors for a city. This paper employs action research as the research framework. The core practice is the 'Ken’iku Festival' at Ken’iku Festival Committee. The field locates the urban-rural fringe in the northwest part of Fujisawa city, Kanagawa prefecture, Japan. The data is collected through the author's practices for three years from the observations and interviews at meetings and discussions among stakeholders, texts in municipal reports, books, and movies, 3 questionnaires for customers and stakeholders at the Ken’iku Festival. These data are analysed by qualitative methods. The results show that couples in their 40s with children and couples or friends over the 70s are at the heart of promoting healthy lifestyles. In contrast, 40% of the visitors at the festival are the people who have no idea or no interest in healthier actions, which the committee has to suggest healthy activities through more pleasing services. The committee could organize staff and local actors as the core parties involved through gradually expanding its tasks relating to the local practices. This private sectoral activity from health promotion is covering a part of the whole-city planning of Fujisawa municipality by including many people over organisations into one community. This paper concludes from local practice networking through the festival that a comprehensive strategy for a healthy city is both a practical approach easily applied to each partner and one of the holistic services.

Keywords: communal practice network, healthy cities, health & development, health promotion, with and after COVID-19

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37 A Comparative Semantic Network Study between Chinese and Western Festivals

Authors: Jianwei Qian, Rob Law

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With the expansion of globalization and the increment of market competition, the festival, especially the traditional one, has demonstrated its vitality under the new context. As a new tourist attraction, festivals play a critically important role in promoting the tourism economy, because the organization of a festival can engage more tourists, generate more revenues and win a wider media concern. However, in the current stage of China, traditional festivals as a way to disseminate national culture are undergoing the challenge of foreign festivals and the related culture. Different from those special events created solely for developing economy, traditional festivals have their own culture and connotation. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study on not only protecting the tradition, but promoting its development as well. This study conducts a comparative study of the development of China’s Valentine’s Day and Western Valentine’s Day under the Chinese context and centers on newspaper reports in China from 2000 to 2016. Based on the literature, two main research focuses can be established: one is concerned about the festival’s impact and the other is about tourists’ motivation to engage in a festival. Newspaper reports serve as the research discourse and can help cover the two focal points. With the assistance of content mining techniques, semantic networks for both Days are constructed separately to help depict the status quo of these two festivals in China. Based on the networks, two models are established to show the key component system of traditional festivals in the hope of perfecting the positive role festival tourism plays in the promotion of economy and culture. According to the semantic networks, newspaper reports on both festivals have similarities and differences. The difference is mainly reflected in its cultural connotation, because westerners and Chinese may show their love in different ways. Nevertheless, they share more common points in terms of economy, tourism, and society. They also have a similar living environment and stakeholders. Thus, they can be promoted together to revitalize some traditions in China. Three strategies are proposed to realize the aforementioned aim. Firstly, localize international festivals to suit the Chinese context to make it function better. Secondly, facilitate the internationalization process of traditional Chinese festivals to receive more recognition worldwide. Finally, allow traditional festivals to compete with foreign ones to help them learn from each other and elucidate the development of other festivals. It is believed that if all these can be realized, not only the traditional Chinese festivals can obtain a more promising future, but foreign ones are the same as well. Accordingly, the paper can contribute to the theoretical construction of festival images by the presentation of the semantic network. Meanwhile, the identified features and issues of festivals from two different cultures can enlighten the organization and marketing of festivals as a vital tourism activity. In the long run, the study can enhance the festival as a key attraction to keep the sustainable development of both the economy and the society.

Keywords: Chinese context, comparative study, festival tourism, semantic network analysis, valentine’s day

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36 The Ephemeral Re-Use of Cultural Heritage: The Incorporation of the Festival Phenomenon Within Monuments and Archaeological Sites in Lebanon

