Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 348

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Nuclear and Quantum Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

348 Ant-Tracking Attribute: A Model for Understanding Production Response

Authors: Prince Suka Neekia Momta, Rita Iheoma Achonyeulo


Ant Tracking seismic attribute applied over 4-seconds seismic volume revealed structural features triggered by clay diapirism, growth fault development, rapid deltaic sedimentation and intense drilling. The attribute was extracted on vertical seismic sections and time slices. Mega tectonic structures such as growth faults and clay diapirs are visible on vertical sections with obscured minor lineaments or fractures. Fractures are distinctively visible on time slices yielding recognizable patterns corroborating established geologic models. This model seismic attribute enabled the understanding of fluid flow characteristics and production responses. Three structural patterns recognized in the field include: major growth faults, minor faults or lineaments and network of fractures. Three growth faults mapped on seismic section form major deformation bands delimiting the area into three blocks or depocenters. The growth faults trend E-W, dip down-to-south in the basin direction, and cut across the study area. The faults initiating from about 2000ms extended up to 500ms, and tend to progress parallel and opposite to the growth direction of an upsurging diapiric structure. The diapiric structures form the major deformational bands originating from great depths (below 2000ms) and rising to about 1200ms where series of sedimentary layers onlapped and pinchout stratigraphically against the diapir. Several other secondary faults or lineaments that form parallel streaks to one another also accompanied the growth faults. The fracture networks have no particular trend but form a network surrounding the well area. Faults identified in the study area have potentials for structural hydrocarbon traps whereas the presence of fractures created a fractured-reservoir condition that enhanced rapid fluid flow especially water. High aquifer flow potential aided by possible fracture permeability resulted in rapid decline in oil rate. Through the application of Ant Tracking attribute, it is possible to obtain detailed interpretation of structures that can have direct influence on oil and gas production.

Keywords: seismic, attributes, production, structural

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347 X-Ray Dosimetry by a Low-Cost Current Mode Ion Chamber

Authors: Ava Zarif Sanayei, Mustafa Farjad-Fard, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadian-Behbahani, Leyli Ebrahimi, Sedigheh Sina


The fabrication and testing of a low-cost air-filled ion chamber for X-ray dosimetry is studied. The chamber is made of a metal cylinder, a central wire, a BC517 Darlington transistor, a 9V DC battery, and a voltmeter in order to have a cost-effective means to measure the dose. The output current of the dosimeter is amplified by the transistor and then fed to the large internal resistance of the voltmeter, producing a readable voltage signal. The dose-response linearity of the ion chamber is evaluated for different exposure scenarios by the X-ray tube. kVp values 70, 90, and 120, and mAs up to 20 are considered. In all experiments, a solid-state dosimeter (Solidose 400, Elimpex Medizintechnik) is used as a reference device for chamber calibration. Each case of exposure is repeated three times, the voltmeter and Solidose readings are recorded, and the mean and standard deviation values are calculated. Then, the calibration curve, derived by plotting voltmeter readings against Solidose readings, provided a linear fit result for all tube kVps of 70, 90, and 120. A 99, 98, and 100% linear relationship, respectively, for kVp values 70, 90, and 120 are demonstrated. The study shows the feasibility of achieving acceptable dose measurements with a simplified setup. Further enhancements to the proposed setup include solutions for limiting the leakage current, optimizing chamber dimensions, utilizing electronic microcontrollers for dedicated data readout, and minimizing the impact of stray electromagnetic fields on the system.

Keywords: dosimetry, ion chamber, radiation detection, X-ray

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346 The Theory of the Mystery: Unifying the Quantum and Cosmic Worlds

Authors: Md. Najiur Rahman


This hypothesis reveals a profound and symmetrical connection that goes beyond the boundaries of quantum physics and cosmology, revolutionizing our understanding of the fundamental building blocks of the cosmos, given its name ‘The Theory of the Mystery’. This theory has an elegantly simple equation, “R = ∆r / √∆m” which establishes a beautiful and well-crafted relationship between the radius (R) of an elementary particle or galaxy, the relative change in radius (∆r), and the mass difference (∆m) between related entities. It is fascinating to note that this formula presents a super synchronization, one which involves the convergence of every basic particle and any single celestial entity into perfect alignment with its respective mass and radius. In addition, we have a Supporting equation that defines the mass-radius connection of an entity by the equation: R=√m/N, where N is an empirically established constant, determined to be approximately 42.86 kg/m, representing the proportionality between mass and radius. It provides precise predictions, collects empirical evidence, and explores the far-reaching consequences of theories such as General Relativity. This elegant symmetry reveals a fundamental principle that underpins the cosmos: each component, whether small or large, follows a precise mass-radius relationship to exert gravity by a universal law. This hypothesis represents a transformative process towards a unified theory of physics, and the pursuit of experimental verification will show that each particle and galaxy is bound by gravity and plays a unique but harmonious role in shaping the universe. It promises to reveal the great symphony of the mighty cosmos. The predictive power of our hypothesis invites the exploration of entities at the farthest reaches of the cosmos, providing a bridge between the known and the unknown.

