Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 41

Search results for: Sajjan Adhikari

41 Resume Ranking Using Custom Word2vec and Rule-Based Natural Language Processing Techniques

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Rajendra Sapkota, Aakash Tamang, Shushant Pudasaini, Sujan Adhikari, Sajjan Adhikari

Abstract:

Lots of efforts have been made in order to measure the semantic similarity between the text corpora in the documents. Techniques have been evolved to measure the similarity of two documents. One such state-of-art technique in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is word to vector models, which converts the words into their word-embedding and measures the similarity between the vectors. We found this to be quite useful for the task of resume ranking. So, this research paper is the implementation of the word2vec model along with other Natural Language Processing techniques in order to rank the resumes for the particular job description so as to automate the process of hiring. The research paper proposes the system and the findings that were made during the process of building the system.

Keywords: chunking, document similarity, information extraction, natural language processing, word2vec, word embedding

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
40 Soil-Geopolymer Mixtures for Pavement Base and Subbase Layers

Authors: Mohammad Khattak, Bikash Adhikari, Sambodh Adhikari

Abstract:

This research deals with the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and shrinkage characteristics of flyash-based soil-geopolymer mixtures. Medium and high plastic soils were obtained from local construction projects. Class F flyash was used with a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution to develop soil-geopolymer mixtures. Several mixtures were compacted, cured at different curing conditions, and tested for unconfined compressive strength (UCS), linear shrinkage, and observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the study demonstrated that the soil-geopolymer mixtures fulfilled the UCS criteria of cement treated design (CTD) and cement stabilized design (CSD) as recommended by the department of transportation for pavement base and subbase layers. It was found that soil-geopolymer demonstrated either similar or better UCS and shrinkage characteristics relative to conventional soil-cement mixtures. The SEM analysis revealed that microstructure of soil-geopolymer mixtures exhibited development and steady growth of geopolymerization during the curing period. Based on mechanical, shrinkage, and microstructural characteristics it was suggested that the soil-geopolymer mixtures, has an immense potential to be used as pavement subgrade, subbase, and base layers.

Keywords: soil-geopolymer, pavement base, soil stabilization, unconfined compressive strength, shrinkage, microstructure, and morphology

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39 Surface Functionalization of Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Film

Authors: Prashanta Dhoj Adhikari

Abstract:

We report the introduction of the active surface functionalization group on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene film by wet deposition method. The activity of surface functionalized group was tested with surface modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and found that both materials were amalgamated by chemical bonding. The introduction of functional group on the graphene film surface and its vigorous role to bind CNTs with the present technique could provide an efficient, novel route to device fabrication.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition, graphene film, surface functionalization

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38 Classifier for Liver Ultrasound Images

Authors: Soumya Sajjan

Abstract:

Liver cancer is the most common cancer disease worldwide in men and women, and is one of the few cancers still on the rise. Liver disease is the 4th leading cause of death. According to new NHS (National Health Service) figures, deaths from liver diseases have reached record levels, rising by 25% in less than a decade; heavy drinking, obesity, and hepatitis are believed to be behind the rise. In this study, we focus on Development of Diagnostic Classifier for Ultrasound liver lesion. Ultrasound (US) Sonography is an easy-to-use and widely popular imaging modality because of its ability to visualize many human soft tissues/organs without any harmful effect. This paper will provide an overview of underlying concepts, along with algorithms for processing of liver ultrasound images Naturaly, Ultrasound liver lesion images are having more spackle noise. Developing classifier for ultrasound liver lesion image is a challenging task. We approach fully automatic machine learning system for developing this classifier. First, we segment the liver image by calculating the textural features from co-occurrence matrix and run length method. For classification, Support Vector Machine is used based on the risk bounds of statistical learning theory. The textural features for different features methods are given as input to the SVM individually. Performance analysis train and test datasets carried out separately using SVM Model. Whenever an ultrasonic liver lesion image is given to the SVM classifier system, the features are calculated, classified, as normal and diseased liver lesion. We hope the result will be helpful to the physician to identify the liver cancer in non-invasive method.

Keywords: segmentation, Support Vector Machine, ultrasound liver lesion, co-occurance Matrix

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37 Phase Segregating and Complex Forming Pb Based (=X-Pb) Liquid Alloys

Authors: Indra Bahadur Bhandari, Narayan Panthi, Ishwar Koirala, Devendra Adhikari

Abstract:

We have used a theoretical model based on the assumption of compound formation in binary alloys to study the thermodynamic, microscopic, and surface properties of Bi-Pb and In-Pb liquid alloys. A review of the phase diagrams for these alloys shows that one of the stable complexes for Bi-Pb liquid alloy is BiPb3; also, that InPb is a stable phase in liquid In-Pb alloys. Using the same interaction parameters that are fitted for the free energy of mixing, we have been able to compute the bulk and thermodynamic properties of the alloys. From our observations, we are able to show that the Bi-Pb liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range and the In-Pb alloys undergo phase separation. With regards to surface properties, Pb segregates more to the surface in In-Pb alloys than in Bi-Pb alloys. The viscosity isotherms have a positive deviation from ideality for both Bi-Pb and In-Pb alloys.