Authors: Joe Kallas

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It is now widely accepted that the preservation of cultural heritage must go beyond simple restoration and renovation actions. While some historic monuments have been preserved for millennia, many of them, less important or simply neglected because of lack of money, have disappeared. As a result, the adaptation of monuments and archaeological sites to new functions allow them to 'survive'. Temporary activities or 'ephemeral' re-use, are increasingly recognized as a means of vitalization of deprived areas and enhancement of historic sites that became obsolete. They have the potential to increase economic and cultural value while making the best use of existing resources. However, there are often conservation and preservation issues related to the implementation of this type of re-use, which can also threaten the integrity and authenticity of archaeological sites and monuments if they have not been properly managed. This paper aims to get a better knowledge of the ephemeral re-use of heritage, and more specifically the subject of the incorporation of the festival phenomenon within the monuments and archaeological sites in Lebanon, a topic that is not yet studied enough. This paper tried to determine the elements that compose it, in order to analyze this phenomenon and to trace its good practices, by comparing international study cases to important national cases: the International Festival of Baalbek, the International Festival of Byblos and the International Festival of Beiteddine. Various factors have been studied and analyzed in order to best respond to the main problematic of this paper: 'How can we preserve the integrity of sites and monuments after the integration of an ephemeral function? And what are the preventive conservation measures to be taken when holding festivals in archaeological sites with fragile structures?' The impacts of the technical problems were first analyzed using various data and more particularly the effects of mass tourism, the integration of temporary installations, sound vibrations, the effects of unstudied lighting, until the mystification of heritage. Unfortunately, the DGA (General Direction of Antiquities in Lebanon) does not specify any frequency limit for the sound vibrations emitted by the speakers during musical festivals. In addition, there is no requirement from its part regarding the installations of the lighting systems in the historic monuments and no monitoring is done in situ, due to the lack of awareness of the impact that could be generated by such interventions, and due to the lack of materials and tools needed for the monitoring process. The study and analysis of the various data mentioned above led us to the elaboration of the main objective of this paper, which is the establishment of a list of recommendations. This list enables to define various preventive conservation measures to be taken during the holding of the festivals within the cultural heritage sites in Lebanon. We strongly hope that this paper will be an awareness document to start taking into consideration several factors previously neglected, in order to improve the conservation practices in the archaeological sites and monuments during the incorporation of the festival phenomenon.

Keywords: archaeology, authenticity, conservation, cultural heritage, festival, historic sites, integrity, monuments, tourism

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35 Community Participation and Place Identity as Mediators on the Impact of Resident Social Capital on Support Intention for Festival Tourism

Authors: Nien-Te Kuo, Yi-Sung Cheng, Kuo-Chien Chang

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Cultural festival tourism is now seen by many as an opportunity to facilitate community development because it has significant influences on the economic, social, cultural, and political aspects of local communities. The potential for tourist attraction has been recognized as a useful tool to strengthen local economies from governments. However, most community festivals in Taiwan are short-lived, often only lasting for a few years or occasionally not making it past a one-off event. Researchers suggested that most governments and other stakeholders do not recognize the importance of building a partnership with residents when developing community tourism. Thus, the sustainable community tourism development still remains a key issue in the existing literature. The success of community tourism is related to the attitudes and lifestyles of local residents. In order to maintain sustainable tourism, residents need to be seen as development partners. Residents’ support intention for tourism development not only helps to increase awareness of local culture, history, the natural environment, and infrastructure, but also improves the interactive relationship between the host community and tourists. Furthermore, researchers have identified the social capital theory as the core of sustainable community tourism development. The social capital of residents has been seen as a good way to solve issues of tourism governance, forecast the participation behavior and improve support intention of residents. In addition, previous studies have pointed out the role of community participation and place identity in increasing resident support intention for tourism development. A lack of place identity is one of the main reasons that community tourism has become a mere formality and is not sustainable. It refers to how much residents participate during tourism development and is mainly influenced by individual interest. Scholars believed that the place identity of residents is the soul of community festivals. It shows the community spirit to visitors and has significant impacts on tourism benefits and support intention of residents in community tourism development. Although the importance of community participation and place identity have been confirmed by both governmental and non-governmental organizations, real-life execution still needs to be improved. This study aimed to use social capital theory to investigate the social structure between community residents, participation levels in festival tourism, degrees of place identity, and resident support intention for future community tourism development, and the causal relationship that these factors have with cultural festival tourism. A quantitative research approach was employed to examine the proposed model. Structural equation model was used to test and verify the proposed hypotheses. This was a case study of the Kaohsiung Zuoying Wannian Folklore Festival. The festival was located in the Zuoying District of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The target population of this study was residents who attended the festival. The results reveal significant correlations among social capital, community participation, place identity and support intention. The results also confirm that impacts of social capital on support intention were significantly mediated by community participation and place identity. Practical suggestions were provided for tourism operators and policy makers. This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan, Republic of China, under the grant MOST-105-2410-H-328-013.

