Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 274

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nuclear and Quantum Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

274 Design and Simulation of a Radiation Spectrometer Using Scintillation Detectors

Authors: Waleed K. Saib, Abdulsalam M. Alhawsawi, Essam Banoqitah


The idea of this research is to design a radiation spectrometer using LSO scintillation detector coupled to a C series of SiPM (silicon photomultiplier). The device can be used to detects gamma and X-ray radiation. This device is also designed to estimates the activity of the source contamination. The SiPM will detect light in the visible range above the threshold and read them as counts. Three gamma sources were used for these experiments Cs-137, Am-241 and Co-60 with various activities. These sources are applied for four experiments operating the SiPM as a spectrometer, energy resolution, pile-up set and efficiency. The SiPM is connected to a MCA to perform as a spectrometer. Cerium doped Lutetium Silicate (Lu₂SiO₅) with light yield 26000 photons/Mev coupled with the SiPM. As a result, all the main features of the Cs-137, Am-241 and Co-60 are identified in MCA. The experiment shows how photon energy and probability of interaction are inversely related. Total attenuation reduces as photon energy increases. An analytical calculation was made to obtain the FWHM resolution for each gamma source. The FWHM resolution for Am-241 (59 keV) is 28.75 %, for Cs-137 (662 keV) is 7.85 %, for Co-60 (1173 keV) is 4.46 % and for Co-60 (1332 keV) is 3.70%. Moreover, the experiment shows that the dead time and counts number decreased when the pile-up rejection was disabled and the FWHM decreased when the pile-up was enabled. The efficiencies were calculated at four different distances from the detector 2, 4, 8 and 16 cm. The detection efficiency was observed to declined exponentially with increasing distance from the detector face. Conclusively, the SiPM board operated with an LSO scintillator crystal as a spectrometer. The SiPM energy resolution for the three gamma sources used was a decent comparison to other PMTs.

Keywords: PMT, radiation, radiation detection, scintillation detectors, silicon photomultiplier, spectrometer

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273 The Influence of Phosphate Fertilizers on Radiological Situation of Cultivated Lands: ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs Concentrations in Soil

Authors: Grzegorz Szaciłowski, Marta Konop, Małgorzata Dymecka, Jakub Ośko


In 1996, the European Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM pointed phosphate fertilizers to have a potentially negative influence on the environment from the radiation protection point of view. Fertilizers along with irrigation and crop rotation were the milestones that allowed to increase agricultural productivity. Firstly based on natural materials such as compost, manure, fish processing waste, etc., and since the 19th century created synthetically, fertilizers caused a boom in crop yield and helped to propel global food production, especially after World War II. In this work the concentrations of ²¹⁰Po, ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, ⁴⁰K, and ¹³⁷Cs in selected fertilizers and soil samples were determined. The results were used to calculate the annual addition of natural radionuclides and increment of the external radiation exposure caused by the use of studied fertilizers. Soils intended for different types of crops were sampled in early spring when no vegetation had occurred yet. Analysed fertilizers were those with which the soil was previously fertilized. For gamma radionuclides, a high purity germanium detector GX3520 from Canberra was used. The polonium concentration was determined by radiochemical separation followed by measurement by means of alpha spectrometry. The spectrometer used in this study was equipped with 450 cm² PIPS detector from Canberra. Obtained results showed significant differences in radionuclide composition between phosphate and nitrogenous fertilizers (e.g. the radium equivalent activity for phosphate fertilizer was 207.7 Bq/kg in comparison to <5.6 Bq/kg for nitrogenous fertilizer). The calculated increase of external radiation exposure due to use of phosphate fertilizer ranged between 3.4 and 5.4 nG/h, which represents up to 10% of the polish average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation (45 nGy/h).

Keywords: ²¹⁰Po, alpha spectrometry, exposure, gamma spectrometry, phosphate fertilizer, soil

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272 Prompt Photons Production in Compton Scattering of Quark-Gluon and Annihilation of Quark-Antiquark Pair Processes

Authors: Mohsun Rasim Alizada, Azar Inshalla Ahmdov


Prompt photons are perhaps the most versatile tools for studying the dynamics of relativistic collisions of heavy ions. The study of photon radiation is of interest that in most hadron interactions, photons fly out as a background to other studied signals. The study of the birth of prompt photons in nucleon-nucleon collisions was previously carried out in experiments on Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the large energy of colliding nucleons, in addition to prompt photons, many different elementary particles are born. However, the birth of additional elementary particles makes it difficult to determine the accuracy of the effective section of the birth of prompt photons. From this point of view, the experiments planned on the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) complex will have a great advantage, since the energy obtained for colliding heavy ions will reduce the number of additionally born elementary particles. Of particular importance is the study of the processes of birth of prompt photons to determine the gluon leaving hadrons since the photon carries information about a rigid subprocess. At present, paper production of prompt photon in Compton scattering of quark-gluon and annihilation of quark–antiquark processes is investigated. The matrix elements Compton scattering of quark-gluon and annihilation of quark-antiquark pair processes has been written. The Square of matrix elements of processes has been calculated in FeynCalc. The phase volume of subprocesses has been determined. Expression to calculate the differential cross-section of subprocesses has been obtained: Given the resulting expressions for the square of the matrix element in the differential section expression, we see that the differential section depends not only on the energy of colliding protons, but also on the mass of quarks, etc. Differential cross-section of subprocesses is estimated. It is shown that the differential cross-section of subprocesses decreases with the increasing energy of colliding protons. Asymmetry coefficient with polarization of colliding protons is determined. The calculation showed that the squares of the matrix element of the Compton scattering process without and taking into account the polarization of colliding protons are identical. The asymmetry coefficient of this subprocess is zero, which is consistent with the literary data. It is known that in any single polarization processes with a photon, squares of matrix elements without taking into account and taking into account the polarization of the original particle must coincide, that is, the terms in the square of the matrix element with the degree of polarization are equal to zero. The coincidence of the squares of the matrix elements indicates that the parity of the system is preserved. The asymmetry coefficient of annihilation of quark–antiquark pair process linearly decreases from positive unit to negative unit with increasing the production of the polarization degrees of colliding protons. Thus, it was obtained that the differential cross-section of the subprocesses decreases with the increasing energy of colliding protons. The value of the asymmetry coefficient is maximal when the polarization of colliding protons is opposite and minimal when they are directed equally. Taking into account the polarization of only the initial quarks and gluons in Compton scattering does not contribute to the differential section of the subprocess.

