Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 359

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Biological and Ecological Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

359 A Multi-Scale Approach to Space Use: Habitat Disturbance Alters Behavior, Movement and Energy Budgets in Sloths (Bradypus variegatus)

Authors: Heather E. Ewart, Keith Jensen, Rebecca N. Cliffe


Fragmentation and changes in the structural composition of tropical forests – as a result of intensifying anthropogenic disturbance – are increasing pressures on local biodiversity. Species with low dispersal abilities have some of the highest extinction risks in response to environmental change, as even small-scale environmental variation can substantially impact their space use and energetic balance. Understanding the implications of forest disturbance is therefore essential, ultimately allowing for more effective and targeted conservation initiatives. Here, the impact of different levels of forest disturbance on the space use, energetics, movement and behavior of 18 brown-throated sloths (Bradypus variegatus) were assessed in the South Caribbean of Costa Rica. A multi-scale framework was used to measure forest disturbance, including large-scale (landscape-level classifications) and fine-scale (within and surrounding individual home ranges) forest composition. Three landscape-level classifications were identified: primary forests (undisturbed), secondary forests (some disturbance, regenerating) and urban forests (high levels of disturbance and fragmentation). Finer-scale forest composition was determined using measurements of habitat structure and quality within and surrounding individual home ranges for each sloth (home range estimates were calculated using autocorrelated kernel density estimation [AKDE]). Measurements of forest quality included tree connectivity, density, diameter and height, species richness, and percentage of canopy cover. To determine space use, energetics, movement and behavior, six sloths in urban forests, seven sloths in secondary forests and five sloths in primary forests were tracked using a combination of Very High Frequency (VHF) radio transmitters and Global Positioning System (GPS) technology over an average period of 120 days. All sloths were also fitted with micro data-loggers (containing tri-axial accelerometers and pressure loggers) for an average of 30 days to allow for behavior-specific movement analyses (data analysis ongoing for data-loggers and primary forest sloths). Data-loggers included determination of activity budgets, circadian rhythms of activity and energy expenditure (using the vector of the dynamic body acceleration [VeDBA] as a proxy). Analyses to date indicate that home range size significantly increased with the level of forest disturbance. Female sloths inhabiting secondary forests averaged 0.67-hectare home ranges, while female sloths inhabiting urban forests averaged 1.93-hectare home ranges (estimates are represented by median values to account for the individual variation in home range size in sloths). Likewise, home range estimates for male sloths were 2.35 hectares in secondary forests and 4.83 in urban forests. Sloths in urban forests also used nearly double (median = 22.5) the number of trees as sloths in the secondary forest (median = 12). These preliminary data indicate that forest disturbance likely heightens the energetic requirements of sloths, a species already critically limited by low dispersal ability and rates of energy acquisition. Energetic and behavioral analyses from the data-loggers will be considered in the context of fine-scale forest composition measurements (i.e., habitat quality and structure) and are expected to reflect the observed home range and movement constraints. The implications of these results are far-reaching, presenting an opportunity to define a critical index of habitat connectivity for low dispersal species such as sloths.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, forest disturbance, movement ecology, sloths

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358 The Assessment of Forest Wood Biomass Potential in Terms of Sustainable Development

Authors: Julija Konstantinavičienė, Vlada Vitunskienė


The role of sustainable biomass, including wood biomass, is becoming more important because of European Green Deal. The New EU Forest strategy is a flagship element of the European Green Deal and a key action on the EU biodiversity strategy for 2030. The first measure of this strategy is promoting sustainable forest management, including encouraging the sustainable use of wood-based resources. The first aim of this research was to develop and present a new approach to the concept of forest wood biomass potential in terms of sustainable development, distinguishing theoretical, technical and sustainable potential and detailing its constraints. The second aim was to prepare the methodology outline of sustainable forest wood biomass potential assessment and empirically check this methodology, considering economic, social and ecological constraints. The basic methodologies of the research: the review of research (with a combination of semi-systematic and integrative review methodologies), rapid assessment method and statistical data analysis. The developed methodology of assessment of forest wood potential in terms of sustainable development can be used in Lithuania and in other countries and will let us compare this potential a different time and spatial levels. The application of the methodology will be able to serve the development of new national strategies for the wood sector.

Keywords: assessment, constraints, forest wood biomass, methodology, potential, sustainability

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357 Fuelwood Heating, Felling, Energy Renewing in Total Fueling of Fuelwood, Renewable Technologies

Authors: Adeiza Matthew, Oluwamishola Abubakar


In conclusion, Fuelwood is a traditional and renewable source of energy that can have both positive and negative impacts. Adopting sustainable practices for its collection, transportation, and use and investing in renewable technologies can help mitigate the negative effects and provide a clean and reliable source of energy, improve living standards and support economic development. For example, solar energy can be used to generate electricity, heat homes and water, and can even be used for cooking. Wind energy can be used to generate electricity, and geothermal energy can be used for heating and cooling. Biogas can be produced from waste products such as animal manure, sewage, and organic kitchen waste and can be used for cooking and lighting.

Keywords: calorific, BTU, wood moisture content, density of wood

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356 Wood Energy, Trees outside Forests and Agroforestry Wood Harvesting and Conversion Residues Preparing and Storing

Authors: Adeiza Matthew, Oluwadamilola Abubakar


Wood energy, also known as wood fuel, is a renewable energy source that is derived from woody biomass, which is organic matter that is harvested from forests, woodlands, and other lands. Woody biomass includes trees, branches, twigs, and other woody debris that can be used as fuel. Wood energy can be classified based on its sources, such as trees outside forests, residues from wood harvesting and conversion, and energy plantations. There are several policy frameworks that support the use of wood energy, including participatory forest management and agroforestry. These policies aim to promote the sustainable use of woody biomass as a source of energy while also protecting forests and wildlife habitats. There are several options for using wood as a fuel, including central heating systems, pellet-based systems, wood chip-based systems, log boilers, fireplaces, and stoves. Each of these options has its own benefits and drawbacks, and the most appropriate option will depend on factors such as the availability of woody biomass, the heating needs of the household or facility, and the local climate. In order to use wood as a fuel, it must be harvested and stored properly. Hardwood or softwood can be used as fuel, and the heating value of firewood depends on the species of tree and the degree of moisture content. Proper harvesting and storage of wood can help to minimize environmental impacts and improve wildlife habitats. The use of wood energy has several environmental impacts, including the release of greenhouse gases during combustion and the potential for air pollution from combustion by-products. However, wood energy can also have positive environmental impacts, such as the sequestration of carbon in trees and the reduction of reliance on fossil fuels. The regulation and legislation of wood energy vary by country and region, and there is an ongoing debate about the potential use of wood energy in renewable energy technologies. Wood energy is a renewable energy source that can be used to generate electricity, heat, and transportation fuels. Woody biomass is abundant and widely available, making it a potentially significant source of energy for many countries. The use of wood energy can create local economic and employment opportunities, particularly in rural areas. Wood energy can be used to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Properly managed forests can provide a sustained supply of woody biomass for energy, helping to reduce the risk of deforestation and habitat loss. Wood energy can be produced using a variety of technologies, including direct combustion, co-firing with fossil fuels, and the production of biofuels. The environmental impacts of wood energy can be minimized through the use of best practices in harvesting, transportation, and processing. Wood energy is regulated and legislated at the national and international levels, and there are various standards and certification systems in place to promote sustainable practices. Wood energy has the potential to play a significant role in the transition to a low-carbon economy and the achievement of climate change mitigation goals.