Keywords: community participation, place identity, social capital, support intention

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34 Agritourism Development Mode Study in Rural Area of Boshan China

Authors: Lingfei Sun

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Based on the significant value of ecology, the strategic planning for ecological civilization construction was mentioned in the 17th and 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. How to generate economic value based on the environmental capacity is not only an economic decision but also a political decision to make. Boshan took the full use of “Ecology” and transformed it as an inexhaustible green resource to benefit people, reflecting the sustainable value of new agriculture development mode. The Strawberry Harvest Festival and Blueberry Harvest Festival hosted approximately 96,000 and 54,000 leisure tourists respectively in 2014. For the Kiwi Harvest Festival in August 2014, in average, it attracted about 4600 tourists per day, which generated daily kiwi sales of 50,000 lbs and 3 million RMB (About 476,000 USD) of daily revenue. The purpose of this study is to elaborate the modes of agritourism development, by analyzing the cases in rural area of Boshan, China. Interviews with the local government officers were applied to discover operation mode of agritourism operation. The financial data was used to demonstrate the strength of government policy and improvement of the income of rural people. The result indicated that there are mainly three types of modes: the Intensive Mode, the Model Mode and the Mixed Mode, supported by case study respectively. With the boom of tourism, the development of agritourism in Boshan relies on the agriculture encouraging policy of China and the effort of local government; meanwhile, large scale of cultivation and the product differentiation are the crucial elements for the success of rural agritourism projects.

Keywords: agriculture, agritourism, economy, rural area development

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33 An Impact Assesment of Festive Events on Sustainable Cultural Heritage: İdrisyayla Village

Authors: Betül Gelengül Eki̇mci̇, Semra Günay Aktaş

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Festive, habitual activities celebrated on the specified date by a local community, are conducive to recognition of the region. The main function of festive events is to help gathering people via an annual celebration to create an atmosphere of understanding and the opportunity to participate in the joy of life. At the same time, festive events may serve as special occasions on which immigrants return home to celebrate with their family and community, reaffirming their identity and link to the community’s traditions. Festivals also support the local economy by bringing in different visitors to the region. The tradition of “Beet Brewing-Molasses Production,” which is held in İdrisyayla Village is an intangible cultural heritage with customs, traditions, and rituals carrying impacts of cuisine culture of Rumelian immigrants in the Ottoman. After the harvest of the beet plant in the autumn season of the year, Beet Brewing Molasses syrup is made by traditional production methods with co-op of the local community. Festive occurring brewing paste made process provided transmission of knowledge and experience to the young generations. Making molasses, which is a laborious process, is accompanied by folk games such as "sayacı," which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Performance provides enjoyable time and supporting motivation. Like other forms of intangible cultural heritage, “Beet Brewing-Molasses Festive in İdrasyayla is threatened by rapid urbanisation, young generation migration, industrialisation and environmental change. The festive events are threatened with gradual disappearance due to changes communities undergo in modern societies because it depends on the broad participation of practitioners. Ensuring the continuity of festive events often requires the mobilization of large numbers of individuals and the social, political and legal institutions and mechanisms of society. In 2015, Intangible cultural heritage research project with the title of "İdrisyayla Molasses Process" managed by the Eskişehir Governorship, City Directorate of Culture and Tourism and Anadolu University, project members took part in the festival organization to promote sustainability, making it visible, to encourage the broadest public participation possible, to ensure public awareness on the cultural importance. To preserve the originality of and encourage participation in the festive İdrisyayla, local associations, researchers and institutions created foundation and supports festive events, such as "sayacı" folk game, which is vital element of the festive performed in İdrisyayla. Practitioners find new opportunity to market İdrisyayla Molasses production. Publicity program through the press and exhibition made it possible to stress the cultural importance of the festive in İdrisyayla Village. The research reported here used a survey analysis to evaluate an affect of the festive after the spirit of the 2015 Festive in İdrisyayla Village. Particular attention was paid to the importance of the cultural aspects of the festival. Based on a survey of more than a hundred festival attendees, several recommendations are made to festival planners. Results indicate that the variety of festive activities and products offered for sale very important to attendees. The local participants care product sales rather than cultural heritage.