Keywords: asymmetry, Bi-Pb, deviation, In-Pb, interaction parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
36 Impact of Urbanization on the Performance of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Chandan Jha, Amit Sachan, Arnab Adhikari, Sayantan Kundu

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The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) of India and examine the impact of urbanization on the performance of HEIs. In this study, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been used, and the authors have collected the required data related to performance measures from the National Institutional Ranking Framework web portal. In this study, the authors have evaluated the performance of HEIs by using two different DEA models. In the first model, geographic locations of the institutes have been categorized into two categories, i.e., Urban Vs. Non-Urban. However, in the second model, these geographic locations have been classified into three categories, i.e., Urban, Semi-Urban, Non-Urban. The findings of this study provide several insights related to the degree of urbanization and the performance of HEIs.

Keywords: DEA, higher education, performance evaluation, urbanization

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35 Slow pace towards Teaching Mathematical Science in Nepal: A Historical Perspective

Authors: Dammar Bahadur Adhikari

Abstract:

Mathematics teaching begins with human civilization. The rular used to choose mathematician as prime adviser in many tribes and country. Mathematics was powerful tool for understanding economial situation and strength of rular. In ancient Nepal teaching of mathematics starts with informal education provided by religious leaders there after in modern education system seems to follow the world’s educational system. The aim of this paper is to present a brief historical background of the Nepalese mathematicians up to nineteenth century and highlight the transformation in mathematical science in the line with modern world. Secondary data and formal papers and informal publications were studied to explore the present situation of education. The study concluded that there is remarcable change in quality of education and there are sufficient human powers in the mathematical sciences in Nepal.

Keywords: human development, mathematics, Nepal, science, traditional

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34 Status of Radiation Protection at Radiation Oncology, BPKM Cancer Hospital, Nepal

Authors: Surendra B. Chand, P. P. Chaurasia, M. P. Adhikari, R. N. Yadav

Abstract:

Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate all the safety procedures toward the radiation protection for workers in the radiation oncology department. Materials and Methods: The annual thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) reports for five years of the staffs were evaluated, radiation surveys were done in the control consoles, radiotherapy machines room and waiting areas of all machines using Aloka survey meter. Results: The five years TLD reports shows that the whole body dose of the individual staffs is found within the annual dose limit except the accidental exposures. Radiation exposures in the working areas are also safe limits. Conclusion: The radiation safety practices for radiation protection are satisfactory and the radiation workers of the departments are found working within the safe limit.

Keywords: radiation protection, safety, ICRP, dose limits, TLD, radiation devices

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33 Clothes Identification Using Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2

Authors: Subodh Chandra Shakya, Badal Shrestha, Suni Thapa, Ashutosh Chauhan, Saugat Adhikari

Abstract:

To tackle our problem of clothes identification, we used different architectures of Convolutional Neural Networks. Among different architectures, the outcome from Inception ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2 seemed promising. On comparison of the metrices, we observed that the Inception ResNet V2 slightly outperforms MobileNet V2 for this purpose. So this paper of ours proposes the cloth identifier using Inception ResNet V2 and also contains the comparison between the outcome of ResNet V2 and MobileNet V2. The document here contains the results and findings of the research that we performed on the DeepFashion Dataset. To improve the dataset, we used different image preprocessing techniques like image shearing, image rotation, and denoising. The whole experiment was conducted with the intention of testing the efficiency of convolutional neural networks on cloth identification so that we could develop a reliable system that is good enough in identifying the clothes worn by the users. The whole system can be integrated with some kind of recommendation system.

Keywords: inception ResNet, convolutional neural net, deep learning, confusion matrix, data augmentation, data preprocessing

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
32 A Comparative Study on Sampling Techniques of Polynomial Regression Model Based Stochastic Free Vibration of Composite Plates

Authors: S. Dey, T. Mukhopadhyay, S. Adhikari

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This paper presents an exhaustive comparative investigation on sampling techniques of polynomial regression model based stochastic natural frequency of composite plates. Both individual and combined variations of input parameters are considered to map the computational time and accuracy of each modelling techniques. The finite element formulation of composites is capable to deal with both correlated and uncorrelated random input variables such as fibre parameters and material properties. The results obtained by Polynomial regression (PR) using different sampling techniques are compared. Depending on the suitability of sampling techniques such as 2k Factorial designs, Central composite design, A-Optimal design, I-Optimal, D-Optimal, Taguchi’s orthogonal array design, Box-Behnken design, Latin hypercube sampling, sobol sequence are illustrated. Statistical analysis of the first three natural frequencies is presented to compare the results and its performance.