Keywords: biomass, timber, charcoal, firewood

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355 Sustainable Wood Harvesting from Juniperus procera Trees Managed under a Participatory Forest Management Scheme in Ethiopia

Authors: Mindaye Teshome, Evaldo Muñoz Braz, Carlos M. M. Eleto Torres, Patricia Mattos


Sustainable forest management planning requires up-to-date information on the structure, standing volume, biomass, and growth rate of trees from a given forest. This kind of information is lacking in many forests in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to quantify the population structure, diameter growth rate, and standing volume of wood from Juniperus procera trees in the Chilimo forest. A total of 163 sample plots were set up in the forest to collect the relevant vegetation data. Growth ring measurements were conducted on stem disc samples collected from 12 J. procera trees. Diameter and height measurements were recorded from a total of 1399 individual trees with dbh ≥ 2 cm. The growth rate, maximum current and mean annual increments, minimum logging diameter, and cutting cycle were estimated, and alternative cutting cycles were established. Using these data, the harvestable volume of wood was projected by alternating four minimum logging diameters and five cutting cycles following the stand table projection method. The results show that J. procera trees have an average density of 183 stems ha⁻¹, a total basal area of 12.1 m² ha⁻¹, and a standing volume of 98.9 m³ ha⁻¹. The mean annual diameter growth ranges between 0.50 and 0.65 cm year⁻¹ with an overall mean of 0.59 cm year⁻¹. The population of J. procera tree followed a reverse J-shape diameter distribution pattern. The maximum current annual increment in volume (CAI) occurred at around 49 years when trees reached 30 cm in diameter. Trees showed the maximum mean annual increment in volume (MAI) around 91 years, with a diameter size of 50 cm. The simulation analysis revealed that 40 cm MLD and a 15-year cutting cycle are the best minimum logging diameter and cutting cycle. This combination showed the largest harvestable volume of wood potential, volume increments, and a 35% recovery of the initially harvested volume. It is concluded that the forest is well stocked and has a large amount of harvestable volume of wood from J. procera trees. This will enable the country to partly meet the national wood demand through domestic wood production. The use of the current population structure and diameter growth data from tree ring analysis enables the exact prediction of the harvestable volume of wood. The developed model supplied an idea about the productivity of the J. procera tree population and enables policymakers to develop specific management criteria for wood harvesting.

Keywords: logging, growth model, cutting cycle, minimum logging diameter

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354 Nutrient Availability in River Ecosystems Follows Human Activities More than Climate Warming

Authors: Mohammed Abdulridha Hamdan


To face the water crisis, understanding the role of human activities on nutrient concentrations in aquatic ecosystems needs more investigations compare to extensively studies, which have been carried out to understand these impacts on water quality of different aquatic ecosystems. We hypothesized human activates on the catchments of Tigris river may change nutrient concentrations in water along the river. The results showed that phosphate concentration differed significantly among the studied sites due to distributed human activities, while nitrate concentration did not. Phosphate and nitrate concentrations were not affected by water temperature. We concluded that human activities on the surrounding landscapes could be more essential sources for nutrients of aquatic ecosystems than role of ongoing climate warming. Despite the role of warming in driving nutrients availability in aquatic ecosystems, our findings suggest to take the different activities on the surrounding catchments into account in the studies caring about trophic status classification of aquatic ecosystems.

Keywords: phosphate, nitrate, Anthropogenic, warming

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353 Community Activism for Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal: Lessons fromTarpakha Community Forest

Authors: Prem Bahadur Giri


The nationalization of forests during the early 1960s had become counterproductive for the conservation of forests in Nepal. Realizing this fact, the Government of Nepal initiated a paradigm shift from a government-controlled forestry system to people’s direct participation in managing forestry, conceptualizing a community forest approach in the early 1980s. The community forestry approach is expected to promote sustainable forest management, restoring degraded forests to enhance the forest condition on the one hand, and on the other, improvement of livelihoods, particularly of low-income people and forest-dependent communities, as well as promoting community ownership of a forest. As a result, the establishment of community forests started and had taken faster momentum in Nepal. Of the total land in Nepal, forest occupies 6.5 million hectares which are around 45 percent of the forest area. Of the total forest area, 1.8 million hectares have been handed over to community management. A total of 19,361 ‘community forest users groups’ are already created to manage the community forest. To streamline the governance of community forests, the enactment of ‘The Forest Act 1993’ provides a clear legal basis for managing community forests in Nepal. This article is based on an in-depth study taking the case of Tarpakha Community Forest (TCF) located in Siranchok Rural Municipality of Gorkha District in Nepal. It mainly discusses the extent to which the TCF is able to achieve the twin objectives of this community forest for catalyzing socio-economic improvement of the targeted community and conservation of the forest. The primary information was generated through in-depth interviews along with group discussions with members, the management committee, and other relevant stakeholders. The findings reveal that there is a significant improvement in the regeneration of the forest and also changes in the socio-economic status of the local community. However, coordination with local municipalities and forest governing entities is still weak.