Keywords: unified theory, quantum gravity, mass-radius relationship, dark matter, uniform gravity

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345 The Safety Related Functions of The Engineered Barriers of the IAEA Borehole Disposal System: The Ghana Pilot Project

Authors: Paul Essel, Eric T. Glover, Gustav Gbeddy, Yaw Adjei-Kyereme, Abdallah M. A. Dawood, Evans M. Ameho, Emmanuel A. Aberikae


Radioactive materials mainly in the form of Sealed Radioactive Sources are being used in various sectors (medicine, agriculture, industry, research, and teaching) for the socio-economic development of Ghana. The use of these beneficial radioactive materials has resulted in an inventory of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) in storage. Most of the DSRS are legacy/historic sources which cannot be returned to their manufacturer or country of origin. Though small in volume, DSRS can be intensively radioactive and create a significant safety and security liability. They need to be managed in a safe and secure manner in accordance with the fundamental safety objective. The Radioactive Waste Management Center (RWMC) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is currently storing a significant volume of DSRS. The initial activities of the DSRS range from 7.4E+5 Bq to 6.85E+14 Bq. If not managed properly, such DSRS can represent a potential hazard to human health and the environment. Storage is an important interim step, especially for DSRS containing very short-lived radionuclides, which can decay to exemption levels within a few years. Long-term storage, however, is considered an unsustainable option for DSRS with long half-lives hence the need for a disposal facility. The GAEC intends to use the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) Borehole Disposal System (BDS) to provide a safe, secure, and cost-effective disposal option to dispose of its DSRS in storage. The proposed site for implementation of the BDS is on the GAEC premises at Kwabenya. The site has been characterized to gain a general understanding in terms of its regional setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. Due to the long half-lives of some of the radionuclides to be disposed of (Ra-226 with half-life of 1600 years), the engineered barriers of the system must be robust to contain these radionuclides for this long period before they decay to harmless levels. There is the need to assess the safety related functions of the engineered barriers of this disposal system.

Keywords: radionuclides, disposal, radioactive waste, engineered barrier

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344 Development of an Automatic Sequential Extraction Device for Pu and Am Isotopes in Radioactive Waste Samples

Authors: Myung Ho Lee, Hee Seung Lim, Young Jae Maeng, Chang Hoon Lee


This study presents an automatic sequential extraction device for Pu and Am isotopes in radioactive waste samples from the nuclear power plant with anion exchange resin and TRU resin. After radionuclides were leached from the radioactive waste samples with concentrated HCl and HNO₃, the sample was allowed to evaporate to dryness after filtering the leaching solution with 0.45 micron filter. The Pu isotopes were separated in HNO₃ medium with anion exchange resin. For leaching solution passed through the anion exchange column, the Am isotopes were sequentially separated with TRU resin. Automatic sequential extraction device built-in software information of separation for Pu and Am isotopes was developed. The purified Pu and Am isotopes were measured by alpha spectrometer, respectively, after the micro-precipitation of neodymium. The data of Pu and Am isotopes in radioactive waste with an automatic sequential extraction device developed in this study were validated with the ICP-MS system.

Keywords: automatic sequential extraction device, Pu isotopes, Am isotopes, alpha spectrometer, radioactive waste samples, ICP-MS system

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343 Simulation of the Collimator Plug Design for Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis in the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Carlos G. Santos, Frederico A. Genezini, A. P. Dos Santos, H. Yorivaz, P. T. D. Siqueira


The Prompt-Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) is a valuable technique for investigating the elemental composition of various samples. However, the installation of a PGAA system entails specific conditions such as filtering the neutron beam according to the target and providing adequate shielding for both users and detectors. These requirements incur substantial costs, exceeding $100,000, including manpower. Nevertheless, a cost-effective approach involves leveraging an existing neutron beam facility to create a hybrid system integrating PGAA and Neutron Tomography (NT). The IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN/USP possesses an NT facility with suitable conditions for adapting and implementing a PGAA device. The NT facility offers a thermal flux slightly colder and provides shielding for user protection. The key additional requirement involves designing detector shielding to mitigate high gamma ray background and safeguard the HPGe detector from neutron-induced damage. This study employs Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP6 code to optimize the collimator plug for PGAA within the IEA-R1 NT facility. Three collimator models are proposed and simulated to assess their effectiveness in shielding gamma and neutron radiation from nucleon fission. The aim is to achieve a focused prompt-gamma signal while shielding ambient gamma radiation. The simulation results indicate that one of the proposed designs is particularly suitable for the PGAA-NT hybrid system.

Keywords: MCNP6.1, neutron, prompt-gamma ray, prompt-gamma activation analysis

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342 Radiation Protection Study for the Assessment of Mixed Fields Ionizing Radiation

Authors: Avram Irina, Coiciu Eugenia-Mihaela, Popovici Mara-Georgiana, Mitu Iani Octavian


ELI-NP stands as a cutting-edge facility globally, hosting unique radiological setups. It conducts experiments leveraging high-power lasers capable of producing extremely brief 10 PW pulses on two fronts. Moreover, it houses an exceptional gamma beam system with distinctive spectral characteristics. The facility hosts various experiments across designated experimental areas, encompassing ultra-short high-power laser tests, high-intensity gamma beam trials, and combined experiments utilizing both setups. The facility hosts a dosimetry laboratory, which recently obtained accreditation, where the radiation safety group employs a host of different types of detectors for monitoring the personnel, environment, and public exposure to ionizing radiation generated in experiments performed. ELI-NP's design was shaped by radiological protection assessments conducted through Monte Carlo simulations. The poster exemplifies an assessment conducted using the FLUKA code in an experimental area where a high-power laser system is implemented, and the future diagnostic system for variable energy gamma beams will soon be operational.

