Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 255

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nuclear and Quantum Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

255 The Structural and Electrical Properties of Cadmium Implanted Silicon Diodes at Room Temperature

Authors: J. O. Bodunrin, S. J. Moloi

Abstract:

This study reports on the x-ray crystallography (XRD) structure of cadmium-implanted p-type silicon, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of unimplanted and cadmium-implanted silicon-based diodes. Cadmium was implanted at the energy of 160 KeV to the fluence of 10¹⁵ ion/cm². The results obtained indicate that the diodes were well fabricated, and the introduction of cadmium results in a change in behavior of the diodes from normal exponential to ohmic I-V behavior. The C-V measurements, on the other hand, show that the measured capacitance increased after cadmium doping due to the injected charge carriers. The doping density of the p-Si material and the device's Schottky barrier height was extracted, and the doping density of the undoped p-Si material increased after cadmium doping while the Schottky barrier height reduced. In general, the results obtained here are similar to those obtained on the diodes fabricated on radiation-hard material, indicating that cadmium is a promising metal dopant to improve the radiation hardness of silicon. Thus, this study would assist in adding possible options to improve the radiation hardness of silicon to be used in high energy physics experiments.

Keywords: X-Ray Crystallography, cadmium, XRD, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, high energy physics experiment

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254 Coupled Exciton - Surface Plasmon Polariton Enhanced Photoresponse of Two-Dimensional Hydrogenated Honeycomb Silicon Boride

Authors: Farzaneh Shayeganfar, Ali Ramazani

Abstract:

Exciton (strong electronic interaction of electron-hole) and hot carriers created by surface plasmon polaritons has been demonstrated in nanoscale optoelectronic devices, enhancing the photoresponse of the system. Herein, we employ a quantum framework to consider coupled exciton- hot carriers effects on photovoltaiv energy distribution, scattering process, polarizability and light emission of 2D-semicnductor. We use density functional theory (DFT) to design computationally a semi-functionalized 2D honeycomb silicon boride (SiB) monolayer with H atoms, suitable for photovoltaics. The dynamical stability, electronic and optical properties of SiB and semi-hydrogenated SiB structures were investigated utilizing the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The calculated phonon dispersion shows that while an unhydrogenated SiB monolayer is dynamically unstable, surface semi-hydrogenation improves the stability of the structure and leads to a transition from metallic to semiconducting conductivity with a direct band gap of about 1.57 eV, appropriate for photovoltaic applications. The optical conductivity of this H-SiB structure, determined using the random phase approximation (RPA), shows that light adsorption should begin at the boundary of the visible range of light. Additionally, due to hydrogenation, the reflectivity spectrum declines sharply with respect to the unhydrogenated reflectivity spectrum in the IR and visible ranges of light. The energy band gap remains direct, increasing from 0.9 to 1.8 eV, upon increasing the strain from -6% (compressive) to +6% (tensile). Additionally, compressive and tensile strains lead, respectively, to red and blue shifts of optical the conductivity threshold around the visible range of light. Overall, this study suggests that H-SiB monolayers are suitable as two-dimensional solar cell materials.

Keywords: surface plasmon, strain engineering, hot carrier, valley polariton

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253 COVID-19 Teaches Probability Risk Assessment

Authors: Sean Sloan

Abstract:

Probability Risk Assessments (PRA) can be a difficult concept for students to grasp. So in searching for different ways to describe PRA to relate it to their lives; COVID-19 came up. The parallels are amazing. Soon students began analyzing acceptable risk with the virus. This helped them to quantify just how dangerous is dangerous. The original lesson was dismissed and for the remainder of the period, the probability of risk, and the lethality of risk became the topic. Spreading events such as a COVID carrier on an airline became analogous to single fault casualties such as a Tsunami. Odds of spreading became odds of backup-diesel-generator failure – like with Fukashima Daiichi. Fatalities of the disease became expected fatalities due to radiation spread. Quantification from this discussion took it from hyperbole and emotion into one where we could rationally base guidelines. It has been one of the most effective educational devices observed.

Keywords: Education, Probability, Risk, COVID

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252 Optimal Beam for Accelerator Driven Systems

Authors: M. Paraipan, V. M. Javadova, S. I. Tyutyunnikov

Abstract:

The concept of energy amplifier or accelerator driven system (ADS) involves the use of a particle accelerator coupled with a nuclear reactor. The accelerated particle beam generates a supplementary source of neutrons, which allows the subcritical functioning of the reactor, and consequently a safe exploitation. The harder neutron spectrum realized ensures a better incineration of the actinides. The almost generalized opinion is that the optimal beam for ADS is represented by protons with energy around 1 GeV (gigaelectronvolt). In the present work, a systematic analysis of the energy gain for proton beams with energy from 0.5 to 3 GeV and ion beams from deuteron to neon with energies between 0.25 and 2 AGeV is performed. The target is an assembly of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel rods in a bath of lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. The rods length is 150 cm. A beryllium converter with length 110 cm is used in order to maximize the energy released in the target. The case of a linear accelerator is considered, with a beam intensity of 1.25‧10¹⁶ p/s, and a total accelerator efficiency of 0.18 for proton beam. These values are planned to be achieved in the European Spallation Source project. The energy gain G is calculated as the ratio between the energy released in the target to the energy spent to accelerate the beam. The energy released is obtained through simulation with the code Geant4. The energy spent is calculating by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for the reference particle (proton). The analysis concerns the G values, the net power produce, the accelerator length, and the period between refueling. The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV. At this energy, G reaches a plateau around a value of 8 and a net power production of 120 MW (megawatt). Starting with alpha, ion beams have a higher G than 1.5 GeV protons. A beam of 0.25 AGeV(gigaelectronvolt per nucleon) ⁷Li realizes the same net power production as 1.5 GeV protons, has a G of 15, and needs an accelerator length 2.6 times lower than for protons, representing the best solution for ADS. Beams of ¹⁶O or ²⁰Ne with energy 0.75 AGeV, accelerated in an accelerator with the same length as 1.5 GeV protons produce approximately 900 MW net power, with a gain of 23-25. The study of the evolution of the isotopes composition during irradiation shows that the increase in power production diminishes the period between refueling. For a net power produced of 120 MW, the target can be irradiated approximately 5000 days without refueling, but only 600 days when the net power reaches 1 GW (gigawatt).