Keywords: community forest, socio-economic benefit, sustainable forest management, Nepal

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352 Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Phytoplankton Composition and Abundance to Assess Eutrophication: A Multi-Year Study in Twelve Large Rivers across the United States

Authors: Chiqian Zhang, Kyle D. McIntosh, Nathan Sienkiewicz, Ian Struewing, Erin A. Stelzer, Jennifer L. Graham, Jingrang Lu


Phytoplankton plays an essential role in freshwater aquatic ecosystems and is the primary group synthesizing organic carbon and providing food sources or energy to ecosystems. Therefore, the identification and quantification of phytoplankton are important for estimating and assessing ecosystem productivity (carbon fixation), water quality, and eutrophication. Microscopy is the current gold standard for identifying and quantifying phytoplankton composition and abundance. However, microscopic analysis of phytoplankton is time-consuming, has a low sample throughput, and requires deep knowledge and rich experience in microbial morphology to implement. To improve this situation, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was considered for phytoplankton identification and quantification. Using qPCR to assess phytoplankton composition and abundance, however, has not been comprehensively evaluated. This study focused on: 1) conducting a comprehensive performance comparison of qPCR and microscopy techniques in identifying and quantifying phytoplankton and 2) examining the use of qPCR as a tool for assessing eutrophication. Twelve large rivers located throughout the United States were evaluated using data collected from 2017 to 2019 to understand the relation between qPCR-based phytoplankton abundance and eutrophication. This study revealed that temporal variation of phytoplankton abundance in the twelve rivers was limited within years (from late spring to late fall) and among different years (2017, 2018, and 2019). Midcontinent rivers had moderately greater phytoplankton abundance than eastern and western rivers, presumably because midcontinent rivers were more eutrophic. The study also showed that qPCR- and microscope-determined phytoplankton abundance had a significant positive linear correlation (adjusted R² 0.772, p-value < 0.001). In addition, phytoplankton abundance assessed via qPCR showed promise as an indicator of the eutrophication status of those rivers, with oligotrophic rivers having low phytoplankton abundance and eutrophic rivers having (relatively) high phytoplankton abundance. This study demonstrated that qPCR could serve as an alternative tool to traditional microscopy for phytoplankton quantification and eutrophication assessment in freshwater rivers.

Keywords: phytoplankton, eutrophication, river, qPCR, microscopy, spatiotemporal variation

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351 Assessment of the Landscaped Biodiversity in the National Park of Tlemcen (Algeria) Using Per-Object Analysis of Landsat Imagery

Authors: Bencherif Kada


In the forest management practice, landscape and Mediterranean forest are never posed as linked objects. But sustainable forestry requires the valorization of the forest landscape, and this aim involves assessing the spatial distribution of biodiversity by mapping forest landscaped units and subunits and by monitoring the environmental trends. This contribution aims to highlight, through object-oriented classifications, the landscaped biodiversity of the National Park of Tlemcen (Algeria). The methodology used is based on ground data and on the basic processing units of object-oriented classification, that are segments, so-called image-objects, representing a relatively homogenous units on the ground. The classification of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) imagery is performed on image objects and not on pixels. Advantages of object-oriented classification are to make full use of meaningful statistic and texture calculation, uncorrelated shape information (e.g., length-to-width ratio, direction, and area of an object, etc.), and topological features (neighbor, super-object, etc.), and the close relation between real-world objects and image objects. The results show that per object classification using the k-nearest neighbor’s method is more efficient than per pixel one. It permits to simplify of the content of the image while preserving spectrally and spatially homogeneous types of land covers such as Aleppo pine stands, cork oak groves, mixed groves of cork oak, holm oak, and zen oak, mixed groves of holm oak and thuja, water plan, dense and open shrub-lands of oaks, vegetable crops or orchard, herbaceous plants, and bare soils. Texture attributes seem to provide no useful information, while spatial attributes of shape and compactness seem to be performant for all the dominant features, such as pure stands of Aleppo pine and/or cork oak and bare soils. Landscaped sub-units are individualized while conserving the spatial information. Continuously dominant dense stands over a large area were formed into a single class, such as dense, fragmented stands with clear stands. Low shrublands formations and high wooded shrublands are well individualized but with some confusion with enclaves for the former. Overall, a visual evaluation of the classification shows that the classification reflects the actual spatial state of the study area at the landscape level.

Keywords: forest, oaks, remote sensing, diversity, shrublands

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350 Population Dynamics of Early Oak Defoliators in Correlation with Micro-climatic Temperature Conditions in Kragujevac Area in Serbia

Authors: Miroslava Marković, Renata Gagić, Serdar, Aleksandar Lučić, Ljubinko Rakonjac


Forest dieback that comes in waves since the early 20th century has lately grown into an epidemic, in particular in oak stands. For this reason, research was conducted of the population dynamics of early oak defoliators, which represent a grave danger in oak stands due to their gradogenic attributes. The research was carried out over a 5-year period in oak forests in the area of forest administrations Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac. The samples used in the research were collected from bottom branches, where Geometridae were found in the largest numbers, as well as from the mid and upper parts of the crowns, where other species were found. Population levels of these pests were presented in laboratory conditions on winter branch samples and in newly foliated stands on site, depending on the basic parameters of the climatic conditions. The greatest deviation of the population level of early oak defoliators was noted in 2018 on all 6 presented localities through the analysis of winter branches and the analysis of their presence in newly foliated stands on site, and it was followed by the highest average air temperature.

Keywords: defoliators, oak, population level, population dynamics

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349 Biopotential of Introduced False Indigo and Albizia’s Weevils in Host Plant Control and Duration of Its Development Stages in Southern Regions of Panonian Basin

Authors: Renata Gagić-Serdar, Miroslava Markovic, Ljubinko Rakonjac, Aleksandar Lučić


The paper present the results of the entomological experimental studies of the biological, ecological, and (bionomic) insect performances, such as seasonal adaptation of introduced monophagous false indigo and albizias weevil’s Acanthoscelides pallidipennis Motschulsky. and Bruchidius terrenus (Sharp), Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae, to phenological phases of aggressive invasive host plant Amorpha fruticosa L. and Albizia julibrissin (Fabales: Fabaceae) on the territory of Republic of Serbia with special attention on assessing and monitoring of new formed and detected inter species relations between autochthons parasite wasps from fauna (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) and herbaceous seed weevil beetle. During 15 years (2006-2021), on approximately 30 localities, data analyses were done for observed experimental host plants from samples with statistical significance. Status of genera from families Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea.: Pteromalidae and Eulophidae, after intensive investigations, has been trophicly identified. Recorded seed pest species of A. fruticosa or A. julibrissin (Fabales: Fabaceae) was introduced in Serbia and planted as ornamental trees, they also were put undergo different kinds of laboratory and field research tests during this period in a goal of collecting data about lasting each of develop stage of their seed beetles. Field generations in different stages were also monitored by continuous infested seed collecting and its disection. Established host plant-seed predator linkage was observed in correlation with different environment parameters, especially water level fluctuations in bank corridor formation stands and riparian cultures.