Keywords: composite plate, natural frequency, polynomial regression model, sampling technique, uncertainty quantification

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31 Photoresponse of Epitaxial GaN Films Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Nisha Prakash, Kritika Anand, Arun Barvat, Prabir Pal, Sonachand Adhikari, Suraj P. Khanna

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Group-III nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN and their ternary and quaternary compounds) have attracted a great deal of attention for the development of high-performance Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Any midgap defect states in the epitaxial grown film have a direct influence on the photodetectors responsivity. The proportion of the midgap defect states can be controlled by the growth parameters. To study this we have grown high quality epitaxial GaN films on MOCVD- grown GaN template using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) with different growth parameters. Optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements, respectively. The observed persistent photoconductivity behaviour is proportional to the yellow luminescence (YL) and the absolute responsivity has been found to decrease with decreasing YL. The results will be discussed in more detail later.

Keywords: gallium nitride, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, photoluminescence, photoconductivity, persistent photoconductivity, yellow luminescence

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30 Deep Learning Based Fall Detection Using Simplified Human Posture

Authors: Kripesh Adhikari, Hamid Bouchachia, Hammadi Nait-Charif

Abstract:

Falls are one of the major causes of injury and death among elderly people aged 65 and above. A support system to identify such kind of abnormal activities have become extremely important with the increase in ageing population. Pose estimation is a challenging task and to add more to this, it is even more challenging when pose estimations are performed on challenging poses that may occur during fall. Location of the body provides a clue where the person is at the time of fall. This paper presents a vision-based tracking strategy where available joints are grouped into three different feature points depending upon the section they are located in the body. The three feature points derived from different joints combinations represents the upper region or head region, mid-region or torso and lower region or leg region. Tracking is always challenging when a motion is involved. Hence the idea is to locate the regions in the body in every frame and consider it as the tracking strategy. Grouping these joints can be beneficial to achieve a stable region for tracking. The location of the body parts provides a crucial information to distinguish normal activities from falls.

Keywords: fall detection, machine learning, deep learning, pose estimation, tracking

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29 Study of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymer Based Nanocomposites

Authors: Sharmila Pradhan, Ralf Lach, George Michler, Jean Mark Saiter, Rameshwar Adhikari

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Ethylene/1-octene copolymer was modified incorporating three types of nanofillers differed in their dimensionality in order to investigate the effect of filler dimensionality on mechanical properties, for instance, tensile strength, microhardness etc. The samples were prepared by melt mixing followed by compression moldings. The microstructure of the novel material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Other important properties such as melting, crystallizing and thermal stability were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The FTIR and XRD results showed that the composites were formed by physical mixing. The TEM result supported the homogeneous dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. The mechanical characterization performed by tensile testing showed that the composites with 1D nanofiller effectively reinforced the polymer. TGA results revealed that the thermal stability of pure EOC is marginally improved by the addition of nanofillers. Likewise, melting and crystallizing properties of the composites are not much different from that of pure.

Keywords: copolymer, differential scanning calorimetry, nanofiller, tensile strength

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28 Biosynthesis of Natural and Halogenated Plant Alkaloids in Yeast

Authors: Beata J. Lehka, Samuel A. Bradley, Frederik G. Hansson, Khem B. Adhikari, Daniela Rago, Paulina Rubaszka, Ahmad K. Haidar, Ling Chen, Lea G. Hansen, Olga Gudich, Konstantina Giannakou, Yoko Nakamura, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Konstantinos Koudounas, Sarah E. O’Connor, Vincent Courdavault, Jay D. Keasling, Jie Zhang, Michael K. Jensen

Abstract:

Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) represent a large class of natural plant products with marketed pharmaceutical activities against a wide range of applications, including cancer and mental disorders. Halogenated MIAs have shown improved pharmaceutical properties; however, characterisation and synthesis of new-to-nature halogenated MIAs remain a challenge in slow-growing plants with limited genetic tractability. Here, we demonstrate a platform for de novo biosynthesis of two bioactive MIAs, serpentine and alstonine, in baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reaching titers of 8.85 mg/L and 4.48 mg/L, respectively, when cultivated in fed-batch micro bioreactors. Using this MIA biosynthesis platform, we undertake a systematic exploration of the derivative space surrounding these compounds and produce halogenated MIAs. The aim of the current study is to develop a fermentation process for halogenated MIAs.