Keywords: Electrical Power, ion beam, Accelerator Driven System, energy gain

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251 Integrating Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment to Decrease Risk & Energy Consumption in a Typical PWR

Authors: Ebrahim Ghanbari, Mohammad Reza Nematollahi

Abstract:

Integrating deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment (IDPSA) is one of the most commonly used issues in the field of safety analysis of power plant accident. It has also been recognized today that the role of human error in creating these accidents is not less than systemic errors, so the human interference and system errors in fault and event sequences are necessary. The integration of these analytical topics will be reflected in the frequency of core damage and also the study of the use of water resources in an accident such as the loss of all electrical power of the plant. In this regard, the SBO accident was simulated for the pressurized water reactor in the deterministic analysis issue, and by analyzing the operator's behavior in controlling the accident, the results of the combination of deterministic and probabilistic assessment were identified. The results showed that the best performance of the plant operator would reduce the risk of an accident by 10%, as well as a decrease of 6.82 liters/second of the water sources of the plant.

Keywords: Risk, Human error, SBO, IDPSA

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250 Numerical Investigation of AL₂O₃ Nanoparticle Effect on a Boiling Forced Swirl Flow Field

Authors: Alireza Atf, Ataollah Rabiee1, Amir Hossein Kamalinia

Abstract:

One of the most important issues in the design of nuclear fusion power plants is the heat removal from the hottest region at the diverter. Various methods could be employed in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, such as generating turbulent flow and injection of nanoparticles in the host fluid. In the current study, Water/AL₂O₃ nanofluid forced swirl flow boiling has been investigated by using a homogeneous thermophysical model within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework through a twisted tape tube, and the boiling phenomenon was modeled using the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) approach. In addition to comparing the results with the experimental data and their reasonable agreement, it was evidenced that higher flow mixing results in more uniform bulk temperature and lower wall temperature along the twisted tape tube. The presence of AL₂O₃ nanoparticles in the boiling flow field showed that increasing the nanoparticle concentration leads to a reduced vapor volume fraction and wall temperature. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the average heat transfer coefficient in the tube increases both by increasing the nanoparticle concentration and the insertion of twisted tape, which significantly affects the thermal field of the boiling flow.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, CFD, Boiling, ITER, two phase flow, alumina

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249 Automated System: Managing the Production and Distribution of Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: Shayma Mohammed, Adel Trabelsi

Abstract:

Radiopharmacy is the art of preparing high-quality, radioactive, medicinal products for use in diagnosis and therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals unlike normal medicines, this dual aspect (radioactive, medical) makes their management highly critical. One of the most convincing applications of modern technologies is the ability to delegate the execution of repetitive tasks to programming scripts. Automation has found its way to the most skilled jobs, to improve the company's overall performance by allowing human workers to focus on more important tasks than document filling. This project aims to contribute to implement a comprehensive system to insure rigorous management of radiopharmaceuticals through the use of a platform that links the Nuclear Medicine Service Management System to the Nuclear Radio-pharmacy Management System in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this project we attempt to build a web application that targets radiopharmacies, the platform is built atop the inherently compatible web stack which allows it to work in virtually any environment. Different technologies are used in this project (PHP, Symfony, MySQL Workbench, Bootstrap, Angular 7, Visual Studio Code and TypeScript). The operating principle of the platform is mainly based on two parts: Radiopharmaceutical Backoffice for the Radiopharmacian, who is responsible for the realization of radiopharmaceutical preparations and their delivery and Medical Backoffice for the Doctor, who holds the authorization for the possession and use of radionuclides and he/she is responsible for ordering radioactive products. The application consists of sven modules: Production, Quality Control/Quality Assurance, Release, General Management, References, Transport and Stock Management. It allows 8 classes of users: The Production Manager (PM), Quality Control Manager (QCM), Stock Manager (SM), General Manager (GM), Client (Doctor), Parking and Transport Manager (PTM), Qualified Person (QP) and Technical and Production Staff. Digital platform bringing together all players involved in the use of radiopharmaceuticals and integrating the stages of preparation, production and distribution, Web technologies, in particular, promise to offer all the benefits of automation while requiring no more than a web browser to act as a user client, which is a strength because the web stack is by nature multi-platform. This platform will provide a traceability system for radiopharmaceuticals products to ensure the safety and radioprotection of actors and of patients. The new integrated platform is an alternative to write all the boilerplate paperwork manually, which is a tedious and error-prone task. It would minimize manual human manipulation, which has proven to be the main source of error in nuclear medicine. A codified electronic transfer of information from radiopharmaceutical preparation to delivery will further reduce the risk of maladministration.