Keywords: amorpha, albizia, chalcidoid wasp, invasiveness, weevils

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348 Bacillus thuringiensis CHGP12 Uses a Multifaceted Strategy to Suppress Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea and to Enhance the Total Biomass of Chickpea Plants

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Aslam, Rida Fatima, Anam Moosa, Muhammad Taimoor Shakeel


Bacillus strains produce antifungal secondary metabolites making them potential candidates for suppressing Fusarium wilt of chickpea disease. In this study, eighteen Bacillus strains were evaluated for their antagonistic effect against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris causing Fusarium wilt of chickpea disease. In a direct antifungal assay, thirteen strains showed significant inhibition zones while the remaining five strains did not produce inhibition zones of FOC. Bacillus thuringiensis CHGP12 was the most promising strain exhibiting the highest inhibition of FOC. Antifungal lipopeptides were extracted from CHGP12 strain which showed significant inhibition of the pathogen. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) analysis revealed that CHGP12 was positive for the presence of iturin, fengycin, surfactin, bacillaene, bacillibactin, plantazolicin, and bacilysin. CHGP12 was tested for biochemical determinants in an in vitro qualitative test where it showed the ability to produce lipase, amylase, cellulase, protease, siderophores, and indole 3-acetic acid (IAA). Furthermore, in a greenhouse experiment CHGP12 also showed a significant decrease in the disease severity in treated plants compared to control. Moreover, CHGP12 also exhibited a significant increase in plant growth parameters viz, root and shoot growth parameters, stomatal conductance, and photosynthesis rate. Conclusively, our findings present the promising potential of Bacillus strain CHGP12 to suppress Fusarium wilt of chickpea and to promote plant growth.

Keywords: liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, growth promotion, antagonism, hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition, lipopeptides.

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347 Rainwater Harvesting and Management of Ground Water (Case Study Weather Modification Project in Iran)

Authors: Samaneh Poormohammadi, Farid Golkar, Vahideh Khatibi Sarabi


Climate change and consecutive droughts have increased the importance of using rainwater harvesting methods. One of the methods of rainwater harvesting and, in other words, the management of atmospheric water resources is the use of weather modification technologies. Weather modification (also known as weather control) is the act of intentionally manipulating or altering the weather. The most common form of weather modification is cloud seeding, which increases rain or snow, usually for the purpose of increasing the local water supply. Cloud seeding operations in Iran have been married since 1999 in central Iran with the aim of harvesting rainwater and reducing the effects of drought. In this research, we analyze the results of cloud seeding operations in the Simindashtplain in northern Iran. Rainwater harvesting with the help of cloud seeding technology has been evaluated through its effects on surface water and underground water. For this purpose, two different methods have been used to estimate runoff. The first method is the US Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method. Another method, known as the reasoning method, has also been used. In order to determine the infiltration rate of underground water, the balance reports of the comprehensive water plan of the country have been used. In this regard, the study areas located in the target area of each province have been extracted by drawing maps of the influence coefficients of each area in the GIS software. It should be mentioned that the infiltration coefficients were taken from the balance sheet reports of the country's comprehensive water plan. Then, based on the area of each study area, the weighted average of the infiltration coefficient of the study areas located in the target area of each province is considered as the infiltration coefficient of that province. Results show that the amount of water extracted from the rain with the help of cloud seeding projects in Simindasht is as follows: an increase in runoff 63.9 million cubic meters (with SCS equation) or 51.2 million cubic meters (with logical equation) and an increase in ground water resources: 40.5 million cubic meters.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, ground water, atmospheric water resources, weather modification, cloud seeding

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346 Introduction of a New and Efficient Nematicide, Abamectin by Gyah Corporation, Iran, for Root-knot Nematodes Management Planning Programs

Authors: Shiva Mardani, Mehdi Nasr-Esfahani, Majid Olia, Hamid Molahosseini, Hamed Hassanzadeh Khankahdani


Plant-parasitic nematodes cause serious diseases on plants and effectively reduce food production in quality and quantity worldwide, with at least 17 nematode species in the three important and major genera, including Meloidogyne, Heterodera, and Pratylenchus. Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp. with the dominant species, Meloidogynejavanica, are considered as the important plant pathogens of agricultural products globally. The hosts range can be vegetables, bedding plants, grasses, shrubs, numerous weeds, and trees, including forests. In this study, chemical management was carried out on RKN, M. javanica, to investigate the efficacy of Iranian Abamectin insecticide product [acaricide Abamectin (Vermectin® 2% EC, Gyah Corp., Iran)] verses imported normal Abamectin available in the Iran markets [acaricide Abamectin (Vermectin® 1.8% EC, Cropstar Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.)] each of which at the rate of 8 L./ha, on Tomatoes, Solanumlycopersicum L., (No. 29-41, Dutch company Siemens) as a test plant, and the controls (infested to RKN and without any chemical pesticides treatments); and (sterile soil without any RKN and chemical pesticides treatments) at the greenhouse in Isfahan, Iran. The trails were repeated thrice. The results indicated a highly significant reduction in RKN population and an increase in biomass parameters at 1% level of significance, respectively. Relatively similar results were obtained in all the three experiments conducted on tomato root-knot nematodes. The treatments of Gyah-Abamectin (51.6%) and external Abamectin (40.4%) had the highest to least effect on reducing the number of larvae in the soil compared to the infected controls, respectively. Gyah-Abamectin by 44.1% and then external one by 31.9% had the highest effect on reducing the number of larvae and eggs in the root and 31.4% and 24.1% reduction in the number of galls compared to the infected controls, respectively. Based on priority, Gyah-Abamectin (47.4 % ) and external Abamectin (31.1 %) treatments had the highest effect on reducing the number of egg- masses in the root compared to the infected controls, with no significant difference between Gyah-Abamectin and external Abamectin. The highest reproduction of larvae and egg in the root was observed in the infected controls (75.5%) and the lowest in the healthy controls (0.0%). The highest reduction in the larval and egg reproduction in the roots compared to the infected controls was observed in Gyah-Abamectin and the lowest in the external one. Based on preference, Gyah-Abamectin (37.6%) and external Abamectin (26.9%) had the highest effect on the reduction of the larvae and egg reproduction in the root compared to the infected controls, respectively. Regarding growth parameters factors, the lowest stem length was observed in external Abamectin (51.9 cm), with nosignificantly different from Gyah-Abamectin and healthy controls. The highest root fresh weight was recorded in the infected controls (19.81 gr.) and the lowest in the healthy ones (9.81 gr.); the highest root length in the healthy controls (22.4 cm), and the lowest in the infected controls and external Abamectin (12.6 and 11.9 cm), respectively. Conclusively, the results of these three tests on tomato plants revealed that Gyah-Abamectin 2% compared to external Abamectin 1.8% is competitive in the chemical management of the root nematodes of these types of products and is a suitable alternative in this regard.