Keywords: radiation protection, Monte Carlo simulation, FLUKA, dosimetry

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341 Photon Blockade in Non-Hermitian Optomechanical Systems with Nonreciprocal Couplings

Authors: J. Y. Sun, H. Z. Shen


We study the photon blockade at exceptional points for a non-Hermitian optomechanical system coupled to the driven whispering-gallery-mode microresonator with two nanoparticles under the weak optomechanical coupling approximation, where exceptional points emerge periodically by controlling the relative angle of the nanoparticles. We find that conventional photon blockade occurs at exceptional points for the eigenenergy resonance of the single-excitation subspace driven by a laser field and discuss the physical origin of conventional photon blockade. Under the weak driving condition, we analyze the influences of the different parameters on conventional photon blockade. We investigate conventional photon blockade at nonexceptional points, which exists at two optimal detunings due to the eigenstates in the single-excitation subspace splitting from one (coalescence) at exceptional points to two at nonexceptional points. Unconventional photon blockade can occur at nonexceptional points, while it does not exist at exceptional points since the destructive quantum interference cannot occur due to the two different quantum pathways to the two-photon state not being formed. The realization of photon blockade in our proposal provides a viable and flexible way for the preparation of single-photon sources in the non-Hermitian optomechanical system.

Keywords: optomechanical systems, photon blockade, non-hermitian, exceptional points

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340 Electro-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Low-Pressure DC Glow Discharge by Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: Ji-Hyok Kim, Il-Gyong Paek, Yong-Jun Kim


We propose a numerical model based on drift-diffusion theory and lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to analyze the electro-hydrodynamic behavior in low-pressure direct current (DC) glow discharge plasmas. We apply the drift-diffusion theory for 4-species and employ the standard lattice Boltzmann model (SLBM) for the electron, the finite difference-lattice Boltzmann model (FD-LBM) for heavy particles, and the finite difference model (FDM) for the electric potential, respectively. Our results are compared with those of other methods, and emphasize the necessity of a two-dimensional analysis for glow discharge.

Keywords: glow discharge, lattice Boltzmann method, numerical analysis, plasma simulation, electro-hydrodynamic

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339 Applying the Crystal Model to Different Nuclear Systems

Authors: A. Amar


The angular distributions of the nuclear systems under consideration have been analyzed in the framework of the optical model (OM), where the real part was taken in the crystal model form. A crystal model (CM) has been applied to deuteron elastically scattered by ⁶,⁷Li and ⁹Be. A crystal model (CM) + distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) + dynamic polarization potential (DPP) potential has been applied to deuteron elastically scattered by ⁶,⁷Li and 9Be. Also, a crystal model has been applied to ⁶Li elastically scattered by ¹⁶O and ²⁸Sn in addition to the ⁷Li+⁷Li system and the ¹²C(alpha,⁸Be) ⁸Be reaction. The continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method has been applied to the ⁷Li+⁷Li system and agreement between the crystal model and the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method has been observed. In general, the models succeeded in reproducing the differential cross sections at the full angular range and for all the energies under consideration.

Keywords: optical model (OM), crystal model (CM), distorted-wave born approximation (DWBA), dynamic polarization potential (DPP), the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method, and deuteron elastically scattered by ⁶, ⁷Li and ⁹Be

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338 Improvement in Quality-Factor Superconducting Co-Planer Waveguide Resonators by Passivation Air-Interfaces Using Self-Assembled Monolayers

Authors: Saleem Rao, Mohammed Al-Ghadeer, Archan Banerjee, Hossein Fariborzi


Materials imperfection, particularly two-level-system (TLS) defects in planer superconducting quantum circuits, contributes significantly to decoherence, ultimately limiting the performance of quantum computation and sensing. Oxides at air interfaces are among the host of TLS, and different material has been used to reduce TLS losses. Passivation with an inorganic layer is not an option to reduce these interface oxides; however, they can be etched away, but their regrowth remains a problem. Here, we report the chemisorption of molecular self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) at air interfaces of superconducting co-planer waveguide (CPW) resonators that suppress the regrowth of oxides and also modify the dielectric constant of the interface. With SAMs, we observed sustained order of magnitude improvement in quality factor -better than oxide etched interfaces. Quality factor measurements at millikelvin temperature and at single photon, XPS data, and TEM images of SAM passivated air interface sustenance our claim. Compatibility of SAM with micro-/nano-fabrication processes opens new ways to improve the coherence time in cQED.

Keywords: superconducting circuits, quality-factor, self-assembled monolayer, coherence

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337 Comparison of Computed Tomography Dose Index, Dose Length Product and Effective Dose Among Male and Female Patients From Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography Pancreatitis Protocol

Authors: Babina Aryal


Background: The diagnosis of pancreatitis is generally based on clinical and laboratory findings; however, Computed Tomography (CT) is an imaging technique of choice specially Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) shows morphological characteristic findings that allow for establishing the diagnosis of pancreatitis and determining the extent of disease severity which is done along with the administration of appropriate contrast medium. The purpose of this study was to compare Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI), Dose Length Product (DLP) and Effective Dose (ED) among male and female patients from Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography (CECT) Pancreatitis Protocol. Methods: This retrospective study involved data collection based on clinical/laboratory/ultrasonography diagnosis of Pancreatitis and has undergone CECT Abdomen pancreatitis protocol. data collection involved detailed information about a patient's Age and Gender, Clinical history, Individual Computed Tomography Dose Index and Dose Length Product and effective dose. Results: We have retrospectively collected dose data from 150 among which 127 were males and 23 were females. The values obtained from the display of the CT screen were measured, calculated and compared to determine whether the CTDI, DLP and ED values were similar or not. CTDI for females was more as compared to males. The differences in CTDI values for females and males were 32.2087 and 37.1609 respectively. DLP values and Effective dose for both the genders did not show significant differences. Conclusion: This study concluded that there were no more significant changes in the DLP and ED values among both the genders however we noticed that female patients had more CTDI than males.