Keywords: monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, halogenated derivatives, fermentation

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27 Abundance and Diversity of Fruit Flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) In Citrus Orchards in Sindhuli, Nepal

Authors: Debraj Adhikari, Resham Bahadur Thapa, Samudra Lal Joshi, Jason Jinping Du, Sundar Tiwari

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to keep a record of fruit fly species (Tephritidae: Diptera) in the sweet orange orchards of Sindhuli district, Nepal. Male fruit fly species were trapped and collected fortnightly using para-pheromone lures (methyl eugenol and cue lure) in Steiner traps at 25 orchards starting in March 2019 and continuing until February 2021. During the monitoring period, there was a significant variation in the occurrence of the fruit fly species. Fruit flies were captured in greater numbers during warm and rainy months (June, July, August, September) than during dry and winter months (December, January, February). Higher numbers of fruit flies were trapped in methyl eugenol than cue lure traps. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. zonata were major fruit fly species trapped in the methyl eugenol trap. Whereas, Zeugodacus tau, Z. cucurbitae, Z. scutellaris, and Dacus longicornis were major fruit fly species trapped in the cue lure trap. The findings of this study could be used to develop a long-term pest management strategy for the agro-ecological system.

Keywords: bactrocera, cue lure, methyl eugenol, monitoring, zeugodacus

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26 Smart Material for Bacterial Detection Based on Polydiacetylene/Polyvinyl Butyrate Fiber Composites

Authors: Pablo Vidal, Misael Martinez, Carlos Hernandez, Ananta R. Adhikari, Luis Materon, Yuanbing Mao, Karen Lozano

Abstract:

Conjugated polymers are smart materials that show tremendous practical applications in diverse subjects. Polydiacetylenes are conjugated polymers with special optical properties. In response to the environmental changes such as pH and molecular binding, it changes its color. Such an interesting chromic and emissive behavior of polydiacetylenes make them a highly popular polymer in wide areas, including biomedicine such as a biosensor. In this research, we used polyvinyl butyrate as a matrix to fibrillate polydiacetylenes. We initially prepared polyvinyl butyrate/diacetylene matrix using forcespinning technique. They were then polymerized to form polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene (PVB/PDA). These matrices then studied for their bio-sensing response to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The sensing ability of the PVB/PDA biosensor was observed as early as 30 min in the presence of bacteria at 37°C. Now our effort is to decrease this effective temperature to room temperature to make this device applicable in the general daily life. These chromic biosensors will find extensive application not only alert the infection but also find other promising applications such as wearable sensors and diagnostic systems.

Keywords: smart material, conjugated polymers, biosensor, polyvinyl butyrate/polydiacetylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
25 Designing a Cricket Team Selection Method Using Super-Efficient DEA and Semi Variance Approach

Authors: Arnab Adhikari, Adrija Majumdar, Gaurav Gupta, Arnab Bisi

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Team formation plays an instrumental role in the sports like cricket. Existing literature reveals that most of the works on player selection focus only on the players’ efficiency and ignore the consistency. It motivates us to design an improved player selection method based on both player’s efficiency and consistency. To measure the players’ efficiency measurement, we employ a modified data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique namely ‘super-efficient DEA model’. We design a modified consistency index based on semi variance approach. Here, we introduce a new parameter called ‘fitness index’ for consistency computation to assess a player’s fitness level. Finally, we devise a single performance score using both efficiency score and consistency score with the help of a linear programming model. To test the robustness of our method, we perform a rigorous numerical analysis to determine the all-time best One Day International (ODI) Cricket XI. Next, we conduct extensive comparative studies regarding efficiency scores, consistency scores, selected team between the existing methods and the proposed method and explain the rationale behind the improvement.

Keywords: decision support systems, sports, super-efficient data envelopment analysis, semi variance approach

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24 Structural Performance Evaluation of Electronic Road Sign Panels Reflecting Damage Scenarios

Authors: Junwon Seo, Bipin Adhikari, Euiseok Jeong

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This paper is intended to evaluate the structural performance of welded electronic road signs under various damage scenarios (DSs) using a finite element (FE) model calibrated with full-scale ultimate load testing results. The tested electronic road sign specimen was built with a back skin made of 5052 aluminum and two channels and a frame made of 6061 aluminum, where the back skin was connected to the frame by welding. The size of the tested specimen was 1.52 m long, 1.43 m wide, and 0.28 m deep. An actuator applied vertical loads at the center of the back skin of the specimen, resulting in a displacement of 158.7 mm and an ultimate load of 153.46 kN. Using these testing data, generation and calibration of a FE model of the tested specimen were executed in ABAQUS, indicating that the difference in the ultimate load between the calibrated model simulation and full-scale testing was only 3.32%. Then, six different DSs were simulated where the areas of the welded connection in the calibrated model were diminished for the DSs. It was found that the corners at the back skin-frame joint were prone to connection failure for all the DSs, and failure of the back skin-frame connection occurred remarkably from the distant edges.