Keywords: solanum lycopersicum, vermectin, biomass, tomato

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345 Olfactometer Response of Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Its Biology for the Evaluation of Resistance in the Commercially Grown Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Cultivars in Pakistan

Authors: Mujahid Manzoor, Muhammad Shafique, Jam Nazeer Ahmad, Farman Ahmad, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq, Shahbaz Ahmad, Muhammad Saleem Haider


Date palms (P. dactylifera L.) are prominent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Iran, UAE, and Iraq, as well as Algeria, Egypt, and Pakistan. Insect pests' attacks on different palm cultivars adversely affected their production in the last few decades. Pakistan ranked sixth for date production around the world. The most commercially grown cultivars are Aseel, Dhaki, Falsi, Karbalai, Mozawati, Jan Swore, Kohra, Hillawi, Kohra, and Begum Jhangi. Red palm weevils are considered as hazardous insect pests responsible for economic loss in palm orchards. This research work depicts the infestation of red palm weevils in eleven different palm cultivars (Hillawi, Mozawati, Kechanr, Aseel, Shamrani, Khudravi, Dhaki, Zeri, Kobra, Zaidi, Denda), which frequently grow in different regions of Pakistan through Y-shaped olfactometer analysis. In addition, the level of both antixenosis and antibiosis was spotted by examining the various parameters such as %age lure of weevils of mature females, general count of laid eggs in addition to their activeness. Furthermore, obtained results depicted that a positive contact was established with minimum antixenotic consequence revealed by a cultivar, “Hillawi” among most hold of RPW adults (22.32%), number of eggs laid (16.66%) and egg hatching (84.66%), while other cultivars, including Mozawati, Aseel, Kechanr, Shamrani, Khudravi, Dhaki, Zeri, and Zaidi, exhibited a greater level of antixenosis. Moreover, “Hillawi” documented the maximum number of eggs, while Kechanr, Mozawati, Aseel Kobra, and Denda showed minimum attraction by red palm weevils. Maximum red palm weevils were attracted in an olfactometer assay of sugarcane varieties.

Keywords: P. dactylifera, R. ferrugineus, olfactometer, antixenosis

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344 Non-Native and Invasive Fish Species in Poland

Authors: Tomasz Raczyński


Non-native and invasive species negatively transform ecosystems. Non-native fish species can displace native fish species through competition, predation, disrupting spawning, transforming ecosystems, or transmitting parasites. This influence is more and more noticeable in Poland and in the world. From December 2014 to October 2020, did catch of fishes by electrofishing method carried on 416 sites in various parts of Poland. Research was conducted in both running and stagnant freshwaters with the predominance of running waters. Only sites where the presence of fish was found were analysed. The research covered a wide spectrum of waters from small mountain streams, through drainage ditches to the largest Polish river - the Vistula. Single sites covered oxbow lakes, small ponds and lakes. Electrofishing was associated with ichthyofauna inventories and was mainly aimed at detecting protected species of fish and lampreys or included in the annexes to the EU Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora). The results of these catches were analysed for alien and invasive fish species. The analysis of the catch structure shows that in 71 out of 416 research sites was found alien and invasive fish species, belonging to 9 taxa. According to the above, alien species of fish are present in 17% of the study sites. The most frequently observed species was the Prussian carp Carassius gibelio, which was recorded on 43 sites. Stone moroko Pseudorasbora parva was found on 24 sites. Chinese sleeper Perccottus glenii was found on 6 sites, and Bullhead Ameiurus sp. was also found on 6 sites. Western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris was found at 5 sites and Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at 3 sites. Monkey goby Neogobius fluviatilis, Round goby Neogobius melanostomus and Eurasian carp Cyprinus carpio was recorded on 2 sites.

Keywords: non-native species, invasive species, fish species, invasive fish species, native fish species

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343 Methods of Post-Mining Landscape Reclamation and Their Impact on Occurrence Hymenoptera: Aculeata and Lepidoptera

Authors: Kristýna Weissová


This study is focused on two selected model taxa of invertebrates - Hymenoptera: Aculeata and Lepidopterawithnocturnalactivity, recordedatthesitesof lignite dumps and their surroundings in the North Bohemian Lignite Basin, Czech Republic. There search was conducted on 10 landfills, 3 study areas were determined on each landfill - primary and secondary succession and recultivation. A total of 3,202 individuals belonging to 232 species and 17 families of sagebrushinsects were collected. died, 74%of the species occurred on the primary succes sionare as, that is 2x more species than on the reclaimed areas. Of the total number of species and on all areas, 60 rare species were recorded - 29 vulnerable, 21 endangered, 8 critically endangered, and 2 extinct The areas of primary succession were again confirmed to be the richest in terms of rare species, hosting 39 rare species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata. In addition, bothextinct species were represented only on plots of primary succession. The family Crabronidae had the largestre presentation of species on theareasofleft primary succession, the family Halictidae was the most represented on the reclaimed areas and areas of secondary succession. A total of 3,634 moths were collected, assigned to 262 species and 10 families. A similar number of species occurred on the primary succession and reclaimed areas, but the reclaimed area had a greater abundance. Secondary successionsiteshostedha lf as many species and alsocontainedlow abundance compared to other management types. The results show that there claimed areas host a numerically larger group and more species of moths than the successionalareas. Rare species did not occur at any site. A higher number of days in locations without water bodies, wetland vegetation, and locations with a highre presentation of woody species. It is advisable to combine individual types of landscape management in such a way as to create a colorfulmosaic that supports biodiversity. In particular, we recommend incorporating natural successionintoreclamation plans, which is a refuge for many rare species of invertebrates, which has not yetbeenroutinely and purposefully practiced.