Keywords: computed tomography, contrast enhanced computed tomography, computed tomography dose index, dose length product, effective dose

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336 Reinforcement Learning the Born Rule from Photon Detection

Authors: Rodrigo S. Piera, Jailson Sales Ara´ujo, Gabriela B. Lemos, Matthew B. Weiss, John B. DeBrota, Gabriel H. Aguilar, Jacques L. Pienaar


The Born rule was historically viewed as an independent axiom of quantum mechanics until Gleason derived it in 1957 by assuming the Hilbert space structure of quantum measurements [1]. In subsequent decades there have been diverse proposals to derive the Born rule starting from even more basic assumptions [2]. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple reinforcement-learning algorithm, having no pre-programmed assumptions about quantum theory, will nevertheless converge to a behaviour pattern that accords with the Born rule, when tasked with predicting the output of a quantum optical implementation of a symmetric informationally-complete measurement (SIC). Our findings support a hypothesis due to QBism (the subjective Bayesian approach to quantum theory), which states that the Born rule can be thought of as a normative rule for making decisions in a quantum world [3].

Keywords: quantum Bayesianism, quantum theory, quantum information, quantum measurement

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335 Microstructure of AlCrFeNiMn High Entropy Alloy and Its Corrosion Behavior in Supercritical CO₂ Environment

Authors: Yang Wanhuan, Zou Jichun, LI Shen, Zhong Weihua, Yang Wen


High entropy alloys (HEAs) have aroused significant concern in high-temperature supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) environments due to their unique microstructures and outstanding properties. However, the anti-corrosion ability and mechanism of these HEAs in the S-CO₂ remain unclear. Herein, we developed a new AlCrFeNiMn (AM)-HEA with double phases by vacuum arc melting furnace. The corrosion behavior of AM-HEA in the S-CO₂ at 500 ℃ under 25 MPa for 400 hours was deciphered by multiple characterization techniques. The results show that the discrepancy of corrosion between the matrix and boundary was accounted for by their microstructure and components. The role and mechanism of Mn contents for their oxide scales in boundary zones were emphasized. More importantly, the nano-precipitated second phase and numerous boundaries for the outstanding anti-corrosion ability of the matrix were proposed.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, microstructure, corrosion, supercritical carbon oxide, AlCrFeNiMn

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334 Comprehensive State-of-the-Art in Semi-Quantum Secret Sharing

Authors: Mustapha Anis Younes, Sofia Zebboudj, Abdelhakim Gharbi


Semi-quantum cryptography involves two distinct users, one with complete quantum capabilities and the other possessing limited quantum abilities. Among various semi-quantum cryptographic schemes, semi-quantum secret sharing (SQSS) holds significant importance. In this scheme, the quantum user, Alice, divides the secret information into two parts and shares them with two classical participants. The retrieval of Alice’s original secret information requires their cooperation. This paper provides an overview of the field of semi-quantum secret sharing, surveying key protocols proposed over the years, examining known attacks and corresponding defenses, and delves into prevalent challenges and issues in the field. Additionally, potential research directions are highlighted for further exploration in future studies.

Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum information, security analysis, semi-quantum secret sharing

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333 The Production of Biofertilizer from Naturally Occurring Microorganisms by Using Nuclear Technologies

Authors: K. S. Al-Mugren, A. Yahya, S. Alodah, R. Alharbi, S. H. Almsaid , A. Alqahtani, H. Jaber, A. Basaqer, N. Alajra, N. Almoghati, A. Alsalman, Khalid Alharbi


Context: The production of biofertilizers from naturally occurring microorganisms is an area of research that aims to enhance agricultural practices by utilizing local resources. This research project focuses on isolating and screening indigenous microorganisms with PK-fixing and phosphate solubilizing characteristics from local sources. Research Aim: The aim of this project is to develop a biofertilizer product using indigenous microorganisms and composted agro waste as a carrier. The objective is to enhance crop productivity and soil fertility through the application of biofertilizers. Methodology: The research methodology includes several key steps. Firstly, indigenous microorganisms will be isolated from local resources using the ten-fold serial dilutions technique. Screening assays will be conducted to identify microorganisms with phosphate solubilizing and PK-fixing activities. Agro-waste materials will be collected from local agricultural sources, and composting experiments will be conducted to convert them into organic matter-rich compost. Physicochemical analysis will be performed to assess the composition of the composted agro-waste. Gamma and X-ray irradiation will be used to sterilize the carrier material. The sterilized carrier will be tested for sterility using the ten-fold serial dilutions technique. Finally, selected indigenous microorganisms will be developed into biofertilizer products. Findings: The research aims to find suitable indigenous microorganisms with phosphate solubilizing and PK-fixing characteristics for biofertilizer production. Additionally, the research aims to assess the suitability of composted agro waste as a carrier for biofertilizers. The impact of gamma irradiation sterilization on pathogen elimination will also be investigated. Theoretical Importance: This research contributes to the understanding of utilizing indigenous microorganisms and composted agro waste for biofertilizer production. It expands knowledge on the potential benefits of biofertilizers in enhancing crop productivity and soil fertility. Data Collection and Analysis Procedures: The data collection process involves isolating indigenous microorganisms, conducting screening assays, collecting and composting agro waste, analyzing the physicochemical composition of composted agro waste, and testing carrier sterilization. The analysis procedures include assessing the abilities of indigenous microorganisms, evaluating the composition of composted agro waste, and determining the sterility of the carrier material. Conclusion: The research project aims to develop biofertilizer products using indigenous microorganisms and composted agro waste as a carrier. Through the isolation and screening of indigenous microorganisms, the project aims to enhance crop productivity and soil fertility by utilizing local resources. The research findings will contribute to the understanding of the suitability of composted agro waste as a carrier and the efficacy of gamma irradiation sterilization. The research outcomes will have theoretical importance in the field of biofertilizer production and agricultural practices.