Keywords: annihilation of a quark-antiquark pair, coefficient of asymmetry, Compton scattering, effective cross-section

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271 Applying the Crystal Model Approach on Light Nuclei for Calculating Radii and Density Distribution

Authors: A. Amar


A new model, namely the crystal model, has been modified to calculate the radius and density distribution of light nuclei up to ⁸Be. The crystal model has been modified according to solid-state physics, which uses the analogy between nucleon distribution and atoms distribution in the crystal. The model has analytical analysis to calculate the radius where the density distribution of light nuclei has obtained from analogy of crystal lattice. The distribution of nucleons over crystal has been discussed in a general form. The equation that has been used to calculate binding energy was taken from the solid-state model of repulsive and attractive force. The numbers of the protons were taken to control repulsive force, where the atomic number was responsible for the attractive force. The parameter has been calculated from the crystal model was found to be proportional to the radius of the nucleus. The density distribution of light nuclei was taken as a summation of two clusters distribution as in ⁶Li=alpha+deuteron configuration. A test has been done on the data obtained for radius and density distribution using double folding for d+⁶,⁷Li with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction. Good agreement has been obtained for both the radius and density distribution of light nuclei. The model failed to calculate the radius of ⁹Be, so modifications should be done to overcome discrepancy.

Keywords: nuclear physics, nuclear lattice, study nucleus as crystal, light nuclei till to ⁸Be

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270 Quantum Technologies, the Practical Challenges to It, and Ideas to Build an Inclusive Quantum Platform, Shoonya Ecosystem (Zero-Point Energy)

Authors: Partha Pratim Kalita


As sound can be converted to light, light can also be deduced to sound. There are technologies to convert light to sound, but there are not many technologies related to the field where sound can be converted to a distinct vibrational sequence of light. Like the laws under which the principles of sound work, there are principles for the light to become quantum in nature. Thus, as we move from sound to the subtler aspects of light, we are moving from 3D to 5D. Either we will be making technologies of 3D in today’s world, or we will be really interested in making technologies of the 5D, depends on our understanding of how quantum 5D works. Right now, the entire world is talking about quantum, which is about the nature and behavior of subatomic particles, which is 5D. In practice, they are using metals and machines based on atomic structures. If we talk of quantum without taking note of the technologies of 5D and beyond, we will only be reinterpreting relative theories in the name of quantum. This paper, therefore, will explore the possibilities of moving towards quantum in its real essence with the Shoonya ecosystem (zero-point energy). In this context, the author shall highlight certain working models developed by him, which are currently in discussion with the Indian government.

Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum technologies, healthcare, shoonya ecosystem, energy, human consciousness

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269 Spectrogram Pre-Processing to Improve Isotopic Identification to Discriminate Gamma and Neutrons Sources

Authors: Mustafa Alhamdi


Industrial application to classify gamma rays and neutron events is investigated in this study using deep machine learning. The identification using a convolutional neural network and recursive neural network showed a significant improvement in predication accuracy in a variety of applications. The ability to identify the isotope type and activity from spectral information depends on feature extraction methods, followed by classification. The features extracted from the spectrum profiles try to find patterns and relationships to present the actual spectrum energy in low dimensional space. Increasing the level of separation between classes in feature space improves the possibility to enhance classification accuracy. The nonlinear nature to extract features by neural network contains a variety of transformation and mathematical optimization, while principal component analysis depends on linear transformations to extract features and subsequently improve the classification accuracy. In this paper, the isotope spectrum information has been preprocessed by finding the frequencies components relative to time and using them as a training dataset. Fourier transform implementation to extract frequencies component has been optimized by a suitable windowing function. Training and validation samples of different isotope profiles interacted with CdTe crystal have been simulated using Geant4. The readout electronic noise has been simulated by optimizing the mean and variance of normal distribution. Ensemble learning by combing voting of many models managed to improve the classification accuracy of neural networks. The ability to discriminate gamma and neutron events in a single predication approach using deep machine learning has shown high accuracy using deep learning. The paper findings show the ability to improve the classification accuracy by applying the spectrogram preprocessing stage to the gamma and neutron spectrums of different isotopes. Tuning deep machine learning models by hyperparameter optimization of neural network models enhanced the separation in the latent space and provided the ability to extend the number of detected isotopes in the training database. Ensemble learning contributed significantly to improve the final prediction.