Keywords: hymenoptera: aculeata, lepidoptera, reclamation, succession, post-mining ara

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342 Experimental and Theoretical Studies: Biochemical Properties of Honey on Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Said Ghalem


Honey is primarily composed of sugars: glucose and fructose. Depending honey, it's either fructose or glucose predominates. More the fructose concentration and the less the glycemic index (GI) is high. Thus, changes in the insulin response shows a decrease of the amount of insulin secreted at an increased fructose honey. Honey is also a compound that can reduce the lipid in the blood. Several studies on animals, but which remain to be checked in humans, have shown that the honey can have interesting effects when combined with other molecules: associated with Metformin (a medicine taken by diabetics), it shows the benefits and effects of diabetes preserves the tissue; associated ginger, it increases the antioxidant activity and thus avoids neurologic complications, neuropathic. Molecular modeling techniques are widely used in chemistry, biology, and the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the currently existing drugs target enzymes. Inhibition of DPP-4 is an important approach in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We have chosen for the inhibition of DPP-4 the following molecules: Linagliptin (BI1356), Sitagliptin (Januvia), Vildagliptin, Saxagliptin, Alogliptin, and Metformin (Glucophage), that are involved in the disease management of type 2 diabetes and added to honey. For this, we used software Molecular Operating Environment. A Wistar rat study was initiated in our laboratory with a well-studied protocol; after sacrifice, according to international standards and respect for the animal This theoretical approach predicts the mode of interaction of a ligand with its target. The honey can have interesting effects when combined with other molecules, it shows the benefits and effects of honey preserves the tissue, it increases the antioxidant activity, and thus avoids neurologic complications, neuropathic or macrovascular. The organs, especially the kidneys of Wistar, shows that the parameters to renal function let us conclude that damages caused by diabetes are slightly perceptible than those observed without the addition of a high concentration of fructose honey.

Keywords: honey, molecular modeling, DPP4 enzyme, metformin

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341 Beginner Steps of the First Dendrochronology Lab in Montenegro - Dendrochronology Research in The Bosnian Pine (Pinus heldreichii) Forests

Authors: Jelena Popović, Andrijana Mićanović


Officially, 60% of Montenegrin territory is covered in forests, but they are continually being destroyed by illegal cutting, concession politics and wildfires. Montenegrin Ecologists Society started the first dendrochronology lab in Montenegro, and data collection began in the Summer of 2021. The cores were taken from 3 localities around the peak Lisac on the mt. Prekornica, where biggest P.heldreichii forests existed until recent huge wildfires. This research is the first step towards comprehensive dendrochronology research in Montenegro. It will show how old certain forest stands of Pinus heldreichii on mountain Prekornica are, that were not destroyed in huge wildfires from the recent years. It will also show how do they correlate between each other. Per locality 15 trees were sampled. Electric sanders (150 - 2000) were used for preparation. Cores were scanned, then measured in CooRecorder. Analysis is done in Cofecha. Process will be repeated with Lintab 6 and TSAP (Time Series Analysis and Presentation for Dendrochronology and Related Applications) - Win Scientific software by Rinntech. Since this is the first dendrochronology research entirely done in Montenegro it is a foundation for the dendroclimatology research. Besides, it’ll contribute to the understanding of the life of these forests in this part of its areal, and in designing good management practices.

Keywords: dendrochronology, bosnian pine, pinus heldreichii, montenegro, forests

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340 PRISM: An Analytical Tool for Forest Plan Development

Authors: Dung Nguyen, Yu Wei, Eric Henderson


Analytical tools have been used for decades to assist in the development of forest plans. In 2016, a new decision support system, PRISM, was jointly developed by United States Forest Service (USFS) Northern Region and Colorado State University to support the forest planning process. Prism has a friendly user interface with functionality for database management, model development, data visualization, and sensitivity analysis. The software is tailored for USFS planning, but it is flexible enough to support planning efforts by other forestland owners and managers. Here, the core capability of PRISM and its applications in developing plans for several United States national forests are presented. The strengths of PRISM are also discussed to show its potential of being a preferable tool for managers and experts in the domain of forest management and planning.

Keywords: decision support, forest management, forest plan, graphical user interface, software

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339 Inducing Cryptobiosis State of Tardigrades in Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus for Effective Preservation

Authors: Nilesh Bandekar, Sumita Dasgupta, Luis Alberto Allcahuaman Huaya, Souvik Manna


Cryptobiosis is a dormant state where all measurable metabolic activities are at a halt, allowing an organism to survive in extreme conditions like low temperature (cryobiosis), extreme drought (anhydrobiosis), etc. This phenomenon is observed especially in tardigrades that can retain this state for decades depending on the abiotic environmental conditions. On returning to favorable conditions, tardigrades re-attain a metabolically active state. In this study, cyanobacteria as a model organism are being chosen to induce cryptobiosis for its effective preservation over a long period of time. Preserving cyanobacteria using this strategy will have multiple space applications because of its ability to produce oxygen. In addition, research has shown the survivability of this organism in space for a certain period of time. Few species of cyanobacterial residents of the soil such as Microcoleus, are able to survive in extreme drought as well. This work specifically focuses on Synechococcus elongatus, an endolith cyanobacteria with multiple benefits. It has the capability to produce 25% oxygen in water bodies. It utilizes carbon dioxide to produce oxygen via photosynthesis and also uses carbon dioxide as an energy source to form glucose via the Calvin cycle. There is a fair possibility of initiating cryptobiosis in such an organism by inducing certain proteins extracted from tardigrades such as Heat Shock Proteins (Hsp27 and Hsp30c) and/or hydrophilic Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins (LEA). Existing methods like cryopreservation are difficult to execute in space keeping in mind their cost and heavy instrumentation. Also, extensive freezing may cause cellular damage. Therefore, cryptobiosis-induced cyanobacteria for its transportation from Earth to Mars as a part of future terraforming missions on Mars will save resources and increase the effectiveness of preservation. Finally, Cyanobacteria species like Synechococcus elongatus can also produce oxygen and glucose on Mars in favorable conditions and holds the key to terraforming Mars.