Keywords: biofertilizer, microorganisms, agro waste, nuclear technologies

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332 External Noise Distillation in Quantum Holography with Undetected Light

Authors: Sebastian Töpfer, Jorge Fuenzalida, Marta Gilaberte Basset, Juan P. Torres, Markus Gräfe


This work presents an experimental and theoretical study about the noise resilience of quantum holography with undetected photons. Quantum imaging has become an important research topic in the recent years after its first publication in 2014. Following this research, advances towards different spectral ranges in detection and different optical geometries have been made. Especially an interest in the field of near infrared to mid infrared measurements has developed, because of the unique characteristic, that allows to sample a probe with photons in a different wavelength than the photons arriving at the detector. This promising effect can be used for medical applications, to measure in the so-called molecule fingerprint region, while using broadly available detectors for the visible spectral range. Further advance the development of quantum imaging methods have been made by new measurement and detection schemes. One of which is quantum holography with undetected light. It combines digital phase shifting holography with quantum imaging to extent the obtainable sample information, by measuring not only the object transmission, but also its influence on the phase shift experienced by the transmitted light. This work will present extended research for the quantum holography with undetected light scheme regarding the influence of external noise. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that the samples information can still be at noise levels of 250 times higher than the signal level, because of its information being transmitted by the interferometric pattern. A detailed theoretic explanation is also provided.

Keywords: distillation, quantum holography, quantum imaging, quantum metrology

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331 Proteomic Evaluation of Sex Differences in the Plasma of Non-human Primates Exposed to Ionizing Radiation for Biomarker Discovery

Authors: Christina Williams, Mehari Weldemariam, Ann M. Farese, Thomas J. MacVittie, Maureen A. Kane


Radiation exposure results in dose-dependent and time-dependent multi-organ damage. Drug development of medical countermeasures (MCM) for radiation-induced injury occurs under the FDA Animal Rule because human efficacy studies are not ethical or feasible. The FDA Animal Rule requires the representation of both sexes and describes several uses for biomarkers in MCM drug development studies. Currently, MCMs are limited and there is no FDA-approved biomarker for any radiation injury. Sex as a variable is essential to identifying biomarkers and developing effective MCMs for acute radiation exposure (ARS) and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE). These studies aim to address the death of information on sex differences that have not been determined by studies that included only male, single-sex cohorts. Studies have reported differences in radiosensitivity according to sex. As such, biomarker discovery for radiation-induced damage must consider sex as a variable. This study evaluated the plasma proteomic profile of Rhesus macaque non-human primates after different exposures and doses, as well as time points after radiation. Exposures and doses included total body irradiation between 5-7.5 Gy and partial body irradiation with 5% bone marrow sparing at 9, 9.5 and 10 Gy. Timepoints after irradiation included days 1, 3, 60, and 180, which encompassed both acute radiation syndromes and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure. Bottom-up proteomic analyses of plasma included equal numbers of males and females. In the control animals, few proteomic differences are observed between the sexes. In the irradiated animals, there are a few sex differences, with changes mostly consisting of proteins upregulated in the female animals. Multiple canonical pathways were upregulated in irradiated animals relative to the control animals when subjected to pathway analysis, but differential responses between the sexes are limited. These data provide critical baseline differences according to sex and establish sex differences in non-human primate models relevant to drug development of MCM under the FDA Animal Rule.

Keywords: ionizing radiation, sex differences, plasma proteomics, biomarker discovery

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330 Localization of Radioactive Sources with a Mobile Radiation Detection System using Profit Functions

Authors: Luís Miguel Cabeça Marques, Alberto Manuel Martinho Vale, José Pedro Miragaia Trancoso Vaz, Ana Sofia Baptista Fernandes, Rui Alexandre de Barros Coito, Tiago Miguel Prates da Costa


The detection and localization of hidden radioactive sources are of significant importance in countering the illicit traffic of Special Nuclear Materials and other radioactive sources and materials. Radiation portal monitors are commonly used at airports, seaports, and international land borders for inspecting cargo and vehicles. However, these equipment can be expensive and are not available at all checkpoints. Consequently, the localization of SNM and other radioactive sources often relies on handheld equipment, which can be time-consuming. The current study presents the advantages of real-time analysis of gamma-ray count rate data from a mobile radiation detection system based on simulated data and field tests. The incorporation of profit functions and decision criteria to optimize the detection system's path significantly enhances the radiation field information and reduces survey time during cargo inspection. For source position estimation, a maximum likelihood estimation algorithm is employed, and confidence intervals are derived using the Fisher information. The study also explores the impact of uncertainties, baselines, and thresholds on the performance of the profit function. The proposed detection system, utilizing a plastic scintillator with silicon photomultiplier sensors, boasts several benefits, including cost-effectiveness, high geometric efficiency, compactness, and lightweight design. This versatility allows for seamless integration into any mobile platform, be it air, land, maritime, or hybrid, and it can also serve as a handheld device. Furthermore, integration of the detection system into drones, particularly multirotors, and its affordability enable the automation of source search and substantial reduction in survey time, particularly when deploying a fleet of drones. While the primary focus is on inspecting maritime container cargo, the methodologies explored in this research can be applied to the inspection of other infrastructures, such as nuclear facilities or vehicles.