Keywords: Management, Radiopharmacy, automated system, technical papers

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248 Micro-Cantilever Tests on Hydride Blister and Zirconium Matrix of Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tube

Authors: Ho-A Kim, Jae-Soo Noh

Abstract:

During reactor operation, hydride blister can occur in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) claddings, and it could worsen the integrity of the claddings locally. Hydride blister can be critical when a pinch-type load is applied in the process of SNF handling and transportation. Micro-cantilever tests were performed to evaluate the risk of local hydride blister by comparing the fracture toughness of local hydride blister and pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix of SNF cladding on a microscale. Hydride blister was generated by a gaseous charging procedure to simulate an SNF cladding. Micro-cantilevers and pre-cracks were ion-milled with the Ga+ ion beam of FEI Helios 600 at 30kV acceleration voltage. Micro-cantilever tests were conducted using PI 85 pico-indenter (HYSTRON) with for sided conductive diamond flat tip (1 μm x 1 μm) at a speed of 5 nm/sec. The results show that the hydride blister specimen could be fractured in the elastic deformation region, and the fracture toughness of the hydride blister specimen could drop up to 60% of that of the pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix. Therefore, local hydride blister can degrade the integrity of SNF cladding, and the effect of hydride blister should be taken into account when evaluating failure criteria of claddings during handling, storage, and transportation of SNF.

Keywords: fracture toughness, hydride blister, micro-cantilever test, spent nuclear fuel cladding

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247 Modeling of Hydrogen Production by Inductively Coupled Methane Plasma for Input Power Pin=700W

Authors: Djilali Benyoucef, Abdelatif Gadoum, Mouloudj Hadj, Mohamed Habib Allah Lahoual, Alla Eddine Toubal Maamar

Abstract:

Hydrogen occurs naturally in the form of chemical compounds, most often in water and hydrocarbons. The main objective of this study is 2D modeling of hydrogen production in inductively coupled plasma in methane at low pressure. In the present model, we include the motions and the collisions of both neutral and charged particles by considering 19 species (i.e in total ; neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons), and more than 120 reactions (electron impact with methane, neutral-neutral, neutral-ions and surface reactions). The results show that the rate conversion of methane reach 90% and the hydrogen production is about 30%.

Keywords: Hydrogen production, inductively coupled plasma, fluid model, methane plasma

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246 Implications of Fuel Reloading in Heterogeneous Thorium-Based Fuel Designs for Improved Fuel Cycle Characteristics

Authors: Hendrik Bernard Van Der Walt, Frik Van Niekerk

Abstract:

Fuel models render a reduction in BOL when thorium is added to a reactor core. Thorium emulates the role of a fertile poison, and is beneficial for reducing beginning of cycle (BOC) excess reactivity. In spite of the build-up of 233U over the duration of a fuel cycle, the effects of fuel reloading have a significant impact on fuel viability, especially in the case of heterogeneous thorium-based fuels. The most common practice of compensating for the reduction of BOC reactivity is the addition of fissile isotopes (uranium fuel with increased enrichment or plutonium). This study introduces a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel with minimal fissile isotope additions. A pseudo reloading scheme was developed for numerical simulations of an infinite reactor based on the North-Anna 1 reactor operating in Virginia, USA. Use of this reloading pattern allows new thorium-based fuel to be loaded into the reactor model as part of a phasing in strategy at the end of any conventional reactor cycle. Results demonstrate the effects of thorium-based fuel on fuel cycle characteristics such as fuel cycle length, neutron economy and material matrix. Application of the above mentioned approach delivered promising results and presents a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel which could replace conventional fuel of typical, currently operating (or future) reactors without the need for expensive reactor redesign or fuel recycling strategies.

Keywords: Nuclear Fuel, Nuclear Fuel Cycle, nuclear characteristics, thorium-based fuel, heterogeneous design, fuel reloading

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245 Nuclear Characteristics of a Heterogeneous Thorium-Based Fuel Design Aimed at Increasing Fuel Cycle Length of a Typical PWR

Authors: Hendrik Bernard Van Der Walt, Frik Van Niekerk

Abstract:

Heterogeneous thorium-based fuels have been proposed as an alternative for conventional reactor fuels and many studies have shown promising results. Fuel cycle characteristics still have to be explored in detail. This study investigates the use of a novel thorium-based fuel design aimed at increasing fuel cycle length of a typical PWR with an explicit focus on thorium- uranium content, neutron spectrum, flux considerations and neutron economy.As nuclear reactions are highly dependent on reactor flux and material matrix, analytical and numerical calculations have been completed to predict the behaviour of the proposed nuclear fuel. The proposed design utilizes various ratios of thorium oxide and uranium oxide pellets within fuel pins, divided into heterogeneous sections of specified length. This design renders multiple regions with unique characteristics. The goal of this study is to determine and optimally utilize these characteristics. Proliferation considerations result in the need for denaturing of heterogeneous regions, which renders more unique characteristics, these aspects were examined in this study. Finally, the use of fertile thorium to emulate a burnable poison for managing excess BOL reactivity has been investigated, as well as an option for flux shaping in a typical PWR.

Keywords: Nuclear Fuel, Nuclear Fuel Cycle, nuclear characteristics, thorium-based fuel, heterogeneous design

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244 Heavy Liquid Metal Coolant – the Key Safety Element in the Complex of New Nuclear Energy Technologies

Authors: A. Orlov, V. Rachkov

Abstract:

The future of Nuclear Energetics is seen in fast reactors with inherent safety working in the closed nuclear fuel cycle. The concept of inherent safety, which lies in deterministic elimination of the most severe accidents due to inherent properties of the reactor rather than through building up engineered barriers, is a cornerstone of success in ensuring safety and economic efficiency of future Nuclear Energetics. The focus of this paper is one of the key elements of inherent safety - the lead coolant of a nuclear reactor. Advantages of lead coolant for reactor application, influence on safety are reviewed. BREST-OD-300 fast reactor, currently being developed in Russia withing the “Proryv” Project utilizes lead coolant and a special set of measures and devices, called technology of lead coolant that ensures safe operation in a wide range of temperatures. Here these technological elements are reviewed, and current progress in their development is discussed.