Keywords: machine learning, nuclear physics, Monte Carlo simulation, noise estimation, feature extraction, classification

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268 Neural Network Supervisory Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control of the Pressurized Water Reactor Core Power Load Following Operation

Authors: Derjew Ayele Ejigu, Houde Song, Xiaojing Liu


This work presents the particle swarm optimization trained neural network (PSO-NN) supervisory proportional integral derivative (PID) control method to monitor the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core power for safe operation. The proposed control approach is implemented on the transfer function of the PWR core, which is computed from the state-space model. The PWR core state-space model is designed from the neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and reactivity models using perturbation around the equilibrium value. The proposed control approach computes the control rod speed to maneuver the core power to track the reference in a closed-loop scheme. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to train the neural network (NN) and to tune the PID simultaneously. The controller performance is examined using integral absolute error, integral time absolute error, integral square error, and integral time square error functions, and the stability of the system is analyzed by using the Bode diagram. The simulation results indicated that the controller shows satisfactory performance to control and track the load power effectively and smoothly as compared to the PSO-PID control technique. This study will give benefit to design a supervisory controller for nuclear engineering research fields for control application.

Keywords: machine learning, neural network, pressurized water reactor, supervisory controller

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267 Topological Analysis of Hydrogen Bonds in Pyruvic Acid-Water Mixtures

Authors: Ferid Hammami


The molecular geometries of the possible conformations of pyruvic acid-water complexes (PA-(H₂O)ₙ = 1- 4) have been fully optimized at DFT/B3LYP/6-311G ++ (d, p) levels of calculation. Among several optimized molecular clusters, the most stable molecular arrangements obtained when one, two, three, and four water molecules are hydrogen-bonded to a central pyruvic acid molecule are presented in this paper. Apposite topological and geometrical parameters are considered as primary indicators of H-bond strength. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis shows that pyruvic acid can form a ring structure with water, and the molecular structures are stabilized by both strong O-H...O and C-H...O hydrogen bonds. In large clusters, classical O-H...O hydrogen bonds still exist between water molecules, and a cage-like structure is built around some parts of the central molecule of pyruvic acid. The electrostatic potential energy map (MEP) and the HOMO-LUMO molecular orbital (highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) analysis has been performed for all considered complexes.

Keywords: pyruvic acid, PA-water complex, hydrogen bonding, DFT, AIM, MEP, HOMO-LUMO

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266 Development of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Tracers for the in-Vivo Imaging of α-Synuclein Aggregates in α-Synucleinopathies

Authors: Bright Chukwunwike Uzuegbunam, Wojciech Paslawski, Hans Agren, Christer Halldin, Wolfgang Weber, Markus Luster, Thomas Arzberger, Behrooz Hooshyar Yousefi


There is a need to develop a PET tracer that will enable to diagnosis and track the progression of Alpha-synucleinopathies (Parkinson’s disease [PD], dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], multiple system atrophy [MSA]) in living subjects over time. Alpha-synuclein aggregates (a-syn), which are present in all the stages of disease progression, for instance, in PD, are a suitable target for in vivo PET imaging. For this reason, we have developed some promising a-syn tracers based on a disarylbisthiazole (DABTA) scaffold. The precursors are synthesized via a modified Hantzsch thiazole synthesis. The precursors were then radiolabeled via one- or two-step radiofluorination methods. The ligands were initially screened using a combination of molecular dynamics and quantum/molecular mechanics approaches in order to calculate the binding affinity to a-syn (in silico binding experiments). Experimental in vitro binding assays were also performed. The ligands were further screened in other experiments such as log D, in vitro plasma protein binding & plasma stability, biodistribution & brain metabolite analyses in healthy mice. Radiochemical yields were up to 30% - 72% in some cases. Molecular docking revealed possible binding sites in a-syn and also the free energy of binding to those sites (-28.9 - -66.9 kcal/mol), which correlated to the high binding affinity of the DABTAs to a-syn (Ki as low as 0.5 nM) and selectivity (> 100-fold) over Aβ and tau, which usually co-exist with a-synin some pathologies. The log D values range from 2.88 - 2.34, which correlated with free-protein fraction of 0.28% - 0.5%. Biodistribution experiments revealed that the tracers are taken up (5.6 %ID/g - 7.3 %ID/g) in the brain at 5 min (post-injection) p.i., and cleared out (values as low as 0.39 %ID/g were obtained at 120 min p.i. Analyses of the mice brain 20 min p.i. Revealed almost no radiometabolites in the brain in most cases. It can be concluded that in silico study presents a new venue for the rational development of radioligands with suitable features. The results obtained so far are promising and encourage us to further validate the DABTAs in autoradiography, immunohistochemistry, and in vivo imaging in non-human primates and humans.

Keywords: alpha-synuclein aggregates, alpha-synucleinopathies, PET imaging, tracer development

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265 A Novel Way to Create Qudit Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Arun Moorthy


Quantum computing promises to provide algorithmic speedups for a number of tasks; however, similar to classical computing, effective error-correcting codes are needed. Current quantum computers require costly equipment to control each particle, so having fewer particles to control is ideal. Although traditional quantum computers are built using qubits (2-level systems), qudits (more than 2-levels) are appealing since they can have an equivalent computational space using fewer particles, meaning fewer particles need to be controlled. Currently, qudit quantum error-correction codes are available for different level qudit systems; however, these codes have sometimes overly specific constraints. When building a qudit system, it is important for researchers to have access to many codes to satisfy their requirements. This project addresses two methods to increase the number of quantum error correcting codes available to researchers. The first method is generating new codes for a given set of parameters. The second method is generating new error-correction codes by using existing codes as a starting point to generate codes for another level (i.e., a 5-level system code on a 2-level system). So, this project builds a website that researchers can use to generate new error-correction codes or codes based on existing codes.