Keywords: cryptobiosis, cyanobacteria, glucose, mars, Synechococcus elongatus, tardigrades

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338 Conception of a Predictive Maintenance System for Forest Harvesters from Multiple Data Sources

Authors: Lazlo Fauth, Andreas Ligocki


For cost-effective use of harvesters, expensive repairs and unplanned downtimes must be reduced as far as possible. The predictive detection of failing systems and the calculation of intelligent service intervals, necessary to avoid these factors, require in-depth knowledge of the machines' behavior. Such know-how needs permanent monitoring of the machine state from different technical perspectives. In this paper, three approaches will be presented as they are currently pursued in the publicly funded project PreForst at Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences. These include the intelligent linking of workshop and service data, sensors on the harvester, and a special online hydraulic oil condition monitoring system. Furthermore the paper shows potentials as well as challenges for the use of these data in the conception of a predictive maintenance system.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, condition monitoring, forest harvesting, forest engineering, oil data, hydraulic data

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337 Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera) Drone Flight Behavior Revealed by Radio Frequency Identification: Short Trips That May Help Drones Survey Weather Conditions

Authors: Vivian Wu


During the mating season, honeybee drones make mating fights to congregation areas where they face fierce competition to mate with a queen. Drones have developed distinct anatomical and functional features in order to optimize their chances of success. Flight activities of western honeybee (Apis mellifera) drones and foragers were monitored using radio frequency identification (RFID) to test if drones have also developed distinct flight behaviors. Drone flight durations showed a bimodal distribution dividing the flights into short flights and long flights while forager flight durations showed a left-skewed unimodal distribution. Interestingly, the short trips occurred prior to the long trips on a daily basis. The first trips of the day the drones made were primarily short trips, and the distribution significantly shifted to long trips as the drones made more trips. In contrast, forager trips showed no such shift of distribution. In addition, drones made short trips but no long mating trips on days associated with a significant drop in temperature and increase of clouds compared to the previous day. These findings suggest that drones may have developed a unique flight behavior making short trips first to survey the weather conditions before flying out to the congregation area to pursue a successful mating.

Keywords: apis mellifera, drone, flight behavior, weather, RFID

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336 Natural Forest Ecosystem Services and Local Populations

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb


Located at the northwest corner of the African continent between 21 ° and 36 ° north latitude and between the 1st and the 17th degree of west longitude, Morocco, with a total area of 715,000 km², enjoys a privileged position with a coastline of 3 446 km long opening to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean. Its privileged location with a double coastline and its diverse mountain with four major mountain ranges: the Rif, Middle Atlas, High Atlas, and Anti Atlas, with altitudes exceeding 2000 m in the Rif, 3000 m in the Middle Atlas, and 4000 m in the High Atlas. Morocco is characterized by an important forest genetic diversity represented by a rich and varied flora and many ecosystems: forest, preforest, presteppe, steppe, Sahara that spans a range of bioclimatic zones: arid, semiarid, subhumid, and humid. The vascular flora of Morocco is rich and highly diversified, with a very significant degree of endemism. Natural flora and ecosystems provide important services to populations represented by grazing, timber harvest, harvesting of medicinal and aromatic plants. This work will be focused on the Moroccan biodiversity and natural ecosystem services and on the interaction between local populations and ecosystems

Keywords: biodiversity, forest, ecosystem, services, Morocco

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335 Dynamic Changes of Shifting Cultivation: Past, Present and Future Perspective of an Agroforestry System from Sri Lanka

Authors: Thavananthan Sivananthawerl


Shifting cultivation (Chena, Slash & Burn) is a cultivation method of raising, primarily, food crops (mainly annual) where an area of land is cleared off for its vegetation and cultivated for a period, and the abandoned (fallow) for its fertility to be naturally restored. Although this is the oldest (more than 5000 years) farming system, it is still practiced by indigenous communities of several countries such as Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, West & Central Africa, and Amazon rainforest area. In Sri Lanka, shifting cultivation is mainly practiced during the North-East monsoon (called as Maha season, from Sept. to Dec.) with no irrigation. The traditional system allows farmers to cultivate for a short period of cultivation and a long period fallow period. This was facilitated mainly by the availability of land with less population. In addition, in the old system, cultivation practices were mostly related to religious and spiritual practices (Astrology, dynamic farming, etc.). At present, the majority of the shifting cultivators (SC’s) are cultivating in government lands, and most of them are adopting new technology (seeds, agrochemicals, machineries). Due to the local demand, almost 70% of the SC’s growing maize is mono-crop, and the rest with mixed-crop, such as groundnut, cowpea, millet, and vegetables. To ensure continuous cultivation and reduce moisture stress, they established ‘dug wells’ and used pumps to lift water from nearby sources. Due to this, the fallow period has been reduced drastically to 1- 2 years. To have the future prosperous of system, farmers should be educated so that they can understand the harmful effects of shifting cultivation and require new policies and a framework for converting the land use pattern towards high economic returns (new crop varieties, maintaining soil fertility, reducing soil erosion) while protecting the natural forests. The practice of agroforestry should be encouraged in which both the crops and the tall trees are cared for by farmers simultaneously. To facilitate the continuous cultivation, the system needs to develop water harvesting, water-conserving technologies, and scientific water management for the limited rainy season. Even though several options are available, all the solutions vary from region to region. Therefore, it is only the government and cultivators together who can find solutions to the problems of the specific areas.

Keywords: shifting cultivation, agroforestry, fallow, economic returns, government, Sri Lanka

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334 Coconut Based Sustainable Agri-Silvicultural System: Success Story from Sri Lanka

Authors: Thavananthan Sivananthawerl


Coconut palm is existing for more than 2000 years in Sri Lanka. However, cultivation on a large scale (plantation) began only in the 19th century. Due to different light perceptions during the growth stages of palm, there is a huge potential to grow crops in-between rows of coconut plants which are grown with wider, fixed spacing. Intercropping under coconut will have multiple benefits such as increasing soil fertility, increasing sunlight utilization, increasing total crop productivity, increasing income & profit, maximum use of resources, reducing the risk, and increasing food security. Growing potential annual, agricultural intercrops could be classified as ‘agri-silvicultural’ system. This is the best agri-silvicultural system that can be named under any perennial crop system in Sri Lanka. In the late 1970’s cassava, pepper and cacao are the major intercrops under the coconut plantations. At the early ages of the palm (<5 years) light-loving crops such as pineapple, passion, papaya, and cassava are recommended and preferred by the cultivators. In between 5-20 years of age, the availability of light is very low, and therefore shade tolerant/loving crops (pasture, yam, ginger) could be used as the intercrops. However, after 20 years of age (>20 years) canopy is getting small, and the light availability on the ground increases. So, light demanding crops such as pepper, banana, pineapple, betel, cassava, and seasonal crops could be grown successfully. Even though this is a sustainable system in several aspects, there are potential challenges ahead to the system. The major ones are land fragmentation and infrastructure development. The other factors are drought, lack of financial support, price instability of the intercrops, availability of improved planting materials, and development of dwarf varieties which reduces the light.