Keywords: BREST-OD-300, fast reactor, inherent safety, lead coolant

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243 Quantifying Parallelism of Vectors Is the Quantification of Distributed N-Party Entanglement

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Prasanta K. Panigrahi

Abstract:

The three-way distributive entanglement is shown to be related to the parallelism of vectors. Using a measurement-based approach a set of 2−dimensional vectors is formed, representing the post-measurement states of one of the parties. These vectors originate at the same point and have an angular distance between them. The area spanned by a pair of such vectors is a measure of the entanglement of formation. This leads to a geometrical manifestation of the 3−tangle in 2−dimensions, from inequality in the area which generalizes for n− qubits to reveal that the n− tangle also has a planar structure. Quantifying the genuine n−party entanglement in every 1|(n − 1) bi-partition it is shown that the genuine n−way entanglement does not manifest in n− tangle. A new quantity geometrically similar to 3−tangle is then introduced that represents the genuine n− way entanglement. Extending the formalism to 3− qutrits, the nonlocality without entanglement can be seen to arise from a condition under which the post-measurement state vectors of a separable state show parallelism. A connection to nontrivial sum uncertainty relation analogous to Maccone and Pati uncertainty relation is then presented using decomposition of post-measurement state vectors along parallel and perpendicular direction of the pre-measurement state vectors. This study opens a novel way to understand multiparty entanglement in qubit and qudit systems.

Keywords: Geometry of quantum entanglement, Multipartite and distributive entanglement, Parallelism of vectors, Tangle

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242 Numerical Modeling of Film Cooling of the Surface at Non-Uniform Heat Flux Distributions on the Wall

Authors: M. V. Bartashevich

Abstract:

The problem of heat transfer at thin laminar liquid film is solved numerically. A thin film of liquid flows down an inclined surface under conditions of variable heat flux on the wall. The use of thin films of liquid allows to create the effective technologies for cooling surfaces. However, it is important to investigate the most suitable cooling regimes from a safety point of view, in order, for example, to avoid overheating caused by the ruptures of the liquid film, and also to study the most effective cooling regimes depending on the character of the distribution of the heat flux on the wall, as well as the character of the blowing of the film surface, i.e., the external shear stress on its surface. In the statement of the problem on the film surface, the heat transfer coefficient between the liquid and gas is set, as well as a variable external shear stress - the intensity of blowing. It is shown that the combination of these factors - the degree of uniformity of the distribution of heat flux on the wall and the intensity of blowing, affects the efficiency of heat transfer. In this case, with an increase in the intensity of blowing, the cooling efficiency increases, reaching a maximum, and then decreases. It is also shown that the more uniform the heating of the wall, the more efficient the heat sink. A separate study was made for the flow regime along the horizontal surface when the liquid film moves solely due to external stress influence. For this mode, the analytical solution is used for the temperature at the entrance region for further numerical calculations downstream. Also the influence of the degree of uniformity of the heat flux distribution on the wall and the intensity of blowing of the film surface on the heat transfer efficiency was also studied. This work was carried out at the Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS (Russia) and supported by FASO Russia.

Keywords: Heat Transfer Enhancement, Heat Flux, thin liquid film, External Blowing

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241 Modelling Phase Transformations in Zircaloy-4 Fuel Cladding under Transient Heating Rates

Authors: Jefri Draup, Antoine Ambard, Chi-Toan Nguyen

Abstract:

Zirconium alloys exhibit solid-state phase transformations under thermal loading. These can lead to a significant evolution of the microstructure and associated mechanical properties of materials used in nuclear fuel cladding structures. Therefore, the ability to capture effects of phase transformation on the material constitutive behavior is of interest during conditions of severe transient thermal loading. Whilst typical Avrami, or Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK), type models for phase transformations have been shown to have a good correlation with the behavior of Zircaloy-4 under constant heating rates, the effects of variable and fast heating rates are not fully explored. The present study utilises the results of in-situ high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) measurements in order to validate the phase transformation models for Zircaloy-4 under fast variable heating rates. These models are used to assess the performance of fuel cladding structures under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. The results indicate that simple Avrami type models can provide a reasonable indication of the phase distribution in experimental test specimens under variable fast thermal loading. However, the accuracy of these models deteriorates under the faster heating regimes, i.e., 100Cs⁻¹. The studies highlight areas for improvement of simple Avrami type models, such as the inclusion of temperature rate dependence of the JMAK n-exponent.