Keywords: agritourism, cultural tourism, festival, sustainable cultural heritage

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32 Stemming the Decline of Cultural Festivals as a Way of Preserving the Nigerian Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Kuteb and Idoma Cultural Festivals

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

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A cultural festival is characterized by feasting and celebration, with a day or period that has been set aside solely for this reason. Often expressed by an organized series of acts and performances, it forms a very important part of man’s cultural heritage. Nigeria is a country with many ethnic groups and diverse languages. Each of these ethnic groups has a plethora of festivals that depict their culture which is exhibited in many forms ranging from dancing to feasting and celebration. Being a very important aspect of man’s life, it is pertinent to document and optimally harness it. However, there is a significant decline of these practices in some areas in Nigeria while some areas have registered a total loss of same. It is the aim of this paper therefore, to appraise the factors responsible for this and also, to project ways of resuscitating these festivals which by the way are viable tools for revenue generation through tourism. Not only do festivals serve as a source of revenue, they also aid in national integration which in turn further enhances sustainable development. The interest of this paper will focus on the Kuteb people of Taraba State and the Idoma people of Benue State. The methodologies applied include primary (oral interviews) and secondary (consultation of written records on the subject matter) sources of data. It finally concludes by comparing the approaches that are in use by the ethnic groups in Nigeria who have successfully preserved this aspect their culture and suggestions are made as to how to apply same approaches to these two communities that form the subject of this paper.

Keywords: festival, cultural heritage, Nigeria, national integration, sustainable development

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31 Strategies to Mitigate Disasters at the Hajj Religious Festival Using GIS and Agent Based Modelling

Authors: Muteb Alotaibi, Graham Clarke, Nick Malleson

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The Hajj religious festival at Mina in Saudi Arabia has always presented the opportunity for injuries or deaths. For example, in 1990, a stampede killed 1426 pilgrims, whilst in 1997, 343 people were killed and 1500 injured due to a fire fuelled by high winds sweeping through the tent city in Mina.Many more minor incidents have occurred since then. It is predicted that 5 million pilgrims will soon perform the ritual at Mina (which is, in effect, a temporary city built each year in the desert), which might lead in the future to severe congestion and accidents unless the research is conducted on actions that contribute positively to improving the management of the crowd and facilitating the flow of pilgrims safely and securely. To help prevent further disasters, it is important to first plan better, more accessible locations for emergency services across Mina to ensure a good service for pilgrims. In this paper, we first use a Location Allocation Model (LAM) within a network GIS to examine the optimal locations for key services in the temporary city of Mina. This has been undertaken in relation to the location and movement of the pilgrims during the six day religious festival. The results of various what-if scenarios have been compared against the current location of services. A major argument is that planners should be flexible and locate facilities at different locations throughout the day and night. The use of location-allocation models in this type of comparative static mode has rarely been operationalised in the literature. Second, we model pilgrim movements and behaviours along with the most crowded parts of the network. This has been modelled using an agent-based model. This model allows planners to understand the key bottlenecks in the network and at what usage levels the paths become critically congested. Thus the paper has important implications and recommendations for future disaster planning strategies. This will enable planners to see at what stage in the movements of pilgrims problems occur in terms of potential crushes and trampling incidents. The main application of this research was only customised for pedestrians as the concentration only for pedestrians who move to Jamarat via foot. Further, the network in the middle of Mina was only dedicated for pedestrians for safety, so no Buses, trains and private cars were allowed in this area to prevent the congestion within this network. Initially, this research focus on Mina city as ‘temporary city’ and also about service provision in temporary cities, which is not highlighted in literature so far. Further, it is the first study which use the dynamic demand to optimise the services in the case of day and night time. Moreover, it is the first study which link the location allocation model for optimising services with ABM to find out whether or not the service location is located in the proper location in which it’s not affecting on crowd movement in mainstream flow where some pilgrims need to have health services.