Keywords: coconut cultivation, agri-silviculture, intercrop, sunlight, annuals, sustainability

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333 Study of Climate Change Process on Hyrcanian Forests Using Dendroclimatology Indicators (Case Study of Guilan Province)

Authors: Farzad Shirzad, Bohlol Alijani, Mehry Akbary, Mohammad Saligheh


Climate change and global warming are very important issues today. The process of climate change, especially changes in temperature and precipitation, is the most important issue in the environmental sciences. Climate change means changing the averages in the long run. Iran is located in arid and semi-arid regions due to its proximity to the equator and its location in the subtropical high pressure zone. In this respect, the Hyrcanian forest is a green necklace between the Caspian Sea and the south of the Alborz mountain range. In the forty-third session of UNESCO, it was registered as the second natural heritage of Iran. Beech is one of the most important tree species and the most industrial species of Hyrcanian forests. In this research, using dendroclimatology, the width of the tree ring, and climatic data of temperature and precipitation from Shanderman meteorological station located in the study area, And non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical method to investigate the trend of climate change over a time series of 202 years of growth ringsAnd Pearson statistical method was used to correlate the growth of "ring" growth rings of beech trees with climatic variables in the region. The results obtained from the time series of beech growth rings showed that the changes in beech growth rings had a downward and negative trend and were significant at the level of 5% and climate change occurred. The average minimum, medium, and maximum temperatures and evaporation in the growing season had an increasing trend, and the annual precipitation had a decreasing trend. Using Pearson method during fitting the correlation of diameter of growth rings with temperature, for the average in July, August, and September, the correlation is negative, and the average temperature in July, August, and September is negative, and for the average The average maximum temperature in February was correlation-positive and at the level of 95% was significant, and with precipitation, in June the correlation was at the level of 95% positive and significant.

Keywords: climate change, dendroclimatology, hyrcanian forest, beech

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332 Patterns, Determinants, and Implications of Rural-Urban Migration in the Garhwal Himalaya

Authors: Saurav Kumar


Rural-urban migration is the most commonly adopted strategy in rural areas to overcome the risk associated with the subsistence economy and diversify income. The Garhwal Himalaya has the highest rate of rural-urban migration in India, which has serious repercussions. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on the implications of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya. This paper attempts to fill this void. The objectives of the paper are to look into various types, patterns, determinants, and implications of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya. In order to meet the objectives, 15 villages were selected from five districts of the Garhwal Himalaya. In every district, three villages were chosen from different altitudes, including five from river valleys, five from mid-altitudes, and five from highlands. The villages range in altitude from 550m to 2660m. A total of 658 households were surveyed from the villages, covering 100% samples from each village. Using a structured questionnaire, the author asked the heads of each household about the types of rural-urban migration they practiced, the year of first migration, destinations of migration, and reasons for migration. Further, migrants’ age, sex, caste, marital status, educational background, income, occupation, and remittances sent by migrants were also inquired about. The study reveals that rural-urban migration is a serious problem in Garhwal Himalayas, posing various socio-economic issues. Without immediate action, it will have serious consequences. Finally, this study suggests some policy measures to minimize the current rate of rural-urban migration in the Garhwal Himalaya.

Keywords: rural-urban migration, Garhwal Himalaya, patterns, determinants, implications

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331 How Grasslands Responds in Terms of Functional Strategies to Stimulated Climate Change in Submediterranean Region

Authors: Andrea Catorci, Federico Maria Tardella, Alessandro Brica, Muhammad Umair


Climate change models predict for the Mediterranean region a strong increase of intensity and frequency of drought events, with an expected effect on grassland biodiversity and functioning. The research aim was to understand how the grassland species modulate their resource acquisition and conservation strategies to short-term variation of the pattern of summer water supply. The study area is mountain meadows located in the ‘‘Montagna di Torricchio’’ (1130 m a.s.l.) a Nature Reserve in central Italy. In 2017 we started a manipulative experiment for 2 year (2017-2018), and we defined two treatments, one with increasing water (watering condition) and the other with less water (drought condition). Then, we investigated how species change their resource strategies at different amount of water availability by measuring the specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf area (LA). We used ANOVAs to test the effect of treatment over time on leaf area and specific leaf area, considering all the species together and also separately according to their growth form (forb, grass, legume). Our results showed that species may respond differently depending on their growth form and that using all the species together may cover more detailed variation. Overall, resource retaining strategies (lower SLA, LA) are resulted by increase of drought condition, while increase in water amount and number of watering events fosters acquisitive strategies (higher SLA, LA). However, this pattern is not constant for all growth form. Grass species are able to maintain their strategies to variation of the pattern of water availability. Forb and legume species on the other side have shown decreasing trend of SLA, LA values with increasing drought condition, a pattern more marked for the latter growth form. These variations suggest not only an increase of slow-growing strategies for both growth form, but also a decrease of their nutrient pastoral values since their leaves are supposed to become harder. Local farmers should consider the effect of climate change on grassland and adapt their management practices to guarantee the cattle welfare.

Keywords: function strategies, grasslands, climate change, sub mediterranean region

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330 Cost-Effectiveness of Forest Restoration in Nepal: A Case from Leasehold Forestry Initiatives

Authors: Sony Baral, Bijendra Basnyat, Kalyan Gauli


Forests are depleted throughout the world in the 1990s, and since then, various efforts have been undertaken for the restoration of the forest. A government of Nepal promoted various community based forest management in which leasehold forestry was the one introduce in 1990s, aiming to restore degraded forests land. However, few attempts have been made to systematically evaluate its cost effectiveness. Hence the study assesses the cost effectiveness of leasehold forestry intervention in the mid-hill district of Nepal following the cost and benefit analysis approach. The study followed quasi-experimental design and collected costs and benefits information from 320 leasehold forestry groups (with intervention) and 154 comparison groups (without intervention) through household survey, forest inventory and then validated with the stakeholders’ consultative workshop. The study found that both the benefits and costs from intervention outweighed without situation. The members of leasehold forestry groups were generating multiple benefits from the forests, such as firewood, grasses, fodder, and fruits, whereas those from comparison groups were mostly getting a single benefit. Likewise, extent of soil carbon is high in leasehold forests. Average expense per unit area is high in intervention sites due to high government investment for capacity building. Nevertheless, positive net present value and internal rate of return was observed for both situations. However, net present value from intervention, i.e., leasehold forestry, is almost double compared to comparison sites, revealing that community are getting higher benefits from restoration. The study concludes that leasehold forestry is a highly cost-effective intervention that contributes towards forest restoration that brings multiple benefits to rural poor.

Keywords: cost effectiveness, economic efficiency, intervention, restoration, leasehold forestry, nepal

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