Keywords: Modelling, Fuel, accident, zirconium

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240 Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for a Hypothetical Accidental Release from the 3 MW TRIGA Research Reactor of Bangladesh

Authors: G. R. Khan, Sadia Mahjabin, A. S. Mollah, M. R. Mawla

Abstract:

Atmospheric dispersion modeling is significant for any nuclear facilities in the country to predict the impact of radiological doses on environment as well as human health. That is why to ensure safety of workers and population at plant site; Atmospheric dispersion modeling and radiation dose calculations were carried out for a hypothetical accidental release of airborne radionuclide from the 3 MW TRIGA research reactor of Savar, Bangladesh. It is designed with reactor core which consists of 100 fuel elements(1.82245 cm in diameter and 38.1 cm in length), arranged in an annular corefor steady-state and square wave power level of 3 MW (thermal) and for pulsing with maximum power level of 860MWth.The fuel is in the form of a uniform mixture of 20% uranium and 80% zirconium hydride. Total effective doses (TEDs) to the public at various downwind distances were evaluated with a health physics computer code “HotSpot” developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA. The doses were estimated at different Pasquill stability classes (categories A-F) with site-specific averaged meteorological conditions. The meteorological data, such as, average wind speed, frequency distribution of wind direction, etc. have also been analyzed based on the data collected near the reactor site. The results of effective doses obtained remain within the recommended maximum effective dose.

Keywords: dispersion modeling, TRIGA, accidental release, total effective dose

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239 Influence of Silica Surface Hydrophilicity on Adsorbed Water and Isopropanol Studied by in-situ NMR

Authors: Yue Wu, Hyung T. Kwak, Jun Gao, Yao An, Alfred Kleinhammes

Abstract:

Surface wettability is a crucial factor in oil recovery. In oil industry, the rock wettability involves the interplay between water, oil, and solid surface. Therefore, studying the interplay between adsorptions of water and hydrocarbon molecules on solid surface would be very informative for understanding rock wettability. Here we use the in-situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) gas isotherm technique to study competitive adsorptions of water and isopropanol, an intermediate step from hydrocarbons. This in-situ NMR technique obtains information on thermodynamic properties such as the isotherm, molecular dynamics via spin relaxation measurements, and adsorption kinetics such as how fast the system can reach thermal equilibrium after changes of vapor pressures. Using surfaces of silica glass beads, which can be modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, we obtained information on the influence of surface hydrophilicity on the state of surface water via obtained thermodynamic and dynamic properties.

Keywords: Adsorption, NMR, Wettability, hydrophilicity, Gas Isotherm

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238 Effect on the Integrity of the DN300 Pipe and Valves in the Cooling Water System Imposed by the Pipes and Ventilation Pipes above in an Earthquake Situation

Authors: Liang Zhang, Yue Wang, Gang Xu, Chen Li, Shao Chong Zhou

Abstract:

Presently, more and more nuclear power plants are facing the issue of life extension. When a nuclear power plant applies for an extension of life, its condition needs to meet the current design standards, which is not fine for all old reactors, typically for seismic design. Seismic-grade equipment in nuclear power plants are now generally placed separately from the non-seismic-grade equipment, but it was not strictly required before. Therefore, it is very important to study whether non-seismic-grade equipment will affect the seismic-grade equipment when dropped down in an earthquake situation, which is related to the safety of nuclear power plants and future life extension applications. This research was based on the cooling water system with the seismic and non-seismic grade equipment installed together, as an example to study whether the non-seismic-grade equipment such as DN50 fire pipes and ventilation pipes arranged above will damage the DN300 pipes and valves arranged below when earthquakes occur. In the study, the simulation was carried out by ANSYS / LY-DYNA, and Johnson-Cook was used as the material model and failure model. For the experiments, the relative positions of objects in the room were restored by 1: 1. In the experiment, the pipes and valves were filled with water with a pressure of 0.785 MPa. The pressure-holding performance of the pipe was used as a criterion for damage. In addition to the pressure-holding performance, the opening torque was considered as well for the valves. The research results show that when the 10-meter-long DN50 pipe was dropped from the position of 8 meters height and the 8-meter-long air pipe dropped from a position of 3.6 meters height, they do not affect the integrity of DN300 pipe below. There is no failure phenomenon in the simulation as well. After the experiment, the pressure drop in two hours for the pipe is less than 0.1%. The main body of the valve does not fail either. The opening torque change after the experiment is less than 0.5%, but the handwheel of the valve may break, which affects the opening actions. In summary, impacts of the upper pipes and ventilation pipes dropdown on the integrity of the DN300 pipes and valves below in a cooling water system of a typical second-generation nuclear power plant under an earthquake was studied. As a result, the functionality of the DN300 pipeline and the valves themselves are not significantly affected, but the handwheel of the valve or similar articles can probably be broken and need to take care.

Keywords: Earthquake, Integrity, cooling water system, pipe and valve

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237 Effects of Level Densities and Those of a-Parameter in the Framework of Preequilibrium Model for 63,65Cu(n,xp) Reactions in Neutrons at 9 to 15 MeV

Authors: L. Yettou

Abstract:

In this study, the calculations of proton emission spectra produced by 63Cu(n,xp) and 65Cu(n,xp) reactions are used in the framework of preequilibrium models using the EMPIRE code and TALYS code. Exciton Model predidtions combined with the Kalbach angular distribution systematics and the Hybrid Monte Carlo Simulation (HMS) were used. The effects of levels densities and those of a-parameter have been investigated for our calculations. The comparison with experimental data shows clear improvement over the Exciton Model and HMS calculations.