Keywords: ABM, crowd management, hajj, temporary city

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30 From Cultural Policy to Social Practice: Literary Festivals as a Platform for Social Inclusion in Pakistan

Authors: S. Jabeen

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Though Pakistan has a rich cultural history and a diverse population; its global image is tarnished with labels of Muslim ‘fundamentalism’ and ‘extremism.’ Cultural policy is a tool that can be used by the government of Pakistan to ameliorate this image, but instead, this fundamentalist reputation is reinforced in the 2005 draft of Pakistan’s cultural policy. With its stern focus on a homogenized cultural identity, this 2005 draft bases itself largely on forced participation from the largely Muslim public and leaves little or no benefits to them or cultural minorities in Pakistan. The effects of this homogenized ‘Muslim’ identity linger ten years later where the study and celebration of the cultural heritage of Pakistan in schools and educational festivals focus entirely on creating and maintaining a singular ‘Islamic’ cultural identity. The current lack of inclusion has many adverse effects that include the breeding of extremist mindsets through the usurpation of minority rights and lack of safe cultural public spaces. This paper argues that Pakistan can improve social inclusivity and boost its global image through cultural policy. The paper sets the grounds for research by surveying the effectiveness of different cultural policies across nations with differing socioeconomic status. Then, by sampling two public literary festivals in Pakistan as case studies, the National Youth Peace Festival hosted with a nationalistic agenda using public funds and the Lahore Literary Festival (LLF) that aims to boost the cultural literacy scene of Lahore using both private and public efforts, this paper looks at the success of the private, more inclusive LLF. A revision of cultural policy is suggested that combines public and private efforts to host cultural festivals for the sake of cultural celebration and human development, without a set nationalistic agenda. Consequently, this comparison which is grounded in the human capabilities approach, recommends revising the 2005 draft of the Cultural Policy to improve human capabilities in order to support cultural diversity and ultimately contribute to economic growth in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural policy, festivals, human capabilities, Pakistan

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29 Dimensions in Sound: A Multimedia Collaboration Experiment

Authors: Allyson Glenn, Dean McNeill, Paul Suchan, Silas Friesen

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Two short animation films, Above the Deluge and In the Fray, were made in collaboration with the Saskatoon Jazz Orchestra (SJO), Canada, for a project called Dimensions in Sound, simulating the phenomena of sound synesthesia. By investigating how chromesthesia responses could inform new music scores and be interpreted into a 2D animation, the project built on a previous collaboration with the SJO in 2018, when Allyson Glenn (synesthete) created and projected a 3D animation behind a live orchestra. This earlier iteration included categories of shapes representing instruments – percussion, brass, and wind that simulated the movements “seen” in her mind’s eye and was made for pre-existing music (using the tune Bewitched). The visual aspect of Dimensions in Sound – animations to simulate a synesthete’s experience of sound – engages audiences to learn more about this neurological phenomenon and contemplate their own experiences of music. While including new musical pieces and visual art in response to synesthesia responses, this artistic work demonstrates how this topic can inform both creation and collaboration. The multi-media team included visual artists (including Allyson Glenn), music composers (Paul Suchan and Silas Friesen), SJO musicians, and video editors. Beginning with preliminary experiments, music composers Paul and Silas presented Allyson with a series of sounds for synesthesia-specific responses. Using her responses to sound tests, they each created a score for films they had not seen. When Allyson received the recorded music, she selected open-source video footage that captured the floating, circling, scratchy and fluid shapes seen in the music. Assisted by her team they rotoscoped over the footage amassing over ten thousand drawings. For the film Above the Deluge, she investigated deep-sea divers and underwater sea creatures, while In the Fray, she explored damaged vintage film. Both short animated films were completed in late 2021. Since this time, the films have been presented to audiences across the world. For example, Above the Deluge has been shown at the Walkers Gallery in Texas and nineteen international film festivals, including Cinequest (USA). Among these, it has received six awards, including the London Movie Awards (UK), Five Continents Film Festival (Venezuela), Independent Shorts Awards (USA), IndieX Film Festival (USA), and LA Feedback Film Festival (USA). The second film, In the Fray, was released in December and has been selected for eight film festivals, including the Canadian Film Fest and has since received two awards from the Independent Shorts Awards (USA) and the Indie Short Fest (USA). In June 2022, the project will culminate with a live concert event hosted by the SJO, during which the films will be projected behind the orchestra. The performance will be live-streamed and available on the SJO’s website. In collaboration with the Saskatchewan Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services (SDHH), the performance will also include immersive elements for this audience. The Dimensions in Sound project was made possible by the Canada Council for the Arts Digital Now fund.