Keywords: qudit, error correction, quantum, qubit

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264 Natural Radionuclides and Doses Assessment in Soil Samples from Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: Ayorinde B. Ogunremi, Kehinde A. Adewoyin, Adebamwo Adebayo


Record of radionuclide concentration in an environment is essential to ensure human safety due to exposure to ionizing radiation. This study aimed at assessing the radionuclide concentration and doses from soil samples in the study area. Twenty soil samples were collected and dried in the oven at 110°C to remove the moisture, pulverized, and sieved. 200 g of each of the samples were sealed in cylindrical sample holders; they were left for four weeks to attain secular equilibrium between ²²⁶Ra and its decay daughters, after which the sample was analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry. After the well-guided procedure for the calibrations, the analysis of the samples was carried out using a well-calibrated NaI (TI) and well-shielded detector coupled to a computer resident quantum MCA2100 R Multichannel analyzer for 36,000 s. The mean activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th obtained were calculated to be 272.37 ± 33.58, 10.97 ± 3.24, 9.39 ± 2.27 Bqkg-1 respectively. The average absorbed dose obtained was 22.10 nGy/h. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq) was estimated to be 43.27 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) were below the recommended values, which are 420, 33, and 45 for ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, and ²³²Th, respectively. Considering the results, we conclude thus, the radiation level within the estate poses no significant health risk on dwellers and workers.

Keywords: absorbed, effective, multichannel, radionuclide

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263 Implications of Meteorological Parameters in Decision Making for Public Protective Actions during a Nuclear Emergency

Authors: M. Hussaina, K. Mahboobb, S. Z. Ilyasa, S. Shaheena


Plume dispersion modeling is a computational procedure to establish a relationship between emissions, meteorology, atmospheric concentrations, deposition and other factors. The emission characteristics (stack height, stack diameter, release velocity, heat contents, chemical and physical properties of the gases/particle released etc.), terrain (surface roughness, local topography, nearby buildings) and meteorology (wind speed, stability, mixing height, etc.) are required for the modeling of the plume dispersion and estimation of ground and air concentration. During the early phase of Fukushima accident, plume dispersion modeling and decisions were taken for the implementation of protective measures. A difference in estimated results and decisions made by different countries for taking protective actions created a concern in local and international community regarding the exact identification of the safe zone. The current study is focused to highlight the importance of accurate and exact weather data availability, scientific approach for decision making for taking urgent protective actions, compatible and harmonized approach for plume dispersion modeling during a nuclear emergency. As a case study, the influence of meteorological data on plume dispersion modeling and decision-making process has been performed.

Keywords: decision making process, radiation doses, nuclear emergency, meteorological implications

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262 Thermal Neutron Detection Efficiency as a Function of Film Thickness for Front and Back Irradiation Detector Devices Coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and Pure Li Thin Films

Authors: Vedant Subhash


This paper discusses the physics of the detection of thermal neutrons using thin-film coated semiconductor detectors. The thermal neutron detection efficiency as a function of film thickness is calculated for the front and back irradiation detector devices coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and pure Li thin films. The detection efficiency for back irradiation devices is 4.15% that is slightly higher than that for front irradiation detectors, 4.0% for ¹⁰B films of thickness 2.4μm. The theoretically calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency using ¹⁰B film thickness of 1.1 μm for the back irradiation device is 3.0367%, which has an offset of 0.0367% from the experimental value of 3.0%. The detection efficiency values are compared and proved consistent with the given calculations.

Keywords: detection efficiency, neutron detection, semiconductor detectors, thermal neutrons

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261 Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Expansion Joints for Piping Systems in Aircraft Engine External Configurations and Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Dong Wook Lee


This paper presents a method to analyze the stiffness of the expansion joint with structural support using a hybrid method combining computational and analytical methods. Many expansion joints found in tubes and ducts of mechanical structures are designed to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between their structural members and deal with misalignments introduced from the assembly/manufacturing processes. One of the important design perspectives is the system’s vibrational characteristics. We calculate the stiffness as a characterization parameter for structural joint systems using a combined Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and an analytical method. We apply the methods to two sample applications: external configurations of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures.

Keywords: expansion joint, expansion joint stiffness, finite element analysis, nuclear power plants, aircraft engine external configurations

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260 Production of New Hadron States in Effective Field Theory

Authors: Qi Wu, Dian-Yong Chen, Feng-Kun Guo, Gang Li


In the past decade, a growing number of new hadron states have been observed, which are dubbed as XYZ states in the heavy quarkonium mass regions. In this work, we present our study on the production of some new hadron states. In particular, we investigate the processes Υ(5S,6S)→ Zb (10610)/Zb (10650)π, Bc→ Zc (3900)/Zc (4020)π and Λb→ Pc (4312)/Pc (4440)/Pc (4457)K. (1) For the production of Zb (10610)/Zb (10650) from Υ(5S,6S) decay, two types of bottom-meson loops were discussed within a nonrelativistic effective field theory. We found that the loop contributions with all intermediate states being the S-wave ground state bottom mesons are negligible, while the loops with one bottom meson being the broad B₀* or B₁' resonance could provide the dominant contributions to the Υ(5S)→ Zb⁽'⁾ π. (2) For the production of Zc (3900)/Zc (4020) from Bc decay, the branching ratios of Bc⁺→ Z (3900)⁺ π⁰ and Bc⁺→ Zc (4020)⁺ π⁰ are estimated to be of order of 10⁽⁻⁴⁾ and 10⁽⁻⁷⁾ in an effective Lagrangian approach. The large production rate of Zc (3900) could provide an important source of the production of Zc (3900) from the semi-exclusive decay of b-flavored hadrons reported by D0 Collaboration, which can be tested by the exclusive measurements in LHCb. (3) For the production of Pc (4312), Pc (4440) and Pc (4457) from Λb decay, the ratio of the branching fraction of Λb→ Pc K was predicted in a molecular scenario by using an effective Lagrangian approach, which is weakly dependent on our model parameter. We also find the ratios of the productions of the branching fractions of Λb→ Pc K and Pc→ J/ψ p can be well interpreted in the molecular scenario. Moreover, the estimated branching fractions of Λb→ Pc K are of order 10⁽⁻⁶⁾, which could be tested by further measurements in LHCb Collaboration.