Keywords: computational analysis, damage scenarios, electronic road signs, finite element, welded connections

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23 Awareness regarding Radiation Protection among the Technicians Practicing in Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal

Authors: Jayanti Gyawali, Deepak Adhikari, Mukesh Mallik, Sanjay Sah

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Radiation is defined as an emission or transmission of energy in form of waves or particles through space or material medium. The major imaging tools used in diagnostic radiology is based on the use of ionizing radiation. A cross-sectional study was carried out during July- August, 2015 among technicians in 15 different hospitals of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal to assess awareness regarding radiation protection and their current practice. The researcher was directly engaged for data collection using self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. The findings of the study are presented in socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, current practice of respondents and knowledge regarding radiation protection. The result of this study demonstrated that despite the importance of radiation and its consequent hazards, the level of knowledge among technicians is only 60.23% and their current practice is 76.84%. The difference in the mean score of knowledge and practice might have resulted due to technicians’s regular work and lack of updates. The study also revealed that there is no significant (p>0.05) difference in knowledge level of technicians practicing in different hospitals. But the mean difference in practice scores of different hospital is significant (p<0.05) i.e. i.e. the cancer hospital with large volumes of regular radiological cases and radiation therapies for cancer treatment has better practice in comparison to other hospitals. The deficiency in knowledge of technicians might alter the expected benefits, compared to the risk involved, and can cause erroneous medical diagnosis and radiation hazard. Therefore, this study emphasizes the need for all technicians to update themselves with the appropriate knowledge and current practice about ionizing and non-ionizing radiation.

Keywords: technicians, knowledge, Nepal, radiation

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22 Community Based Landslide Investigation and Treatment in the Earthquake Affected Areas, Nepal

Authors: Basanta Raj Adhikari

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Large and small scale earthquakes are frequent in the Nepal, Himalaya, and many co-seismic landslides are resulted out of it. Recently, Gorkha earthquake-2015 has triggered many co-seismic landslides destroying many lives and properties. People have displaced their original places due to having many cracks and unstable ground. Therefore, Nepal has been adopting a pronged development strategy to address the earthquake issues through reconstruction and rehabilitation policy, plans and budgets. Landslides are major threat for the mountain livelihood, and it is very important to investigate and mitigate to improve human wellbeing factoring in considerations of economic growth, environmental safety, and sustainable development. Community based landslide investigation was carried with the involvement of the local community in the Sindhupalchowk District of Central Nepal. Landslide training and field orientation were the major methodological approach of this study. Combination of indigenous and modern scientific knowledge has created unique working environment which enhanced the local capacity and trained people for replication. Local topography of the landslide was created with the help of Total Station and bill of quantity was derived based on it. River training works, plantation of trees and grasses, support structures, surface and sub-surface drainage management are the recommended mitigative measures. This is a very unique example of how academia and local community can work together for sustainable development by reducing disaster risk at the local level with very low-cost technology.

Keywords: community, earthquake, landslides, Nepal

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21 An Application of Bidirectional Option Contract to Coordinate a Dyadic Fashion Apparel Supply Chain

Authors: Arnab Adhikari, Arnab Bisi

Abstract:

Since the inception, the fashion apparel supply chain is facing the problem of high demand uncertainty. Often the demand volatility compels the corresponding supply chain member to incur substantial holding cost and opportunity cost in case of the overproduction and the underproduction scenario, respectively. It leads to an uncoordinated fashion apparel supply chain. There exist several scholarly works to achieve coordination in the fashion apparel supply chain by employing the different contracts such as the buyback contract, the revenue sharing contract, the option contract, and so on. Specially, the application of option contract in the apparel industry becomes prevalent with the changing global scenario. Exploration of existing literature related to the option contract reveals that most of the research works concentrate on the one direction demand adjustment i.e. either to match the demand upwards or downwards. Here, we present a holistic approach to coordinate a dyadic fashion apparel supply chain comprising one manufacturer and one retailer with the help of bidirectional option contract. We show a combination of wholesale price contract and bidirectional option contract can coordinate the under expanded supply chain. We also propose a framework that captures the variation of the apparel retailer’s order quantity and the apparel manufacturer’s production quantity with the changing exercise price for the different ranges of the option price. We analytically explore that corresponding cost parameters of the supply chain members along with the nature of demand distribution play an instrumental role in the coordination as well as the retailer’s ordering decision.

Keywords: fashion apparel supply chain, supply chain coordination, wholesale price contract, bidirectional option contract

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20 Pattern of Biopsy Proven Renal Disease and Association between the Clinical Findings with Renal Pathology in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Manish Subedi, Bijay Bartaula, Ashok R. Pant, Purbesh Adhikari, Sanjib K. Sharma

Abstract:

Background: The pattern of glomerular disease varies worldwide. In absence of kidney disease/Kidney biopsy registry in Nepal, the exact etiology of different forms of glomerular disease is primarily unknown in our country. Method: We retrospectively analyzed 175 cases of renal biopsies performed from dated September 2014 to August 2016 at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Results: The commonest indication for renal biopsy was nephrotic syndrome (34.9%), followed by Systemic lupus erythematosus with suspected renal involvement (22.3%). Majority of patients were in the 30-60 year bracket (57.2%), with the mean age of the patients being 35.37 years. The average number of glomeruli per core was 13, with inadequate sampling in 5.1%. IgA nephropathy (17%) was found to be the most common primary glomerular disease, followed by membranous nephropathy (14.6%) and FSGS (14.6%). The commonest secondary glomerular disease was lupus nephritis. Complications associated with renal biopsy were pain at biopsy site in 18% of cases, hematuria in 6% and perinephric hematoma in 4% cases. Conclusion: The commonest primary and secondary glomerular disease was IgA nephropathy and lupus nephritis respectively. The high prevalence of Systemic lupus erythematosus with lupus nephritis among Nepalese in comparison with other developing countries warrants further evaluation. As an initial attempt towards documentation of glomerular diseases in the national context, this study should serve as a stepping stone towards the eventual establishment of a full-fledged national registry of glomerular diseases in Nepal.

Keywords: glomerular, Nepal, renal biopsy, systemic lupus erythematoses

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19 Exploring the Number, Type and Level of Disability among Victims of Nepal Earthquake 2015

Authors: Inosha Bimali, Shambhu P. Adhikari, Sumana Baidya, Nishchal R. Shakya

Abstract:

Background: An earthquake of 7.8 magnitudes with an epicenter in Gorkha on 25th April 2015 and second earthquake of 6.5 magnitudes with an epicenter at Sindhupalchwok on 12th May 2015 struck the beautiful country of Nepal, killing more than 8,500 people and over 18,500 individuals were left injured with various forms of disabilities. Objectives: To explore number, type and level of disability among post earthquake victims. A door to door physiotherapy rehabilitation program will be conducted at the community level as a continuation of this study. Methods: A survey was carried out in the catchment area of Bahunepati and Manekharka outreach centers of Sindhupalchowk district and Gaurishankar outreach center of Dolakha district of Dhulikhel Hospital. Physical disability was identified using a disability survey form given by Ministry of women, children and social welfare Nepal Government. World health organization disability assessment schedule-2 was used to identify the level of disability. Results: Twenty-nine person with disabilities at Bahunepati, four person with disabilities at Manekharkha and two person with disabilities at Gaurishankar and its catchment area were identified. Level of disability was an average of 56% with majority of survivors having upper extremities fractures followed by lower extremities fractures and miscellaneous injury. Few spinal cord injuries and head injuries were also identified. Conclusion: Though number of person with disabilities was found relatively less, disability level is high; hence an urgent need of physiotherapy rehabilitation is reflected to improve the quality of life of the affected people.

Keywords: community, disability, Nepal earthquake, physiotherapy

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18 Survey of Some Important Nepalese and Russian Anti-Diabetic Herbs

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral, Vinogradov Dmitriy Valerievich, Rameshwar Adhikari

Abstract:

Diabetes has posed a great threat to the human health worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The disease has basically rooted from the dramatically changed way of living of the present day human civilization as our living has deviated from what the nature has adapted us for. In this context, due to availability of wide range of climatic condition and hence the wide spectrum of biodiversity, Nepal is blessed with a valuable reservoir of medicinal herbs. These assets have been utilized and developed practices in traditional medicines and Ayurvedic way of treatment over several thousand years in the region. It has been established since ancient times that each and every plant has a specific medicinal value. There are many plants’ products which have been utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for the effective treatment of diabetes. The medicaments are less expensive and pose practically no side effects. In this work, we report a general survey of anti-diabetic properties of some medicinal herbs with pronounced effects and their applications. The plants covered in this study originate from far western region of Nepal and include Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, and Hippophae salicifolia.

Keywords: Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, Hippophae salicifolia

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17 A Comparative Study of Public and Private School Adolescent Girls on the Issues of Menstrual Hygiene and the Management Issues

Authors: Ashok Pandey, Rajan Adhikari

Abstract:

Introduction: Menstruation is part of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature at the time of puberty. It is a phenomenon unique to the females. During a menstrual period, a woman bleeds from her uterus via the vagina. For decades, in many countries, academic school ‘type,’ private or public, as a predictor of or factor in future academic success has been researched and debated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative study was carried out with adolescent girls studying in both public and private schools of Kathmandu valley. A total of 100 girls participated in the survey, and out of them 21 participated in the FGD and 5 in the in- depth interview. Quantitative data from the survey was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software. Informed verbal consent with the respective head of school and the respondents were taken before data collection. Results:The age of the respondents ranges from 11 to 18 years, with mean age of menarche being 12.37 years in both school adolescent girls. 70 percent of the public school adolescent girls and 72 percent of the private school adolescent girls are feeling upset and tension during menarche. There is a statistically significant difference on take rest during the period and good hygienic practice during menstruation of public/private school, at α=0. 05 level of significance. There is a statistically significant difference on overall score of practice during menstruation between public and private adolescent girls. Conclusion: Private schools children are more knowledgeable and maintain hygiene as compere to public school even though, it can be said that among the adolescent school girls both in public and private school, menstrual knowledge and perceptions are poor and practices often not optimal for proper hygiene. Often ignored issues of privacy affect the hygienic practices and daily lives.