Keywords: visual arts, music, digital animation, chromesthesia

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28 Identification of Tangible and Intangible Heritage and Preparation of Conservation Proposal for the Historic City of Karanja Laad

Authors: Prachi Buche Marathe

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Karanja Laad is a city located in the Vidarbha region in the state of Maharashtra, India. It has a huge amount of tangible and intangible heritage in the form of monuments, precincts, a group of structures, festivals and procession route, which is neglected and lost with time. Three different religions Hinduism, Islam and Jainism along with associations of being a birthplace of Swami Nrusinha Saraswati, an exponent of Datta Sampradaya sect and the British colonial layer have shaped the culture and society of the place over the period. The architecture of the town Karanja Laad has enhanced its unique historic and cultural value with a combination of all these historic layers. Karanja Laad is also a traditional trading historic town with unique hybrid architectural style and has a good potential for developing as a tourist place along with the present image of a pilgrim destination of Datta Sampradaya. The aim of the research is to prepare a conservation proposal for the historic town along with the management framework. Objectives of the research are to study the evolution of Karanja town, to identify the cultural resources along with issues of the historic core of the city, to understand Datta sampradaya, and contribution of Saint Nrusinha Saraswati in the religious sect and his association as an important personality with Karanja. The methodology of the research is site visits to the Karanja city, making field surveys for documentation and discussions and questionnaires with the residents to establish heritage and identify potential and issues within the historic core thereby establishing a case for conservation. Field surveys are conducted for town level study of land use, open spaces, occupancy, ownership, traditional commodity and community, infrastructure, streetscapes, and precinct activities during the festival and non-festival period. Building level study includes establishing various typologies like residential, institutional commercial, religious, and traditional infrastructure from the mythological references like waterbodies (kund), lake and wells. One of the main issues is that the loss of the traditional footprint as well as the traditional open spaces which are getting lost due to the new illegal encroachments and lack of guidelines for the new additions to conserve the original fabric of the structures. Traditional commodities are getting lost since there is no promotion of these skills like pottery and painting. Lavish bungalows like Kannava mansion, main temple Wada (birthplace of the saint) have a huge potential to be developed as a museum by adaptive re-use which will, in turn, attract many visitors during festivals which will boost the economy. Festival procession routes can be identified and a heritage walk can be developed so as to highlight the traditional features of the town. Overall study has resulted in establishing a heritage map with 137 heritage structures identified as potential. Conservation proposal is worked out on the town level, precinct level and building level with interventions such as developing construction guidelines for further development and establishing a heritage cell consisting architects and engineers for the upliftment of the existing rich heritage of the Karanja city.

Keywords: built heritage, conservation, Datta Sampradaya, Karanja Laad, Swami Nrusinha Saraswati, procession route

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27 Festivals and Weddings in India during Corona Pandemic

Authors: Arul Aram, Vishnu Priya, Monicka Karunanithi

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In India, in particular, festivals are the occasions of celebrations. They create beautiful moments to cherish. Mostly, people pay a visit to their native places to celebrate with their loved ones. So are wedding celebrations. The Covid-19 pandemic came upon us unexpectedly, and to fight it, the festivals and weddings are celebrated unusually. Crowded places are deserted. Mass gatherings are avoided, changes and alterations are made in our rituals and celebrations. The warmth usually people have at their heart during any festival and wedding has disappeared. Some aspects of the celebrations become virtual/digital rather than real -- for instance, digital greetings/invitations, digital conduct of ceremonies by priests, YouTube worship, online/digital cash gifts, and digital audience for weddings. Each festival has different rituals which are followed with the divine nature in every family, but the pandemic warranted some compromises on the traditions. Likewise, a marriage is a beautiful bond between two families where a lot of traditional customs are followed. The wedding ceremonies are colorful and celebrations may extend for several days. People in India spend financial resources to prepare and celebrate weddings. The bride's and the groom's homes are fully decorated with colors, balloons and other decorations. The wedding rituals and celebrations vary by religion, region, preference and the resources of the groom, bride and their families. They can range from one day to multiple-days events. But the Covid-19 pandemic situation changes the mindset of people over ceremonies. This lockdown has affected those weddings and industries that support them and make the people postpone or at times advance without fanfare their 'big day.' People now adopt the protocols, guidelines and safety measures to reduce the risk and minimize the fear during celebrations. The study shall look into: how the pandemic shattered the expectations of people celebrating; problems faced economically by people/service providers who are benefited by the celebrations; and identify the alterations made in the rituals or the practices of our culture for the safety of families. The study shall employ questionnaires, interviews and visual ethnography to collect data. The study found that during a complete lockdown, people have not bought new clothes, sweets, or snacks, as they generally do before a pandemic. Almost all of them kept their celebrations low-key, and some did not celebrate at all. Digital media played a role in keeping the celebration alive, as people used it to wish their friends and families virtually. During partial unlock, the situation was under control, and people began to go out and see a few family and friends. They went shopping and bought new clothes and needs, but they did it while following safety precautions. There is also an equal percentage of people who shopped online. Although people continue to remain disappointed, they were less stressed up as life was returning to normal.