Keywords: effective Lagrangian approach, hadron loops, molecular states, new hadron states

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259 Optical and Double Folding Analysis for 6Li+16O Elastic Scattering

Authors: Abd Elrahman Elgamala, N. Darwish, I. Bondouk, Sh. Hamada


Available experimental angular distributions for 6Li elastically scattered from 16O nucleus in the energy range 13.0–50.0 MeV are investigated and reanalyzed using optical model of the conventional phenomenological potential and also using double folding optical model of different interaction models: DDM3Y1, CDM3Y1, CDM3Y2, and CDM3Y3. All the involved models of interaction are of M3Y Paris except DDM3Y1 which is of M3Y Reid and the main difference between them lies in the different values for the parameters of the incorporated density distribution function F(ρ). We have extracted the renormalization factor NR for 6Li+16O nuclear system in the energy range 13.0–50.0 MeV using the aforementioned interaction models.

Keywords: elastic scattering, optical model, folding potential, density distribution

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258 Effect of Birks Constant and Defocusing Parameter on Triple-to-Double Coincidence Ratio Parameter in Monte Carlo Simulation-GEANT4

Authors: Farmesk Abubaker, Francesco Tortorici, Marco Capogni, Concetta Sutera, Vincenzo Bellini


This project concerns with the detection efficiency of the portable triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) at the National Institute of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (INMRI-ENEA) which allows direct activity measurement and radionuclide standardization for pure-beta emitter or pure electron capture radionuclides. The dependency of the simulated detection efficiency of the TDCR, by using Monte Carlo simulation Geant4 code, on the Birks factor (kB) and defocusing parameter has been examined especially for low energy beta-emitter radionuclides such as 3H and 14C, for which this dependency is relevant. The results achieved in this analysis can be used for selecting the best kB factor and the defocusing parameter for computing theoretical TDCR parameter value. The theoretical results were compared with the available ones, measured by the ENEA TDCR portable detector, for some pure-beta emitter radionuclides. This analysis allowed to improve the knowledge of the characteristics of the ENEA TDCR detector that can be used as a traveling instrument for in-situ measurements with particular benefits in many applications in the field of nuclear medicine and in the nuclear energy industry.

Keywords: Birks constant, defocusing parameter, GEANT4 code, TDCR parameter

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257 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Koeberg Spent Fuel Pool

Authors: Sibongiseni Thabethe, Ian Korir


The effective management of spent fuel pool (SFP) safety has been raised as one of the emerging issues to further enhance nuclear installation safety after the Fukushima accident on March 11, 2011. Before then, SFP safety-related issues have been mainly focused on (a) controlling the configuration of the fuel assemblies in the pool with no loss of pool coolants and (b) ensuring adequate pool storage space to prevent fuel criticality owing to chain reactions of the fission products and the ability for neutron absorption to keep the fuel cool. A probabilistic safety (PSA) assessment was performed using the systems analysis program for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) computer code. Event and fault tree analysis was done to develop a PSA model for the Koeberg SFP. We present preliminary PSA results of events that lead to boiling and cause fuel uncovering, resulting in possible fuel damage in the Koeberg SFP.

Keywords: computer code, fuel assemblies, probabilistic risk assessment, spent fuel pool

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256 The Structural and Electrical Properties of Cadmium Implanted Silicon Diodes at Room Temperature

Authors: J. O. Bodunrin, S. J. Moloi


This study reports on the x-ray crystallography (XRD) structure of cadmium-implanted p-type silicon, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of unimplanted and cadmium-implanted silicon-based diodes. Cadmium was implanted at the energy of 160 KeV to the fluence of 10¹⁵ ion/cm². The results obtained indicate that the diodes were well fabricated, and the introduction of cadmium results in a change in behavior of the diodes from normal exponential to ohmic I-V behavior. The C-V measurements, on the other hand, show that the measured capacitance increased after cadmium doping due to the injected charge carriers. The doping density of the p-Si material and the device's Schottky barrier height was extracted, and the doping density of the undoped p-Si material increased after cadmium doping while the Schottky barrier height reduced. In general, the results obtained here are similar to those obtained on the diodes fabricated on radiation-hard material, indicating that cadmium is a promising metal dopant to improve the radiation hardness of silicon. Thus, this study would assist in adding possible options to improve the radiation hardness of silicon to be used in high energy physics experiments.

Keywords: cadmium, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, high energy physics experiment, x-ray crystallography, XRD

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255 A Framework for Automated Nuclear Waste Classification