Keywords: Comparison, Menstruation, Private school, Public School

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16 A Review on Future of Plant Based Medicine in Treatment of Urolithiatic Disorder

Authors: Gopal Lamichhane, Biswash Sapkota, Grinsun Sharma, Mahendra Adhikari

Abstract:

Urolithiasis is a condition in which insoluble or less soluble salts like oxalate, phosphate etc. precipitate in urinary tract and causes obstruction in ureter resulting renal colic or sometimes haematuria. It is the third most common disorder of urinary tract affecting nearly 2% of world’s population. Poor urinary drainage, microbial infection, oxalate and calcium containing diet, calciferol, hyperparathyroidism, cysteine in urine, gout, dysfunction of intestine, drought environment, lifestyle, exercise, stress etc. are risk factors for urolithiasis. Wide ranges of treatments are available in allopathic system of medicine but reoccurrence is unpreventable even with the surgical removal of stone or lithotripsy. So, people prefer alternative medicinal systems such as Unani, homeopathic, ayurvedic etc. systems of medicine due to their fewer side effects over allopathic counterpart. Different plants based ethnomedicines are being well established by their continuous effective use in human since long time in treatment of urinary problem. Many studies have scientifically proved those ethnomedicines for antiurolithiatic effect in animal and in vitro model. Plant-based remedies were found to be therapeutically effective for both prevention as well as cure of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Plants were known to show these effects through a combination of many effects such as antioxidant, diuretic, hypocalciuric, urine alkalinizing effect in them. Berberine, triterpenoids, lupeol are the phytochemicals established for antiurolithiatic effect. Hence, plant-based medicine can be the effective herbal alternative as well as means of discovery of novel drug molecule for curing urolithiatic disorder and should be focused on further research to discover their value in coming future.

Keywords: urolithiasis, herbal medicine, ethnomedicine, kidney stone, calcium oxalate

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15 Forest Policy and Its Implications on Private Forestry Development: A Case Study in Rautahat District, Nepal

Authors: Dammar Bahadur Adhikari

Abstract:

Community forestry in Nepal has got disproportionately high level of support from government and other actors in forestry sector. Even though master plan for forestry sector (1989) has highlighted community and private forestry as one component, the government policies and other intervention deliberately left out private forestry in its structure and programs. The study aimed at providing the pathway for formulating appropriate policies to address need of different kind of forest management regimes in Rautahat district, Nepal. The key areas the research focused were assessment of current status of private forestry, community forest users' understanding on private forestry; criteria for choosing species of private forestry and factors affecting establishment of private forestry in the area. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected employing questionnaire survey, rapid forest assessment and key informant interview. The study found out that forest policies are imposed due to intense pressure of exogenous forces than due to endogenous demand. Most of the local people opine that their traditional knowledge and skills are not sufficient for private forestry and hence need training on the matter. Likewise, local use, market value and rotation dictate the choice of species for plantation in private forests. Currently district forest office is the only government institution working in the area of private forestry all other governmental and non-governmental organizations have condoned. private forestry. Similarly, only permanent settlers in the area are found to establish private forests other forest users such as migrants and forest encroachers follow opportunistic behavior to meet their forest product need from community and national forests. In this regard, the study recommends taking appropriate step to support other forest management system including private forestry provide community forestry the benefits of competition as suggested by Darwin in 18th century, one and half century back and to help alleviate poverty by channelizing benefits to household level.

Keywords: community forest, forest management, poverty, private forest, users’ group

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14 Modeling of Void Formation in 3D Woven Fabric During Resin Transfer Moulding

Authors: Debabrata Adhikari, Mikhail Matveev, Louise Brown, Jan Kočí, Andy Long

Abstract:

Resin transfer molding (RTM) is increasingly used for manufacturing high-quality composite structures due to its additional advantages over prepregs of low-cost out-of-autoclave processing. However, to retain the advantages, it is critical to reduce the void content during the injection. Reinforcements commonly used in RTM, such as woven fabrics, have dual-scale porosity with mesoscale pores between the yarns and the micro-scale pores within the yarns. Due to the fabric geometry and the nature of the dual-scale flow, the flow front during injection creates a complicated fingering formation which leads to void formation. Analytical modeling of void formation for woven fabrics has been widely studied elsewhere. However, there is scope for improvement to the reduction in void formation in 3D fabrics wherein the in-plane yarn layers are confined by additional through-thickness binder yarns. In the present study, the structural morphology of the tortuous pore spaces in the 3D fabric has been studied and implemented using open-source software TexGen. An analytical model for the void and the fingering formation has been implemented based on an idealized unit cell model of the 3D fabric. Since the pore spaces between the yarns are free domains, the region is treated as flow-through connected channels, whereas intra-yarn flow has been modeled using Darcy’s law with an additional term to account for capillary pressure. Later the void fraction has been characterised using the criterion of void formation by comparing the fill time for inter and intra yarn flow. Moreover, the dual-scale two-phase flow of resin with air has been simulated in the commercial CFD solver OpenFOAM/ANSYS to predict the probable location of voids and validate the analytical model. The use of an idealised unit cell model will give the insight to optimise the mesoscale geometry of the reinforcement and injection parameters to minimise the void content during the LCM process.