Keywords: plastic scintillators, profit functions, path planning, gamma-ray detection, source localization, mobile radiation detection system, security scenario

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329 Fuel Inventory/ Depletion Analysis for a Thorium-Uranium Dioxide (Th-U) O2 Pin Cell Benchmark Using Monte Carlo and Deterministic Codes with New Version VIII.0 of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B) Nuclear Data Library

Authors: Jamal Al-Zain, O. El Hajjaji, T. El Bardouni


A (Th-U) O2 fuel pin benchmark made up of 25 w/o U and 75 w/o Th was used. In order to analyze the depletion and inventory of the fuel for the pressurized water reactor pin-cell model. The new version VIII.0 of the ENDF/B nuclear data library was used to create a data set in ACE format at various temperatures and process the data using the MAKXSF6.2 and NJOY2016 programs to process the data at the various temperatures in order to conduct this study and analyze cross-section data. The infinite multiplication factor, the concentrations and activities of the main fission products, the actinide radionuclides accumulated in the pin cell, and the total radioactivity were all estimated and compared in this study using the Monte Carlo N-Particle 6 (MCNP6.2) and DRAGON5 programs. Additionally, the behavior of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) thorium pin cell that is dependent on burn-up (BU) was validated and compared with the reference data obtained using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT-MOCUP), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL-MOCUP), and CASMO-4 codes. The results of this study indicate that all of the codes examined have good agreements.

Keywords: PWR thorium pin cell, ENDF/B-VIII.0, MAKXSF6.2, NJOY2016, MCNP6.2, DRAGON5, fuel burn-up.

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328 Non-Interactive XOR Quantum Oblivious Transfer: Optimal Protocols and Their Experimental Implementations

Authors: Lara Stroh, Nikola Horová, Robert Stárek, Ittoop V. Puthoor, Michal Mičuda, Miloslav Dušek, Erika Andersson


Oblivious transfer (OT) is an important cryptographic primitive. Any multi-party computation can be realised with OT as a building block. XOR oblivious transfer (XOT) is a variant where the sender Alice has two bits, and a receiver, Bob, obtains either the first bit, the second bit, or their XOR. Bob should not learn anything more than this, and Alice should not learn what Bob has learned. Perfect quantum OT with information-theoretic security is known to be impossible. We determine the smallest possible cheating probabilities for unrestricted dishonest parties in non-interactive quantum XOT protocols using symmetric pure states and present an optimal protocol which outperforms classical protocols. We also "reverse" this protocol so that Bob becomes the sender of a quantum state and Alice the receiver who measures it while still implementing oblivious transfer from Alice to Bob. Cheating probabilities for both parties stay the same as for the unreversed protocol. We optically implemented both the unreversed and the reversed protocols and cheating strategies, noting that the reversed protocol is easier to implement.

Keywords: oblivious transfer, quantum protocol, cryptography, XOR

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327 Evaluation of a Data Fusion Algorithm for Detecting and Locating a Radioactive Source through Monte Carlo N-Particle Code Simulation and Experimental Measurement

Authors: Hadi Ardiny, Amir Mohammad Beigzadeh


Through the utilization of a combination of various sensors and data fusion methods, the detection of potential nuclear threats can be significantly enhanced by extracting more information from different data. In this research, an experimental and modeling approach was employed to track a radioactive source by combining a surveillance camera and a radiation detector (NaI). To run this experiment, three mobile robots were utilized, with one of them equipped with a radioactive source. An algorithm was developed in identifying the contaminated robot through correlation between camera images and camera data. The computer vision method extracts the movements of all robots in the XY plane coordinate system, and the detector system records the gamma-ray count. The position of the robots and the corresponding count of the moving source were modeled using the MCNPX simulation code while considering the experimental geometry. The results demonstrated a high level of accuracy in finding and locating the target in both the simulation model and experimental measurement. The modeling techniques prove to be valuable in designing different scenarios and intelligent systems before initiating any experiments.

Keywords: nuclear threats, radiation detector, MCNPX simulation, modeling techniques, intelligent systems

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326 Accelerating Quantum Chemistry Calculations: Machine Learning for Efficient Evaluation of Electron-Repulsion Integrals

Authors: Nishant Rodrigues, Nicole Spanedda, Chilukuri K. Mohan, Arindam Chakraborty


A crucial objective in quantum chemistry is the computation of the energy levels of chemical systems. This task requires electron-repulsion integrals as inputs, and the steep computational cost of evaluating these integrals poses a major numerical challenge in efficient implementation of quantum chemical software. This work presents a moment-based machine-learning approach for the efficient evaluation of electron-repulsion integrals. These integrals were approximated using linear combinations of a small number of moments. Machine learning algorithms were applied to estimate the coefficients in the linear combination. A random forest approach was used to identify promising features using a recursive feature elimination approach, which performed best for learning the sign of each coefficient but not the magnitude. A neural network with two hidden layers were then used to learn the coefficient magnitudes along with an iterative feature masking approach to perform input vector compression, identifying a small subset of orbitals whose coefficients are sufficient for the quantum state energy computation. Finally, a small ensemble of neural networks (with a median rule for decision fusion) was shown to improve results when compared to a single network.