Authors: Seonaid Hume, Gordon Dobie, Graeme West


Detecting and localizing radioactive sources is a necessity for safe and secure decommissioning of nuclear facilities. An important aspect for the management of the sort-and-segregation process is establishing the spatial distributions and quantities of the waste radionuclides, their type, corresponding activity, and ultimately classification for disposal. The data received from surveys directly informs decommissioning plans, on-site incident management strategies, the approach needed for a new cell, as well as protecting the workforce and the public. Manual classification of nuclear waste from a nuclear cell is time-consuming, expensive, and requires significant expertise to make the classification judgment call. Also, in-cell decommissioning is still in its relative infancy, and few techniques are well-developed. As with any repetitive and routine tasks, there is the opportunity to improve the task of classifying nuclear waste using autonomous systems. Hence, this paper proposes a new framework for the automatic classification of nuclear waste. This framework consists of five main stages; 3D spatial mapping and object detection, object classification, radiological mapping, source localisation based on gathered evidence and finally, waste classification. The first stage of the framework, 3D visual mapping, involves object detection from point cloud data. A review of related applications in other industries is provided, and recommendations for approaches for waste classification are made. Object detection focusses initially on cylindrical objects since pipework is significant in nuclear cells and indeed any industrial site. The approach can be extended to other commonly occurring primitives such as spheres and cubes. This is in preparation of stage two, characterizing the point cloud data and estimating the dimensions, material, degradation, and mass of the objects detected in order to feature match them to an inventory of possible items found in that nuclear cell. Many items in nuclear cells are one-offs, have limited or poor drawings available, or have been modified since installation, and have complex interiors, which often and inadvertently pose difficulties when accessing certain zones and identifying waste remotely. Hence, this may require expert input to feature match objects. The third stage, radiological mapping, is similar in order to facilitate the characterization of the nuclear cell in terms of radiation fields, including the type of radiation, activity, and location within the nuclear cell. The fourth stage of the framework takes the visual map for stage 1, the object characterization from stage 2, and radiation map from stage 3 and fuses them together, providing a more detailed scene of the nuclear cell by identifying the location of radioactive materials in three dimensions. The last stage involves combining the evidence from the fused data sets to reveal the classification of the waste in Bq/kg, thus enabling better decision making and monitoring for in-cell decommissioning. The presentation of the framework is supported by representative case study data drawn from an application in decommissioning from a UK nuclear facility. This framework utilises recent advancements of the detection and mapping capabilities of complex radiation fields in three dimensions to make the process of classifying nuclear waste faster, more reliable, cost-effective and safer.

Keywords: nuclear decommissioning, radiation detection, object detection, waste classification

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254 Coupled Exciton - Surface Plasmon Polariton Enhanced Photoresponse of Two-Dimensional Hydrogenated Honeycomb Silicon Boride

Authors: Farzaneh Shayeganfar, Ali Ramazani


Exciton (strong electronic interaction of electron-hole) and hot carriers created by surface plasmon polaritons has been demonstrated in nanoscale optoelectronic devices, enhancing the photoresponse of the system. Herein, we employ a quantum framework to consider coupled exciton- hot carriers effects on photovoltaiv energy distribution, scattering process, polarizability and light emission of 2D-semicnductor. We use density functional theory (DFT) to design computationally a semi-functionalized 2D honeycomb silicon boride (SiB) monolayer with H atoms, suitable for photovoltaics. The dynamical stability, electronic and optical properties of SiB and semi-hydrogenated SiB structures were investigated utilizing the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The calculated phonon dispersion shows that while an unhydrogenated SiB monolayer is dynamically unstable, surface semi-hydrogenation improves the stability of the structure and leads to a transition from metallic to semiconducting conductivity with a direct band gap of about 1.57 eV, appropriate for photovoltaic applications. The optical conductivity of this H-SiB structure, determined using the random phase approximation (RPA), shows that light adsorption should begin at the boundary of the visible range of light. Additionally, due to hydrogenation, the reflectivity spectrum declines sharply with respect to the unhydrogenated reflectivity spectrum in the IR and visible ranges of light. The energy band gap remains direct, increasing from 0.9 to 1.8 eV, upon increasing the strain from -6% (compressive) to +6% (tensile). Additionally, compressive and tensile strains lead, respectively, to red and blue shifts of optical the conductivity threshold around the visible range of light. Overall, this study suggests that H-SiB monolayers are suitable as two-dimensional solar cell materials.

Keywords: surface plasmon, hot carrier, strain engineering, valley polariton

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253 COVID-19 Teaches Probability Risk Assessment

Authors: Sean Sloan


Probability Risk Assessments (PRA) can be a difficult concept for students to grasp. So in searching for different ways to describe PRA to relate it to their lives; COVID-19 came up. The parallels are amazing. Soon students began analyzing acceptable risk with the virus. This helped them to quantify just how dangerous is dangerous. The original lesson was dismissed and for the remainder of the period, the probability of risk, and the lethality of risk became the topic. Spreading events such as a COVID carrier on an airline became analogous to single fault casualties such as a Tsunami. Odds of spreading became odds of backup-diesel-generator failure – like with Fukashima Daiichi. Fatalities of the disease became expected fatalities due to radiation spread. Quantification from this discussion took it from hyperbole and emotion into one where we could rationally base guidelines. It has been one of the most effective educational devices observed.

Keywords: COVID, education, probability, risk

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252 Optimal Beam for Accelerator Driven Systems