Keywords: Preequilibrium models, level density, level density a-parameter, Empire code, Talys code

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236 Preliminary Study on the Factors Affecting Safety Parameters of (Th, U)O₂ Fuel Cycle: The Basis for Choosing Three Fissile Enrichment Zones

Authors: E. H. Uguru, S. F. A. Sani, M. U. Khandaker, M. H. Rabir

Abstract:

The beginning of cycle transient safety parameters is paramount for smooth reactor operation. The enhanced operational safety of UO₂ fuelled AP1000 reactor being the first using three fissile enrichment zones motivated this research for (Th, U)O₂ fuel. This study evaluated the impact of fissile enrichment, soluble boron, and gadolinia on the transient safety parameters to determine the basis for choosing the three fissile enrichment zones. Fuel assembly and core model of Westinghouse small modular reactor were investigated using different fuel and reactivity control arrangements. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) integrated with CINDER90 burn-up code was used for the calculations. The results show that the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity (MTC) and the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity (FTC) were respectively negative and decreased with increasing fissile enrichment. Soluble boron significantly decreased the MTC but slightly increased FTC while gadolinia followed the same trend with a minor impact. However, the MTC and FTC respectively decreased significantly with increasing change in temperature. These results provide a guide on the considerable factors in choosing the three fissile enrichment zones for (Th, U)O₂ fuel in anticipation of their impact on safety parameters. Therefore, this study provides foundational results on the factors that must be considered in choosing three fissile arrangement zones for (Th, U)O₂ fuel.

Keywords: Reactivity, Thorium Fuel Cycle, safety parameters, small modular reactor, soluble boron

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235 MR Enterography Findings in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease

Authors: Karolina Siejka, Monika Piekarska, Monika Zbroja, Weronika Cyranka, Maryla Kuczynska, Magdalena Grzegorczyk, Malgorzata Nowakowska, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Magdalena Maria Wozniak

Abstract:

Crohn’s disease is one of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. It is increasing in prevalence worldwide, especially with young people. The disease usually occurs in the second to the fourth decade of life. Traditionally is diagnosed by clinical indicates, endoscopic, and histological findings. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) can demonstrate mural and extramural inflammatory signs and complications, which make it a valuable diagnostic modality. The study included 76 adults and 36 children diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Each patient underwent MRE with intravenous administration of a contrast agent. All the studies were performed using Siemens Aera 1.5T scanner according to a local study protocol. Whenever applicable, MR Enterography findings were verified with endoscopy. Forty adults and all 36 children had an active phase of Crohn’s disease; five adults had a chronic phase of the disease; one adult had both chronic and active inflammatory features. Thirty adults have no sings of pathology. In both adult and pediatric groups the most commonly observed manifestation of active disease was thickened edematous ileum wall (26 adults and 36 children). Adults had Bauhin’s valve edema in 58% cases (n=23) and mesenteric changes in 34% cases (n=9). To compare, 32 children had Bauhin’s valve edema (89%) and, in 23 cases, was found inflammatory infiltration of the peri-intestinal fat (64%). The involvement of the large intestine was more common among children (100%). Complications of Crohn’s disease were found commonly in adults (40% of adults, 22% of children). There were observed 18 fistulas (14 adults, four children) and six abscesses (2 adults, four children). MRE is a reliable method in the evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity, especially of its complications. The lack of radiations makes MRE well-tolerated modality, which can be often repeated, particularly in young patients. The disease had different medical sings depending on age – children often had a more active inflammatory process, but there were more complications in the adult group.

Keywords: Diagnostics, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Crohn's disease, magnetic resonance enterography, MRE

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234 An Atomistic Approach to Define Continuum Mechanical Quantities in One Dimensional Nanostructures at Finite Temperature

Authors: Ajeet Kumar, Smriti

Abstract:

We present a variant of the Irving-Kirkwood procedure to obtain the microscopic expressions of the cross-section averaged continuum fields such as internal force and moment in one-dimensional nanostructures in the non-equilibrium setting. In one-dimensional continuum theories for slender bodies, we deal with quantities such as mass, linear momentum, angular momentum, and strain energy densities, all defined per unit length. These quantities are obtained by integrating the corresponding pointwise (per unit volume) quantities over the cross-section of the slender body. However, no well-defined cross-section exists for these nanostructures at finite temperature. We thus define the cross-section of a nanorod to be an infinite plane which is fixed in space even when time progresses and defines the above continuum quantities by integrating the pointwise microscopic quantities over this infinite plane. The method yields explicit expressions of both the potential and kinetic parts of the above quantities. We further specialize in these expressions for helically repeating one-dimensional nanostructures in order to use them in molecular dynamics study of extension, torsion, and bending of such nanostructures. As, the Irving-Kirkwood procedure does not yield expressions of stiffnesses, we resort to a thermodynamic equilibrium approach to obtain the expressions of axial force, twisting moment, bending moment, and the associated stiffnesses by taking the first and second derivatives of the Helmholtz free energy with respect to conjugate strain measures. The equilibrium approach yields expressions independent of kinetic terms. We then establish the equivalence of the expressions obtained using the two approaches. The derived expressions are used to understand the extension, torsion, and bending of single-walled carbon nanotubes at non-zero temperatures.

Keywords: Molecular Dynamics, thermoelasticity, one dimensional nanostructures, nanotube buckling

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233 Study of Proton-9,11Li Elastic Scattering at 60~75 MeV/Nucleon

Authors: Arafa A. Alholaisi, Jamal H. Madani, M. A. Alvi

Abstract:

The radial form of nuclear matter distribution, charge and the shape of nuclei are essential properties of nuclei, and hence, are of great attention for several areas of research in nuclear physics. More than last three decades have witnessed a range of experimental means employing leptonic probes (such as muons, electrons etc.) for exploring nuclear charge distributions, whereas the hadronic probes (for example alpha particles, protons, etc.) have been used to investigate the nuclear matter distributions. In this paper, p-9,11Li elastic scattering differential cross sections in the energy range  to  MeV have been studied by means of Coulomb modified Glauber scattering formalism. By applying the semi-phenomenological Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil [BGP] nuclear density for loosely bound neutron rich 11Li nucleus, the estimated matter radius is found to be 3.446 fm which is quite large as compared to so known experimental value 3.12 fm. The results of microscopic optical model based calculation by applying Bethe-Brueckner–Hartree–Fock formalism (BHF) have also been compared. It should be noted that in most of phenomenological density model used to reproduce the p-11Li differential elastic scattering cross sections data, the calculated matter radius lies between 2.964 and 3.55 fm. The calculated results with phenomenological BGP model density and with nucleon density calculated in the relativistic mean-field (RMF) reproduces p-9Li and p-11Li experimental data quite nicely as compared to Gaussian- Gaussian or Gaussian-Oscillator densities at all energies under consideration. In the approach described here, no free/adjustable parameter has been employed to reproduce the elastic scattering data as against the well-known optical model based studies that involve at least four to six adjustable parameters to match the experimental data. Calculated reaction cross sections σR for p-11Li at these energies are quite large as compared to estimated values reported by earlier works though so far no experimental studies have been performed to measure it.

Keywords: Bhagwat-Gambhir-Patil density, Coulomb modified Glauber model, halo nucleus, optical limit approximation

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232 Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe, Jinya Katsuyama, Akihiro Mano

Abstract:

The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.

Keywords: roughness, crack, leak, critical flow

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231 Radionuclide Contents and Exhalation Studies in Soil Samples from Sub-Mountainous Region of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Manpreet Kaur

Abstract:

The effect of external and internal exposure in outdoor and indoor environment can be significantly gauged by natural radionuclides. Therefore, it is a consequential to approximate the level of radionuclide contents in soil samples of any area and the risks associated with it. Rate of radon emerging from soil is also one of the prominent parameters for the assessment of radon levels in environmental. In present study, natural radionuclide contents viz. ²³²Th, ²³⁸U and ⁴⁰K and radon/thoron exhalation rates were evaluated operating thallium doped sodium iodide gamma radiation detector and advanced Smart Rn Duo technique in the soil samples from 30 villages of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Radon flux rate was also measured by using surface chamber technique. Results obtained with two different methods were compared to investigate the cause of emanation factor in the soil profile. The radon mass exhalation rate in the soil samples has been found varying from 15 ± 0.4 to 38 ± 0.8 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ while thoron surface exhalation rate has been found varying from 90 ± 22 to 4880 ± 280 Bq m⁻² h⁻¹. The mean value of radium equivalent activity (99 ± 27 Bq kg⁻¹) was appeared to be well within the admissible limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹ suggested by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009) report. The values of various parameters related to radiological hazards were also calculated and all parameters have been found to be well below the safe limits given by various organizations. The outcomes pointed out that region was protected from danger as per health risks effects associated with these radionuclide contents is concerned.

Keywords: Human Health, Radionuclide, absorbed dose rate, exhalation rate

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230 Solitons and Universes with Acceleration Driven by Bulk Particles

Authors: A. C. Amaro de Faria Jr, A. M. Canone

Abstract:

Considering a scenario where our universe is taken as a 3d domain wall embedded in a 5d dimensional Minkowski space-time, we explore the existence of a richer class of solitonic solutions and their consequences for accelerating universes driven by collisions of bulk particle excitations with the walls. In particular it is shown that some of these solutions should play a fundamental role at the beginning of the expansion process. We present some of these solutions in cosmological scenarios that can be applied to models that describe the inflationary period of the Universe.

Keywords: solitons, topological defects, branes, kinks, accelerating universes in brane scenarios

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229 Environmental Effect on Corrosion Fatigue Behaviors of Steam Generator Forging in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Environment

Authors: Ke Wang, Chen Sun, Yakui Bai

Abstract:

An experimental investigation of environmental effect on fatigue behavior in SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 Steam Generator Forging CAP1400 nuclear power plant has been carried out. In order to simulate actual loading condition, a range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests. The current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) design fatigue code does not take full account of the interactions of environmental, loading, and material's factors. A range of strain amplitude was applied in different low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests at a strain rate of 0.01%s⁻¹. A design fatigue model was constructed by taking environmentally assisted fatigue effects into account, and the corresponding design curves were given for the convenience of engineering applications. The corrosion fatigue experiment was performed in a strain control mode in 320℃ borated and lithiated water environment to evaluate the effects of a mixed environment on fatigue life. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in steam generator large forging in primary water of pressurized water reactor was also observed. In addition, it is found that the CF life of SA508 Gr.3 Cl.2 decreases with increasing temperature in the water environment. The relationship between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of fatigue life was found to be linear. Through experiments and subsequent analysis, the mechanisms of reduced low cycle fatigue life have been investigated for steam generator forging.

Keywords: low alloy steel, stress corrosion cracking, failure behavior, steam generator forging

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228 Outcome of Using Penpat Pinyowattanasilp Equation for Prediction of 24-Hour Uptake, First and Second Therapeutic Doses Calculation in Graves’ Disease Patient

Authors: Piyarat Parklug, Busaba Supawattanaobodee, Penpat Pinyowattanasilp

Abstract:

The radioactive iodine thyroid uptake (RAIU) has been widely used to differentiate the cause of thyrotoxicosis and treatment. Twenty-four hours RAIU is routinely used to calculate the dose of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy; however, 2 days protocol is required. This study aims to evaluate the modification of Penpat Pinyowattanasilp equation application by the exclusion of outlier data, 3 hours RAIU less than 20% and more than 80%, to improve prediction of 24-hour uptake. The equation is predicted 24 hours RAIU (P24RAIU) = 32.5+0.702 (3 hours RAIU). Then calculating separation first and second therapeutic doses in Graves’ disease patients. Methods; This study was a retrospective study at Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Inclusion were Graves’ disease patients who visited RAI clinic between January 2014-March 2019. We divided subjects into 2 groups according to first and second therapeutic doses. Results; Our study had a total of 151 patients. The study was done in 115 patients with first RAI dose and 36 patients with second RAI dose. The P24RAIU are highly correlated with actual 24-hour RAIU in first and second therapeutic doses (r = 0.913, 95% CI = 0.876 to 0.939 and r = 0.806, 95% CI = 0.649 to 0.897). Bland-Altman plot shows that mean differences between predictive and actual 24 hours RAI in the first dose and second dose were 2.14% (95%CI 0.83-3.46) and 1.37% (95%CI -1.41-4.14). The mean first actual and predictive therapeutic doses are 8.33 ± 4.93 and 7.38 ± 3.43 milliCuries (mCi) respectively. The mean second actual and predictive therapeutic doses are 6.51 ± 3.96 and 6.01 ± 3.11 mCi respectively. The predictive therapeutic doses are highly correlated with the actual dose in first and second therapeutic doses (r = 0.907, 95% CI = 0.868 to 0.935 and r = 0.953, 95% CI = 0.909 to 0.976). Bland-Altman plot shows that mean difference between predictive and actual P24RAIU in the first dose and second dose were less than 1 mCi (-0.94 and -0.5 mCi). This modification equation application is simply used in clinical practice especially patient with 3 hours RAIU in range of 20-80% in a Thai population. Before use, this equation for other population should be tested for the correlation.

Keywords: prediction, equation, Graves’disease

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227 Study of Temperature Distribution in Coolant Channel of Nuclear Power with Fuel Cylinder Element Using Fluent Software

Authors: Elham Zamiri

Abstract:

In this research, we have focused on numeral simulation of a fuel rod in order to examine distribution of heat temperature in components of fuel rod by Fluent software by providing steady state, single phase fluid flow, frequency heat flux in a fuel rod in nuclear reactor to numeral simulation. Results of examining different layers of a fuel rod consist of fuel layer, gap, pod, and fluid cooling flow, also examining thermal properties and fluids such as heat transition rate and pressure drop. The obtained results through analytical method and results of other sources have been compared and have appropriate correspondence. Results show that using heavy water as cooling fluid along with few layers of gas and pod have the ability of reducing the temperature from above 300 C to 70 C. This investigation is developable for any geometry and material used in the nuclear reactor.

Keywords: reactor, fluent software, nuclear fuel fission, numberal simulation, fuel rod

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226 Development of DEMO-FNS Hybrid Facility and Its Integration in Russian Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Authors: Yury S. Shpanskiy, Boris V. Kuteev

Abstract:

Development of a fusion-fission hybrid facility based on superconducting conventional tokamak DEMO-FNS runs in Russia since 2013. The main design goal is to reach the technical feasibility and outline prospects of industrial hybrid technologies providing the production of neutrons, fuel nuclides, tritium, high-temperature heat, electricity and subcritical transmutation in Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. The facility should operate in a steady-state mode at the fusion power of 40 MW and fission reactions of 400 MW. Major tokamak parameters are the following: major radius R=3.2 m, minor radius a=1.0 m, elongation 2.1, triangularity 0.5. The design provides the neutron wall loading of ~0.2 MW/m², the lifetime neutron fluence of ~2 MWa/m², with the surface area of the active cores and tritium breeding blanket ~100 m². Core plasma modelling showed that the neutron yield ~10¹⁹ n/s is maximal if the tritium/deuterium density ratio is 1.5-2.3. The design of the electromagnetic system (EMS) defined its basic parameters, accounting for the coils strength and stability, and identified the most problematic nodes in the toroidal field coils and the central solenoid. The EMS generates toroidal, poloidal and correcting magnetic fields necessary for the plasma shaping and confinement inside the vacuum vessel. EMC consists of eighteen superconducting toroidal field coils, eight poloidal field coils, five sections of a central solenoid, correction coils, in-vessel coils for vertical plasma control. Supporting structures, the thermal shield, and the cryostat maintain its operation. EMS operates with the pulse duration of up to 5000 hours at the plasma current up to 5 MA. The vacuum vessel (VV) is an all-welded two-layer toroidal shell placed inside the EMS. The free space between the vessel shells is filled with water and boron steel plates, which form the neutron protection of the EMS. The VV-volume is 265 m³, its mass with manifolds is 1800 tons. The nuclear blanket of DEMO-FNS facility was designed to provide functions of minor actinides transmutation, tritium production and enrichment of spent nuclear fuel. The vertical overloading of the subcritical active cores with MA was chosen as prospective. Analysis of the device neutronics and the hybrid blanket thermal-hydraulic characteristics has been performed for the system with functions covering transmutation of minor actinides, production of tritium and enrichment of spent nuclear fuel. A study of FNS facilities role in the Russian closed nuclear fuel cycle was performed. It showed that during ~100 years of operation three FNS facilities with fission power of 3 GW controlled by fusion neutron source with power of 40 MW can burn 98 tons of minor actinides and 198 tons of Pu-239 can be produced for startup loading of 20 fast reactors. Instead of Pu-239, up to 25 kg of tritium per year may be produced for startup of fusion reactors using blocks with lithium orthosilicate instead of fissile breeder blankets.

Keywords: Nuclear Fuel Cycle, fusion-fission hybrid system, conventional tokamak, superconducting electromagnetic system, two-layer vacuum vessel, subcritical active cores

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