Keywords: covid-19, digital, festivals, India, wedding

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26 Customer Satisfaction for Integrated Marketing Communication in Department Store Chiang Mai Province

Authors: Teerapong Chaisen, Pornpan Puttaraksa, Chayanit Chitchai, Peeraya Somsak, Rinyaphat Kecharananta

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This paper aims to study integrated marketing communication (IMC) of department store in Chiang Mai with the object to understand how department stores manage communication in order to inform customer and how customers react to the received information. We study the example of 300 customers both Thai and foreigners who received the given information from the department stores and the reactions of these customers. This paper shows Central festival is the top destination to visit for Thai customers. On the other hand, Central Plaza is favored by foreign customers. However, all department stores need to use more IMC to make awareness for customer.

Keywords: integrated marketing communication, satisfaction, department store, consumer

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25 Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Sediments along the Ganges River Estuary, India

Authors: Priyanka Mondal, Santosh K. Sarkar

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The present study investigated the spatiotemporal distribution and ecological risk assessment of trace elements of surface sediments (top 0 - 5 cm; grain size ≤ 0.63 µm) in relevance to sediment quality characteristics along the Ganges River Estuary, India. Sediment samples were collected during ebb tide from intertidal regions covering seven sampling sites of diverse environmental stresses. The elements were analyzed with the help of ICPAES. This positive, mixohaline, macro-tidal estuary has global significance contributing ecological and economic services. Presence of fine-clayey particle (47.03%) enhances the adsorption as well as transportation of trace elements. There is a remarkable inter-metallic variation (mg kg-1 dry weight) in the distribution pattern in the following manner: Al (31801± 15943) > Fe (23337± 7584) > Mn (461±147) > S(381±235) > Zn(54 ±18) > V(43 ±14) > Cr(39 ±15) > As (34±15) > Cu(27 ±11) > Ni (24 ±9) > Se (17 ±8) > Co(11 ±3) > Mo(10 ± 2) > Hg(0.02 ±0.01). An overall trend of enrichment of majority of trace elements was very much pronounced at the site Lot 8, ~ 35km upstream of the estuarine mouth. In contrast, the minimum concentration was recorded at site Gangasagar, mouth of the estuary, with high energy profile. The prevalent variations in trace element distribution are being liable for a set of cumulative factors such as hydrodynamic conditions, sediment dispersion pattern and textural variations as well as non-homogenous input of contaminants from point and non-point sources. In order to gain insight into the trace elements distribution, accumulation, and their pollution status, geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and enrichment factor (EF) were used. The Igeo indicated that surface sediments were moderately polluted with As (0.60) and Mo (1.30) and strongly contaminated with Se (4.0). The EF indicated severe pollution of Se (53.82) and significant pollution of As (4.05) and Mo (6.0) and indicated the influx of As, Mo and Se in sediments from anthropogenic sources (such as industrial and municipal sewage, atmospheric deposition, agricultural run-off, etc.). The significant role of the megacity Calcutta in relevance to the untreated sewage discharge, atmospheric inputs and other anthropogenic activities is worthwhile to mention. The ecological risk for different trace elements was evaluated using sediment quality guidelines, effects range low (ERL), and effect range median (ERM). The concentration of As, Cu and Ni at 100%, 43% and 86% of the sampling sites has exceeded the ERL value while none of the element concentration exceeded ERM. The potential ecological risk index values revealed that As at 14.3% of the sampling sites would pose relatively moderate risk to benthic organisms. The effective role of finer clay particles for trace element distribution was revealed by multivariate analysis. The authors strongly recommend regular monitoring emphasizing on accurate appraisal of the potential risk of trace elements for effective and sustainable management of this estuarine environment.

Keywords: pollution assessment, sediment contamination, sediment quality, trace elements

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