Authors: M. Paraipan, V. M. Javadova, S. I. Tyutyunnikov


The concept of energy amplifier or accelerator driven system (ADS) involves the use of a particle accelerator coupled with a nuclear reactor. The accelerated particle beam generates a supplementary source of neutrons, which allows the subcritical functioning of the reactor, and consequently a safe exploitation. The harder neutron spectrum realized ensures a better incineration of the actinides. The almost generalized opinion is that the optimal beam for ADS is represented by protons with energy around 1 GeV (gigaelectronvolt). In the present work, a systematic analysis of the energy gain for proton beams with energy from 0.5 to 3 GeV and ion beams from deuteron to neon with energies between 0.25 and 2 AGeV is performed. The target is an assembly of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel rods in a bath of lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. The rods length is 150 cm. A beryllium converter with length 110 cm is used in order to maximize the energy released in the target. The case of a linear accelerator is considered, with a beam intensity of 1.25‧10¹⁶ p/s, and a total accelerator efficiency of 0.18 for proton beam. These values are planned to be achieved in the European Spallation Source project. The energy gain G is calculated as the ratio between the energy released in the target to the energy spent to accelerate the beam. The energy released is obtained through simulation with the code Geant4. The energy spent is calculating by scaling from the data about the accelerator efficiency for the reference particle (proton). The analysis concerns the G values, the net power produce, the accelerator length, and the period between refueling. The optimal energy for proton is 1.5 GeV. At this energy, G reaches a plateau around a value of 8 and a net power production of 120 MW (megawatt). Starting with alpha, ion beams have a higher G than 1.5 GeV protons. A beam of 0.25 AGeV(gigaelectronvolt per nucleon) ⁷Li realizes the same net power production as 1.5 GeV protons, has a G of 15, and needs an accelerator length 2.6 times lower than for protons, representing the best solution for ADS. Beams of ¹⁶O or ²⁰Ne with energy 0.75 AGeV, accelerated in an accelerator with the same length as 1.5 GeV protons produce approximately 900 MW net power, with a gain of 23-25. The study of the evolution of the isotopes composition during irradiation shows that the increase in power production diminishes the period between refueling. For a net power produced of 120 MW, the target can be irradiated approximately 5000 days without refueling, but only 600 days when the net power reaches 1 GW (gigawatt).

Keywords: accelerator driven system, ion beam, electrical power, energy gain

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251 Integrating Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment to Decrease Risk & Energy Consumption in a Typical PWR

Authors: Ebrahim Ghanbari, Mohammad Reza Nematollahi


Integrating deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment (IDPSA) is one of the most commonly used issues in the field of safety analysis of power plant accident. It has also been recognized today that the role of human error in creating these accidents is not less than systemic errors, so the human interference and system errors in fault and event sequences are necessary. The integration of these analytical topics will be reflected in the frequency of core damage and also the study of the use of water resources in an accident such as the loss of all electrical power of the plant. In this regard, the SBO accident was simulated for the pressurized water reactor in the deterministic analysis issue, and by analyzing the operator's behavior in controlling the accident, the results of the combination of deterministic and probabilistic assessment were identified. The results showed that the best performance of the plant operator would reduce the risk of an accident by 10%, as well as a decrease of 6.82 liters/second of the water sources of the plant.

Keywords: IDPSA, human error, SBO, risk

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250 Numerical Investigation of AL₂O₃ Nanoparticle Effect on a Boiling Forced Swirl Flow Field

Authors: Ataollah Rabiee1, Amir Hossein Kamalinia, Alireza Atf


One of the most important issues in the design of nuclear fusion power plants is the heat removal from the hottest region at the diverter. Various methods could be employed in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency, such as generating turbulent flow and injection of nanoparticles in the host fluid. In the current study, Water/AL₂O₃ nanofluid forced swirl flow boiling has been investigated by using a homogeneous thermophysical model within the Eulerian-Eulerian framework through a twisted tape tube, and the boiling phenomenon was modeled using the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) approach. In addition to comparing the results with the experimental data and their reasonable agreement, it was evidenced that higher flow mixing results in more uniform bulk temperature and lower wall temperature along the twisted tape tube. The presence of AL₂O₃ nanoparticles in the boiling flow field showed that increasing the nanoparticle concentration leads to a reduced vapor volume fraction and wall temperature. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the average heat transfer coefficient in the tube increases both by increasing the nanoparticle concentration and the insertion of twisted tape, which significantly affects the thermal field of the boiling flow.

Keywords: nanoparticle, boiling, CFD, two phase flow, alumina, ITER

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249 Automated System: Managing the Production and Distribution of Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: Shayma Mohammed, Adel Trabelsi


Radiopharmacy is the art of preparing high-quality, radioactive, medicinal products for use in diagnosis and therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals unlike normal medicines, this dual aspect (radioactive, medical) makes their management highly critical. One of the most convincing applications of modern technologies is the ability to delegate the execution of repetitive tasks to programming scripts. Automation has found its way to the most skilled jobs, to improve the company's overall performance by allowing human workers to focus on more important tasks than document filling. This project aims to contribute to implement a comprehensive system to insure rigorous management of radiopharmaceuticals through the use of a platform that links the Nuclear Medicine Service Management System to the Nuclear Radio-pharmacy Management System in accordance with the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this project we attempt to build a web application that targets radiopharmacies, the platform is built atop the inherently compatible web stack which allows it to work in virtually any environment. Different technologies are used in this project (PHP, Symfony, MySQL Workbench, Bootstrap, Angular 7, Visual Studio Code and TypeScript). The operating principle of the platform is mainly based on two parts: Radiopharmaceutical Backoffice for the Radiopharmacian, who is responsible for the realization of radiopharmaceutical preparations and their delivery and Medical Backoffice for the Doctor, who holds the authorization for the possession and use of radionuclides and he/she is responsible for ordering radioactive products. The application consists of sven modules: Production, Quality Control/Quality Assurance, Release, General Management, References, Transport and Stock Management. It allows 8 classes of users: The Production Manager (PM), Quality Control Manager (QCM), Stock Manager (SM), General Manager (GM), Client (Doctor), Parking and Transport Manager (PTM), Qualified Person (QP) and Technical and Production Staff. Digital platform bringing together all players involved in the use of radiopharmaceuticals and integrating the stages of preparation, production and distribution, Web technologies, in particular, promise to offer all the benefits of automation while requiring no more than a web browser to act as a user client, which is a strength because the web stack is by nature multi-platform. This platform will provide a traceability system for radiopharmaceuticals products to ensure the safety and radioprotection of actors and of patients. The new integrated platform is an alternative to write all the boilerplate paperwork manually, which is a tedious and error-prone task. It would minimize manual human manipulation, which has proven to be the main source of error in nuclear medicine. A codified electronic transfer of information from radiopharmaceutical preparation to delivery will further reduce the risk of maladministration.