Keywords: 3D fiber, void formation, RTM, process modelling

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13 Evaluation of Potential of Crop Residues for Energy Generation in Nepal

Authors: Narayan Prasad Adhikari

Abstract:

In Nepal, the crop residues have often been considered as one of the potential sources of energy to cope with prevailing energy crisis. However, the lack of systematic studies about production and various other competent uses of crop production is the main obstacle to evaluate net potential of the residues for energy production. Under this background, this study aims to assess the net annual availability of crop residues for energy production by undertaking three different districts with the representation of country’s three major regions of lowland, hill, and mountain. The five major cereal crops of paddy, wheat, maize, millet, and barley are considered for the analysis. The analysis is based upon two modes of household surveys. The first mode of survey is conducted to total of 240 households to obtain key information about crop harvesting and livestock management throughout a year. Similarly, the quantification of main crops along with the respective residues on fixed land is carried out to 45 households during second mode. The range of area of such fixed land is varied from 50 to 100 m2. The measurements have been done in air dry basis. The quantity for competitive uses of respective crop residues is measured on the basis of respondents’ feedback. There are four major competitive uses of crop residues at household which are building material, burning, selling, and livestock fodder. The results reveal that the net annual available crop residues per household are 4663 kg, 2513 kg, and 1731 kg in lowland, hill, and mountain respectively. Of total production of crop residues, the shares of dedicated fodder crop residues (except maize stalk and maize cob) are 94 %, 62 %, and 89 % in lowland, hill, and mountain respectively and of which the corresponding shares of fodder are 87 %, 91 %, and 82 %. The annual percapita energy equivalent from net available crop residues in lowland, hill, and mountain are 2.49 GJ, 3.42 GJ, and 0.44 GJ which represent 30 %, 33 %, and 3 % of total annual energy consumption respectively whereas the corresponding current shares of crop residues are only 23 %, 8 %, and 1 %. Hence, even utmost exploitation of available crop residues can hardly contribute to one third of energy consumption at household level in lowland, and hill whereas this is limited to particularly negligible in mountain. Moreover, further analysis has also been done to evaluate district wise supply-demand context of dedicated fodder crop residues on the basis of presence of livestock. The high deficit of fodder crop residues in hill and mountain is observed where the issue of energy generation from these residues will be ludicrous. As a contrary, the annual production of such residues for livestock fodder in lowland meets annual demand with modest surplus even if entire fodder to be derived from the residues throughout a year and thus there seems to be further potential to utilize the surplus residues for energy generation.

Keywords: crop residues, hill, lowland, mountain

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12 Energy Storage Modelling for Power System Reliability and Environmental Compliance

Authors: Rajesh Karki, Safal Bhattarai, Saket Adhikari

Abstract:

Reliable and economic operation of power systems are becoming extremely challenging with large scale integration of renewable energy sources due to the intermittency and uncertainty associated with renewable power generation. It is, therefore, important to make a quantitative risk assessment and explore the potential resources to mitigate such risks. Probabilistic models for different energy storage systems (ESS), such as the flywheel energy storage system (FESS) and the compressed air energy storage (CAES) incorporating specific charge/discharge performance and failure characteristics suitable for probabilistic risk assessment in power system operation and planning are presented in this paper. The proposed methodology used in FESS modelling offers flexibility to accommodate different configurations of plant topology. It is perceived that CAES has a high potential for grid-scale application, and a hybrid approach is proposed, which embeds a Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) method in an analytical technique to develop a suitable reliability model of the CAES. The proposed ESS models are applied to a test system to investigate the economic and reliability benefits of the energy storage technologies in system operation and planning, as well as to assess their contributions in facilitating wind integration during different operating scenarios. A comparative study considering various storage system topologies are also presented. The impacts of failure rates of the critical components of ESS on the expected state of charge (SOC) and the performance of the different types of ESS during operation are illustrated with selected studies on the test system. The paper also applies the proposed models on the test system to investigate the economic and reliability benefits of the different ESS technologies and to evaluate their contributions in facilitating wind integration during different operating scenarios and system configurations. The conclusions drawn from the study results provide valuable information to help policymakers, system planners, and operators in arriving at effective and efficient policies, investment decisions, and operating strategies for planning and operation of power systems with large penetrations of renewable energy sources.

Keywords: flywheel energy storage, compressed air energy storage, power system reliability, renewable energy, system planning, system operation

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