Keywords: quantum energy calculations, atomic orbitals, electron-repulsion integrals, ensemble machine learning, random forests, neural networks, feature extraction

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325 PbLi Activation Due to Corrosion Products in WCLL BB (EU-DEMO) and Its Impact on Reactor Design and Recycling

Authors: Nicole Virgili, Marco Utili


The design of the Breeding Blanket in Tokamak fusion energy systems has to guarantee sufficient availability in addition to its functions, that are, tritium breeding self-sufficiency, power extraction and shielding (the magnets and the VV). All these function in the presence of extremely harsh operating conditions in terms of heat flux and neutron dose as well as chemical environment of the coolant and breeder that challenge structural materials (structural resistance and corrosion resistance). The movement and activation of fluids from the BB to the Ex-vessel components in a fusion power plant have an important radiological consideration because flowing material can carry radioactivity to safety-critical areas. This includes gamma-ray emission from activated fluid and activated corrosion products, and secondary activation resulting from neutron emission, with implication for the safety of maintenance personnel and damage to electrical and electronic equipment. In addition to the PbLi breeder activation, it is important to evaluate the contribution due to the activated corrosion products (ACPs) dissolved in the lead-lithium eutectic alloy, at different concentration levels. Therefore, the purpose of the study project is to evaluate the PbLi activity utilizing the FISPACT II inventory code. Emphasis is given on how the design of the EU-DEMO WCLL, and potential recycling of the breeder material will be impacted by the activation of PbLi and the associated active corrosion products (ACPs). For this scope the following Computational Tools, Data and Geometry have been considered: • Neutron source: EU-DEMO neutron flux < 1014/cm2/s • Neutron flux distribution in equatorial breeding blanket module (BBM) #13 in the WCLL BB outboard central zone, which is the most activated zone, with the aim to introduce a conservative component utilizing MNCP6. • The recommended geometry model: 2017 EU DEMO CAD model. • Blanket Module Material Specifications (Composition) • Activation calculations for different ACP concentration levels in the PbLi breeder, with a given chemistry in stationary equilibrium conditions, using FISPACT II code. Results suggest that there should be a waiting time of about 10 years from the shut-down (SD) to be able to safely manipulate the PbLi for recycling operations with simple shielding requirements. The dose rate is mainly given by the PbLi and the ACP concentration (x1 or x 100) does not shift the result. In conclusion, the results show that there is no impact on PbLi activation due to ACPs levels.

Keywords: activation, corrosion products, recycling, WCLL BB., PbLi

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324 Quantum Kernel Based Regressor for Prediction of Non-Markovianity of Open Quantum Systems

Authors: Diego Tancara, Raul Coto, Ariel Norambuena, Hoseein T. Dinani, Felipe Fanchini


Quantum machine learning is a growing research field that aims to perform machine learning tasks assisted by a quantum computer. Kernel-based quantum machine learning models are paradigmatic examples where the kernel involves quantum states, and the Gram matrix is calculated from the overlapping between these states. With the kernel at hand, a regular machine learning model is used for the learning process. In this paper we investigate the quantum support vector machine and quantum kernel ridge models to predict the degree of non-Markovianity of a quantum system. We perform digital quantum simulation of amplitude damping and phase damping channels to create our quantum dataset. We elaborate on different kernel functions to map the data and kernel circuits to compute the overlapping between quantum states. We observe a good performance of the models.

Keywords: quantum, machine learning, kernel, non-markovianity

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323 Fast Robust Switching Control Scheme for PWR-Type Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Piyush V. Surjagade, Jiamei Deng, Paul Doney, S. R. Shimjith, A. John Arul


In sophisticated and complex systems such as nuclear power plants, maintaining the system's stability in the presence of uncertainties and disturbances and obtaining a fast dynamic response are the most challenging problems. Thus, to ensure the satisfactory and safe operation of nuclear power plants, this work proposes a new fast, robust optimal switching control strategy for pressurized water reactor-type nuclear power plants. The proposed control strategy guarantees a substantial degree of robustness, fast dynamic response over the entire operational envelope, and optimal performance during the nominal operation of the plant. To improve the robustness, obtain a fast dynamic response, and make the system optimal, a bank of controllers is designed. Various controllers, like a baseline proportional-integral-derivative controller, an optimal linear quadratic Gaussian controller, and a robust adaptive L1 controller, are designed to perform distinct tasks in a specific situation. At any instant of time, the most suitable controller from the bank of controllers is selected using the switching logic unit that designates the controller by monitoring the health of the nuclear power plant or transients. The proposed switching control strategy optimizes the overall performance and increases operational safety and efficiency. Simulation studies have been performed considering various uncertainties and disturbances that demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed switching control strategy over some conventional control techniques.

Keywords: switching control, robust control, optimal control, nuclear power control

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322 HyDUS Project; Seeking a Wonder Material for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: Monica Jong, Antonios Banos, Tom Scott, Chris Webster, David Fletcher


Hydrogen, as a clean alternative to methane, is relatively easy to make, either from water using electrolysis or from methane using steam reformation. However, hydrogen is much trickier to store than methane, and without effective storage, it simply won’t pass muster as a suitable methane substitute. Physical storage of hydrogen is quite inefficient. Storing hydrogen as a compressed gas at pressures up to 900 times atmospheric is volumetrically inefficient and carries safety implications, whilst storing it as a liquid requires costly and constant cryogenic cooling to minus 253°C. This is where DU steps in as a possible solution. Across the periodic table, there are many different metallic elements that will react with hydrogen to form a chemical compound known as a hydride (or metal hydride). From a chemical perspective, the ‘king’ of the hydride forming metals is palladium because it offers the highest hydrogen storage volumetric capacity. However, this material is simply too expensive and scarce to be used in a scaled-up bulk hydrogen storage solution. Depleted Uranium is the second most volumetrically efficient hydride-forming metal after palladium. The UK has accrued a significant amount of DU because of manufacturing nuclear fuel for many decades, and that is currently without real commercial use. Uranium trihydride (UH3) contains three hydrogen atoms for every uranium atom and can chemically store hydrogen at ambient pressure and temperature at more than twice the density of pure liquid hydrogen for the same volume. To release the hydrogen from the hydride, all you do is heat it up. At temperatures above 250°C, the hydride starts to thermally decompose, releasing hydrogen as a gas and leaving the Uranium as a metal again. The reversible nature of this reaction allows the hydride to be formed and unformed again and again, enabling its use as a high-density hydrogen storage material which is already available in large quantities because of its stockpiling as a ‘waste’ by-product. Whilst the tritium storage credentials of Uranium have been rigorously proven at the laboratory scale and at the fusion demonstrator JET for over 30 years, there is a need to prove the concept for depleted uranium hydrogen storage (HyDUS) at scales towards that which is needed to flexibly supply our national power grid with energy. This is exactly the purpose of the HyDUS project, a collaborative venture involving EDF as the interested energy vendor, Urenco as the owner of the waste DU, and the University of Bristol with the UKAEA as the architects of the technology. The team will embark on building and proving the world’s first pilot scale demonstrator of bulk chemical hydrogen storage using depleted Uranium. Within 24 months, the team will attempt to prove both the technical and commercial viability of this technology as a longer duration energy storage solution for the UK. The HyDUS project seeks to enable a true by-product to wonder material story for depleted Uranium, demonstrating that we can think sustainably about unlocking the potential value trapped inside nuclear waste materials.