Keywords: automated system, management, radiopharmacy, technical papers

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248 Micro-Cantilever Tests on Hydride Blister and Zirconium Matrix of Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tube

Authors: Ho-A Kim, Jae-Soo Noh


During reactor operation, hydride blister can occur in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) claddings, and it could worsen the integrity of the claddings locally. Hydride blister can be critical when a pinch-type load is applied in the process of SNF handling and transportation. Micro-cantilever tests were performed to evaluate the risk of local hydride blister by comparing the fracture toughness of local hydride blister and pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix of SNF cladding on a microscale. Hydride blister was generated by a gaseous charging procedure to simulate an SNF cladding. Micro-cantilevers and pre-cracks were ion-milled with the Ga+ ion beam of FEI Helios 600 at 30kV acceleration voltage. Micro-cantilever tests were conducted using PI 85 pico-indenter (HYSTRON) with for sided conductive diamond flat tip (1 μm x 1 μm) at a speed of 5 nm/sec. The results show that the hydride blister specimen could be fractured in the elastic deformation region, and the fracture toughness of the hydride blister specimen could drop up to 60% of that of the pre-hydrided Zr alloy matrix. Therefore, local hydride blister can degrade the integrity of SNF cladding, and the effect of hydride blister should be taken into account when evaluating failure criteria of claddings during handling, storage, and transportation of SNF.

Keywords: fracture toughness, hydride blister, micro-cantilever test, spent nuclear fuel cladding.

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247 Modeling of Hydrogen Production by Inductively Coupled Methane Plasma for Input Power Pin=700W

Authors: Abdelatif Gadoum, Djilali Benyoucef, Mouloudj Hadj, Alla Eddine Toubal Maamar, Mohamed Habib Allah Lahoual


Hydrogen occurs naturally in the form of chemical compounds, most often in water and hydrocarbons. The main objective of this study is 2D modeling of hydrogen production in inductively coupled plasma in methane at low pressure. In the present model, we include the motions and the collisions of both neutral and charged particles by considering 19 species (i.e in total ; neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons), and more than 120 reactions (electron impact with methane, neutral-neutral, neutral-ions and surface reactions). The results show that the rate conversion of methane reach 90% and the hydrogen production is about 30%.

Keywords: hydrogen production, inductively coupled plasma, fluid model, methane plasma

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246 Implications of Fuel Reloading in Heterogeneous Thorium-Based Fuel Designs for Improved Fuel Cycle Characteristics

Authors: Hendrik Bernard Van Der Walt, Frik Van Niekerk


Fuel models render a reduction in BOL when thorium is added to a reactor core. Thorium emulates the role of a fertile poison, and is beneficial for reducing beginning of cycle (BOC) excess reactivity. In spite of the build-up of 233U over the duration of a fuel cycle, the effects of fuel reloading have a significant impact on fuel viability, especially in the case of heterogeneous thorium-based fuels. The most common practice of compensating for the reduction of BOC reactivity is the addition of fissile isotopes (uranium fuel with increased enrichment or plutonium). This study introduces a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel with minimal fissile isotope additions. A pseudo reloading scheme was developed for numerical simulations of an infinite reactor based on the North-Anna 1 reactor operating in Virginia, USA. Use of this reloading pattern allows new thorium-based fuel to be loaded into the reactor model as part of a phasing in strategy at the end of any conventional reactor cycle. Results demonstrate the effects of thorium-based fuel on fuel cycle characteristics such as fuel cycle length, neutron economy and material matrix. Application of the above mentioned approach delivered promising results and presents a heterogeneous thorium-based fuel which could replace conventional fuel of typical, currently operating (or future) reactors without the need for expensive reactor redesign or fuel recycling strategies.

Keywords: nuclear fuel, nuclear characteristics, nuclear fuel cycle, thorium-based fuel, heterogeneous design, fuel reloading

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245 Nuclear Characteristics of a Heterogeneous Thorium-Based Fuel Design Aimed at Increasing Fuel Cycle Length of a Typical PWR

Authors: Hendrik Bernard Van Der Walt, Frik Van Niekerk


Heterogeneous thorium-based fuels have been proposed as an alternative for conventional reactor fuels and many studies have shown promising results. Fuel cycle characteristics still have to be explored in detail. This study investigates the use of a novel thorium-based fuel design aimed at increasing fuel cycle length of a typical PWR with an explicit focus on thorium- uranium content, neutron spectrum, flux considerations and neutron economy.As nuclear reactions are highly dependent on reactor flux and material matrix, analytical and numerical calculations have been completed to predict the behaviour of the proposed nuclear fuel. The proposed design utilizes various ratios of thorium oxide and uranium oxide pellets within fuel pins, divided into heterogeneous sections of specified length. This design renders multiple regions with unique characteristics. The goal of this study is to determine and optimally utilize these characteristics. Proliferation considerations result in the need for denaturing of heterogeneous regions, which renders more unique characteristics, these aspects were examined in this study. Finally, the use of fertile thorium to emulate a burnable poison for managing excess BOL reactivity has been investigated, as well as an option for flux shaping in a typical PWR.

Keywords: nuclear fuel, nuclear characteristics, nuclear fuel cycle, thorium-based fuel, heterogeneous design

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