Keywords: hydrogen, long duration storage, storage, depleted uranium, HyDUS

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
321 Generation of Waste Streams in Small Model Reactors

Authors: Sara Mostofian


The nuclear industry is a technology that can fulfill future energy needs but requires special attention to ensure safety and reliability while minimizing any environmental impact. To meet these expectations, the nuclear industry is exploring different reactor technologies for power production. Several designs are under development and the technical viability of these new designs is the subject of many ongoing studies. One of these studies considers the radioactive emissions and radioactive waste generated during the life of a nuclear power production plant to allow a successful license process. For all the modern technologies, a good understanding of the radioactivity generated in the process systems of the plant is essential. Some of that understanding may be gleaned from the performance of some prototype reactors of similar design that operated decades ago. This paper presents how, with that understanding, a model can be developed to estimate the emissions as well as the radioactive waste during the normal operation of a nuclear power plant. The model would predict the radioactive material concentrations in different waste streams. Using this information, the radioactive emission and waste generated during the life of these new technologies can be estimated during the early stages of the design of the plant.

Keywords: SMRs, activity transport, model, radioactive waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
320 Application of Neutron-Gamma Technologies for Soil Elemental Content Determination and Mapping

Authors: G. Yakubova, A. Kavetskiy, S. A. Prior, H. A. Torbert


In-situ soil carbon determination over large soil surface areas (several hectares) is required in regard to carbon sequestration and carbon credit issues. This capability is important for optimizing modern agricultural practices and enhancing soil science knowledge. Collecting and processing representative field soil cores for traditional laboratory chemical analysis is labor-intensive and time-consuming. The neutron-stimulated gamma analysis method can be used for in-situ measurements of primary elements in agricultural soils (e.g., Si, Al, O, C, Fe, and H). This non-destructive method can assess several elements in large soil volumes with no need for sample preparation. Neutron-gamma soil elemental analysis utilizes gamma rays issued from different neutron-nuclei interactions. This process has become possible due to the availability of commercial portable pulse neutron generators, high-efficiency gamma detectors, reliable electronics, and measurement/data processing software complimented by advances in state-of-the-art nuclear physics methods. In Pulsed Fast Thermal Neutron Analysis (PFTNA), soil irradiation is accomplished using a pulsed neutron flux, and gamma spectra acquisition occurs both during and between pulses. This method allows the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) gamma spectrum to be separated from the thermal neutron capture (TNC) spectrum. Based on PFTNA, a mobile system for field-scale soil elemental determinations (primarily carbon) was developed and constructed. Our scanning methodology acquires data that can be directly used for creating soil elemental distribution maps (based on ArcGIS software) in a reasonable timeframe (~20-30 hectares per working day). Created maps are suitable for both agricultural purposes and carbon sequestration estimates. The measurement system design, spectra acquisition process, strategy for acquiring field-scale carbon content data, and mapping of agricultural fields will be discussed.

Keywords: neutron gamma analysis, soil elemental content, carbon sequestration, carbon credit, soil gamma spectroscopy, portable neutron generators, ArcMap mapping

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319 Environmental and Safety Studies for Advanced Fuel Cycle Fusion Energy Systems: The ESSENTIAL Approach

Authors: Massimo Zucchetti


In the US, the SPARC-ARC projects of compact tokamaks are being developed: both are aimed at the technological demonstration of fusion power reactors with cutting-edge technology but following different design approaches. However, they show more similarities than differences in the fuel cycle, safety, radiation protection, environmental, waste and decommissioning aspects: all reactors, either experimental or demonstration ones, have to fulfill certain "essential" requirements to pass from virtual to real machines, to be built in the real world. The paper will discuss these "essential" requirements. Some of the relevant activities in these fields, carried out by our research group (ESSENTIAL group), will be briefly reported, with the aim of showing some methodology aspects that have been developed and might be of wider interest. Also, a non-competitive comparison between our results for different projects will be included when useful. The question of advanced D-He3 fuel cycles to be used for those machines will be addressed briefly. In the past, the IGNITOR project of a compact high-magnetic field D-T ignition experiment was found to be able to sustain limited D-He3 plasmas, while the Candor project was a more decisive step toward D-He3 fusion reactors. The following topics will be treated: Waste management and radioactive safety studies for advanced fusion power plants; development of compact high-field advanced fusion reactors; behavior of nuclear materials under irradiation: neutron-induced radioactivity due to side DT reactions, radiation damage; accident analysis; reactor siting.

Keywords: advanced fuel fusion reactors, deuterium-helium3, high-field tokamaks, fusion safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 47